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A REVIEW GUIDE IN POLICE PLANS AND OPERATIONS : A REVIEW GUIDE IN POLICE PLANS AND OPERATIONS By WILFREDO R.

BERALDE & MELCON S. LAPINA SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING : SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING Police, fire and jail operations demand the utmost skill and careful planning in order to insure the accomplishment of the police objectives and mission. Planning may mean any of the following: Slide 3: The process of combining all aspects of public safety activity and the realistic anticipation of the future problems; the analysis of strategy and the correlation of strategy to detail; The use of rational design or pattern for all the public safety undertakings; and Slide 4: The act of determining policies and guidelines for police/fire/jail activities and operations and providing controls and safeguards for such activities and operation in the public safety services. AIMS OF POLICE STRATEGY AND TACTICS: : AIMS OF POLICE STRATEGY AND TACTICS: The attainment of police objectives with the maximum of success. The attainment of police design with minimum of effort. The lessening of risk in police operations. The coordination of various police elements in the undertaking of joint task for operation. Slide 6: The reduction of friction and misunderstanding between the police and the public. The attainment of basic police purpose in the enforcement of laws. The attainment of total police effectiveness through the integration of physical, scientific, technical and psychological processes. IMPORTANCE OF POLICE STRATEGY : 1. Controlling of mobs and crowds 2. Handling of prisoners and suspects 3. Police raids on buildings and places 4. The capture of barricaded criminal hideouts 5. The quelling of prison riots 6. The handling of parades and demonstration 7. Police actions in civil defense 8. Responding to bank robbery alarm 9. The technique of riot control 10. Mobile and foot patrol 11. Actions during disasters and calamities 12. The control and regulations of traffic 13. Protective securities to VIPs and dignitaries 14. Action during labor strikes 15. Surveillance and undercover works. NATURE OF PLANNING : Planning is an important and never-ending process of administration; particularly in the concept of public safety. Its importance cannot be minimized even in the local police command, and a commander who ignores it, does so at substantial peril. In a very simple sense, planning is deciding in advance on what is to be done and how it is to be accomplished. It is in essence, preparations for actions. NATURE OF PLANNING Slide 10: In order to insure the accomplishment of the of the public safety objectives and mission, its components such as the police, fire and jail operations must adopt the utmost skill and careful planning. Planning is the key to administrative process which may mean any of the following:

This requires a clear definition of work to be done. For maximum effectiveness. Slide 16: Specifically. He/She shall be responsible for PLANNING. he/she shall be responsible for the technical operation of the unit and the management of its personnel. coordinating. . TYPES OF PLANS : TYPES OF PLANS To formally achieve the administrative planning responsibility within the unit. directing. DIRECTING. and providing controls and safeguards for such activities and operations in the public safety services. the commander shall develop plans relating to: 1. 3. staffing. Tactics Operations 3. he/she shall be responsible for the technical operation of the unit and the management of its personnel. reporting and budgeting for the aforementioned unit within existing policies and available resources. Slide 14: For maximum effectiveness. Extra-office Activities 4. touring beat. This is intended to be used in all situations of all kinds. Slide 21: The use of physical force and clubs. arrests. teargas. and how well it is to be done. COORDINATING. and the like. Management POLICY OR PROCEDURAL PLAN : POLICY OR PROCEDURAL PLAN Standard operating procedure shall be planned to guide members in routine field operations and in some special operations in accordance with the following procedures: Slide 20: Field Procedures. RESPONSIBILITY IN PLANNING : Broad policy planning shall be the responsibility of the Director-General of the PNP. Establishing internal operational policies to achieve the objectives and mission of his/her department in his/her particular unit. stopping suspicious looking person. organizing. and how well it is to be done. Policies or Procedures 2. is a COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY of all commanders concerned. investigation of crimes and similar activities. Broad Policy Planning is the command responsibility of the Director-General. the commander at each level or command shall have the command responsibility of the following: 1. who are to do it. The commander at each level or command. STAFFING. PLANNING as the key to administrative process. Slide 15: In effect. who will do it. receiving complaints. while in the local command planning is the command responsibility of the respective local commanders. CONTROLLING. shall also be outlined. controlling. This relate to reporting. The use of rational design or pattern for all the public safety undertakings. In the concept of the PNP. Slide 17: 2. which shall be outlined to guide officers and men in the field. restraining devices. REPORTING and BUDGETING for the aforementioned unit within existing policies and available resources. in dealing with groups or individual. shall be responsible for establishing internal operational policies to achieve the objectives and missions of the police in his/her own unit. Slide 13: This requires a clear definition of work to be done. Planning. dispatching to raids. however.Slide 11: The process of combining all aspects of the public safety activity and the realistic anticipation of the future problems. ORGANIZING. the analysis of strategy and correlation of strategy to detail. firearms.

