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Organization Behavior Concept
Understanding one individual's behavior is a challenging problem in and of itself. The work of organizations gets done through the behavior of people, individually or collectively, on their own or in collaboration with technology. Thus, central to the management task is the management of organizational behavior. To do this, there must be the capacity to understand the patterns of behavior at individual, group, and organization levels, to predict what behavior responses will be elicited by different managerial actions, and finally to use understanding and prediction to achieve control. Organizational behavior is the study of what people do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of the organizations. It is an academic discipline concerned with describing, understanding, predicting, and controlling human behavior in an organizational environment.

Unit 1

According to S.P. Robbins, "Organizational Behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness." Like other inputs into an enterprise, the human beings employed by that enterprise constitute a resource -- in this case, a human resource. Other resources must be managed to ensure both the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. It takes economists, accountants, and financial analysts to understand and utilize the firm's monetary resources. Similarly, technologists, engineers, and trades people serve to help management utilize the firm's material and production facilities efficiently. It is the role of the Human Resource Manager, and others, skilled in the analysis of human interaction with the work environment, to assist management in the proper utilization of human resources. The study of Organizational Behavior facilitates the process of explaining, understanding, predicting, maintaining, and changing employee behavior in an organizational setting.



Figure: Organizational Behavior Elements In summary, to understand behavior in the organization, we must examine the interaction of individuals with the various factors the individuals encounter in that organizational setting. The behaviors encountered in the organization are, of course, very diverse. The diversity of personalities interacting with varied organizational environments results in considerable variation in associated behavior. The employees of the firm are resources -- human resources. Just as accountants provide the expertise the firm requires to best manage its financial resources, so the Organizational Behavior specialist provides the expertise needed to manage the firm's human resources.

Figure: Individual Behavior in the Organizational Setting

The Historical Evolution of Organizational Behavior
Today, Organizational Behavior is considered as an important aspect in organizational effectiveness. However, OB as a distinct field of study was emerged at 1940s. Prior to this, before the sixteenth century, Greek philosopher Plato wrote about the essence of leadership for job satisfaction. Aristotle addressed the topic of persuasive communication in organization. The writings of 16th century Italian philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli laid the foundation for contemporary work on organizational power and politics.



In 1776, Adam Smith advocated a new form of organizational structure which is based on the division of labour. One hundred years later, German sociologist Max Weber wrote about rational organizations and initiated discussion of charismatic leadership. Soon after, Frederick Winslow Taylor, also known as father of scientific management, introduced the systematic use of goal setting and rewards to motivate employees. In the 1920s, Australian-born Harvard professor Elton Mayo and his colleagues conducted productivity studies at Western Electric's Hawthorne plant in the United States. Although the above contributions traces its roots back to Max Weber and earlier scientists, organizational behavioral studies is generally considered to have begun as an academic field with the advent of scientific management of F.W. Taylor. In the Taylorism, rationalizing the organization with specific sets of instructions and timemotion studies, individual compensation system can lead lead to the increased productivity and efficiency. After the First World War, the focus of organizational studies shifted to analysis of how human factors and psychology affected organizations, a transformation propelled by the identification of the Hawthorne Effect of Elton Mayo. This Human Relations Movement focused on teams, motivation, and the actualization of the goals of individuals within organizations, the Prominent scholars for it were, Frederick Herzberg, Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, and Victor Vroom, those have contributed in motivational theories. The Second World War further shifted the field, as the invention of large-scale logistics and operations research and the management science. Interest grew in theory and methods to the sciences of management rather that art, including systems theory, the study of organizations with a complexity theory perspective and complexity strategy. The major contributors were Herbert Alexander Simon and James G. March.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the field was strongly influenced by social psychology also and the emphasis in academic study was on quantitative research. An explosion of theorizing, much of it at Stanford University and Carnegie Mellon, produced Bounded Rationality, Informal Organization, Contingency Theory, Resource Dependence, Institutional Theory, and Population Ecology theories, among many others. Starting in the 1980s, cultural explanations of organizations and change became an important part of study. Qualitative methods of study became more acceptable, informed by anthropology, psychology and sociology.

Specific Contributions
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915): Taylor was the first person who attempted to study human behavior at work using a systematic approach. Taylor studied human characteristics, social environment, task, physical environment, capacity, speed, durability, cost and their interaction with each other. His overall objective was to reduce and/or remove human variability. Taylor worked to achieve his goal of making work behaviors stable and predictable so that maximum output could be achieved. He relied strongly upon monetary incentive systems, believing that humans are primarily motivated by money. He faced some strong criticism, including being accused of telling managers to treat workers as machines without minds, but his work was very productive and laid many foundation principles for modern management study. Elton Mayo:



Elton Mayo, an Australian national, headed the Hawthorne Studies at Harvard. In his classic writing in 1931, Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization, he advised managers to deal with emotional needs of employees at work. Mary Parker Follett: Mary Parker Follett was a pioneer woman management consultant in the industrial world, which was mainly dominated by males. As a writer, she provided analyses on workers as having complex combinations of attitude, beliefs, and needs. She told managers to motivate employees on their job performance, a“pull” rather than a "push" strategy. Douglas McGregor: Douglas McGregor proposed two theories/assumptions, which are very nearly the opposite of each other, about human nature based on his experience as a management consultant. His first theory was “Theory X”, which is pessimistic and negative; and according to McGregor it is how managers traditionally perceive their workers. Then, in order to help managers replace that theory/assumption, he gave “Theory Y” which takes a more modern and positive approach. He believed that managers could achieve more if managers start perceiving their employees as self-energized, committed, responsible and creative beings. By means of his Theory Y, he in fact challenged the traditional theorists to adopt a developmental approach to their employees. He also wrote a book The Human Side of Enterprise in 1960; this book has become a foundation for the modern view of employees at work.

Organizational Behavior as Interdisciplinary field
OB is considered as an academic discipline. However, it is widely considered as an interdisciplinary field of study because of covering varieties of academic discipline within it. The filed of studies can be shown from the figure below.

Psychology refers to the science that tries to measure, explain, predict and sometimes change the behavior of humans. OB focuses on human psychology through learning, perception, personality emotions, training, leadership, motivation, job satisfaction etc.

It is the study of people in the organization in relation with others which includes, group, teams, communication, power, conflict etc.


Aryal Behavioral Science Contribution Learning Motivation Personality Emotions Perception Training Leadership effectiveness Job satisfaction Individual decision making Performance appraisal Attitude measurement Employee selection Work design Work stress Unit of Analysis Output Psychology Group dynamics Work teams Communication Power Conflict Inter group behaviour Sociology Formal organization theory Organizational technology Organizational change Organizational culture Behavioral change Attitude change Communication' Group process Group decision making Comparative values Comparative attitudes Cross-cultural analysis Anthropolog y Organizational culture Organizational Environment Individua l Group Study of Organizationa l Behavior Social Psychology Organizationa l System Social Political science Conflict Source: Stephen P. attitude change. Anthropology 5 . The fields of study are: Behavioral change. group process and group decision making. Robbins Intraorganizational politics psychology Power It is the combine of both Psychology and Sociology which focuses on influence of people on one another.S. communication.

Political Science Political science primarily focuses on studying the behavior of individuals and groups within the political environment within the organization which includes conflict. religion. language. However. Responding to Globalization: The world is being the global village and organizations are not constrained by national border in the recent days. the companies tend to establish the business firms where they can have lower costs of labor to reduce the cost of production for global competition 2. 1. culture and inclusion of diversified individuals. 4.S. The management practices need to be modified from countries to countries to cope with the diversity. To satisfy the customers of the world in highly competitive globalized market. Challenges and Opportunities for Organizational Behavior Organizational behaviour is becoming more important in the global economy as people with diverse backgrounds and cultural values have to work together effectively and efficiently. Responding to Outsourcing Outsourcing involves the transfer of the management and/or day-to-day execution of an entire business function to an external service provider. race. In the globalization. organizations need to provide the products and service of their choice. physical abilities.Aryal It is the study about societies to identify about human beings and their activities such as cultures and environments. the productivity should not be decreased. Total quality management (TQM) (a management philosophy for the quality improvement) and process engineering (the process of reconsidering the methods and organization structure) is to be adopted. preference and taste. It is the concept that the industries have heterogeneity in people regarding the gender. quality and productivity. The followings are the points of challenges and how can OB help coping those challenges. 3. nationalities. Managing Workforce diversity The most important and most emerging challenge for today's managers is workforce diversity because the focus of globalization is on people from different countries. The client agrees to procure the services from the supplier for the term of the contract. Under the agreement the supplier acquires the means of production in the form of a transfer of people. assets and other resources from the client. ethnicity. Organizations need working in foreign countries in a multicultural diversity environment. The organizational improvement is needed. Intraorganizational politics and power. the accurate measurement and employee empowerment should be focused to improve the both. The product quality should continuously be improved to compete in the market and to satisfy the customers. Improving Quality and Productivity The business is becoming highly the customer focused in the recent days. The client organization and the supplier enter into a contractual agreement that defines the transferred services. Business segments typically outsourced include information 6 . age.

security related issues etc. the human resource managers are getting challenges to manage such contingent workers. prompt responding to customer needs and providing the guidance about pleasing them. Empowering People Managers are giving up controls to the lower levels . The developing countries like Nepal also facing challenges about the part time and temporary workers. OB can contribute to improving in organization's performance to the managers through identifying about the employee attitudes and behavior associated with customer satisfaction creating the customer-responsive culture.Aryal technology. It not only imparts the knowledge and skills needed to enhance the learning ability but about the perception of individual. low quality in product or service. real estate management. advance in product and services. communication and team work. technical support. it may create problem damaging the local market. OB can help the managers in creating customer-friendly culture. 9. low social responsibility. fraud. Workers are accepting responsibility and managers are granting them the authority. needs skills and abilities about understanding and predicting employees' behavior and for this. technology changes make the organization compelled to change the nature of job. facilities. temporary workers or short-term contractors are increasing especially in developed countries to cope with increased work pressure. However.S. flexibility in structure. Part time workers are frequently moving from one job to another. they are becoming highly flexible. Empowering changes leadership style. 6. 7 . jobs are regularly redesigned. Improving Customer Service: Customers are treated as the 'god' for the organizations in the recent days. use expert knowledge and reduce labour cost. The employees may resist the change and innovation having the stumbling block to it. Even the organizations are also changing. It is very difficult to fully retain them and keep then in the organization for long time. human resources. Coping with "Temporariness" Globalization. It is the both challenge and opportunity for the organization and responding to it in the benefit of the firm is certainly the difficult job. OB is inevitable. Stimulating Innovation and Change The challenge for the today's managers is stimulating the product and service innovation for the survival and growth in competitive environment the change to adjust to it. 8. OB provides the adequate ideas and techniques to remove the block and go further ahead. high staff turnover. Eventhough it has many opportunites to the firm. 5. Improving People Skills: OB helps managers improving the necessary skills required to manage effectively including the motivational skills. organization encourages the employee participation in decision making and forming self-managed teams in modern organizations. The parttime workers. and accounting. airlines etc. The service to be rendered by the employees should be pleased by the clients in service industries like teaching. fast-food counters. power relationships. 7.

Organization becomes complex allowing maximum number of people without any physical distance. Declining Employee Loyalty Because of global completion. creating the organizational culture. it is very difficult to attract the most capable and motivated employees. like a global village. favoritism and nepotism. Managers try to provide in-house advice about DOs and DONTs regarding ethical behavior. They need to learn about flexibility. overcome the barriers to change. Officials take bribe for bread and butter and they increase their expense accounts.Aryal Managers need to cope those "temporariness" in job and workers. bore and interfere in personal life and they are not happy. They always see people around them are in unethical practices like taking bribe and padding expense accounts. which can be learnt through OB. 12. these days. The fast growing organizations. They blame that their job create problem in their family life because of lacking take care about their family. they do not like delegating authority because of fear of misuse. They need flexibility in their work schedules.S. Motivating. Management can not easily trust to employee. leading and communicating those virtually connected employees is highly challenging. OB of course can provide the techniques to 8 . 11. unemployment and inflation. It has been seen that there should be the balance between the work and personal life. workshops. Improving Ethical Behavior Employees in the organization are finding difficult to differentiate what is right and what is wrong. It sometimes. Workforce motivation is becoming highly challenging because of temporariness and brain-drain. OB offers different ideas. to predict. have no office hours. employees often feel that they are unable to create balance between the work and their personal life. with equal emphasis on "life" and "job". employees are unable to be loyal and honest although they do not like it. Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts In recent days. creates conflict. They Create protection mechanisms write and distribute codes of ethics to their employees and sometimes they also offer seminars. resulting the networked organizations. And if this happens. and training to improving the ethical behavior 13. It creates decreasing the confidence and trust in management. 10. OB can be the important insight for getting knowledge to help managing those logically connected people. specially no closing hours. suggestions and guidance in maintaining balance between these two and resolving the conflict. spouse or children since they almost busy in office work even in home. The interlink between the organizations and workplace using communication technologies is rapidly expanding. Working in Networked Organizations The use of computer and internet in workplace is increasing day by day.

reduced hours.Aryal increasing the employee loyalty determining the code of ethics or ethical behavior. Unionization 10.S. quality of work life 14. region etc. Flat structure and wide span of control 11. language. 4. Ethical behavioral issues  9 . Globalization of products and services The revolution in middle level management: Maximum cut in the middle level managers. 5. Virtual team and virtual organizations 13. communicating effectively. restructuring and redefining the roles Decentralization of business. 1. caste. 2. motivating them. The following points can be traced out as the recent trends to OB. government. political and social institutions High level of diversity among people. 6. Emerging Trends in Organizational Behavior Different writers explained differently about the emerging trends to OB. Innovative plan for special career needs: Flexible working hours. 8. Contingent workforce 15. groups. 9. institutions and geographic locations Computerization in organizations Use of technologies in communication Priority and reservation opportunities for minorities and women Inclusion of different race. 7. 3. Team and Group Approach with dynamic leadership 12. religion.

