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1 Welding Inspection

Non-Destructive Testing
TWI Training & Examination Services
Course Reference WIS 5 Course notes section reference 15

Non-Destructive Testing
A welding inspector should have a working knowledge of NDT methods and their applications, advantages and disadvantages.

Four basic NDT methods
• Magnetic particle inspection (MT) • Dye penetrant inspection (PT) • Radiographic inspection (RT) • Ultrasonic inspection (UT)

Non-Destructive Testing
Surface Crack Detection
• • Liquid Penetrant (PT or Dye-Penetrant) Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT or MPI)

Volumetric Inspection
• • Ultrasonics (UT) Radiography (RT)

Each technique has advantages & disadvantages with respect to: • Technical Capability and Cost

Note: The choice of NDT techniques is based on consideration of these advantages and disadvantages

Penetrant Testing (PT)

Penetrant Testing
Main features:
• Detection of surface breaking defects only. • This test method uses the forces of capillary action • Applicable on any material type, as long they are non porous. • Penetrants are available in many different types: • Water washable contrast • Solvent removable contrast • Water washable fluorescent • Solvent removable fluorescent • Post-emulsifiable fluorescent

Penetrant Testing Step 1. Pre-Cleaning Ensure surface is very Clean normally with the use of a solvent .

Penetrant Testing Step 2. Apply penetrant After the application. The penetrant enters any defects that may be present by capillary action. the penetrant is normally left on the components surface for approximately 15-20 minutes (dwell time). .

Clean off penetrant the penetrant is removed after sufficient penetration time (dwell time).Penetrant Testing Step 3. Care must be taken not to wash any penetrant out off any defects present .

a thin layer of developer is applied. . The developer acts as a contrast against the penetrant and allows for reverse capillary action to take place. Apply developer After the penetrant has be cleaned sufficiently.Penetrant Testing Step 3.

.Penetrant Testing Step 4. After full inspection has been carried out post cleaning is generally required. Inspection / development time Inspection should take place immediately after the developer has been applied. any defects present will show as a bleed out during development time.

Penetrant Testing Fluorescent Penetrant Bleed out viewed under a UV-A light source Bleed out viewed under white light Colour contrast Penetrant .

Penetrant Testing Advantages • • • • Simple to use Inexpensive Quick results Can be used on any nonporous material • Portability • Low operator skill required Disadvantages • Surface breaking defect only • little indication of depths • Penetrant may contaminate component • Surface preparation critical • Post cleaning required • Potentially hazardous chemicals • Can not test unlimited times • Temperature dependant .

health & safety issue .Penetrant Testing Comparison with Magnetic Particle Inspection ADVANTAGES •easy to interpret results •no power requirements •relatively little training required •can use on all materials DISADVANTAGES •good surface finish needed •relatively slow •chemicals .

Penetrant Testing Any Questions .

Magnetic Particle testing (MT) .

yoke.Magnetic Particle Testing Main features: • Surface and slight sub-surface detection • Relies on magnetization of component being tested • Only Ferro-magnetic materials can be tested • A magnetic field is introduced into a specimen being tested • Methods of applying a magnetic field. prods and flexible cables. • Fine particles of iron powder are applied to the test area • Any defect which interrupts the magnetic field. which attracts the particles • Any defect will show up as either a dark indication or in the case of fluorescent particles under UV-A light a green/yellow indication . will create a leakage field. permanent magnet.

Magnetic Particle Testing A crack like indication .

Magnetic Particle Testing Alternatively to contrast inks. These inks require a UV-A light source and a darkened viewing area to inspect the component . fluorescent inks may be used for greater sensitivity.

Magnetic Particle Testing Typical sequence of operations to inspect a weld • Clean area to be tested • Apply contrast paint • Apply magnetisism to the component • Apply ferro-magnetic ink to the component during magnatising • Iterpret the test area • Post clean and de-magnatise if required .

Magnetic Particle Testing Advantages • Simple to use • Inexpensive • Rapid results • Little surface preparation required • Possible to inspect through thin coatings Disadvantages • Surface or slight sub-surface detection only • Magnetic materials only • No indication of defects depths • Only suitable for linear defects • Detection is required in two directions .

Magnetic Particle Testing Comparison with Penetrant Testing ADVANTAGES • much quicker than PT • instant results • can detect near-surface imperfections (by current flow technique) • less surface preparation needed DISADVANTAGES • only suitable for ferromagnetic materials • electrical power for most techniques • may need to de-magnetise (machine components) .

Magnetic Particle Testing Any Questions .

Ultrasonic Testing (UT) .

Ultrasonic Testing Main Features: • Surface and sub-surface detection • This detection method uses high frequency sound waves. typically above 2MHz to pass through a material • A probe is used which contains a piezo electric crystal to transmit and receive ultrasonic pulses and display the signals on a cathode ray tube or digital display • The actual display relates to the time taken for the ultrasonic pulses to travel the distance to the interface and back • An interface could be the back of a plate material or a defect • For ultrasound to enter a material a couplant must be introduced between the probe and specimen .

Ultrasonic Testing Pulse echo signals A scan Display Digital UT Set. Compression probe checking the material Thickness .

Ultrasonic Testing initial pulse defect echo Back wall echo Material Thk defect 0 10 20 30 40 50 Compression Probe CRT Display .