and other similar devices Slide 23: Special Operating Procedures. Slide 27: These plans shall also assure suitable supervision. Assignment of officers and men to divisions shall be on the need and on the basis of specialty and interest. the force must be distributed among the shifts and territorially among beats in proportion to the needs of the service. which are regular operating program of the division. Plans shall be made to . the result of intermittent and usually unexpected variations in activities that demand attention. Slide 28: Specialized assignment shall be worked out for the detective and juvenile divisions to provide approximately equal work loads. which becomes difficult when the regular assignment is interrupted to deal with these short time periodic needs. which may be reflected in the duty manual. EXTRA OFFICE PLANS : EXTRA OFFICE PLANS The active interest and participation of individual citizen is so vital to the success of the integrated police programs that the police shall continuously seek to motivate. To be included in these procedures are the duties of the dispatcher. The operating units shall have specific plans to meet current needs. public education and engineering. Certain special operations also necessitate the preparation of procedures as guides. Slide 30: Those designed to meet unusual needs.Slide 22: Headquarters Procedures. fire and juvenile control divisions. and operational plans to eliminate certain delinquency-inducing factors in the community. a sudden upsurge of robberies may result in caseload beyond the capacity of the detective assigned. matron. year-round needs. However. Slide 29: Special program shall be developed to meet particular needs in each field of activity. Slide 31: For example. it shall be established separately as in the case of using telephone for local/long distance. detectives. Some of these cases may be assigned to other detectives less at work. This is MEETING THE UNUSUAL NEEDS. For example a patrol activity must be planned. jailer. It also involves coordinated action on activity of several offices. TACTICAL PLANS : TACTICAL PLANS These are plans for operations of special divisions like the patrol. namely: Slide 26: Those designed to meet everyday. The manpower shall be distributed throughout the hours of operation and throughout the area of jurisdiction in proportion to need. Operational plans shall be prepared to accomplish each of the primary police tasks. Slide 25: Likewise. on crime prevention. Plans for operations of special division consist of two types. juvenile and vice control. The unusual needs may arise in any field of police activity and are nearly always met in the detective. campaign must be planned and assignments be made to assure the accomplishment of the police purpose in meeting both average and irregular needs. The juvenile division needs program designed to make better citizens of delinquent and predelinquent children. promote and maintain an active public concern in its affairs. traffic. taking into consideration variations in the importance of cases and the average time required to investigate them. and traffic. the radio teletype. special details must be planned to meet unexpected needs and so on. and other personnel concerned. This is known as REGULAR OPERATING PROGRAM. the traffic division needs program of enforcement. For example. vice and juvenile divisions by temporary readjustment of regular assignment.