It is the behavioral response to the perception of humor. sensation and perception are virtually impossible to separate. Sensation usually refers to the immediate. Robbins It is the process of becoming aware of something through the senses and achieving understanding of it. on the other hand. We speak of a 'sense of humor' because different people sense humor in different things. another person might not. relatively unprocessed result of stimulation of sensory receptors in the eyes. nose. The world that is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important. "Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impression in order to give meaning to their environment. Through the perceptual process." S. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us. organize. Unit 2 Perceptual Process The perceptual process is a sequence of steps that begins with the environment and leads to our perception of a stimulus and an action in response to the stimulus. we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. better describes one's ultimate experience of the world and typically involves further processing of sensory input. On the other hand when one has managed to perceive humor in something. tongue. What one person perceives (senses) to be funny. because they are part of one continuous process. it allows us to act within our environment.P.Aryal Perception Concept Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. ears. not on reality itself. In practice. laughter (in one register or another) follows rather automatically. Perception. determines what we experience. The perceptual process is a sequence of steps that starts with the stimuli that happen in our surroundings and leads through nerve transmission through peripheral and central 10 . and give meaning (in the brain) to the sensations received from environmental stimuli (in the sense organs) Why is it Important? Study about perception is very important because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is. The perceptual process involves brain structuring. or skin. and how it organizes incoming stimuli. the process of interpretation based on sensation.S. synthesize. the psychological ability to process or use information received through the sense organs So that perception is the set of psychological processes by which people recognize.

When individuals observe behavior. which works out that its raining. This is our response to the stimulus.Aryal nerves and the brain to our perception of what is going on. ears. 11 . cold receptors and touch receptors all send signals to the brain. So. Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Attribution Theory Attribution theory is proposed to develop the analysis of the ways in which we judge people recognized by our senses.S. the perceptual process involved when we go outside from a room with no windows on a rainy day is that the stimulus from the environment . they attempt to determine whether it is internally (under the personal control of the individual) or externally (outside causes “force” you to behave a certain way) caused. The cognitive process within the brain then comes up with the decision to go back inside and pick up a coat and an umbrella before we set out again.the fact that it is raining and cold and we are getting wet . Our eyes. It also includes our resulting action to the original stimulus.

(Unusual behavior) Consensus: same way Consistency: Everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the Responding the same way in over a time. (In the interview. experienced and talented) Contrast Effects Evaluations of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. (Late: Traffic Jam) Distinctiveness: Whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics like attitudes.Aryal Internal factors: The behavior that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. personality. experience. (Late: Over slipping) External factors: The result from outside cause. When the individual looks at any thing and tries to interpret what he or she sees. others too have) Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. (Students rate the teacher low because of unfriendliness even though he is knowledgeable. (If you are highly talented. (Student asked: Which subject is most useful? Each teachers reply that their own subject is highly useful and most important to study) Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic. interests etc. you might get low score. The following figure explains the factors that influencing perception 12 . if the former candidate is strong.) Projection Stereotyping Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people. you get high score. and attitudes. that is the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation.S. (All Muslims are not terrorists) Factors Influencing Perception We see that the same thing is perceived by the individuals differently. and the former is weak. background. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interest.

that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. and expectations. gregariousness. Perception and Individual Decision Making It is the truth that how individuals in organization make decisions and the quality to their final choices are largely influenced by their perceptions. try the “rational decision making model”… Steps in the Rational Decision-Making Model 13 . motives. unrelated characteristics as well. This would include attractiveness. light. The more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception of the perceiver are attitudes. interests. 4. This could include time. 3. heat. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she sees.S. or other situational factors. 5. members of a group with clearly distinguishable features or color are often perceived as alike in other. Characteristics of the target can also affect what is being perceived. and our tendency to group similar things together. The context in which we see objects or events also influences our attention. The Link between Perception and Individual Decision Making Decisions = Choosing between two or more alternatives Problems = A discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state How should we make decisions in organizations? To maximize a particular outcome. For example.Aryal 1. Factors that shape (and can distort perception): • • • Perceiver Target Situation 2. past experiences.

Why? – – – It is easier to recognize visible problems. Assumptions of the Rational Decision-Making Model Problem Clarity-: The problem is clear and unambiguous. Decision-Makers want to appear competent and “on-top of problems. when the variable in question are less predictable. Clear Preferences: Rationality assumes that the criteria and alternatives can be ranked and weighted.S. these facts don’t lead you in one particular direction. Bounded Rationality: Individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity. Maximum Payoff: The choice alternative will yield the highest perceived value. This demonstrates an ability to perceive and attack problems. So. No Time or Cost Constraints: Full information is available because there is no time or cost constraints. 4. how are decisions actually made in organizations? 1. when “facts” are limited. Problem Identification Problems that are visible tend to have a higher probability of being selected than ones that are important. 14 . Evaluate the alternatives. there is little precedent to go on. Intuitive Decision Making: – Intuition = an unconscious process created out of distilled experience. and there is time pressure 3. – Intuition is often used when there is a high level of uncertainty. Constant Preferences: Specific decision criteria are constant and that the weights assigned to them are stable over time. Known Options: The decision-maker can identify all relevant criteria and viable alternatives. Allocate weights to the criteria.Aryal • • • • • • Define the problem Identify the decision criteria. 2. when there are several plausible choices. Alternative Development: Decision makers rarely seek optimum solutions but satisfying or “good enough” ones. Select the best alternative. – Efforts made are simple and confined to the familiar. Develop the alternatives. data is of little use.” Decision-Makers self-interest affects problem selection because it is usually in the Decision-Maker’s best interest to address problems of high visibility and high payoff.

turnover. Try to enhance your creativity  Unit 3 Learning 15 . Availability Bias --or the tendency of people to base their judgments on information readily available to them. Individuals think and reason before they act. Don’t assume that your specific decision style is appropriate for every job. So. Escalation of Commitment --an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information (all too often creeps into decision making) Randomness Error – We tend to create meaning out of random events (and superstitions). people follow the rational decision-making model. Summary and Implications for Managers Individuals behave based not on the way their external environment actually is but. this doesn’t happen very often. – Thus the decision makers steps are small and limited to comparisons of the current or familiar options. Under some decision situations.Aryal – – Efforts are incremental rather than comprehensive. what can managers do to improve their decision making? • • • • • Analyze the situation. rather. Common biases and errors include: • • • • • • • • Overconfidence Bias – We tend to be overly optimistic (especially when our intellect and interpersonal abilities are low) Anchoring Bias – Tendency to focus on initial information as a starting point. and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual’s perceptions. Confirmation Bias – We tend to seek out info that reaffirms our past choices and we discount info that contradicts our past judgments. after that outcome is actually known. Be aware of biases. on what they see or believe it to be. Absenteeism. Many successive limited comparisons rather than calculating value for each alternative. Combine rational analysis with intuition. Evidence suggests that what individuals perceive from their work situation will influence their productivity more than will the situation itself.The tendency to assess the likelihood of an occurrence by drawing analogies and seeing identical situations in which they don’t exist. Hindsight Bias – We tend to believe falsely that we’d have accurately predicted the outcome of an event.S. – This approach makes it unnecessary for the decision maker to thoroughly examine an alternative and its consequences. However. Common Biases & Errors We tend to “take shortcuts” in decision making and this allows error and bias to enter our decisions. Representative Bias -.

. students get punishment if they became unable to answer. and preferences. interest and attitude to learn. skills.P.” So that learning is the process of acquiring knowledge. For eg. your immediate response whether you motivate or not. “Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. The learner is reinforced to learn something using positive as well as negative ways.S. 16 . Reinforcement: The final outcome of learning determines the reinforcement. It relies on the acquisition of different types of knowledge supported by perceived information. It is an ongoing process in occurring at all times. It leads to the development of new capacities. understanding. animals and artificial cognitive systems. Input: The communication or message.Aryal Concept Learning is one of the most important mental functions of humans. It is the process of forcing the learner to change his or her behavior. attitudes or values through study. values. information or any other that you get from the sensory organs is the input for learning. experience or teaching that causes a change of behaviour that is persistent. Individuals need high degree of motivation towards learning 4. skills. 2. 3. Steps in Learning The followings four are the steps in learning process: 1. Its goal is the increasing of individual and group experience. measurable and specified or allows an individual to formulate a new mental construct or revise a prior mental conduct. Robbins. Motivation: The drive towards the learning process. According to S. showing the activity. Response: The response after getting input as an understanding of input It is the acting shown by the learner.

classical conditioning was initially identified by Pavlov to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. Pavlov showed that dogs could be conditioned to salivate merely to the sound of a buzzer (a conditioned stimulus). There is a strong emphasis on accountability for everyone involved in a behavior modification program. Three models are currently widely used to explain changes in learned behavior. Here. to the presentation of food. After some times. 2. Robbins. After repeatedly hearing the bell before getting food.with a pre-existing stimulus ." The first model of learning.Aryal Models of Learning Also known as theories of learning. 1. operant conditioning requireticular technique was responsible for a particular behavior change.S. When he postponed the presentation of meat and only rang the bell. "Classical conditioning is a type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. referred to as S-R theory." Operant condition claims that people can learn to behave to get something they want or avoid something the don't want. Salivation is an innate reflex. feel or respond to the CS as if it were actually the UCS. and can think. the dog exhibited a noticeable increase in salivation. Learning is said to occur because salivation has been conditioned to a new stimulus that did not elicit it initially.P. is a theoretical model of behavioral psychology that suggests humans and other animals can learn to associate a new stimulus. the dog started salivating only on the bell ring without meat. Then Pavlov proceeded to link the meat and the ringing of the bell. to salivate-to the bell. Operant Conditioning Theory A second type of learning. and later expanded upon by B. models of learning explain about how individuals learn in their life.the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). an unconditioned stimulus. When he presented the dong with a piece of meat. known as operant conditioning. • • Robbins defines that "Operant conditioning is a type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. 17 . Operant behavior can be defined as the voluntary or learned behavior in contrast to unlearned behavior. after it was sounded a number of times in conjunction with the presentation of food. The scientific investigation of the learning process was begun at the end of the 19th century by Ivan Pavlov in Russia and Edward Thorndike in the United States. was developed around the same time as Pavlov's theory by Thorndike. learning takes place as the individual acts upon the environment. F. Skinner. Classical Conditioning Theory According to S. the dog began to salivate as soon as the bell rang. The pairing of food with the buzzer acts to reinforce the buzzer as the prominent stimulus.the conditioned stimulus (CS). While classical conditioning involves natural/normal reaction. the dog did not salivate. So that Stimulus-response theory. The effect is the dog had learned to respond-that is. or unconditioned response.

such as taking away a child's toy following an undesired behavior. such as introducing a shock or loud noise. maintaining the current behavior In shaping behavior. Positive reinforcement: Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a favorable stimulus (commonly seen as pleasant) that increases the frequency of that behavior. you try to see note book so that teacher would not punish you. reinforcement is very important tool rather then punishment or extinction. It can be continuous or intermittent.S. you need to apply reinforcement but schedules can be varied. So that whether it is positive or negative. Punishment: Positive punishment (also called "Punishment by contingent stimulation") occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by an aversive stimulus. fixed interval or variableinterval type. Appreciation for well done in job is an example.  Unit 4 Personality 18 . b. resulting in a decrease in that behavior. c. When teacher asks a question to you. Negative punishment (also called "Punishment by contingent withdrawal") occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus. Negative reinforcement: Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus (commonly seen as unpleasant) thereby increasing that behavior's frequency. resulting in a decrease in that behavior. d. Extinction: Eliminating any reinforcement.Aryal Techniques of Behavior Modification a.

income. Pertaining to personality means (1) the sum of the characteristics which make up physical and mental being. An assumed role or manner of behavior. feelings. Family background Physical structure Facial attractiveness Temperament (nature) Muscle Composition Energy Level Gender. feels. the family background. 19 Position) . age. education. temperamental. (2) the characteristics that distinguish one person from another (this is equivalent to individuality). employment influences the Environment Heredity personality. manners. we talk about their personality. tastes and moral character. behaviors and many other ways. norms and belief. feelings. Robbins Personality is made up the characteristic patterns of thoughts. We need to see personality not at parts of the person. height. as well as similarities among groups of people. culture and friends Situation The situational factors that shows the certain behaviors (Place. values and attitude. including appearance.S. culture and society. Positive & negative aspects of upbringing affect personality. Charisma. Personality can be defined as: • • • the complex of all the attributes--behavioral. A celebrity. Personality psychologists are interested in the unique characteristics of individuals. Function. acts and reacts which comprises internal (invisible) and external (visible) character. Personality is displayed through thoughts. and behaviors that make a person unique. but as a whole. race.". emotional and mental--that characterize a unique individual A set of qualities that make a person (or thing) distinct from another. weight Personality Behavior Education Income Employment Experience Society. physiological and psychological factors.Aryal Concept As we meet different people in our daily lives.S. habits. or qualities that make a person stand out from the crowd. Environment The environment the individual grows up. Personality originates within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life. (3) the capacity for having mental states "Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Those are the parental and biological factors.P. Determinants of Personality Heredity Researchers have discovered that almost fifty percent of human behavior and personality characteristics are genetically inherited. Personality is the different physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks. decides.

. Those who prefer Sensing Perception favor clear. attending to future possibilities Using imagination and 20 . The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Personality Type or Psychological Type are terms most commonly associated with the model of personality development created by Isabel Briggs Myers the author of the world's most widely used personality inventory.S.Aryal Situation Even though environment and heredity determines the personality. the MBTI or Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Individuals show those traits repetitively in a noticeable form and those characters become personality traits. Different scientists tried to identify the common personality traits and they spent many years . They like practical and prefer routine and order. Personality Traits Personality traits are the bearing or enduring characteristics that describes the behavior of an individual like shy. The two popular models of Personality Traits are explained below. Public Park. Some situations are: in temple. Researchers believe that the personality traits could help in employee selection. The Basic Model: 2 Kinds of Mental Processes. 2 Kinds of Mental Orientations 2 Kinds of Mental Processes a) The first set of mental preferences relates to how people "Perceive" or take in information. lazy. attending to present opportunities Mentally live in the Future. Sensing Characteristics • Intuitive Characteristics • • Mentally live in the Now. at Picnic. conceptual. the place. big-picture. In contrast. those who prefer Intuition Perception are drawn to information that is more abstract. loyal. and represents imaginative possibilities for the future. at employment interview. ambitious. placement and career development. tangible data and information that fits in well with their direct here-and-now experience. timid (fearful) etc. The demand of the current situation. aggressive. the situation may modify in individual's personality. A. function and position greatly influences in showing the certain behavior.

