14 views

Uploaded by Nic Blando

Introduction to chemical engineering thermodynamics

- JF Physical Chemistry 2013 - 2014 Past Exam Questions
- Propylene production HYSYS.pdf
- KI1101-2012-KD Lec02b TheMoleAndStochiometry
- Elemental Balance 1shekjxbej
- Fiitjee Aits
- (Stoichiometry of Cell Growth and Product Formation)
- HYSIS
- Mass Balance Report(1)
- Introduction to Modelling
- Chem Module 2 Syllabus
- 1-s2.0-S1385894707005220-main
- Chemical Equilibrium Final
- Exercise_2_Partition_coefficient_of_succinic_acid.pdf
- CHME 314 Lecture 08 Rate Laws and Stoichiometry 3
- Chemical Equilibrium.ppt
- Combustion Thermodynamics
- CHEMISTRY Index and Assessment Tracker YEAR 13
- Mock Three
- June 2015 QP - Unit 4 Edexcel Chemistry A-level.pdf
- Chapter 3 -CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS.pptx

You are on page 1of 56

Note: For the following problems the variable kelvin is used for the SI

unit of absolute temperature so as not to conflict with the variable K

used for the equilibrium constant

13.4

=

i = 1 1 + 1 + 1 = 0

n0 = 1 + 1 = 2

By Eq. (13.5).

yH = yCO =

2

1

2

yH2O = yCO =

T := 1000 kelvin

mol 2

mol

2

1 ln 1 + 2 ln

+ R T 2

2 2

2

2

G ( ) :=

e := 0.5

Guess:

d

Given

d e

( )

G e = 0

( )

J

mol

e := Find e

e = 0.45308

2.082

G ( )

2.084

10

2.086

2.088

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

483

0.6

13.5

=

i = 1 1 + 1 + 1 = 0

n0 = 1 + 1 = 2

By Eq. (13.5).

yH = yCO =

2

1

2

yH2O = yCO =

T := 1100 kelvin

mol 2

mol

2

1

+ 2 ln

+ R T 2

ln

2 2

2

2

G ( ) :=

e := 0.5

Guess:

d

Given

d e

( )

G e = 0

J

mol

( )

e := Find e

e = 0.502

Ans.

2.102

2.103

G ( )

2.104

10

2.105

2.106

2.107

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

484

0.55

0.6

0.65

(b)

=

i = 1 1 + 1 + 1 = 0

n0 = 1 + 1 = 2

By Eq. (13.5),

yH = yCO =

2

2

1

2

yH2O = yCO =

T := 1200 kelvin

mol 2

mol

2

1

+ 2 ln

+ R T 2

ln

2 2

2

2

G ( ) :=

e := 0.1

Guess:

d

Given

d e

( )

G e = 0

J

mol

( )

e = 0.53988

0.55

0.6

e := Find e

Ans.

2.121

2.122

2.123

G ( )

5 2.124

10

2.125

2.126

2.127

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

485

0.65

0.7

(c)

=

i = 1 1 + 1 + 1 = 0

n0 = 1 + 1 = 2

By Eq, (13.5),

yH = yCO =

2

1

2

yH2O = yCO =

T := 1300 kelvin

mol 2

mol

2

1 ln 1 + 2 ln

+ R T 2

2 2

2

2

G ( ) :=

e := 0.6

Guess:

d

Given

d e

( )

G e = 0

( )

J

mol

e := Find e

e = 0.57088

Ans.

2.14

2.142

G ( )

5

2.144

10

2.146

2.148

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

486

0.6

0.65

0.7

13.6

=

i = 1 1 + 1 + 1 = 0

n0 = 1 + 1 = 2

By Eq, (13.5),

yH = yCO =

2

1

2

yH2O = yCO =

With data from Example 13.13, the following vectors represent values for

Parts (a) through (d):

1000

1100

T :=

kelvin

1200

1300

3130

150 J

G :=

3190 mol

6170

G

2 2

=

= K = exp

1 1 ( 1 ) 2

R T

2 2

G

:= exp

R T

:=

0.4531

0.5021

=

0.5399

0.5709

1+

Ans.