it shall be accompanied by a duty manual. For the organization to be meaningful. Present and future money needs for personnel. Slide 36: ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES. general duties of the various units. In the series of robberies. Slide 33: The organizations may call safety councils for crime and delinquency prevention. other government officials. STEPS IN PLANNING : STEPS IN PLANNING The following steps provide an orderly means of development of plans: Slide 42: FRAME OF REFERENCE. provided the same shall not be in conflict with the manual. organization of rank.organize the community to assist in the accomplishment of objectives in the field of traffic control. organized crime. and purchasing procedures shall likewise be established to ensure the checking of deliveries against specifications of orders. and the like. This calls for the identification of the problem. Specifications shall be drawn for equipment and supplies. This shall be based on a careful view of the matters relating to the situation for which plans are being developed. and plans for supporting budget requests must be made if needed appropriations are to be obtained. and juvenile delinquency prevention. Slide 38: PERSONNEL. Slide 44: COLLECTING ALL PERTINENT FACTS. suspects. which shall define relationship between the component units in terms of specific responsibilities. types of victims. equipment and capital investments must be estimated. Slide 37: SPECIFICATION AND PURCHASING PROCEDURES. A basic plan of the command/unit shall be made/posted for the guidance of the force. Slide 40: The duty manual shall incorporate rules and regulations and shall contain the following: definition of terms. No attempt shall be made to develop a plan until all facts relating to it have been gathered. and such other . Organization and operating plans for civil defense shall also be prepared or used in case of emergency or war in coordination with the office of the Civil Defense. and other professional shall be considered. A situation must exist for which something must and can be done. all cases on files shall be carefully reviewed to determine the modus operandi. Accounting procedures shall be established and expenditures reports shall also be provided to assist in making administrative decisions and in holding expenditures within the appropriations. understanding both its record and its possible solution. Slide 39: ORGANIZATION. Procedures shall be established to assure the carrying out of personnel program and allocation of personnel among the component organizational units in proportion to need. such as the following: Slide 35: BUDGET PLANNING. Opinions or ideas of persons who may speak with authority on the subject and views of the police commander. Plans and specifications shall be drafted for new buildings and for remodeling old ones. Slide 43: CLARIFYING THE PROBLEMS. MANAGEMENT PLANS : MANAGEMENT PLANS Plans of management shall map out in advance all operations involved in the organization management or personnel and material and in the procurement and disbursement of money.

which phase was poorly implemented. The general emphasis of police planning therefore is identical. Facts relating to such matters as availability.information as may be necessary. that industry whose ultimate objective is to improve efficiency and effectiveness of the current operations in law enforcement and public safety. and whether additional planning may be necessary. After all data have been gathered a careful analysis and evaluation shall be made. every problem in law enforcement and public safety leads itself to a thorough and systematic analysis of the process of planning. directness and clarity Flexibility Possibility of attainment Provisions for standards of operation Economy in terms of resources needed for implementation. In the initial phases of plan development. A plan to be effectively carried out. This provides the basis from which plan or plans are evolved. A careful consideration of all facts usually leads to the selection of the “best” of alternative proposals. the establishment of a schedule. CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANS : CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANS Effective plans have certain identifiable characteristics such as the following: Slide 55: Clearly defined objective or goals Simplicity. must be accepted by the persons concerned at the appropriate level of the plan’s development. if not similar to. This is necessary in order to know whether a correct alternative was chosen. Slide 50: EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PLAN. and the provisions of manpower and equipment for carrying out the plan. As the alternative solutions are evaluated. one of the proposed plans shall usually prove more logical than the others. Slide 47: SELECTING THE MOST APPROPRIATE ALTERNATIVES. Slide 49: ARRANGING FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE PLAN. Slide 53: This is in consonance with the broad goals of RA 6975. Slide 51: Virtually. The execution of a plan requires the issuance of orders and detectives to units and personnel concerned. . Slide 46: DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE PLANS. The result of the plan shall be determined. and Anticipated effect or effects on future operations. The said process of planning was clearly discussed in the STEPS IN PLANNING from Frame of Reference up to Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Plan. Slide 45: ANALYZING THE FACTS. deployment and use of personnel shall be gathered. Slide 52: These aforementioned STEPS IN PLANNING would result in an orderly means for development of plans. which is to conserve manpower and budget and to provide better law enforcement and public safety – managerial efficiency has been the by-word. Slide 48: SELLING THE PLAN. several alternative measures shall appear to be logically comparable to the needs of the situation. whether or not the plan was correct. Only such facts as may have relevance shall be considered.

