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Chemistry notes

Definition of chemistry Chemistry is a branch of science that studies the composition and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes. Matter Matter is anything that has mass, volume and occupies space. Matter is made up of liquid, solid, gas. Heat expands/compress solids Solids move by vibration

Physical and chemical changes Physical changes are those in which the chemical formulae of the substances remain the same E.g. dissolving, melting, and freezing. When ice melts this is a physical change because both the ice and water has the same chemical formula H2O (hydrogen and oxygen). Physical changes are easily reversible, that is liquid water can easily be re-converted to solid ice.

Chemical changes are those in which the product of end substances is totally different from the reactants or starting materials because changes in the chemical formulae occur. Condition E.g. Reactants--------------- Product React to give

To bake cake E.g. Ingredients --------------- Baked cake Yeast A totally new substance is formed. These changes are not usually reversible. Some signs that a chemical reaction is occurring includes:- colour change, change in temperature and effervescence (a gas is given off) 1. S G = Sublimation (add heat) 2. S L = Melting (add heat)

3. 4. 5. 6.

L G = Boiling = (add heat) L S = freezing (lose heat) G L = condensation G S = sublimation

Solids that go through sublimation which is from solid straight to gas: Dry ice Iodine Ammonium chloride Camphor balls/naphthalene Classification of matter Matter

(Constant composition)

(Variable composition)





Metal Non-metal Metalloid

Organic Inorganic

Substance A substance is matter with constant composition. Mixture A mixture is matter with variable composition.

Composition of water: H2O H- Hydrogen O- Oxygen


When we take elements and put them together we get compounds/molecules. Elements are substances containing one type of atom only (e.g. hydrogen containing hydrogen).

An atom is the smallest particle of an element. Elements are made up of many atoms. Every element has its own symbol. A symbol is a shortened way of writing the name of the element. It usually consists of the first letter or first two letters of the name. a few elements have symbols which are different from their name. These symbols were derived from the Latin names of the elements.

Element Hydrogen Oxygen Aluminum Calcium Lead (Plumbum) Iron Three types of elements

Symbol H O Al Ca Pb Fe

Metals These are usually solids and are shiny, hard and able to conduct electricity and heat. E.g. toaster oven, microwave. Non-metals These are liquid or gases dull in appearance, brittle, and do not conduct heat and electricity.

Metalloids Elements that have characteristics common to both metals and non-metals Compounds Substances containing two or more different types of atoms chemically bonded together e.g. NaCl Sodium MgO Magnesium Chlorine = magnesium oxide Oxygen = sodium chloride


= copper sulphate

Copper sulpher Chlorine Types of compounds 1. Organic compounds are obtained from living sources like plants and animals 2. Inorganic compounds are obtained from non living sources like rocks and minerals Mixtures A mixture is composed of more than one element and or compounds. Mixtures can be easily separated. Solution = solvent + solute Homogeneous mixtures Homogeneous mixtures have the sane composition throughout. It is also known as a solution. It is uniformed i.e. salt and water/ sugar and water Heterogeneous These mixtures have different composition in different parts. i.e. oil and water or chalk and water. Kinetic energy Kinetic energy is the energy an object possesses due to its motion. Matter is made up of tiny particles which are in constant motion because of the Kinetic energy they contain. These particles can be atoms, molecules or irons. This is called kinetic theory of matter. Evidence to support the kinetic theory of matter includes osmosis and diffusion. Diffusion Diffusion is the movement of particles (atom, iron, molecules) from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until the particles are evenly distributed. The particles move along a concentration gradient Osmosis The movement of water particles from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration through a semi permeable membrane Semi permeable membrane allows particles to pass through

Review notes: The nature of matter

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Conversion from liquid to solid is described as melting The compound that shows sublimation is ammonium chloride Freezing, melting and boiling are physical changes Particles in gas are capable of rapid random movement Liquids differ from solids in that the particles in liquid possess more energy that particles in liquid 6. The solid that undergoes sublimation is dry ice. 7. Matter is anything that has mass, volume and occupies space. 8. The differences between physical and chemical changes is that a physical change is reversible, with chemical changes its irreversible and the chemical formulae in the end is different from the staring materials 9. Forces of attraction, shape and movement of particles in solids, liquids and gases Solids- strong because the particles are packed closely together Liquids- Medium because the particles are spaced out a little Gases- Very little because the particles are scattered 10. Kinetic energy of matter is the energy an object possesses due to its motion.