= 1

n0 = 6

H298 := 114408

J

mol

T := 773.15 kelvin

G298 := 75948

487

J

mol

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order in

which they appear:

1

:=

2

3.156

3.639

A :=

3.470

4.442

end := rows ( A)

A :=

0.623

0.506 3

B :=

10

D :=

1.450

0.089

0.151

0.227 105

0.121

0.344

i := 1 .. end

( i A i)

B :=

( i B i)

D :=

i

5

A = 0.439

( i D i)

B = 8 10

C := 0

D = 8.23 10

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

4 J

G = 1.267 10

mol

G

R T

K := exp

K = 7.18041

By Eq. (13.5)

yO2 =

yHCl =

yH2O =

5 4

6

2

6

:= 0.5

yHCl :=

2 6 = 2 K

5 4 1

5 4

6

yHCl = 0.3508

yO2 :=

yO2 = 0.0397

2

6

(guess)

Given

yCl2 =

1

6

:= Find ( )

yH2O :=

yH2O = 0.3048

488

2

6

= 0.793

yCl2 :=

yCl2 = 0.3048

2

6

Ans.

= 0

n0 = 2

This is the reaction of Pb. 4.21(x). From the answers for Pbs. 4.21(x),

4.22(x), and 13.7(x), find the following values:

H298 := 42720

J

mol

A := 0.060

B := 0.173 10

G298 := 39430

3

T := 923.15 kelvin

J

mol

5

C := 0

D := 0.191 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G = 3.242 10

G

R T

4 J

K := exp

mol

K = 0.01464

By Eq. (13.5),

yN2 =

1

2

yC2H4 =

By Eq. (13.28),

1

2

:= 0.5

2

yN2 :=

1

2

yN2 = 0.4715

yC2H4 :=

2e

=

2

(guess)

2 = K

Given

yHCN =

:= Find ( )

1

2

yC2H4 = 0.4715

= 0.057

yHCN :=

yHCN = 0.057 Ans.

composition.

489

13.13

= 1

n0 = 2.5

This is the reaction of Pb. 4.21(r). From the answers for Pbs. 4.21(r),

4.22(r), and 13.7(r), find the following values:

J

mol

H298 := 68910

G298 := 39630

3

A := 1.424 B := 1.601 10

T := 623.15 kelvin

J

mol

C := 0.156 10

D := 0.083 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G

R T

3 J

G = 6.787 10

K := exp

mol

1

2.5

( 2.5 )

( 1 ) ( 1.5 )

yCH3CHO :=

yH2 =

:= 0.5

By Eq. (13.28),

Given

1

2.5

yCH3CHO = 0.108

2.5

yC2H5OH =

2.5

(guess)

= 3 K

yH2 :=

1.5

K = 3.7064

1.5

2.5

yH2 = 0.4053

:= Find ( )

yC2H5OH :=

= 0.818

2.5

Given

( 2.5 )

( 1 ) ( 1.5 )

yCH3CHO :=

1

2.5

yCH3CHO = 0.1968

= 1 K

yH2 :=

1.5

2.5

yH2 = 0.4645

490

:= Find ( )

yC2H5OH :=

= 0.633

2.5

= 1

n0 = 2.5

This is the REVERSE reaction of Pb. 4.21(y). From the answers for Pbs.

4.21(y), 4.22(y), and 13.7(y) WITH OPPOSITE SIGNS, find the following

values:

H298 := 117440

J

mol

A := 4.175 B := 4.766 10

T := 923.15 kelvin

J

mol

G298 := 83010

C := 1.814 10

D := 0.083 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

3 J

G = 2.398 10

mol

By Eq. (13.5),

yH2 =

1.5

G

R T

K := exp

yC6H5C2H5 =

2.5

:= 0.5

( 2.5 )

( 1 ) ( 1.5 )

yC6H5CHCH2 :=

yC6H5CHCH2 =

By Eq. (13.28),

Given

1

2.5

yC6H5CHCH2 = 0.2794

1.5

2.5

yH2 = 0.5196

491

1

2.5

2.5

(guess)

= 1.0133 K

yH2 :=

K = 1.36672

:= Find ( )

yC6H5C2H5 :=

= 0.418

2.5

yC6H5C2H5 = 0.201

Ans.

13.15 Basis: 1 mole of gas entering, containing 0.15 mol SO2, 0.20 mol O2,

and 0.65 mol N2.