These tasks shall assist and effectively support both the primary and secondary tasks in the attainment of their objectives. the public safety services tasks shall be specifically assigned and each member must know his particular duties and functions. the preservation of peace. property. budgeting. The primary or line operation tasks shall include patrol. Timeliness requires a commander to be able to exploit the sources involved in time to be of use to requiring his command responsibility. Slide 58: EXECUTION OF PLANS. crime laboratory. The following are the PRIMARY OR LINE OPERATION TASKS. The administrative or managerial tasks shall include personnel. Slide 65: FIELD OPERATIONS. and Coordination and cooperation with other law enforcement agencies Slide 61: To achieve the foregoing objectives. Once plans are made. Functions or Tasks shall be categorized into: Slide 62: Primary. The patrol force shall accomplish the primary responsibility of safeguarding the community through the protection of life and property. vice and juvenile control. Slide 66: PATROL. Slide 63: Secondary.Slide 56: The identifiable characteristics of effective plans as enumerated in this section serve only as guide post for a commander to adopt and develop. training and public relations. These tasks shall assist and effectively support the primary task in the accomplishment of the objective. jail. transportation and communication. traffic. the enforcement of laws and ordinances and regulations of conduct. Slide 57: The effectiveness of planning likewise depends to a degree of or on the timeliness of the plan and on strategy used for implementation. Plans to be used must be timely. intelligence. investigation. Auxiliary or service tasks shall include records. Slide 64: Administrative. The success of any plan lies in the success of its implementation. and performing necessary services and inspection. Operations on the public safety force shall be directed by the chiefs or commander to attain the following objectives: Slide 59: Protection of lives and property Preservation of the peace and order Prevention of crimes Repression and suppression of criminality Apprehension of criminals Slide 60: Enforcement of laws and ordinances and regulations of conduct Safeguarding of public health and moral Prompt execution of criminal writs and processes of the court. planning. Accomplishment of these primary tasks shall achieve the main objective of the PNP. the suppression of criminal activities and apprehension of criminals. Operations in the field shall be directed by the police commander and the subordinate commanders and the same shall be aimed at the accomplishment of the following primary tasks effectively and economically. same shall be put into operation and the result thereof evaluated accordingly. inspection. . the prevention of crime. A good plan poorly executed is as ineffective as a poor plan.

Slide 70: INVESTIGATION. motorists and pedestrians shall be trained in satisfactory movement habits. and all cases of murder. and parking of vehicles must be lessened. Slide 76: The PNP have three (3) tools to aid them in traffic control. vice and juvenile units. stopping. they are: Slide 74: Causes of accident and congestion shall be discovered. Traffic Education. Slide 68: The proportional strength of the patrol force and the special units like investigation. it shall perform all the primary. It shall be responsible also for the investigation of non-criminal activities. Causes shall be remedied. and legislation shall be enacted to regulate drivers and pedestrians. and in small police stations/sub-stations having no specialization. and matters wherein an investigation would be beneficial to the public welfare. Slide 71: To this end. The patrol force being the backbone of the police service. Slide 69: If a special unit is created. Slide 73: TRAFFIC CONTROL. changes shall be made in physical conditions that create hazards. The basic purpose of investigation of detective bureau shall be to investigate certain designated serious crimes and clear them by the recovery of stolen property and the arrest and conviction of the perpetrators. the inconvenience. Police control of streets or highways vehicles and peoples shall facilitate the safe and rapid movements of vehicles and pedestrians. shall depend on the services performed by each. and 3. shall be responsible for the accomplishment of the TOTAL POLICE JOB. theft and other grave offenses. the above-mentioned are the: 1. it shall not be subordinated to any other police unit in force. A patrol force or unit is the nucleus of the police organization about which the special services are grouped. including missing person. Slide 72: The investigation division shall also be responsible for the investigation of felonies and misdemeanors which have not been cleared by arrest or some other means and which come within their jurisdiction. secondary and administrative tasks. robbery. Traffic Enforcement . Slide 75: The public shall be educated in the provisions of traffic and ordinances. homicide. and which task shall be assigned as joint responsibility. Summarily. To this end. The police shall initiate action and coordinate the efforts of the agencies that are also concerned in these activities. delays. it must be decided which task shall be taken from patrol.Slide 67: Policing shall be considered a patrol service with specialized activities developed as aids. Traffic Engineering 2. traffic and vice and juvenile units. facts gathered and analyzed for this purpose. by enforcement. which tasks shall remain in the exclusive responsibility of the patrol. and compliance with regulation shall be obtained if need be. dangers and economic losses that arise from these movement congestion. and therefore. to be made the exclusive responsibility of said special unit. Control of traffic shall be accomplished in three steps. the investigation division shall supervise the investigation made by patrol officer and undertake additional investigations as may be necessary of all felonies. except those types that are assigned by department regulations to the traffic.