• Memory recall is rich in detail of facts and past events Best improvise from past experience Like clear and concrete information. and analytical manner with an emphasis on tasks and results to be accomplished. ideas. contexts. Naturally notices tasks and work to be accomplished. • Instinctively employ personal feelings and impact on people in decision situations Naturally sensitive to people needs and reactions. When circumstances require an excessive amount of attention spent in the 21 . Those who prefer Thinking Judgment have a natural preference for making decisions in an objective. this is the third letter. and other reflections. harmony and value-oriented way. dislike guessing when facts are "fuzzy" • • • • b) The second set of mental preferences identifies how people form "Judgments" or make decisions. have almost a toxic reaction to disharmony.S. In the Myers MBTI Type Code. Unsettled by conflict. Accept conflict as a natural. fuzzy data and with guessing its meaning. normal part of relationships with people.Aryal • Using common sense and creating practical solutions is automatic-instinctual • creating/inventing new possibilities is automatic-instinctual Memory recall emphasizes patterns. Thinking Characteristics • Feeling Characteristics • • Instinctively search for facts and logic in a decision situation. visceral. thoughts. paying particular attention to the impact of decisions and actions on other people. Easily able to provide an objective and critical analysis. and connections Best improvise from theoretical understanding Comfortable with ambiguous. • • • • 2 Kinds of Mental Orientations a) Introversion vs Extroversion Those who prefer Introversion draw their primary energy from the inner world of information. Those whose preference is for Feeling Judgment make their decisions in a somewhat global. logical. Naturally seek consensus and popular opinions.

they are very quit and shy. flexible style of relating to the things and people found in the outside world. organization. or in some fashion managing the things and or people found in the external environment. if ever. in general lack of closure is easily tolerated. The drive is to order the outside world. then Act Regularly require an amount of "private time" to recharge batteries Motivated internally. those who prefer Extraversion are drawn to the outside world as their elemental source of energy. adaptable. people. They want control. planning. mind is sometimes so active it is "closed" to outside world Prefer one-to-one communication and relationships • • • • b) Judging vs Perceiving Those who prefer Judging typically leads to a style oriented towards closure. do extraverted preference people feel their energy batteries are "drained" by excessive amounts of interaction with the outside world. places and activities going on in the outside world for their life force. In contrast. Rarely. they are sociable and outgoing Extraverted Characteristics • • Introverted Characteristics • • Act first. to be ordered and well structured.S. The drive is to experience the outside world rather than order it. 22 .Aryal "outside" world. think/reflect later Feel deprived when cutoff from interaction with the outside world Usually open to and motivated by outside world of people and things Enjoy wide variety and change in people relationships Think/reflect first. They must engage the things. those preferring Introversion find the need to retreat to a more private setting. Those who prefer Perceiving typically results in an open.

appreciation for art. conventional people. Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline. curiosity. freedom and variety • • • • B. • I have a rich vocabulary. dates and standard routines to manage life. and variety of experience. unusual ideas. work best close to the deadlines.S. Like to multitask. Openness to experience . emotion. In compared to closed people. People who are open to experience are intellectually curious. they tend to be. Naturally tolerant of time pressure. The five factors are as follows: 1. and aim for achievement. curiosity. The trait distinguishes imaginative people from down-to-earth. • I am not interested in abstract ideas. complete meaningful segments before moving on. (reversed) • I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas. act dutifully. and variety of experience. Big Five Personality Traits The "Big Five" personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality discovered through empirical research by John Bearden. imagination.a tendency to show self-discipline. Conscientiousness . Instinctively avoid commitments which interfere with flexibility. mix work and play. have variety. adventure. adventure. appreciative of art.more creative and more aware of their feelings and unconventional beliefs. emotion. • I have a vivid imagination. The trait shows a preference for planned rather than 23 . ( reversed) 2. • I am quick to understand things. Sample Openness items • I am full of ideas. and sensitive to beauty.Aryal Judging Characteristics • Perceiving Characteristics • • Comfortable moving into action without a plan. and aim for achievement. Openness is a general appreciation for art. • I have excellent ideas. Focus on task-related action. imagination. • I spend time reflecting on things. (reversed) • I do not have a good imagination. • I use difficult words. responsible. Naturally use targets. unusual ideas. plan on-the-go. Work best and avoid stress when keep ahead of deadlines. planned rather than spontaneous behaviour. • Plan many of the details in advance before moving into action. act dutifully.

also called "extroversion. leave my belongings around. Sample Extraversion items • I am the life of the party. pay attention to details. regulate. and willing to compromise their interests with others. (reversed) • I don't talk a lot. Agreeable individuals value getting along with others. like order. Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of human nature. positive emotions. • I start conversations. (reversed) 4. get chores done right away. deliberate. Agreeableness . • I talk to a lot of different people at parties. It influences the way in which we control. decent. • I don't mind being the center of attention. energy. Extraverts enjoy being with people. and activity levels of extraverts. and are less likely to extend 24 . and direct our impulses. (reversed) • I don't like to draw attention to myself. Conscientious individuals avoid trouble and achieve high levels of success through purposeful planning and persistence. helpful. am exacting in my work.S. friendly. lowkey." is characterized by positive emotions. (reversed) make a mess of things. Extroversion . assert themselves. They are also positively regarded by others as intelligent and reliable. (reversed) • I have little to say. generous. • I am quiet around strangers. and draw attention to themselves. Extraversion. (reversed) 3. (reversed) shirk my duties. The trait reflects individual differences in concern for social harmony. In groups they like to talk. They tend to be enthusiastic. • I feel comfortable around people. action-oriented individuals who are likely to say "Yes!" or "Let's go!" to opportunities for excitement. surgency. and trustworthy. and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others. They are generally unconcerned with others’ well-being.Aryal spontaneous behaviour. They tend to be quiet.a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. They believe people are basically honest. Sample Conscientiousness items • • • • • • • • • • I I I I I I I I I I am always prepared. They are generally considerate. Their lack of social involvement should not be interpreted as shyness or depression. surgency. Agreeableness is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. follow a and the tendency to seek stimulation and the company of others. Introverts simply need less stimulation than extraverts and more time alone. (reversed) often forget to put things back in their proper place. Disagreeable individuals place self-interest above getting along with others. and less involved in the social world. and are often perceived as full of energy. Introverts lack the exuberance.

Aryal themselves for other people. (reversed) 5. and uncooperative. • I sympathize with others’ feelings.a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily. At the other end of the scale. Freedom from negative feelings does not mean that low scorers experience a lot of positive feelings. or depression. anxiety. and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. It can either be internal (meaning you believe that you control yourself and your life) or external (meaning you believe that your environment. • I make people feel at ease. • I change my mood a lot. such as anger. individuals who score low in neuroticism are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. which means they are often in a bad mood. emotionally stable. They tend to be calm. Sample Neuroticism items • I am easily disturbed. • I get stressed out easily. Sometimes their skepticism about others’ motives causes them to be suspicious. make decisions. • I am not interested in other people’s problems. • I often feel depressed. • I have frequent mood swings. They are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening. unfriendly. • I get upset easily. These problems in emotional regulation can diminish a neurotic's ability to think clearly. (reversed) • I feel little concern for others. (reversed) • I am not really interested in others. Locus of Control: The locus of control is the belief of the indivudla whether they are the master of their fate. Their negative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long periods of time.(reversed) Major Personality Influencing Organizational Behavior The followings are the major personality traits which influences organizational behavior 1. some higher power or other people control your decisions and your 25 . and free from persistent negative feelings. • I get irritated easily. Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotions. or vulnerability. Emtional Etsbility (Neuroticism) . depression. (reversed) • I seldom feel depressed. • I take time out for others. • I feel others’ emotions. sometimes called emotional instability. It is sometimes called emotional instability. and cope effectively with stress. anxiety.S. Those who score high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive and vulnerable to stress. • I worry about things. (reversed) • I insult people. Sample Agreeableness items • I am interested in people. such as anger. • I have a soft heart. • I am relaxed most of the time.

and highly agreeable.S. success/failure. can also refer to the doctrine of Machiavelli who described about the politics of sixteenth century's political leaders who used to deceive people to influence others. selfish and to depend too much on anyone else is foolish. For example. Rotter in 1954 as an important aspect of personality. They also tend to believe that everyone has a good and bad side. At the extreme. "I believe I am a good writer. It is the degree they like or dislike themselves. and feel proud of that in particular") or have global 26 . low Machs are passive. Externals attribute outcomes of events to external circumstances. calculating approach in their interaction with other people. empathic approach in their interaction with other people. 2. It was developed by Julian B. promises. We can categories into two: High Mach and Low Mach personality. propounded the theory in using power and gaining.Aryal life). they have higher abseentism. Machiavellianism Machiavellianism is primarily the term some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. They believe humans are essentially good natured. rewards. Internals tend to attribute outcomes of events to their own control. The trait is named after Niccolò Machiavelli. Low Machs: They tend to take a more personal. college students with a strong internal locus of control may believe that their grades were achieved through their own abilities and efforts. They believe some of the most efficient ways to achieve a goal are to use deception. They tend to believe most people are concerned only with their own well-being. submissive. do less effort and they are more dissatisfied because they perceive as having little control by them in success and outcomes and vice versa for internals. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs (for example. whereas those with a strong external locus of control may believe that their grades are the result of good or bad luck. Self-esteem can apply specifically to a particular dimension (for example. hence. High Machs: They tend to take a more detached. pride/ humiliation). "I am competent /incompetent") and emotions (for example. Researches have shown that individulas who are externals are less satisfied with their jobs. they are less likely to expect that their own efforts will result in success and are therefore less likely to work hard for high grades. Self-Esteem Self-esteem is a person's overall self-appraisal of his or her own worth. or to a professor who designs bad tests or grades capriciously. 3. flattery (sweet talk) and even punishments to manipulate others into doing their bidding. They tend to be more trusting of others and more honest.

who monitor their behaviour to fit different situations. highly competitive. and they always adjust their behavior to external situational factors. rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost 4. excessively time-conscious. Some people want to take high risk for gaining something while others do not like taking risk.p 105 27 . 5. The theory refers to the process through which people regulate their own behavior in order to "look good" so that they will be perceived by others in a favorable manner. measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire Type B's 1. fell impatient with the rate at which most events take place 3. cannot cope with leisure time 5. and easy-going. Type B individuals.P. strive two think or do two o more things at once 4. 4. Risk Taking It is the willingness to take risk or chances. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation 3. who are more cross-situationally consistent. are obsessed with numbers. "I believe I am a good person. walking and eating rapidly 2. and incapable of relaxation. what they do and how they respond to the behavior of others and will hence usually adapt well to differing social situations. Are always moving. It disintinguishes between high self-monitors. and low self-monitors. can relax without guilt (fault) Source: S. High risk taking managers make more rapid decisions and use less information in making their decisions than do the low risk taking managers. 2007 p. People who are high self-monitors constantly watch other people. aggressive. in contrast. Type A individuals can be described as impatient. play for fun and relaxation. are described as patient. Never suffer from sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience 2. and feel proud of myself in general").Aryal extent (for example. insecure about their status. relaxed. Some people are sensitive to how other sees them. Type A's 1. On the other hand. low self-monitors are generally unaware to how other see them and hence show to their own different style.S. Robbins and Seema Sanghi. Self-Monitoring The theory is proposed by Mark Snyder in 1974. 6. Type A Personality The Type A and Type B are a personality type theory that describes a pattern of behaviors of the individuals. Such personality highly influences the managerial decision making and information needed for it.

Proactive Personality Proactive personality is the trait of the individual who identify opportunities. Matching Personality and Jobs Matching the individual's personality and his or her job is a great challenge not only for the managers but also the individuals who seek their career. show initiative. John Holland Development Personality-Job Fit Theory. They create a positive change in environment to remove obstacles and go forward. Person-Job Fit In this context. These people are highly suitable for entrepreneurship. Nevertheless. The best fit between the personality and their occupation of course leads to success in their life. take action and preserve until meaningful change occurs. 28 . The theory argues that satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement. They are very clever in maintaining relationship.Aryal 7. management and they are likely to be success. influencing work situations and career planning. He explained it • Holland presents six personality types and proposes that satisfaction and the propensity to leave a job depend on the degree to which individuals successfully match their personalities to an occupational environment. they may leave the organization to establish their own business. • • Each one of the six personality types has a congruent occupational environment.S. 1.

farmer Investigative: Prefers activities Analytical. The Person-Organization Fit The Person-Organization Fit argues that people leave organizations that are not compatible with their personalities. public relation specialist small business manager Painter. unambiguous activities Sociable. independent and understanding Social: Prefers activities that involve helping and developing others Conventional: Prefers regulated. and practical. ambitious. unimaginative. writer.S. disorderly. bank teller. inflexible Enterprising: Prefers verbal Self-confident. persistent. follow creative expression impractical 2. activities in which there are energetic. friendly. understanding Biologist. conforming. mathematician news reporter Social worker. file clerk Lawyer. teacher. Matching people to the organizational culture at the time of hiring should result in higher employee satisfaction and reduced turnover. musician. interior decorator rule. emotional. Mechanic. efficient. organizing curious. genuine. orderly. counselor. assembly-line strength and coordination practical worker. unsystematic activities that idealistic. • • Most important for an organization facing a dynamic and changing environment.Aryal Type Personal Characteristics Congruent Occupation Realistic: Prefers physical Shy. operator. Organizations need to use Big-Five Personality Traits to make the organizational environment favorable to the employees so that they can keep the individuals for long. stable. original. domineering opportunities to influence others and attain power Artistic: Prefers ambiguous and Imaginative.  Unit 5 29 . cooperative. real state agent. clinical psychologists Accountant. corporate manager. economist.Conforming. drill press activities that require skill. that involve thinking. It argues that people leave jobs that are not compatible with their personalities. and requiring employees who are able to readily change tasks and move fluidly between teams.

The supervisor (motivator) wants to influence the factors that motivate employees to higher levels of productivity. and organizational practices." R. Job characteristics are the aspects of the position that determine its limitations and challenges. Individual differences are the personal needs. and attitudes. The Level of motivation varies both between individual and within individuals at different times which lead to show the aforementioned behavior. an employee may choose to work as hard as possible at a job.P." . motivated behaviors are voluntary choices controlled by the individual employee.Aryal Motivation Concept and Process Since motivation influences productivity. The Motivation Framework (Process of Motivation) Need (Deficiency) Search for ways to satisfy need Choice of behavior to satisfy need Determination of future needs and search/choice or satisfaction Evaluation of Need Satisfaction Importance of Motivation 1. human resources policies. It is not an easy task to increase employee motivation because employees respond in different ways to their jobs and their organization's practices. managerial practices. Supervisors must consider how these factors interact to affect employee job performance.W. Productivity improvement Feedback Motivation 30 . Optimum use of resources 2.S. and rewards systems of an organization. Motivation is the set of processes that moves a person toward a goal. Robbins "Motivation is the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways. Griffin On any given day. Factors that affect work motivation include individual differences. "The process that account for an individual's intensity direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. job characteristics.S. or to do as little as possible. Thus. supervisors need to understand what motivates employees to reach peak performance. to work just a hard enough to avoid a reprimand (warning). Organizational practices are the rules. values. interests and abilities that people bring to their jobs.