= 0.5

n0 = 1

By Eq. (13.5),

ySO2 =

0.15

0.20 0.5

yO2 =

1 0.5

ySO3 =

1 0.5

1 0.5

J

mol

H298 := 98890

G298 := 70866

J

mol

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order

in which they appear:

1

:= 0.5

1

5.699

A := 3.639

8.060

end := rows ( A)

A :=

0.801

3

B := 0.506 10

D :=

1.056

1.015

5

0.227 10

2.028

i := 1 .. end

( i A i)

B :=

( i B i)

D :=

i

6

A = 0.5415

B = 2 10

T := 753.15 kelvin

( i D i)

C := 0

D = 8.995 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

4 J

G = 2.804 10

By Eq. (13.28),

Given

mol

G

R T

K := exp

:= 0.1

( 1 0.5 )

(guess)

0.5

492

K = 88.03675

= K

:= Find ( )

= 0.1455

By Eq. (13.4),

nSO3 = = 0.1455

By Eq. (4.18),

H753 = 98353

13.16

J

mol

Q := H753

nC3H8 = 1

n0 nC3H8

n0

yC3H8 =

J

Ans.

mol

= 1

By Eq. (13.5),

Q = 14314

yC2H4 =

1+

1 ( 1 )

=

1

yCH4 =

1+

1+

H298 := 82670

J

mol

G298 := 42290

J

mol

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order

in which they appear:

1

:= 1

1

1.213

A := 1.424

1.702

end := rows ( A)

A :=

8.824

6

4.392 10

2.164

i := 1 .. end

( i A i)

B :=

A = 1.913

28.785

3

B := 14.394 10

C :=

9.081

( i B i)

C :=

( i C i)

i

3

B = 5.31 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

493

C = 2.268 10

D := 0

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G = 2187.9

J

mol

G

R T

K := exp

:= 0.5

By Eq. (13.28),

Given

= 0.777

K = 1.52356

(guess)

( 1 + ) ( 1 )

:= Find ( )

= K

(b) := 0.85

K :=

G := R T ln ( K)

K = 2.604

( 1 + ) ( 1 )

G = 4972.3

J

mol

Ans.

It is not difficult to find T by trial. This leads to the value:

T = 646.8 K Ans.

= 1

n0 = 1.5

yC2H6 =

By Eq. (13.5),

1

yH =

1.5 +

1.5 +

yC2H4 =

1.5 +

H298 := 136330

J

mol

G298 := 100315

J

mol

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order in

which they appear:

494

1

:= 1

1

1.131

A := 3.249

1.424

19.225

3

B := 0.422 10

14.394

5.561

6

C := 0.0 10

4.392

0.0

5

D := 0.083 10

0.0

end := rows ( A)

A :=

i := 1 .. end

( i Ai)B := ( iBi)

i

C :=

D :=

i

3

( i D i)

i

A = 3.542 B = 4.409 10

T := 1100 kelvin

( i C i)

C = 1.169 10

D = 8.3 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G

R T

3 J

G = 5.429 10

By Eq. (13.28),

Given

K := exp

mol

:= 0.5

( 1.5 + ) ( 1 )

1

1+

yC2H6 = 0.0899

K = 1.81048

(guess)

:= Find ( )

= K

yC2H6 :=

= 0.83505

nH2 = nC2H4 =

yH2 :=

1+

yC2H4 = 0.4551

495

yC2H4 :=

n= 1+

1+

yH2 = 0.4551

Ans.

= 1

(1)

(2)

(3)

n0 = 1 + x

By Eq. (13.5),

y1 =

y2 = y3 =

1+x+

1+x+

= 0.10

H298 := 109780

J

mol

G298 := 79455

J

mol

order in which they appear:

1

:= 1

1

1.967

A := 2.734

3.249

31.630

3

B := 26.786 10

0.422

9.873

6

C := 8.882 10

0.0

0.0

5

D := 0.0 10

0.083

end := rows ( A)

A :=

i := 1 .. end

( i Ai)B := ( iBi)

i

A = 4.016

C :=

i

3

C = 9.91 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

496

D :=

( i D i)

i

B = 4.422 10

T := 950 kelvin

( i C i)

D = 8.3 10

G = 4.896 10

G

R T

3 J

K := exp

mol

K = 0.53802

( 0.1) ( 0.1) ( 1 + x + )

By Eq. (13.28),

1

Since

0.10 ( 1 + x + ) =

x :=

(a)

:=

1

0.10

y1 :=

13.19

6.5894

7.5894

yH2O = 0.7814

Ans.

ysteam = 0.8682

Ans.

(1)

(2)

(3)

Number the species as shown. Basis is

1 mol species 1 + x mol steam entering.