property. budgeting. focus the attention. Slide 80: In determining the role which the police shall play in this endeavor. theft and public disturbance. the police shall obtain support and assistance by harnessing all community resources to the tasks such as the facilities of health and guidance clinics. and the help of teachers. crime laboratory. planning. money. 3. Methods. to inventory and evaluate community social-welfare activities directly or indirectly related to the prevention of criminality. 4. materials. Slide 82: The police shall enlist the aid. Slide 78: A primary interest in vice control results from the close coordination between vice and criminal activities. It shall determine stand of the police service in the control of vices. and public relations must likewise support the line units. Effective crime control necessitates preventing the development of individual as criminals. ministers and laymen. coordinated and controlled. psychiatrist and psychologist. Slide 85: In a sense. otherwise known as the 5Ms of Police Management. transportation and communication must be made to support the line units. as they attempt to eliminate robbery. the professional skills of physicians. The police commander shall recognize a need for preventing crime or correcting conditions that induce criminality and by rehabilitating the delinquent. methods and machines. inspection. Machine DEFINITIONS OF TERMS COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN POLICE PLANNING : DEFINITIONS OF TERMS COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN POLICE PLANNING POLICE OPERATION – the act of carrying out pre-conceived measure in a regular movement . The following are to wit: 1. and intensive operations shall be directed toward their elimination. and coordinate the activities of every agency and ground in the community which services may assist in the accomplishment of the delinquency prevention program. intelligence. shall be properly marshalled. Money. Slide 81: In carrying out this program. Constant raids of known vice dens shall be undertaken. Manpower. Slide 84: The SECONDARY AND AUXILIARY or service police tasks such as records. to treat vice offenses as they shall do to any violation. utilized. Materials. and exert efforts to eliminate them. the commander shall study the causes of delinquency and the means of their elimination or correction. jail. Section 10 enumerates the resources of the Philippine National Police (PNP). the resources of the PNP such as manpower. Slide 83: AUXILIARY AND ADMINISTRATIVE TASKS. and to discover by analysis delinquency prevention tasks that are best suited to perform. In order for police operations to succeed. training. Control of vice shall be based on law rather than on moral precept. Slide 79: JUVENILE DELINQUENCY CONTROL.Slide 77: VICE CONTROL. Field units shall be amply and ably supported by the auxiliary and administrative bureaus in their operations. the managerial tasks of personnel staffing. 2. In like manner. and 5.