Efficiency and effectiveness Understand Employee behaviour Employee retention Creativity promotion Job Satisfaction Other employee factors . social. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory There is a hierarchy of five needs-physiological. Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory 2. 3.Reduced employee grievances .Aryal 3. 4. safety. 31 . esteem an self actualization. 4. 7. the next need becomes dominant. 6. 2.S. Theory X and Theory Y Contemporary Theory There are number of contemporary theories that have one ting in common-each has a reasonable degree of valid supporting documentation.Reduce absenteeism .Better employee discipline . 1. each need is substantially satisfied.Reduce rate of accidents . 5. Expectancy Theory ERG Theory Equity Theory McClelland's Need Achievement Theory 1.Harmonious labour relation Motivation Theories Early Theories The theories which have not held up well under examination 1.Low employee turnover . 8. Hertzberg's Motivation Hygiene Theory 3.

Superfluous classification scheme: The model is based more on wisher of what an 'SHOULD BE' rather than what he 'ACTUALLY' is. are creative. even seek responsibility. 4. Assumption of Theory Y 1.S. Employees inherently dislike work and. 2. dislike responsibility. Employees will avoid responsibility and seek formal direction whenever possible 4. are lazy. 3. will attempt to avoid it.Aryal Achievement Self Actualization Needs Status Esteem Needs Respect of others. sex Challenging job High order needs Job Title Friendship Stability Bodily needs Friends at work Pension Plans Base Salary Low order needs Criticisms 1. Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Theory X The assumptions that employees dislike work. they must be coerced. Assumption of Theory X 1. affection. Theoretical difficulties 2. sleep. thirst. and must be coerced to perform. wherever possible. 4. seek responsibility and can exercise self direction. the activity. The average person can learn to accept. 3. Employees can view work as being a natural as rest play People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. friendship Safety needs Physiological needs Hunger. Since employee dislike work. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. 2. controlled. The ability to make innovative decision is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions. or threatened punishment to achieve goals. 32 . Theory Y The assumption that employees like work. Not research based 3. Individual difference 2. and ego or status needs Social needs Belongingness.

f. Status Motivational Factors a. The reliability of Hertzberg's methodology is questioned. The procedure that Hertzberg used is limit by its methodology. Salary e.S. Personal life g. Company policy and administration b. The theory is inconsistent with previous research. peers and subordinates d. No overall measure of satisfaction was used. Interpersonal relations with superiors. 3. c. Work conditions h. Technical supervision c. 4. It ignores situational variables. e. 5. When things are going well. They blame failure on the extrinsic environment. people tend to take credit themselves.These factors are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction. Hertzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory Hygiene Factors (Intrinsic) (Duel Factor Theory) (dissatisfiers) . No satisfaction Dissatisfaction 33 . No relationship between satisfaction and productivity. b.Aryal 3. d. 2. Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Contrasting views of Satisfaction Traditional View Satisfaction Herzberg's view Motivators Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction Criticisms 1. Job Security f. a.

but multiple needs can be operating as motivators at the same time.Aryal Comparisons between Hierarchy of Needs Theory and Motivation-Hygiene Theory 4. Growth (Esteem. ERG Theory - (Clayton Alderfer) There are three groups of core needs: existence. 34 . and frustrations in attempting to satisfy a higher-level need can result in regression to a lower level need. actualization needs) Self Relatednes s (Social needs) Existence (Physiological and safety needs) ERG Theory argues that satisfied lower-order needs lead to desire to satisfied higher-order needs.S. relatedness and growth.

Self-inside : An employee's expectations in a different position inside his or her current organization 2. McClelland's Need Achievement Theory (David McClelland) 1. (supervisory positions) 6. they can be predicted to make one of six choices: 1) Change their inputs-effort 2) Change their outcomes-result (product) 3) Distort perception of self 4) Distort perception of others 5) Choose different referent 6) Leave the field/quit job 35 . offer opportunities to make friends 3.S.The desire to accomplish a goal or task more effectively than the past-personal responsibility etc. 3. Need for achievement( nAch) .Aryal 5.The desire for human companionship and acceptance (social interaction. Need for Power (nPow) . Self-outside : An employee's experiences in a situation or position outside his or her current organizations. Need for affiliation (nAff) . An employee selects adds to the complexity of equity theory. The equity comparison process Outcomes (Self) Inputs (Self) ? = Outcomes (Others) Input (Others) When employees perceive an inequity. Other-inside : Another individuals or group of individuals inside the employees organization.The desire to be influential in a group and to control one's environment. Other-outside : Another individual or group of individuals outside the employee's organization. 4. 2. Equity Theory (J Stacy Adams) Equity theory suggests that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for performance. There are four referent comparisons that an employee can use: 1.

S. self actualization. Existence: Physiological and safety needs Relatedness: Social needs Growth: Esteem. esteem. An individual compares his or her input/outcome ratio to that of relevant others. Proposes two alternative sets of assumptions that managers hold about human beings' motivation-one basically negative. If there is a perceived inequity. how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it. Proposes that motivation is a function of valence (value) of the effort performance and the performance reward relationships. labeled Theory Y. when a need is substantially realized. Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) A theory of motivation that suggests that motivation depends on two things. An individual moves up the hierarchy and. affiliation and power: A high need to achieve has been positively related to higher work performance when jobs provide responsibility. McGregor argues that Theory Y assumptions are more valid that Theory X and that employee motivation would be maximized by giving workers greater job involvement and autonomy Argues that intrinsic job factors motivate whereas extrinsic factors only placate employees. Theory XTheory Y Douglas McGregor MotivationHygiene ERG Theory Frederick Hertzberg Clayton Alderfer David McClelland Need Achievement Equity Theory Expectancy Theory J. Effort-to-performance expectancy relationship 2. labeled Theory X. social. There are three groups of core needs: existence.Aryal 7. the individual will change his or her behaviour or compare themselves with someone else. Stacey Adams Victor Vroom  Unit 6 Groups in Organization Concept 36 . EP Individual Effort PO Individual Performance Valence Organization al Resources Personal Goals 1 2 3 Motivation = Expectancy X Valence 1. and moderate challenge. and the other basically positive. Rewards -to-personal goals relationship Valence = Outcome Recap of Motivational Theories Theory Hierarchy of Needs Individual Abraham Maslow Summary Five needs in an hierarchical order from lowest to highest: physiological. moves up to the next need. safety. Self actualization needs Proposes that there are three major needs in workplace situations: achievement. Performance -to-outcome (Reward) relationship 3. feedback. relatedness and growth.

such as people waiting at a bus stop. have fewer self-doubts. and kinship ties. A true group exhibits some degree of cohesion and is more than a simple collection or aggregate of individuals. and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group. ethnic or social background.P.S. management will rely on the use of a formal group. Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members.p.Gary Dessler "A work group is a collection of two or more people who interact with each other. who have come together to achieve particular objectives. interacting and interdependent. So that group can be defined as two or more freely interacting individuals who share a common identity and purpose.". By joining a group. share similar interests and come together to accomplish some work activity. Robbins and Seema Sanghi. 229) 37 . Characteristics shared by members of a group include interests.Arnold & Feldman "Two or more individuals. the defining characteristic of a group is social interaction. accept expectations and obligations as members of the group. According to Paul Hare. and share a common identity." ." People feel stronger.Aryal Group can be defined as two or more humans that interact with one another." . There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task-there is a need to pool talents. values. Status. knowledge. "Group is defined as two or more persons who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goal. Self-Esteem. What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. In such instances. Goal Achievement. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. Power. or power in order to complete a job. (Source: S. Groups can fulfil social needs.P. For many people. individuals can reduce the insecurity of "Standing alone. There is power in numbers. Robbins Characteristics of group a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Two or more people Interaction and interdependence Similar interests Common identity Common purpose or goals Informal leadership Individual accountability Behavioural norms Cohesiveness Why do People Join Group? Security.S. these onthe-job interactions are their primary source for fulfilling their needs for affiliation. 2007 p.

b) Friendship group: The group which is formed for social alliance and they come together that have common characteristics for fostering friendship. b) Task Groups: A group with cross command relationship who are not limited to their hierarchical form and work together to complete a job or task. They need high coordination among the group members and are responsible for specific non-routine activities. politics affiliated unions are some examples) Significance of Informal Group To fulfill relatedness needs To enhance affiliation among organizational members To increase social identity of the group members To accomplish tasks that are not possible individually through formal relations alone To influence people outside the group 38 . It is not defined by organizational structure and it does not have formal authority. a) Interest group: Those who form a grouping to fulfil the certain interest which is concerned by each member. 2) Informal group: A group created by its members for purpose that may or may not be relevant to the organization's goals.S.Aryal Types of groups 1) Formal group: Formal group is a collection of people created to do something productive that contributes to the success of the larger organization. (Ethnic groups/Religious Groups of other ) Nature and Significance of Informal Group Nature of Informal Group: Influenced by personal goal (rather than organizational goal) Not defined by organizational structure No formal reporting relationship and authority Personal interest Common characteristics of the group members . Formal group is defined by organizational structure and established under formal authority. a) Command group: A group created by the organization that report directly to the specified manager and are controlled by him/her.Temporary in nature (Ethnic groups. It is a collection of people seeking friendship and acceptance that satisfies esteem needs.

interpersonal conflicts arise and differences of opinion about the group and its goals will surface. storming. the group may collapse at this point. and norming engaged as everyone learns about one another. This is the stage when team building begins and trust starts to develop and individuals test themselves whether they can be the part of group. there will be a new process of forming. it is unrealistic to expect it to remain there permanently. There are popular five stages of group development which is explained below: Forming This is the initial stage when the group comes together and members begin to develop their relationship with one another and learn what is expected of them. and norms are no longer of major importance. Forming Test which interpersonal behaviors ate acceptable and which are unacceptable to the other members Storming Develop group structure Group's agenda Recognizing leader Pattern of interaction - Norming Acceptance of roles and understand others role Sense of unity - Performing Enacting roles Direct effort toward goal attainment and performance - Storming During this stage of group development. If the group is unable to clearly state its purposes and goals or if it cannot agree on shared goals. we find the close relationship and cohesiveness among the group members. The group will find that it can enjoy its accomplishments and that members will be learning new skills and sharing roles. issues related to roles. Formal and informal procedures are established in delegating tasks. working intentionally and effectively to accomplish its goals. It is important to work through the conflict at this time and to establish clear goals.Aryal Group Formation Process A well functioning group does not just form in ad hoc. It is necessary for there to be discussion so everyone feels heard and can come to an agreement on the direction the group is to move in. 39 . After a group enters the performing stage. and in the process by which the group functions. Members of the group come to understand how the group as a whole operates. it can now establish patterns of how to get its work done. To remain healthy. groups will go through all of these processes in a continuous circle. External events may lead to conflicts within the group.S. structure of group and leader. In this stage. It needs to follow a systematic process and takes time to develop to a point where it can be effective and where all members feel connected to it. Performing It is the final stage for the permanent work group. When new members join or some people leave. Group members will start establishing limits on acceptable behavior through experimentation. responding to questions. it is uncertain about the purpose. The group is now focused on its task. In this stage. expectations. During this fourth stage of group development. Norming Once the group resolves its conflicts. Expectations of one another are clearly articulated and accepted by members of the group.

what is human nature. or things. They could be the beliefs about life. the group will come out of the conflict with a stronger sense of cohesiveness then before. 40 . while others come only by complete devotion to study and practice. death. you might value friends more than privacy. home. or things. concepts. group size. If handled properly. Group Structure: Concept Group structure is the process of shaping the behavior of the individual members to make it possible to explain and able to predicting their behavior for increasing the group performance. such as beliefs. friendship. Let the conflict come out into the open so people can discuss it. composition and cohesiveness. To be an effective leader. They could be assumptions or convictions that you hold true regarding people. what is good. what is bad. values. Leadership Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. In this stage. your followers must have trust in you and they need to be sold on your vision. Skills are the knowledge and abilities that a person gains throughout life. Those individual variables are explained below. The structural variables There are different variables that structure the group which are: roles. do not try to silence the conflict or to run from it. personal comfort. Values are important as they influence a person's behavior to weigh the importance of alternatives. Some leadership attributes: Beliefs are what we hold dear to us and are rooted deeply within us. For example. character. etc. The ability to learn a new skill varies with each individual. and skills. or relatives. Values are attitudes about the worth of people. norms. religion. the temporary group members who has specific goal enclose all their activities and formally end the group. you might value a good car. If the conflict is kept under the surface. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes. knowledge.S.Aryal Adjourning The final stage of group development is adjourning which is only for the temporary groups. When conflict arises in a group. We study the different variables of those group structure which helps understanding and shaping the behavior. members will not be able to build trusting relationships and this could harm the group’s effectiveness. while others might be the opposite. Some skills come almost naturally. For example. concepts. ethics.

At another word. far too many to be discussed here. Instead. The more of these you display as a leader. Conflict between behaving as a student and as an enthusiast who shares the same interest emerges. A set of expectations govern the behavior of persons holding a particular role in group. or downsizing. society. Psychological contract is an example in which management and employees do unwritten contract what management expects and vice versa. It is mostly defined as an expected behavior in a given individual social status and social position. For example. while character is the sum total of these traits. Robbins. the more your followers will believe and trust in you. even unintentionally. Others may see the traditional leadership of a boss as costing too much in team performance. you might disgrace him and if you didn't.either by draining the resources of the group as a whole.P. we will focus on a few that are crucial for a leader. rights and obligations as conceptualized by actors in a social situation. Some organizations have taken this approach in hopes of increasing creativity. Intelligent etc.Aryal Traits are distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a person. you found your teacher made a mistake and should you report that? If you did. a set of norms that defines how persons in a particular position should behave. In contrast to individual leadership. In some situations. In this situation. Role confusion is a situation where an individual has trouble determining which role he/she should play.S. An employee perceives managerial roles observing the activities of seniors. Leadership is both strategic and pragmatic (realistic) and encourages all members of a team to deliver their best as an individual and as a team member. Roles A role is a set of connected behaviors. you might not fulfil 41 . We perceive to act in different situations by the friend. Role Expectation: It is the expectation from others how should you act in a given situation. There are hundreds of personality traits. some organizations have adopted group leadership. reducing costs. Forward-Looking. Leaders have clear visions and they communicate these visions to their employees. Some traits of leadership are: Honest. Competent.” Role Identity: It is the certain behaviors and attitudes of the individual which are consistent with a role. one could be a college student who would attend a convention of a particular recreational interest and find his or her teacher there. Individuals have the ability to shift or change their roles rapidly when the situation or environment changes. For Example. leadership means working with and through people by providing them with a vision of the future which is meaningful to them and motivating. videos or other source. leading to confusion. Role Perception: Role perception is the view of the individuals how they need to act while playing roles in a given situation. For example. According to S. Role conflict characterises a situation where fulfilling a certain role has a conflict with fulfilling another role. employee changes his or her role rapidly after the promotion. “Role is a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. teachers. more than one person provides direction to the group as a whole. or by impeding the creativity within the team. Inspiring. the maintenance of the boss becomes too expensive .