By Eq. (13.5),

y1 =

1

1 + x + 2

J

mol

= 2

n0 = 1 + x

y2 =

1 + x + 2

= 0.12

y3 = 2 y2 = 0.24

H298 := 235030

= 0.843

yH2O := 1 0.2 y1

1+x+

ysteam :=

K

K + 0.10

x = 6.5894

y1 = 0.0186

(b)

= K

G298 := 166365

J

mol

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order in

which they appear:

1

:= 1

2

1.935

A := 2.734

3.249

36.915

3

B := 26.786 10

0.422

497

11.402

6

C := 8.882 10

0.0

end := rows ( A)

A :=

( i A i)

0.0

5

D := 0.0 10

0.083

i := 1 .. end

B :=

( i B i)

C :=

( i C i)

A = 7.297

( i D i)

i

3

B = 9.285 10

T := 925 kelvin

D :=

i

6

C = 2.52 10

D = 1.66 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G = 9.242 10

3 J

mol

G

R T

K := exp

K = 0.30066

( 0.12) ( 0.24) ( 1 + x + 2 )

2

By Eq. (13.28),

0.12 ( 1 + x + 2 ) =

Because

= K

K

:=

K + ( 0.24)

x :=

1 2

0.12

(a) y1 :=

1

1 + x + 2

y1 = 0.023

(b) ysteam :=

4.3151

5.3151

x = 4.3151

= 0.839

yH2O := 1 0.36 y1

yH2O = 0.617

Ans.

ysteam = 0.812

Ans.

498

13.20

= 1

n0 = 2

This is the reaction of Pb. 4.21(a) with all stoichiometric coefficients divided

by two. From the answers to Pbs. 4.21(a), 4.22(a), and 13.7(a) ALL

DIVIDED BY 2, find the following values:

J

mol

H298 := 46110

A := 2.9355

(a)

G298 := 16450

B := 2.0905 10

T := 300 kelvin

J

mol

C := 0

D := 0.3305 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G

R T

4 J

G = 1.627 10

P := 1

K := exp

mol

K = 679.57

P0 := 1

P

:= 1 1 + 1.299 K

P0

yNH3 :=

(b) For

:=

2

3

2

yNH3 = 0.5

0.5

= 0.9664

yNH3 = 0.9349

Ans.

2

1 1

1

K :=

1.299

K = 6.1586

499

Find by trial the value of T for which this is correct. It turns out to be

T = 399.5 kelvin

Ans.

2

1 1

1

K :=

K = 0.06159

129.9

(d)

evaluated by the generalized second-virial correlation. Since iteration

will be necessary, we assume a starting T of 583 K for which:

T := 583kelvin

P := 100bar

Tr1 :=

For N2(2):

T

Tc1

Pc1 := 112.8bar

Tr1 = 1.437

Tc2 := 126.2kelvin

Tr2 :=

583

126.2

Pr1 :=

1 := 0.253

P

Pc1

Pc2 := 34.0bar

Tr2 = 4.62

Pr2 :=

Pr1 = 0.887

2 := 0.038

100

34.0

Pr2 = 2.941

For H2(3), estimate critical constants using Eqns. (3.58) and (3.59)

Tc3 :=

43.6

21.8

kelvin

1 +

T

2.016

kelvin

Pc3 :=

1+

20.5

44.2

Tc3 = 42.806 K

Tr3 :=

bar

T

Tc3

Tr3 = 13.62

Pr3 :=

T

2.016

kelvin

3 := 0

500

P

Pc3

Pr3 = 5.061

i := 1 .. 3

Therefore,

1

:= 0.5

1.5

( i)

0.924

= 1.034

1.029

= 1.184

2

1 1

1

K :=

129.9

1.184

K = 0.07292

Ans.

Of course, the INITIAL assumption made for T was not so close to the

final T as is shown here, and several trials were in fact made, but not

shown here. The trials are made by simply changing numbers in the

given expressions, without reproducing them.

= 2

Basis: 1 mol CO, 2 mol H2 feed

n0 = 3

H298 := 90135

J

mol

G298 := 24791

J

mol

A := 7.663

B := 10.815 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

501

C := 3.45 10

D := 0.135 10

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G

R T

4 J

G = 2.439 10

P := 1

K := exp

mol

K = 1.762 10

P0 := 1

By Eq. (13.5), with the species numbered in the order in which they appear

in the reaction,

y1 =

y2 =

3 2

( 3 2 )

Given

(b)

4 ( 1 )

3 2

(guess)

2

P

=

K

P0

:= Find ( )

= 0.9752

y3 = 0.9291 Ans.