Slide 96: FRAGMENTATION BOMB – are intended against military personnel in the battle field. dams and large concrete buildings. This is used when the crowd is small enough which do not require more than a squad. canal docks. The purpose of this movement is to move away the crowd from a wall or a building. This action may be formed by a unit of any size. Demolition Bombs are also known as ARMOUR PIERCING BOMBS as they are constructed as to penetrate battle ditch. combat tanks and reinforced concrete or steel buildings. or situation and their accomplishment which involves leadership. Slide 94: CIVIL DEFENSE – the joint endeavor of the civilian population of the country to survive the effect of war. This is commonly used in splitting the crowd in order to apprehend the ring leader. A MOB’s characteristic is its hostile activity. it is the responsibility of every person in the country to prevent and minimize the damage which the enemy can cause upon civilian population. The reserves who are not engage in any squad or section movement should be drawn up in a skirmish line in the immediate rear of the action. Slide 88: STRATEGY – a plan. wedge diagonal is more appropriate. coordination and integration. . Slide 95: Republic Act 1190 – known as the CIVIL DEFENSE Law which took effect on August 18. In the event the crowd is large. This is the law that provide for the creation of a Central National Defense Administration in the country. 1954. Slide 90: MOB – defined as an active and hostile crowd. civilian concentration and common targets. It is the normal offensive formation with diagonal primarily adjunct thereto. initiatives. aims. Slide 87: POLICE STRATEGY AND TACTICS – consists of plans and procedures adopted by the police for the attainment of operational objectives. Slide 91: WEDGE FORMATION – a formation composed of a squad or platoon. Slide 97: GENERAL PURPOSE BOMB – are intended against ordinary buildings. Squad diagonal may be formed by a platoon or by a unit of any size. device or scheme for the purpose of carrying out some design or purpose of gaining some advantage in a conflict for police operation. While the armed forces are engaged in fighting the enemy in the field. group action.by managing people in a situation to the advantage of a given mission in particular and of the good of the community in general. purposes. Slide 92: SQUAD DIAGONAL – used in dealing with small groups. Slide 98: DEMOLITION BOMB – are intended for special target of great size and strength like massive bridges. Slide 93: DEPLOYED LINE – strictly a defensive formation and will be used in cases the police have drawn fire or gained the objective and wish to hold it. or to sweep the street with crowd. Slide 89: TACTICS – the method or procedure adopted to carry out a plan to attain a police purpose.

This is a non-fatal gas. and the liquid form causes terrible burns and blisters on the skin penetrating ordinary clothing even leather jackets and shoes. Slide 101: RESPIRATORY IRRITANT GAS – are made from arsenic compound and produce pain in the nose through respiratory passages followed by nausea and vomiting. money or other personal property. Slide 106: RAID – a sudden attack or invasion of a building or small locality to effect an arrest. It passes through the blood stream and performs systematic action resulting in the paralysis of the nervous system. like food. to secure evidence of illegal activity. and are therefore none persistent. is aimed principally at the expression or emotion or attitude. Personality Types of Mobs : Personality Types of Mobs IMPULSIVE INDIVIDUAL – that member of restive crowd that has not yet erupted into a mob who initiates the first impulsive or violent act which sets off sufficient crowd’s participation to form a mob. aimed at the destruction of persons or property. Slide 112: CAUTIOUS INDIVIDUAL – that person who is not impulsive enough to initiate violence but is completely susceptible to influence by the violent acts of the impulsive individual. . It is considered the most deadly among gases. Slide 105: STATE OF EMERGENCY – State of Emergency may be proclaimed by the president of the Philippines with the concurrence of the majority members of the Congress in accordance with Article VII.Slide 99: NAPALM – (Liquid) designed for use of a fighter plane and produces fire only. or recover stolen property as necessary material in the prosecution of an offense. but very effective in causing panic because it causes the victim to vomit and to be more exposed to vulnerability. like political crowd or religious meeting. Slide 103: BLISTERING GASES – the most effective chemical weapon because they can be delivered as sprays over large areas and evaporated very slowly into a deadly weapon. Slide 109: ACQUISITIVE MOB – one whose goal is to acquire some objects. Section 18 of the New Constitution for a certain period of time. It is not popular gas as warfare weapon. Slide 100: TEAR GAS – Affects the eyes alone. Types of Mobs : Types of Mobs AGGRESSIVE MOB – active crowd where the main action is to escape all one sided. Slide 110: EXPRESSIVE MOB – one whose activity. Slide 108: ESCAPE OR PANIC MOB – one where the main objective is to escape for fear or safety. Slide 102: LUNG INJURANT GAS – attacks the lungs and cause a burning sensation in the nose and throat followed by injury of the lungs resulting in possible death of the victim. Slide 104: SYSTEMATIC TOXIC GAS – has the capacity of penetrating the skin and the lining of the lungs exerting a direct action upon nervous system of the body. although incidentally destructive.

Slide 113: YIELDING INDIVIDUAL – that person who requires more stimulation than merely his own normal tendencies to violence. He does not become participant until he perceived the remaining sufficiently anonymous and until a certain impression of universality is present. Slide 114: SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL – that person who supports or follows what others do or tell him to do. .