• Blocker: Resists movement by the group. • Opinion-seeker: Asks for the input from the group about its values. • Gatekeeper/expediter: Keeps communication channels open. These roles place the group member above the group and are destructive to the group. • Aggressor: Attacks other group members. while others promote social interaction. • Recognition seeker: Calls attention to himself or herself. • Coordinator: Shows the relationships between ideas. Some roles relate to the task aspect of the group. • Compromiser: Moves group to another position that is favored by all group members. • Evaluator-critic: Measures group's actions against some objective standard. • Self-confessor: Seeks to disclose non-group related feelings or opinions. offers examples to clarify ideas. • Orienter: Shifts the direction of the group's discussion. While role conflict takes place across different role sets. • Group observer: Keeps records of group activities and uses this information to offer feedback to the group. Social Roles Individualistic Roles Follower: Goes along with the group and accepts the group's ideas. and other aggressive behavior. • Opinion-giver: States his or her beliefs about a group issue. • Recorder: Keeps a record of group actions. • Standard Setter: Suggests standards or criteria for the group to achieve. • Information-seeker: Asks for information about the task. role strain happens within the same role set. • Information-giver: Offers facts or generalization to the group. • Dominator: Asserts control over the group by manipulating the other group members. Groups also have members who play certain social roles: • Encourager: Praises the ideas of others. Task-Oriented Roles Roles which relate to the completion of the group's task: • Initiator-contributor: Generates new ideas. • Procedural-technician: Performs logistical functions for the group. Every member of a group plays a certain role within that group. Here are the examples of some roles that group members play. • Harmonizer: Mediates differences between group members. • 42 .Aryal your role as student.S. • Energizer: Stimulates the group to a higher level of activity. • Elaborator: Explains ideas within the group. deflates the status of others.

To simplify or clarify role expectations.P. Individuals are expected to fulfill their role in society.e. Special interest pleader: Uses stereotypes to assert his or her own prejudices. students getting an "A" on their exam) Punished. May go above and beyond formal rules and written policies. According to S. Robbins. Individuals primarily attempt to fulfill their roles for their own succession. It can be the job title.Individuals are punished for not completing the duties of their role (i. They: – – – Are culturally derived and vary from one culture to another. Society regulates the behavior of different roles on a reward or punishment system. For instance. people who control the group using their power tend to be in high status. yet have a strong influence on individual behavior. which differentiates the status from one to another.Aryal • • Help seeker: Tries to gain the sympathy of the group. facilities etc. Status Status is a position or rank given to groups or group members by the organization.S. Besides this. in a playgroup. Reasons that groups enforce norms • • • • To facilitate the survival of the group. In organization. leadership. To help group members avoid embarrassing situations. Status plays a dominant role in organizational behavior since it affects motivation. Norms are effective guides for social behavior. job satisfaction and other behavioral consequences. a salesman is fired for not selling enough product) Size 43 . the individual who has extra performance can have higher status event though they are in same group. Norms Norms are the standards (degrees of acceptability and unacceptability) for conduct that helps individuals judge what is right or wrong and good or bad in a given social setting. To express key group values and enhance the group’s unique identity. Rewarded. Norms must be activated before they can guide. The leader or manager of a group will be in high status than the members or employees. “Norms are acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members”. benefits and services. Are usually unwritten.Individuals are rewarded for living up to their roles (i. status also depends upon to the contribution to the group.e.

it creates conflict and competition in group leading to high productivity if the leader is very able to manage conflict. The dissimilar abilities. The group which are cohesive can spent hours of time in interaction. But there can be different compositional factors according to the group objectives and types. It is the factor that keeps its members within the group for long duration. skills. Relationship between Group Cohesiveness. the addition or loss of one member can of course make a radical difference to the group process. Composition The group members should have the variety of abilities. academic background and level. age. In very small groups.S. they can stay together and collectively defend the external threats. It is the level of mutual understanding. It indicates that increase in group size inversely related to individual performance. Social loafing The term social loafing is one important finding about the group size. motivated and committed in the group. Smaller groups are faster to complete the tasks and making decisions than the larger one. Social loafing is a tendency of the individuals to make less effort in group than individually. cooperation and belongingness within the members. experience. Cohesiveness Cohesiveness is the degree of being attractive. If there is high level of diversity. Larger groups need to be managed in quite different ways from smaller ones. and are functions of the number of people and "Process" features are more empirically determined. they can get better result because of more inputs. But if the purpose of group is problem solving and fact finding. seven members of group are found to be effective and here should be odd number in group size. inclusive and participative group can be effective than the similar and homogenous. So let's tackle this systematically: "Formal" features refer to necessary properties of the group. gender. race. Performance Norms and Productivity Performance Norms Cohesiveness Hig h High High Productivity Low Productivity Low Moderate productivity Moderate to Low Productivity Low 44 . Generally. Those formality and process are more important as the size gets greater. So it claims that the sum total productivity of the individuals always less than that of group.Aryal Size does matter — at least as far as groups are concerned. There should be different personalities.

S. Physically isolate the group (Source: S. 45 . It weakens the efficiency of the individual because of pressure from group members and may go beyond the reality and moral judgment. The common characters of group decision making are: • Decision making with a common decision making problem • Shared interest in a collective decision • All members have an opportunity to influence the decision Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Decision Making A major advantage of group decision making is that more information is brought to bear identifying and evaluating alternatives. Encourage agreement with group goals 3. Stimulate competition with other groups 6. Increase the time members spent together 4. Robbins) Group Decision Making In most organizations. The more diverse the group's composition. It is the process of making collective decision. Make the group smaller 2. Increase the status of the group and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in the group 5.Aryal Suggestions for improving group cohesiveness: 1. teams or committees. 2 3 4 5 Advantages More information and knowledge are available More alternatives are likely to be generated More acceptance of the final decisions is likely Enhanced communication of decision making may result Better decision generally emerge Disadvantages 1 The process takes longer. the more likely it is that creative ideas will be forthcoming 1 .P. so it is costlier 2 Compromise decision resulting from indecisiveness may emerge` 3 One person may dominate the group 4 Group think may occur Issues relating to group decision making The two popular issues about group decision making are as follows: a) Groupthink: Groupthink is the situations in which group pressures for consensus and conformity discourage the group from critically appraising or realistic appraisal of alternative course of actions. Give rewards to the group rather than to individual members 7. decisions are made by groups.

proposed by any member of the group. is a change in decision risk between the groups decision and the individual decision that members within the group would make. p. No matter how strongly the evidence may contradict their basic assumptions. In group decision.Aryal Symptoms of the group think: 1.S. can be either toward conservatism (traditional or popular) or greater risk decision in comparison to the decision by the individual alone. Members apply direct pressures on those who momentarily express doubts about \any of the group's shared views or who question the validity of arguments supporting the alternative favored by the majority. p. If someone doesn't speak. 4. members behave so as to reinforce those assumptions continually. In other words. There appears to be an illusion of unanimity (harmony or agreement). it’s assumed that he or she is in full accord. Source: S. the initial positions of individual members of a group are exaggerated toward a more extreme position What Causes Groupshift? • • • Discussion creates familiarization among group members Group discussion motivates individuals to take risks Group diffuses responsibility Improving Group Decision Making To make the group decision effective. 1) Brainstorming: A decision making group in which members openly discuss. Robbins. can be with towards conservatism or greater risk . there are some techniques to be followed which are explained below. Members who have doubts or hold differing points of view seek to avoid deviating from what appears to be group consensus by keeping silent about misgiving and even minimizing to them shelves the importance of their doubts. also known as a special case of group think.P. Robbins and Seema Sanghi. while withholding any criticism of those alternatives and lastly. 3.P. Osborne to increase individual capabilities. Advantages • A large number of ideas can be generated in a short period of time 46 . Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made. It is an idea generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives. argue about and agree on the best alternative. abstention (non-participation) becomes viewed as a Yes vote. It is a group process for generating possible solutions to a problem developed by Alex F.S. 2. Group shift. the members agree on the best one. 247 b) Groupshift: It is change in decision risk between the group's decision and the individual decision that members within the group would make.

Group then discusses and evaluates ideas Individuals silently rank or vote on each solution presented. and program planning etc. they rank the ideas and highest rank will be the final decision. It is a structured technique used to generate creative and innovative alternatives or ideas.Aryal • Simple -no special expertise or knowledge required from the facilitator Disadvantages • Credit for another person’s ideas may impede participation • Works best when participants represent a wide range of disciplines 2) Delphi Group: A form of group decision making in which a group is used to achieve a consensus of expert opinion without face-to-face meeting of experts. Advantages • Best for small group meetings • Fact finding and Idea generation • Search of problem or solution Disadvantages • Not suitable for routine business and Bargaining • Problems with predetermined outcomes 4. problem solving. After the complete discussion and evaluation. Individual members meet face-to-face and present the idea in a meeting. Computer assisted decision making For the decision making a large number software packages available for the decision makers for their decision analysis. which is used to eliminate the problems encountered in small group meetings.S. Those software packages can be use for group 47 . It is a group process which helps aggregates viewpoints in settings where subjective information has to be relied on the production of numerical estimates and forecasts on selected statements and depends on written feedback (instead of bringing people together) Characteristics • • • • • • • • • Panel of experts Facilitator who leads the process (‘manager’) Anonymous participation Makes it easier to change opinion Iterative processing of the responses in several rounds Interaction through questionnaires Same arguments are not repeated Estimates and associated arguments are generated by and presented to the panel Statistical interpretation of the forecasts 3) Nominal Group: It is an organized group meeting for problem identification. Individuals take turns describing solutions to each other. Individual Activity Group Activity Individual Activity Team members receive description of problem Individuals silently write down possible solutions.

Establishing detailed steps.Griffin So that the leadership can be defined as a process that takes place in groups in which one member influences and controls the behaviour of the other members toward some common goal. motivate behaviour toward the achievement of those goals.S." . allocating resources 48 Leadership Establishing direction . Advantages • Graphical support for problem structuring. the set of characteristics attributed to individuals who are perceived to be leaders. "Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. who is a person accepted by others as a leader. Access may also be used for decisional purpose." Unit 7 Distinction between Management and Leadership Activity Creating an agenda Management Planning & Budgeting .Developing vision ." Robbins "Leadership is a process. as a property. voting or other analysis and prediction of values. the use of noncoercieve influence to shape the group's or organization' goals. and help define group or organization culture.Aryal decision making. Web based applications can also be used of offline software like o Excel. value and probability elicitation • Facilitate changes to models relatively easily • Sensitivity analyses can be easily conducted • Analysis of complex value and probability structures • Possibility to carry out analysis in distributed mode  Leadership Concept and Nature Leader is a person who can influence the behaviour of others without having to rely on force.

Aryal Developing a human network for achieving the agenda Executing plans Organizing and staffing . They habitually pick priorities stemming from their basic values. 49 . Deceptive behavior will not inspire trust. Effective leaders envision what they want and how to get it. By showing endurance in mental. Competent .Display sincerity. .Structure. Staffing.Display confidence in all that you do. and candor in all your actions. Forward-looking Set goals and have a vision of the future.Monitoring results vs plan.S. and spiritual stamina.Communication . bureaucratic and resource barriers Functions of Leadership a) Establishing direction : Giving the proper direction to the followers where determining the destination b) Aligning people: Keeping the followers within the control of leader c) Motivating and inspiring: Motivate them and try to be inspired by the leader d) Change management: Manage any type of organizational change convincing the followers. Delegating authority. The vision must be owned throughout the organization. Take charge when necessary. you will inspire others to reach for new heights.Energizing people to overcome major political. physical. creating trust to the management e) Coordination: Coordinate where necessary f) Determining goal: Determine both long and short-term goals and objectives to be achieved g) Representing organization: Manager represents on behalf of the organization. • Inspiring .Solving problem Aligning people . Do not make decisions based on childlike emotional desires or feelings.Creating teams Motivating and Inspiring . h) Making quick and rational decision: Leaders should be able to make immediate and rational decisions i) Environmental adaptation: Make the change according to the environmental change to adopt to it j) Communication: Effective communication to its stakeholders Traits of a Good Leader (Those popular traits illustrated by different writers) • • • Honesty . monitor and implement Controlling and Problem Solving .Influencing . integrity.Your actions should be based on reason and moral principles.

analyze the information for appropriate decision and to create vision. Be innovative. ability.S. Imaginative .Seek out diversity. high energy and persistent to achieve goal Desire to lead: Strong desire to influence and lead others Honesty : Trust by followers. These people were often from the upper classes. good looking. interpret. • • Broad-minded . Leadership Theories 1) Trait Theory of Leadership Trait theory assumes that some basic trait (character) or set of traits existed that differentiated leaders from non leaders. interests. • • Straightforward . good vocabulary. and solutions to problems. study. But if particular traits are key features of leadership. solving problems. as few from lower classes had the opportunity to lead. and methods. a) b) c) d) e) Drive: High effort. values. Display empathy by being sensitive to the feelings. Courageous . assertiveness. Those traits include intelligence. ideas. Decenzo and Robbins have mentioned six traits which differentiated leaders from non-leaders. Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born not made. f) Job relevant knowledge: The leader should exceed the job knowledge in technical as well as non-technical matters a) “Great Man” Theory of Leadership Early research on leadership was based on the study of people who were already great leaders. attractiveness.Make timely and appropriate changes in your thinking. and well-being of others.Use sound judgment to make good decisions at the right time. Fair-minded . This contributed to the idea that leadership had something to do with extraordinary things.Aryal • • Intelligent . self-confidence. Prejudice is the enemy of justice. Display a confident calmness when under stress. These theories often portray great leaders as 50 . plans. how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership. It emphasizes on 'leaders by born' It assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership.Have the perseverance to accomplish a goal.Read. regardless of the seemingly insurmountable obstacles.Show fair treatment to all people. commitment etc. and seek challenging assignments. Show creativity by thinking of new and better goals. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. honest in their words Self-confidence: can do approach for doing right things Intelligence: Intelligence skill to gather.

they are the very great man in organization and very difficult to find leaders everywhere 2) Behavioural Theory of Leadership (People can be trained to be leader) Opposing the views of Trait Theory. It concludes that leader is born and we can not make them since they need to act and behave highly differently than non-leaders. behavioural perspectives of leadership argues that leadership depends upon the individuals how they behave others. The term “Great Man” was used because. 51 . This was easy to verify. It tries to identify what leaders should do rather than what leaders do. Here is the five combinations as an example. especially in terms of military leadership. They developed 81 possible combinations for leading purpose. The followings are the theories under Behavioural Perspectives: i) Managerial Grid/Leadership Grid Style Industrial psychologists Blake and Mouton developed such styles consisting two dimensions: i) Concern for people: human aspect and ii) Concern for production: task aspects.S. mythic and intended to rise to leadership when needed. It claims that leadership is highly behavioural which can be trained/educated to the individuals.Aryal heroic. leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality. at the time. by pointing to people such as Jesus and Buddha.