Ultrasonic Testing UT Set A Scan Display Angle Probe .

Ultrasonic Testing initial pulse defect echo defect 0 10 20 30 40 50 ½ Skip CRT Display initial pulse defect echo defect 0 10 20 30 40 50 Full Skip CRT Display .

Ultrasonic Testing Advantages Rapid results Both surface and sub-surface detection Safe Capable of measuring the depth of defects May be battery powered Portable Disadvantages Trained and skilled operator required Requires high operator skill Good surface finish required Defect identification Couplant may contaminate No permanent record Calibration Required Ferritic Material (Mostly) .

Ultrasonic Testing Comparison with Radiography ADVANTAGES •good for planar defects •good for thick sections •instant results •can use on complex joints •can automate •very portable •no safety problems (‘parallel’ working is possible) •low capital & running costs .

g. castings) • Ferritic Materials (with standard equipment) ..Ultrasonic Testing Comparison with Radiography DISADVANTAGES • no permanent record (with standard equipment) • not suitable for very thin joints <8mm • reliant on operator interpretation • not good for sizing Porosity • good/smooth surface profile needed • not suitable for coarse grain materials (e.

Ultrasonic Testing Any Questions .

Radiographic Testing (RT) .

non-metals and composites • • • .Radiographic Testing The principles of radiography • • X or Gamma radiation is imposed upon a test object Radiation is transmitted to varying degrees dependant upon the density of the material through which it is travelling Thinner areas and materials of a less density show as darker areas on the radiograph Thicker areas and materials of a greater density show as lighter areas on a radiograph Applicable to metals.

Radiographic Testing X – Rays Electrically generated Gamma Rays Generated by the decay of unstable atoms .

Radiographic Testing Source Radiation beam Image quality indicator 10fe16 Radiographic film Test specimen .

Radiographic Testing Source Radiation beam 10fe16 Image quality indicator Radiographic film with latent image after exposure 10fe16 Test specimen .

relates to the overall quality of the radiograph .relates to the degree of difference Definition .relates to the degree of sharpness Sensitivity .Radiographic Testing Density .relates to the degree of darkness Densitometer Contrast .

Radiographic Sensitivity 7FE12 Step / Hole type IQI Wire type IQI .

Radiographic Sensitivity Step/Hole Type IQI Wire Type IQI .

Radiographic Techniques Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) • film inside. source outside (elliptical exposure) . source outside (external exposure) Double Wall Double Image (DWDI) • film outside. source inside (internal exposure) Double Wall Single Image (DWSI) • film outside. source outside Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) panoramic • film outside.

Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) Film Film IQI’s should be placed source side .

Single Wall Single Image Panoramic Film • IQI’s are placed on the film side • Source inside film outside (single exposure) .

Double Wall Single Image (DWSI) Film • IQI’s are placed on the film side • Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) • This technique is intended for pipe diameters over 100mm .

Double Wall Single Image (DWSI) • Identification • Unique identification EN W10 • IQI placing • Pitch marks indicating readable film length A ID MR11 B Radiograph .

Double Wall Single Image (DWSI) Radiograph .

Double Wall Double Image (DWDI) Film • IQI’s are placed on the source or film side • Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) • A minimum of two exposures • This technique is intended for pipe diameters less than 100mm .

Double Wall Double Image (DWDI) • Identification • Unique identification • IQI placing • Pitch marks indicating readable film length 4 EN W10 3 1 ID MR12 2 Shot A Radiograph .

Double Wall Double Image (DWDI) 4 3 1 2 Elliptical Radiograph .

Radiography PENETRATING POWER Question: What determines the penetrating power of an X-ray ? •the kilo-voltage applied (between anode & cathode) Question: What determines the penetrating power of a gamma ray ? •the type of isotope (the wavelength of the gamma rays) .

Radiography GAMMA SOURCES Isotope • Iridium 192 • Cobalt 60 • Ytterbium • Thulium • Caesium Typical Thickness Range 10 to 50 mm (mostly used) > 50 mm < 10 mm < 10 mm < 10 mm .

Radiographic Testing Advantages • Permanent record • Little surface preparation • Defect identification • No material type limitation • Not so reliant upon operator skill • Thin materials Disadvantages • Expensive consumables • Bulky equipment • Harmful radiation • Defect require significant depth in relation to the radiation beam (not good for planar defects) • Slow results • Very little indication of depths • Access to both sides required .

Radiographic Testing Comparison with Ultrasonic Examination ADVANTAGES good for non-planar defects good for thin sections gives permanent record easier for 2nd party interpretation can use on all material types high productivity direct image of imperfections .

Radiographic Testing Comparison with Ultrasonic Examination DISADVANTAGES • health & safety hazard • not good for thick sections • high capital and relatively high running costs • not good for planar defects • X-ray sets not very portable • requires access to both sides of weld • frequent replacement of gamma source needed (half life) .

Radiographic Testing Any Questions .

QU 4. QU 3. Name four NDT methods QU 2. . State the two radiation types used in industrial radiography and state advantages of each. QU 5 State the main limitations of dye penetrant inspection.Questions Non-Destructive Testing QU 1. Give the advantages and disadvantages of radiography and conventional ultrasonic inspection. Give the main disadvantages of magnetic particle inspection and give at least three methods to magnetise a component.