3 2

y3 := 0.5

:=

y3 =

3 2

:= 0.8

By Eq. (13.28),

y3 :=

2 2

3 y3

= 0.75

2 y3 + 1

K :=

( 3 2 )

4 ( 1 )

K = 27

Find by trial the value of T for which this is correct. It turns out to be:

T = 364.47 kelvin Ans.

502

K :=

( 3 2 )

4 ( 1 )

100

K = 2.7 10

(d) Eq. (13.27) applies, and requires fugacity coefficients. Since iteration

will be necessary, assume a starting T of 528 K, for which:

T := 528kelvin

P := 100bar

T

Tc1

Tr1 :=

For CH3OH(3):

Tr :=

T

Tc3

Pc1 := 34.99bar

P

Pc1

Pr1 = 2.858

Pc3 := 80.97bar

3 := 0.564

Tr1 = 3.973

Tc3 := 512.6kelvin

Tr = 1.03

Pr :=

1 := 0.048

Pr1 :=

P

Pc3

Pr = 1.235

3

3 := 0.6206 0.9763

3 = 0.612

assumed ideal: = 1.

Therefore:

i := 1 .. 3

:=

1.0

0.612

1

:= 2

1

( i)

1.032

= 1

0.612

= 0.5933

i

503

K :=

( 3 2 )

4 ( 1 )

100

0.593

K = 1.6011 10

Each species exists PURE as an individual phase, for which the activity is

f/f0. For the two species existing as solid phases, f and f0 are for practical

purposes the same, and the activity is unity. If the pure CO2 is assumed

an ideal gas at 1(atm), then for CO2 the activity is f/f0 = P/P0 = P (in bar).

As a result, Eq. (13.10) becomes K = P = 1.0133, and we must find the T

for which K has this value.

From the data of Table C.4,

H298 := 178321

J

mol

G298 := 130401

J

mol

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order in

which they appear:

1

:= 1

1

i := 1 .. 3

12.572

A := 6.104

5.457

A :=

( i A i)

2.637

3

B := 0.443 10

1.045

B :=

A = 1.011

( i B i)

i

C := 0

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

504

D :=

( i D i)

i

B = 1.149 10

T := 1151.83 kelvin

3.120

5

D := 1.047 10

1.157

D = 9.16 10

G = 126.324

G

R T

J

mol

K := exp

K = 1.0133

Thus

Although a number of trials were required to reach this result, only the

final trial is shown. A handbook value for this temperature is 1171 K.

13.23 NH4Cl(s) = NH3(g) + HCl(g)

The NH4Cl exists PURE as a solid phase, for which the activity is f/f0.

Since f and f0 are for practical purposes the same, the activity is unity. If

the equimolar mixture of NH3 and HCl is assumed an ideal gas mixture at

1.5 bar, then with f0 = 1 bar the activity of each gas species is its partial

pressure, (0.5)(1.5) = 0.75. As a result, Eq. (13.10) becomes K =

(0.75)(0.75) = 0.5625 , and we must find the T for which K has this value.

From the given data and the data of Table C.4,

H298 := 176013

J

mol

G298 := 91121

J

mol

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order in

which they appear:

1

:= 1

1

i := 1 .. 3

5.939

A := 3.578

3.156

A :=

16.105

3

B := 3.020 10

0.623

( i A i)

B :=

( i B i)

A = 0.795

B = 0.012462

T := 623.97 kelvin

C := 0

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

505

D :=

( i D i)

i

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

0.0

5

D := 0.186 10

0.151

D = 3.5 10

G = 2.986 10

G

R T

3 J

K := exp

mol

T = 623.97 K

Thus

K = 0.5624

Ans.

Although a number of trials were required to reach this result, only the

final trial is shown.