Concern for people




Low Concern for production High

1.1 - Impoverished style: Little concern for production as well as people. They try to use of minimum effort to get wok done to be popular. 1.9 - Country club style: The leader focuses on people like, friendship at work, motivation and no priority is given for production. 9.1 - Task manager style: The autocratic style of leading in which the concern of managers will be on high production rather than people's needs and satisfaction. 9.9 - Team builder style: The most effective leadership in which manager focuses on high production through employee participation, motivation and commitment. 5.5 - Middle of roader style: The very safe style of leadership in which manager tries to balance the concern for production as well as people, the individual is compromiser. ii) Michigan Studies The researchers of University of Michigan which was led by Rensis Likert in 1940, concluded that there are two types of behaviours of the managers in the organization. a) Job-centered leader behaviour The behaviour of leader who pay close attention to the job and work procedures involved with that job. b) Employee-centered leader behaviour The behaviour of leaders who develop cohesive (unified) work group and ensuring employees' satisfaction, freedom and provide necessary assistance to their subordinates. iii) Ohio State Studies In late 1940's, Ohio State University of USA conducted the series of researches to seek the dimensions of leader behaviour. Finally they concluded the two behaviours described by their employees: a) Initiating Structure: It is the leadership behaviours to define and structure the role of leader to organize the work, maintaining working relationships and goal achievement. They focus on planning and controlling, standards and rules-regulations especially: assigning the task to particular members, maintaining definite standards of performance and emphasizing to meet the deadline.



b) Consideration: On the other hand, the consideration behaviour focuses on job relationships, mutual trust at work, respect for subordinate's ideas and always considers the feeling of followers. They show concern about the comfort, well-being, status and satisfaction of followers. The conclusion of Ohio State Studies is : High Initiation Structure and High Consideration (High-High Style) generally results positive outcomes but situational factors needed to be integrated to this theory.

3) Contingency Theory
Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation.

Fiedler's Model of Leadership
It is the first comprehensive contingency model of leadership developed by Fred Fiedler which proposes effective group performance depends on a proper match between a leader's style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader. Identifying Leadership Style According him, we need to identify the leadership style of the individual whether he/she focus on task or relationship. For this purpose, he developed a least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire. Defining the Situation After the identification of leadership style, we need to understand the situation or contingency dimensions which can be: a) Leader-member relations : confidence, trust, and respect to leader b) Task Structure: Job is structured or unstructured c) Position Power: Power of leader to influence like hiring, firing, discipline, promotion and salary increases



Matching Leader and Situations Fiedler developed the model as a finding of those two: LPC and three different situational variables and presented it as follows:
Task Oriented Relationship Oriented


Performanc e
I Favorabl II Good High Stron g



III Good Low Stron g

IV Goo d Low Wea k

V Poor High Stron g

VI Poor High Wea k

Leader-member relations Task structure Position power


VII VIII Unfavorable Poor Low Stron g Poor Low Wea k

Goo d High Wea k

Since his assumption is the fix of leadership style in individual, we have only two ways to improve the effectiveness in leadership; those are i) change the leader and ii) change the situation (relation, task structure and position power)

Unit 8



Communication is a process that allows people to exchange information by one of
several methods. There are auditory means, such as speaking or singing, and nonverbal, physical means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch or eye contact. "Communication is the process of transmitting information from one person to another." "Effective communication is the process of sending message in such a away that the message received is as close in meaning as possible to the message intended." - Griffin

Communication Structure
a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Sender and receiver Two way process Flow Channel Encoding and decoding Feedback Noise

The Communication Process
Message Sender Encoding Channels Noise Decoding Receiver


Types of communication
1. Formal and Informal Communication Formal communication
Communication through organization structure in which the message is being communicated through formal authorities. It can be vertical, horizontal, two-way, diagonal, upward, downward etc.

Informal communication

Informal communication may or may not follow official reporting relationships. It can be the followings : a) Grapevine An informal communication network suitable for large scale organization. i. Gossip chain : One person tells many ii. Cluster chain : One person passes information to the selected few individuals b) Management by wandering around

Formal one -on-one and group discussions .Letters . Some of the factors that cause this are defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us). and bias can be good as they allow us use our past experiences to understand something new.Freeman Teague. not fluently. etc. it is when they change the meaning of the message then they interfere with the communication process.Image . Message .Settings Barriers to Communication Nothing is so simple that it cannot be misunderstood.Notices. Also our preconceived attitudes affect our ability to listen. body language . background. Interpersonal and Non-verbal communication a) Interpersonal communication Process of transferring information between group members and among each others..We allow our past experiences to change the meaning of the message. we may dismiss the person.Fax . Our culture.Email/instant messages . background and bias .Body movements. Perception . Journals. rather than the other person can lead to confusion and conflict.If we feel the person is talking too fast. and ego (we feel we are the center of the activity).memos . .Focusing on ourselves.S. Oral communication .Facial expressions . Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to communication.Grapevine Written communication .Aryal Some managers keep in touch with what's going on by wandering around and talking with people 2.Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the idea. Physical contact. Our educational institutions reinforce this with tests and 56 .Tone . Ourselves . Bulletin etc b) Non-verbal communication Communication without using words .Equipment or environmental noise impede clear communication. Noise . does not articulate clearly. The sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being sent to each other.Speeches . Jr. We listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismiss those of low status. The "Me Generation" is out when it comes to effective communication. superiority (we feel we know more that the other). Many physical and psychological barriers exist: o o o o o Culture.

experiences. and goals. These barriers can be thought of as filters. Smothering .Aryal o o o questions. goes through the above filters. and is then heard by the receiver. unusual sights. the word chairman instead of chairperson may cause you to focus on the word and not the message.S. that is. For example. Not true! Too often we believe that certain information has no value to others or they are already aware of the facts. And the way to overcome filters is through active listening and feedback. values. an attractive person.People do not see things the same way when under stress. Environmental . Semantic distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer. Stress . These filters muffle the message. The following are the important points: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Filtering (manipulation of information) Selective perception of receivers Information overload Language Reluctance to communication Emotions Cultural barriers Politically correct communication Less Listening power Improving communication effectiveness (Overcoming barriers) Individual skills Develop good listening skills Encourage two-way communication Be aware of language and meaning Maintain credibility Be sensitive to receiver's perspective Be sensible to sender's perspective 57 .our beliefs. or any other stimulus provides a potential distraction. knowledge.Bright lights. the message leaves the sender.We take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic. What we see and believe at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames of references .

it is viewed that some conflicts are beneficial to the organizations. 58 . Traditionally. or is about to negatively affect. it viewed as a problem. group or Unit 9 "Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected. but in modern days. Robbins Conflict may be job-related or personal. simple or strong. It may be misunderstanding or miscommunication or real but inevitable element of interpersonal relationships in organizations." .Griffin individual.P. "Conflict is a disagreement between two or more organizations. principle or other matter. idea. All the conflicts are not harmful.Aryal Organizational skills Follow up Regulate information flows Understand the richness of media  Conflict Management Concept Conflict is a situation of disagreement to others view.S. short-lived or for months or even years. something that the first party cares about. It is the opposition in the decision or approach given by other employees." .S.

innovation and initiative and raise performance. As a result. noise in communication channels. Prejudice. interdependence creates conflict. Structure: Size of the organization. degree of specialization. Conflict and organizational performance Performance High Optimal level of conflict Low Low Conflict High If there is absolutely no conflict in the group or organization. disagreements. its members may become lazy with no competition in organization. misunderstanding. Interactionist view: The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effective ly. Communication: Distorted communication. The Conflict Process There are the five stages of conflict which is explained in the following figure. which lower performance. reward system. Potential Cognition and Intentions Behaviour Outcomes Personal Variables: The personality of individual may dislike by others and it creates incompatibility n Conflict-handling Increased differences. can spark motivation. In this stage. role and responsibilities.Aryal Thoughts of Conflict Traditional view: The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided Human relations view: The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. on the other hand. inadequate information are the source of conflict related to communication. structure or personal variables. the individual seeks for sources of conflict that can be of communication. Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility: This is an opportunity for creating conflict. creativity. group or organizational performance and innovation may subsequently begin to suffer. Too much conflict though can produce undesirable results such as hostility and lack of cooperation. A moderate level of conflict among group or organizational members. Perceived intentions group Antecedent conditions Communication Structure Personal variables Conflict Competing Collaborating Compromising Avoiding 59 Accommodating Over conflict Party's behaviour Other's reaction performanc e Decreased group performanc e opposition or personalizatio Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV Stage V Felt Conflict . diverse goals.S. style of leadership. authoritarian arises conflict.

fighting between group members. In this stage. Stage IV: Behaviour It is the visibility of conflict in which conflicting parties show the reactions and actions.Accommodating: Sacrificing your goal so that others can achieve their goal (to maintain relationship) .Compromising: Each party in a conflict give up something and solve problem. frustration or hostility Stage III: Intentions It is the decision to act in the given situation.Avoiding: Avoiding the conflicting parties/people . halt of functioning threaten for group survival etc. provides the medium through which problems can be raised and releasing tension and foster the environment for self-evaluation and change. Dysfunctional Outcomes: It is the destructive consequence of conflict that can be destruction of group. encourages interest and curiosity among group member. if the individual negatively affected. it mat increase or decrease the organizational performance.Aryal Stage II: Cognition and Personalization From the stage I.Collaborating: Intention of the parties to solve the problem by clarifying differences. cooperation and mutually beneficial outcome for all conflicting parties.Competing : A desire to satisfy one's interests. 60 . Person may act in different ways like: . ignoring the impact on the other party to the conflict . . Perceived Conflict: Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise Felt Conflict: Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety. it may perceived or felt as conflict and it is personalized. Functional Outcomes: Conflict can be highly constructible t when it improves the quality of decisions. the conflicting parties show certain behaviour and other react for this. reduction in group cohesiveness. This is the very important stage in which the individuals understand what the conflict is and emotions play a major role for reducing or increasing conflict. withdrawing or ignoring .S. stimulates creativity and innovation. Stage V: Outcome As a consequence of actions and reaction as behaviour of conflict. It focuses on majority decision and avoids the rubber-stamp of decision or group think. tenseness.

S.Conflict between the organizations because of competition . If two sub-units in an organizational system have differentiated goals and are functionally interdependent.Different department often have different goals. These activities are assigned to departments that often have mutually exclusive structured interests and goals among the departmental employees and they interact within a framework of scarce resources and task dependency. dislike one another . The outcome is "win/lose. attitudes .Great variety in goals. rewards or organizational resources and ambiguity or uncertainty in assigning tasks or rewards to different departments are Approaches to Conflict Management Conflict management is the technique of resolving or stimulating conflict so that desired level of conflict can be achieved. Major causes of departmental conflict: o o o o o Different attitudes between line and staff units Organizational size (directly related to level of conflict) and standardization (inversely related to conflict) physical or communicational barriers between departments unequal access to authority.Gender problem 2) Inter group conflict . Interpersonal Conflict Management Approach: 1. mutual cooperation and understanding but it also creates conflict. conflict should be expected. When resources are relatively fixed and when one department's gain is at the expense of another.Conflict between organization and its particular stakeholders Interdepartmental Conflict One of the major causes of organizational conflict is structural. This strategy results from a high concern for self-group's own interests with less concern for others. employee selection is the gain HR Department but the cost involved in the selection is expense for finance department. Interdependence produces the need for team work. For example. conditions exist for conflict. distrust each other's motives.Conflict between two or more organizational groups that may arise from organizational causes than interpersonal causes . different targets 3) Conflict between organization and environment ." This strategy 61 . Competing It is a desire to satisfy one's interests.Aryal Sources of Conflict 1) Interpersonal conflict .Personality clash. ignoring the impact on the other party to the conflict. Organizations are designed around product lines. regions or technical specialties. perception. also known as interdepartmental.