Atomic structure The structure of an atom~

Atom contains three particles: Proton Electron Neutron The structure of atom: Nucleus Shells Particle Proton Electron Neutron Mass 1 1/1840 or 0 1 Charge +ve (+1) -ve (-1) Neutral, (0) Position Inside nucleus Inside shells Inside nucleus

1st shell- 2 ec2nd shell- 8ec 3rd shell- 8ec 4th shell- 8ec Atomic no = no. of protons or number of electrons in element Mass no = sum of protons and neutrons (PTN) Neutron no = mass no from atomic no. The mass number is not always the top number but its always the bigger number Symbol Mass no. No. of protons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 No. of electrons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 No. of neutrons 0 2 4 5 6 6 7 8 10 10 12 12 14 14 16 16 18 22 20 20 Electronic configuration (E.C) 1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7 2.8.8

Name of element Hydrogen Helium lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorous Sulphur Chlorine Argon Potassium calcium

H He Li Be B C N O Fl Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Ka Ca

1 4 7 9 11 12 14 16 19 20 23 24 27 28 30 32 35 40 39 40

E.c. = electric configuration. To check the e.c you have to check the number of neutrons. The number of protons and electrons in any atom is the same therefore have no charge. The chemical properties of an element are determined by the number and arrangement of electrons.

Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element with same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons. That is they have the same atomic number but different mass number. Chlorine Cl mass no. 35 Atomic no. 17 Cl mass no. 37 Atomic no. 17

P=17 e=17 n=18

P=17 e=17 n=20

Chlorine has 2 isotopes Hydrogen H mass no. 1 H Atomic no. 1 H mass no. 2 H Atomic no. 1 H mass no. 3 H Atomic no. 1

P=1 e=1 n=0

P=1 e=1 n=1

P=1 e=1 n=2

Hydrogen has 3 isotopes Carbon C mass no. 12 C Atomic no. 6 C mass no. 13 C Atomic no. 6 C mass no. 14 C Atomic no. 6

P=6 e=6 n=6

P=6 e=6 n=7

P=6 e=6 n=8

Carbon has three isotopes

Some elements contain isotopes that are unstable. The nuclei of these atoms spontaneously break up emitting radiation as they do so. These types of atoms are called radioisotopes and they are said to be radioactive. Uses of radioisotopes 1. Medicine Cobalt 60 is used in cancer treatment (radio therapy), cancerous cells are destroyed by directing a controlled beam of y-radiation or gamma radiation at the cells. Plutonium 238 is used as an energy source for heart pace makers that keeps the heart beating in heart patients. Iodine 131 is used as a tracer to detect defected thyroid glands.

2. Research Carbon 13 is used to monitor the complex reactions of photosynthesis

3. Carbon H Dating is used to determine the age of plants and animal remains 4. Nuclear reaction Uranium 235 is used to generate electricity in nuclear power stations. The heat energy produced is used to boil water and the steam is then used to drive turbines which generate electricity.

Separating mixtures There are different types of mixtures:Homogeneous a mixture that is uniformed throughout. No difference in colour or particle concentration can be seen in this type of mixture. E.g. sea water, milk, alcohol and water, and alloys (mixture of metals) Heterogeneous- a mixture that is not uniformed throughout. Different layers or different types of particles can be seen. E.g. oil and water, sand and sea water, sand and salt Alloys are a mixture or two or more metals. A few or more alloys also contain nonmetals. The physical properties of alloys are usually very different from those