" This strategy is generally used when other issues are more pressing. or when there is not a best practice to be followed. 2. It is also used when confrontation has a high potential for damage or more information is needed.S." This strategy is generally used when concerns for others are important. the objective of collaboration is to reach consensus. When to use This approach should be employed in situations where there is not a clear concise agreed to solution. Sometimes referred to as the Confrontation approach. some partners may take advantage of the others' trust and openness. The outcome is "lose/win. Compromising Each party in a conflict give up something and solve problem. It is generally used when basic rights are at stake or to set a precedent. This approach helps build commitment and reduce bad feelings. The outcome is "win/win. 3. Structural Conflict Management Approach Approach Description Problem . Avoiding It is avoiding the conflicting parties/people." This strategy is generally used to achieve temporary solutions. his strategy results from a high concern for your group's own interests along with a moderate concern for the interests of other partners." This strategy is generally used when the issue is more important to others than to you. The drawbacks are that it takes time and energy. By assuring everyone's 62 . This results from a high concern for your group's own interests. to avoid destructive power struggles or when time pressures exist. It is also generally the best strategy when society's interest is at stake. withdrawing or ignoring. his results from a low concern for your group's own interests combined with a high concern for the interests of other partners. matched with a high concern for the interests of other partners. The outcome is "lose/lose. The drawbacks are that important decisions may be made by default. 4. it is also important that the conflicting parties both bring ideas and creativity to the problem. Accommodating Sacrificing your goal so that others can achieve their goal (to maintain relationship).The problem-solving approach involves Solving supporting the individuals involved in the conflict to help them consider all the options and find the best solution. 5. it can cause the conflict to escalate and losers may try to retaliate. The outcome is "win some/lose some. and there is time to allow the parties to collaborate and innovate. For this approach to work. Comprise Comprise involves working out a middle This approach should be employed in ground that satisfies all parties to some situations when both parties have a degree. These results from a low concern for self-group's own interests coupled with a low concern for the interests of others. The compromising approach valid but different approach to resolve requires each of the conflicting members to the problem or complete the task hand. However. In addition. Collaborating It is the intention of the parties to solve the problem by clarifying differences. Generally regarded as the best approach for managing conflict.Aryal includes most attempts at bargaining. accede in order to achieve a resolution. cooperation and mutually beneficial outcome for all conflicting parties.

it should not be used very often. Conduct basic training about: a. team to simply resolve the issue yourself. It time is a critical factor. Job roles don't conflict. d. written status reports and include: a. Interpersonal communications. 6. No tasks "fall in a crack". every month. but influence and powers within the project it does ensure that things get done. c. 7. or it can be used if the issue isn't relevant to the work of the project team. It is imperative is also called the win-lose approach and can that the project manager provides the increase conflict. b. Develop procedures for routine tasks and include the employees' input. Meet at least once a month alone with them in office. as project manager. using your approach doesn't solve the conflict. 4.Aryal Approach Description When to use perspective is considered and represented. Withdraw Withdrawal involves avoiding or retreating al from the conflict or potential conflict and allowing the involved parties to work out the conflict on their own. This involves you. or issues that are not critical to project success. Distribute the procedures. Regularly review job descriptions. this approach will allow a win-win situation to occur. The forcing approach desired resolution to the conflict. Have employees write procedures when possible and appropriate. Conflict management. b. Tips to Manage Structural Conflict 1. b. Accomplishments.S. Get employees' review of the procedures. 63 . 2. c. b. to communicate new initiatives and status of current programs. for example. c. Ask about accomplishments. Consider an anonymous suggestion box in which employees can provide suggestions. Plans for the upcoming period. 5. Get your employee's input to them. Train employees about the procedures. b. Ensure: a. a. The smoothing approach involves minimizing the importance of the problem at the heart of the conflict in an effort to make the conflict seem pointless. It can be a temporary solution to deal with heated and emotional conflicts. 3. Delegation. a. challenges and issues. Currents issues and needs from management. Smoothin Smoothing de-emphasizes the differences g between points of view and focuses on commonalities. The withdrawing approach involves giving in to the conflict by simply refusing to acknowledge that there is a problem and declining to discuss it. Regularly hold management meetings. Because this approach involves avoiding the problem. The forcing approach requires others to yield This approach should be used when to the point of view of one side or another. Forcing This approach is particularly useful for minor or unimportant issues. making a decision about the way to move forward. Get regular. Write down and date job descriptions. Intentionally build relationships with all subordinates.

S.Aryal  64 .

Needs . Healthy conflict can lead to. Public conflicts. 65 . but are not essential). Perceptions of problems. It can also originate from past rivalries and personality differences. like those that can occur during watershed management efforts and other environmental issues often are rooted in trying to balance environmental protection and economic growth and jobs.Values are beliefs or principles we consider to be very important.. Power . Those who benefit may not be the same as those who pay the costs.How people define and use power is an important influence on the number and types of conflicts that occur. The goal is for all to "win" by having at least some of their needs met. Conflicts also arise when one party refuses to accept the fact that the other party holds something as a value rather than a preference. Be careful not to confuse needs with desires (things we would like. that effective watershed management can result in both economic and environmental benefits. it can be healthy when effectively managed.People interpret reality differently. Speed of clean-up or other actions.Many people let their feelings and emotions become a major influence over how they deal with conflict. however. Some will want changes to take place more quickly than others. Conflicts arise when we ignore others' needs. Misperceptions or differing perceptions may come from: self-perceptions. Feelings and emotions . Other conflicts occur when feelings and emotions differ over a particular issue. Most of us have experience with conflict management and negotiation in private disputes (with a salesman. Perceptions . Conflicts can arise when people try to make others change their actions or to gain an unfair advantage. Keep in mind. In fact. Conflict is not always negative. our own needs or the group's needs. Some complicating factors include: Distribution of costs and benefits. What is conflict? Conflict is a natural disagreement resulting from individuals or groups that differ in attitudes. Other causes of conflict include trying to negotiate before the timing is right or before needed information is available.Needs are things that are essential to our well-being. People tend to blame others for causing the problem. it can be effectively managed by reaching a consensus that meets both the individual's and society's needs. beliefs. Values . This also influences how conflict is managed. They perceive differences in the severity. others' perceptions. How public and private conflicts differ. values or needs. The ingredients of conflict.Aryal Managing Conflict A Guide for Watershed Partnerships Understanding conflict. differing perceptions of situations and perceptions of threat. This results in mutual benefits and strengthens the relationship.. Conflicts can also occur because people ignore their own or others' feelings and emotions.S. Growth and innovation New ways of thinking Additional management options If the conflict is understood. causes and consequences of problems. among family members or with your employer). Serious conflicts arise when people hold incompatible values or when values are not clear.

The drawbacks are that it takes time and energy. The outcome is "lose/win. The outcome is "win some/lose some. 66 . you'll find it helpful to ask questions. In some cases it may be necessary to have a neutral facilitator to help move the groups toward consensus. These steps are: Analyze the conflict Determine management strategy Pre-negotiation Negotiation Post-negotiation Step 1: Analyze the conflict. it can cause the conflict to escalate and losers may try to retaliate. This approach helps build commitment and reduce bad feelings. It is generally used when basic rights are at stake or to set a precedent.The drawbacks are that your own ideas and concerns don't get attention. to avoid destructive power struggles or when time pressures exist.) Compromise . Step 2: Determine management strategy." This strategy includes most attempts at bargaining. the objective of collaboration is to reach consensus." This strategy is generally used to achieve temporary solutions. your partners or local media coverage. the groups involved will need to analyze and select the most appropriate strategy.Aryal Managing Conflict There are five steps to managing conflict. Additional information regarding analyzing conflicts can be found in the Guide to Information and Resources. You may want to actually interview some of the groups involved." It is also appropriate when you recognize that you are wrong. To do this. The drawbacks are that important decisions may be made by default.This strategy results from a high concern for your group's own interests along with a moderate concern for the interests of other partners. (See the Building Local Partnerships guide for more information about consensus. The outcome is "win/win.This results from a high concern for your group's own interests. However. You may also lose credibility and future influence. Generally regarded as the best approach for managing conflict. some partners may take advantage of the others' trust and openness. The outcome is "win/lose. The first step in managing conflict is to analyze the nature and type of conflict. Avoidance -This results from a low concern for your group's own interests coupled with a low concern for the interests of others. Once you have a general understanding of the conflict. Conflict Management Strategies Collaboration Compromise Competition Accommodation Avoidance Collaboration .This strategy results from a high concern for your group's own interests with less concern for others." This strategy is generally used when concerns for others are important.S. It is a "goodwill gesture. Answers may come from your own experience. Accommodation . This approach can also distract the partners from the merits of an issue and create a cynical climate.This results from a low concern for your group's own interests combined with a high concern for the interests of other partners. matched with a high concern for the interests of other partners. In addition." This strategy is generally used when the issue is more important to others than to you. It is also used when confrontation has a high potential for damage or more information is needed. Competition . One drawback is that partners can lose sight of important values and long-term objectives. It is also generally the best strategy when society's interest is at stake." This strategy is generally used when the issue is trivial or other issues are more pressing. The outcome is "lose/lose.

Key players must be identified and invited. They should agree on the objectives of the negotiation process. To set the stage for effective negotiation.Conditions must be right for negotiation to be successful. An agenda of issues to be covered needs to be developed. a trusted outsider could be brought in as a facilitator. Spokespersons for each group must be identified and involved. People must be contacted and encouraged to attend. The following should occur prior to negotiation.Aryal Conflict Analysis Exercise: Think of a controversial issue to analyze. if so. Each side must be willing to collaborate with the others. Assessment . Organization .S. Initiation .One partner raises the possibility of negotiation and begins the process. Groups involved Who are the groups involved? Who do they represent? How are they organized? What is their power base? Are the groups capable of working together? What are the historical relationships among the groups? Substance How did the conflict arise? How are the main and secondary issues described? Can negative issues be reframed positively? Are the issues negotiable? Have positions been taken and. If no one is willing to approach the others to encourage them to reach an agreement. the groundwork must be laid. This should include what is known and not known about social and technical issues. Parties need to determine which issues are negotiable and which are not. Minutes must be taken so that information can be distributed before and after meetings. On a separate sheet of paper. negotiation and decision making. answer these questions. including agreed upon times and places. are there common interests? What information is available and what other information is needed? What values or interests are challenged? Possible strategies Would consensus serve all interests? Are there external constraints or other influences that must be accommodated? What are the past experiences (if any) of the groups working together? What is the timeline for a decision? How will the public and the media be involved and informed? Will an outside negotiator be needed? Step 3: Pre-negotiation.Meeting logistics must be established. Ground rules and agenda .The groups must agree on ground rules for communication. Agreement is also needed on methods for generating answers to questions. Reasonable deadlines and sufficient resources to support the effort must exist. 67 .The groups must agree on what information is relevant to the conflict. Joint fact-finding .

rather than positions.Only after the partners have finished listing options. This helps ensure that agreements can be remembered and communicated clearly. Focus on interests. Implementation . renegotiate terms and celebrate success. remember you're dealing with people who have their own unique needs. Evaluation . Use objective criteria for ranking ideas Make trade-offs among different issues Combine different options to form acceptable agreements Step 5: Post-negotiation. Once negotiation is complete. Still another could be organizing a clean-up day. emotions and perceptions. Discuss and agree upon methods to ensure partners understand and honor their commitments. Identify and openly discuss differences in perceptions.When negotiating be sure to openly discuss interests. One might be the position of mandatory recycling.Every partner must be confident that the others will carry out their parts of the agreement. It helps for each party to put themselves into the other's shoes so they can understand each other's point of view. recognize and understand the other side's emotions as well as your own. being careful not to place blame. Encourage creativity. Separate people from the problem. Interests .. These conflicts may exist mainly in peoples' minds. not positions. 68 . When evaluating options. Focusing on interests. needs. Do not judge ideas or favor any of the options suggested. Satisfaction of interests should be the common goal. When negotiating. Interest vs. Options . Written agreement . Position People often confuse interests with positions. resolve problems. There are many possible ways of addressing this interest. document success. The partnership will need to have a plan to monitor progress. When negotiating. Negotiation is an important skill for coming to an agreement when conflicts develop at home.You and your partners' jobs are not done when you've reached agreement. they usually have a few shared interests.. Negotiation skills. Communication and collaboration should continue as the agreement is carried out.. Determine together which ideas are best for satisfying various interests.S.Aryal Step 4: Negotiation. not commitment. Some conflicts are based on differences in thinking and perceptions. makes it possible to come up with better agreements. concentrate on inventing options for satisfying interests. These organizations should be partners and should have been involved in the previous steps. Commitment . An interest may be reducing litter in roadside ditches. should the options be discussed. Another position might be a deposit on bottles and cans. the group will need to implement the decisions made. Each organization will need to follow its own procedures to review and adopt the agreement. Even when people stand on opposite positions. concerns and motivations underlying positions.To resolve conflicts. Some key steps include: Ratification .Document areas of agreement and disagreement to ensure common understanding. Interests include the reasons.The partners must get support for the agreement from organizations that have a role to play in the agreement. In addition.. at work and when dealing with issues like those related to watershed management. rather than stated positions.

Instead discuss them as you begin developing criteria for judging alternatives. try to meet as many of each side's interests as possible. Brainstorming is discussed in the Leading & Communicating guide. Developing objective criteria. Start by inviting all sides to brainstorm ideas (before reaching a decision). Strive for criteria that are legitimate. view the situation through the eyes of different partners. When developing optional solutions that meet the interests of all sides. 69 . economic well-being.S. When developing criteria for selecting or combining possible alternatives. Some obstacles to developing innovative options are: Judging and rejecting prematurely Searching for a single best answer Putting limits on scope or vision Considering only your own interests To overcome these obstacles. Partners will have multiple interests. Interests involving important human needs (such as security. recognition and control over one's life) are difficult to negotiate. Look for meaningful opportunities. not simple solutions. practical and unbiased. It helps to ask why others take the positions or make the decisions they do. a sense of belonging. Also keep in mind principles such as fairness. Groups may not even be clear about their own interests. Focus on shared interests to make the process smoother for all involved.Aryal It takes time and effort to identify interests. revisit the conflicting interests. It helps to write down each group's interests as they are discovered. These can't be ignored or "wished" away. Develop optional solutions. efficiency and scientific merit. You may also find it helps to explore the criteria used in making past decisions and discuss criteria with your partners or outside experts.

b. Conflict is a problem when it: 1.S. perspectives and opinions. 4. Copyright 1997-2008. 2. they aren't informed of new decisions. programs.Aryal Basics of Conflict Management Written by Carter McNamara. "Personal chemistry". including: 1. including conflicting values or actions among managers and employees. for example. for example: a. Causes inappropriate behaviors. including inconsistent. Conflict is not the same as discomfort. 3. Conflict is inevitable and often good. Discomfort from fear of the unknown or from lack of fulfillment. they aren't involved in decision-making. c. etc. storm. Within yourself when you're not living according to your values. As a result. 3. Types of Managerial Actions that Cause Workplace Conflicts 1. Leadership problems. Helps people "be real". Adapted from the Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision. The alignment or the amount of resources is insufficient. b. Energizes work to be on the most appropriate issues. MBA. Helps to raise and address problems. 3. it motivates them to is when conflict is poorly managed that is the problem. employees trust the "rumor mill" more than management. Lowers morale. norm and perform" period. 4. It: 1. Clarifying Confusion About Conflict Conflict is when two or more values. Authenticity Consulting. We often don't like in others what we don't like in ourselves. Employees don't understand reasons for decisions. for example. Helps people learn how to recognize and benefit from their differences. evidenced by: 70 . Disagreement about "who does what". Poor communications a. 2. perspectives and opinions are contradictory in nature and haven't been aligned or agreed about yet. too-strong or uninformed leadership (at any level in the organization). 2. Hampers productivity. 4. 2. Stress from working with inadequate resources. Conflict is often needed. Employees experience continuing surprises. good teams always go through a "form. Getting the most out of diversity means often-contradictory values. LLC. Causes more and continued conflicts. There is: a. b. When your values and perspectives are threatened. PhD. or 3. missing. The conflict isn't the problem . Strong personal natures don't match.

Regularly hold management meetings. in situations when you know that you will have another more useful approach in the very near future. for example. Have employees write procedures when possible and appropriate. b. b. written status reports and include: a. Delegation. Avoid it. Distribute the procedures. c. to communicate new initiatives and status of current programs. Use this approach very sparingly and infrequently. b. Usually this approach tends to worsen the conflict over time. Accomplishments. c. Consider an anonymous suggestion box in which employees can provide suggestions. Regularly review job descriptions. Conflict management. Key Managerial Actions / Structures to Minimize Conflicts 1. No tasks "fall in a crack". Conduct basic training about: a. a. Usually this approach tends to worsen the conflict over time. Ensure: a. challenges and issues. Intentionally build relationships with all subordinates. for example. Currents issues and needs from management. 4. Ways People Deal With Conflict There is no one best way to deal with conflict. Train employees about the procedures. Develop procedures for routine tasks and include the employees' input. Interpersonal communications. d. Accommodate it. Ask about accomplishments. 1. Meet at least once a month alone with them in office. 3. Pretend it is not there or ignore it. 6. Get employees' review of the procedures. sometimes to the extent that you compromise yourself.S. 7. b. "passing the buck" with little follow-through on decisions. c. 5. every month.Aryal a. Get regular. a. c. Supervisors don't understand the jobs of their subordinates. b. Here are the major ways that people use to deal with conflict. Plans for the upcoming period. a. b. Employees see the same continued issues in the workplace. Write down and date job descriptions. It depends on the current situation. Get your employee's input to them. and causes conflicts within yourself. a. 2. Job roles don't conflict. Give in to others. Use it when it simply is not worth the effort to argue. 71 . Avoiding conflict. 2.

"Core Process" 1. Know what you don't like about yourself.Aryal 3. This approach sometimes raises new mutual needs. 4. then manage yourself to stay calm by a. Pick at least one thing you can do about the conflict.this can be very effective! b."Core Process" It's often in the trying that we find solace. Talk to someone. Manage yourself. Mutual give-and-take. Focus on working together. Use when you have a very strong conviction about your position. Name the conflict. c. The following steps will help you in this regard. Writing your thoughts down to come to a conclusion. We often don't like in others what we don't want to see in ourselves. If you and/or the other person are getting heated up. Compromising.if there is no clear course of action. What's your role in this issue? 3.? c. or be least hurtful. Then take an action. a. b. Use when the goal is to get past the issue and move on. Avoid use of the word "you" . 72 . 1. Use when the goal is to cultivate ownership and commitment. Select an action . 5. write at least three pros and cons. For each course. Have in your own mind. 2. Consider: a. Be aware that these traits are your "hot buttons". a. a. b. To Manage a Conflict Within Yourself . or identify the issue. d. including asking them to help you summarize the conflict in 5 sentences or less. c.this avoids blaming. Consider: a. b. pick the alternative that will not hurt. early on in your career. a. b. Wait at least a day before you do anything about the conflict. Collaborating. to yourself and others. Work to get your way. Identify at least three courses of action. a date when you will act again if you see no clear improvement. b. To Manage a Conflict With Another . Speaking to the person as if the other person is not heated up . Use when the goal is to meet as many current needs as possible by using mutual resources. Write down 5 traits that really bug you when see them in others. a. Briefly discuss that course of action with a friend. etc. Competitors love accommodators. rather than clarifying and addressing the issue. Then do something. including what you want that you aren't getting. How important is this issue? b. not in getting the best solution. Get perspective by discussing the issue with your friend or by putting it down in writing. angry at something else. Competing. This gives you a cooling off period. a. 4. 2. Does the issue seem worse because you're tired.S.

Use "I". b. Thank the person for working with you. 11. if possible. Consider seeking a third party to mediate. Ask the other person if they will support the action. c. If they will not. Talk in terms of the present as much as possible. ask open-ended questions. To understand them more. then: a. When they are done speaking:} a. this time for them to verify that they are hearing you. 3. Ask the other person to let you rephrase (uninterrupted) what you are hearing from them to ensure you are hearing them. d. 4. b. not the person. a.Aryal c. c. Nod your head to assure them you heard them. Conclude if the other person's behavior conflicts with policies and procedures in the workplace and if so. Verify that you're accurately hearing each other. 5. too. Acknowledge where you disagree and where you agree. 8. If the situation remains a conflict. b. identify at least one action that can be done by one or both of you. Move the discussion to a private area. Avoid "why" questions those questions often make people feel defensive. 7. 6. Then ask the same question.S. Ask "What can we do fix the problem?" They will likely begin to complain again. present the issue to your supervisor. b. 73 . 10. When they are convinced that you understand them: a. not "you". When you present your position a. If possible. Repeat the above step. Consider whether to agree to disagree. then ask for a "cooling off period". Maintain eye contact with them. Don't interrupt them or judge what they are saying. Focus on actions they can do. 9. Work the issue. a. Give the other person time to vent. Mention your feelings.

Examples of organization-wide change might include a change in mission. Workforce diversity 4. new technologies.S.Aryal Organizational Change and Development Concept of Change Change means making things different.g. Effective change management entails creating a definitive vision and managing the transition to the desired future state. restructuring operations (e. Internal environment of the business (Explain yourself) Force 74 Examples . the concept of organizational change is in regard to organization-wide change.. Unit 10 Forces for Change Change and change is the basic feature of the organizations in today's dynamic world. modifying a program. which together are used to manage the people side of change. major collaborations. new programs such as Total Quality Management. The current definition of Change Management includes both organizational change management processes and individual change management models. as opposed to smaller changes such as adding a new person. mergers. A change entails realignment of organizational systems and processes. etc. There are the followings factors which enforce change: 1. Unwillingly. "rightsizing". Change Management is a structured approach to transitioning individuals. we need to change to cope to the new and changing environment. restructuring to self-managed teams. Social change 7. etc. reengineering. Globalization 3. teams. High Competition 6. Typically. and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. Those change can be either planned (intentional) or sometimes unplanned (unintentional). Fast changing technology 5. ). Managing change involves institutionalizing the philosophy of change in the organization. Organizational change is important to usher in long-term success in an organization. Dynamic business environment 2.

S. Individual sources (Individual resistance) Habit: To cope with life's complexities. They hear what they want to hear and they ignore information that challenges the world they have created.P.p. war and U. relationship with other countries Opening of makers in China War on terrorism following 9/11/01 Technology Economic shocks Competition Social trends World politics Source: S.S. But when confronted with change. cheaper and more mobile computers Online music sharing Deciphering of the human genetic code Rise and fall of dot-com stocks Stock market all time high Record GDP Global competitors Mergers and consolidations Growth of e-commerce Internet chat rooms Adaptation to other cultures Rise in discount and retailers Iraq-U. 2005 p. 525 Resistance to Change Organizational change is an enviable phenomenon in every enterprise. research has shown that people of the organization resists change. However.Aryal Nature of the workforce More cultural diversity Increasing number of women Many new entrants with knowledge and skills Faster. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity Fear of the unknown: Change substitutes ambiguity and uncertainty for the known Selective information processing: Individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance Security: People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety. Economic factors: Changes in job tasks or established work routine can arouse economic fears if people are concerned that they won't be able to perform the new tasks or routine to their previous standards. we rely on habits or programmed responses. Such resistance may severely interrupt the change process. The followings are the major forces for resistance to change. Robbins and Seema Sanghi.S. Organizational sources (Organizational resistance) 75 .

Effective communication about logics of change. Management should participate the individuals who may resist the change. increase their commitment and contribution to change process 3. 6. group norms may act as a constraints. Manipulation and Cooptation: Manipulation is a way of misinterpretation of the fact providing false information to the potential resisters so that they may appear soft and support the change. Twisting and distorting the reality and providing false information to get employees accept change can be done. management is compelled to coerce the employees for change. So. 2. Participation: If we are involved in change decisions. The purpose is not to consider their advice but get the endorsement. Negotiation: Negotiation can be taken place between the potential resisters and the organization if the resistance is from powerful individuals.S. presentations can be done for communication. It is the last step and if the step five (manipulation and cooptation) doesn't work. They can appoint a change agent and his or she facilitate the change through supporting the individuals 4. understanding and providing accurate information can help managing change. Coercion: It is the process of using force and threats on the resisters is coercion.Aryal Structural inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms like their section processes ad formalized regulations. They tend to be content with the way things are. 76 . Education and Communication: Before implementing change. limited changes in subsystems tend to be nullified by the larger system. Overcoming Barriers to Change The followings arte the six tactics of overcoming the resistance to change 1. Group inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. Different reward packages can be offered to those powerful individuals 5. Facilitation and Support: Organization needs to provide different facilities to the individuals who resist change. organization can provide necessary trainings and education about the new change. One can't be changed without affecting the others. this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability Limited focus of change: Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems. it is very less likely to resist the change. Discussion. When organization is confronted with produce stability. Cooptation is another process which uses the manipulation and participation providing the key role in decision making to the leader of potential resistance group. Threat to expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise if specialized groups Threat to established power relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationships within the organization Threat to established resource allocation: Groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. meetings.

attitudes. The follwoign are the facotors to be valued for oeganizational development efforts (Values of OD efforts) 1. Trust and support: The effective and healthy organization is characterized by trust.S. organization development (OD) is a complex strategy intended to change the beliefs. and challenges. The building blocks of the ADKAR Model include: 1. tactical action must be stronger than the resistance within the organisation in order for meaningful changes to occur. conscientious and caring. This model describes five required building blocks for change to be realized successfully on an individual level. managed from the top. Awareness – of why the change is needed Desire – to support and participate in the change Knowledge – of how to change Ability – to implement new skills and behaviors Reinforcement – to sustain the change Organizational Development Concept Organization development is the process through which an organization develops the internal capacity to most efficiently and effectively provide its mission work and to sustain itself over the long term. values. 3. they should be treated with dignity and respect 2. 2. that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employe well-being. organizational development (OD) is a collection of plannedchange intervntions. ADKAR The ADKAR model for individual change management was developed by Prosci with input from more than 1000 organizations from 59 countries. Robbins. 4. According to Warren Bennis. vision for the future and the possibility of immediate. According S. organization-wide. 5.P. This definition highlights the explicit connection between organizational development work and the achievement of organizational visionmission. built on humanistic-democratric values. using behavioural science knowledge. markets. to increase organization effectiveness and health. According to Richard Beckhard. OD is defined as: a planned effort. Respect for people: Individuals are perceived as being responsible. authenticity.Aryal Formula for Change A Formula for Change was developed by Richard Beckhard and David Gleicher and is sometimes referred to as Gleicher's Formula. The Formula illustrates that the combination of organisational dissatisfaction. and structure of organizations so that they can better adapt to new technologies. through planned interventions in the organization's 'processes'. openness and a supportive climate 3. Power equalization: Effective organizations deemphasize hierarchical authority and control 77 .

Confrontation: Problems should not be swept under rug. 2005. 4. they should be openly cont\fronted 5. Data Collection: It is the process of collecting necessary information about organizational climate and problems to identify performance gaps using interviews and questionnaire. 2.S.Aryal 4. Initial Diagnosis Data Collection Evaluation Feedback and Confrontation Action Planning Interventions Sensitivity Training Survey Feedback Process Consultation Team Building Inter-group development Appreciative Inquiry 3. Interventions: It is the process of implementing the change towards the development. (Source: S. 5. Such techniques are: 78 . the more they will be committed to implementing those decisions. Interventions are the techniques of OD for bringing the change.P. appropriate actions with alternatives are developed with potential consequences. With the consultation of experts. Action Planning: It is the specific plan with appropriate resource allocation. Initial Diagnosis: It is the process of identifying problems that requires to be solved with consultation of experts and also finds whether problems can be solved with OD intervention. Participation: The more that people who will be affected by a change are involved in the decisions surrounding that change. 532) Process and Prerequisites for Organizational Development Process for Organizational Development The followings are the processes for organizational development 1. Robbins. Feedback and confrontation: After the initial diagnosis and identifying solutions. The OD team is responsible to address those disagreements and defines the areas of priority for change. Confrontation takes place with disagreement. a summary of collected data is provided to employees for their feedback.

redesigning jobs. Survey Feedback: It is the process of using questionnaires to identify differences among members' perceptions. Team building: Work teams are formed to implement change process which will have high-interaction in group activities to increase trust and openness among team members.S. application and installment of modern technologies 6. Process Consultation: It is a process of consultation in which external consultant assists a client to understand process events with which he or she must deal and identify processes that need improvement. The consultant helps the client solving his or her own problems with best processes. Members brought together in a free and open environment in which participants discuss themselves and their interactive processes. In OD. The result of survey is discussed I groups to develop remedies. 79 . Others: Organizational restructuring: Process of overall change in organizational structure Technological changes: Modification of work methods. practitioners might work in a manner similar to "organizational physicians" intending to improve the effectiveness of people and organizations by: 1) Establishing relationships with key personnel in the organization (often called "entering" and "contracting" with the organization). further problems will be identified and considered as valuable feedback. which can then be built n to improve performance. Training and development activities can also be initiated to solve the major problems. Understanding and coordination will be developed among different group and make harmonious working environment. Appreciative Inquiry: Seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization. According to the results achieved and learning from past. It can be applied within groups at which activities arte interdependent Inter-group development: It is the process of changing the attitude. loosely directed by a professional behavioral scientist. It is a process of laboratory training in which participants learn by observing rather than saying which helps in dealing interpersonal problems. 3) Identifying approaches (or "interventions") to improve effectiveness of the organization and its people. stereotypes and perception of the group in each other. 2) Researching and evaluating systems in the organization to understand dysfunctions and/or goals of the systems in the organization ("diagnosing" the systems in the organization). Follow-up an Evaluation: Regular monitoring or change process is an important function to ensure the achievement of results.Aryal Sensitivity Training: It is a method of changing through unstructured group interaction.

Presence of change agent as a facilitator 3. Participation of competent and skillful external consultants/experts/ 5. 2. Successful past experience in OD 4. Built-in reward systems (Reward for contributions to change management) (Describe yourself)  80 .S.Aryal 4) Applying approaches to improve effectiveness (methods of "planned change" in the organization). Prerequisites for Organizational Development 1. 5) Evaluating the ongoing effectiveness of the approaches and their results. Commitment from Top Management: Strong emphasis and commitment of implementing change process.