13.25

= 0.5

yNO2

yNO ( yO2)

0.5

yNO2

yNO ( 0.21)

T := 298.15 kelvin

= K

0.5

G298 := 35240

G298

K := exp

K = 1.493 10

R T

12

yNO := 10

Given

yNO2 := 10

yNO2 = ( 0.21)

0.5

7 10

K yNO

ppm

(guesses)

yNO2 + yNO = 5 10

yNO

:= Find ( yNO , yNO2)

y

NO2

This is about

12

yNO = 7.307 10

= 0.5

See Example 13.9, Pg. 508-510 From Table C.4,

H298 := 105140

J

mol

G298 := 81470

J

mol

Moles O2 entering:

nO2 := 1.25 0.5

Moles N2 entering:

J

mol

nN2 := nO2

506

79

21

n0 := 1 + nO2 + nN2

n0 = 3.976

Index the product species with the numbers:

1 = ethylene

2 = oxygen

3 = ethylene oxide

4 = nitrogen

The numbers of moles in the product stream are given by Eq. (13.5).

Guess:

:= 0.8

nO2 0.5

n ( ) :=

nN2

1.424

3.639

A :=

0.385

3.280

4.392

0.0 10 6

C :=

9.296 kelvin2

0.0

0.0

0.227 5

2

D :=

10 kelvin

0.0

0.040

i := 1 .. 4

A ( ) :=

14.394

0.506 10 3

B :=

23.463 kelvin

0.593

( n ( ) i A i)

0.5

:=

1

B ( ) :=

( n ( ) i B i)

C ( ) :=

y ( ) :=

n( )

n0 0.5

( n ( ) i C i)

D ( ) :=

( n ( ) i D i)

i

K ( ) :=

( y ( ) i)

K ( ) = 15.947

H298 + HP = 0

507

(13.18).The reaction considered here is that of Pb. 4.21(g), for which the

following values are given in Pb. 4.23(g):

3

A := 3.629

5

D := 0.114 10 kelvin

Guess:

10

B := 8.816

kelvin

C := 4.904

:= 3

2 2

idcph := A T0 ( 1) +

T0 1 ...

2

C 3 3

D 1

+ T0 1 +

T0

3

+ 1 ( 1)

2

idcps := A ln ( ) + B T0 + C T0 ...

+ D

T 2

0

idcps = 0.417

Given

H298 = R A ( ) T0 ( 1) +

B ( )

T0 1 ...

2

C ( ) 3 3

D ( ) 1

T0 1 +

3

T

H298 G298

K ( ) = exp

:= Find ( , )

R T0

H298

R T 0

0.88244

=

3.18374

508

kelvin

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

10

+ idcps

1

T 0

idcph

0.0333

0.052

y ( 0.88244) =

0.2496

0.6651

T := T0

13.27

Ans.

= 1

(gases only)

The carbon exists PURE as an individual phase, for which the activity is

unity. Thus we leave it out of consideration.

From the data of Table C.4,

H298 := 74520

J

mol

G298 := 50460

J

mol

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order in

which they appear:

1

:= 1

2

1.702

A := 1.771

3.249

9.081

3

B := 0.771 10

0.422

i := 1 .. 3

2.164

6

C := 0.0 10

0.0

0.0

5

D := 0.867 10

0.083

A :=

( i A i)

B :=

A = 6.567

( i B i)

C :=

i

3

B = 7.466 10

T := 923.15 kelvin

( i C i)

6

509

( i D i)

i

C = 2.164 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

D :=

D = 7.01 10

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G

R T

4 J

G = 1.109 10

(a)

:=

K := exp

mol

By Eq. (13.5),

n0 = 1

yCH4 =

yCH4 :=

= 0.7173

yH2 :=

1+

K = 4.2392

yH2 =

1+

( 2 ) 2

( 1 + ) ( 1 )

By Eq. (13.28),

K

4+K

= 0.7893

yCH4 :=

1

2+

yH2 = 0.5659

= K

(fraction decomposed)

2

yCH4 = 0.1646

1+

yH2 = 0.8354

Ans.

n0 = 2

:= .8

By Eq. (13.28),

Given

1+

( 2 ) 2

( 2 + ) ( 1 )

(guess)

:= Find ( )

= K

(fraction decomposed)

yH2 :=

2

2+

yCH4 = 0.0756

510

yN2 = 0.3585

Ans.

= 0

(1)

divided by two. From the answers to Pbs. 4.21(n), 4.22(n), and 13.7(n) ALL

DIVIDED BY 2, find the following values:

J

mol

H298 := 90250

G298 := 86550

3

A := 0.0725

B := 0.0795 10

T := 2000 kelvin

J

mol

C := 0

D := 0.1075 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G

R T

4 J

G = 6.501 10

K1 := exp

mol

K1 = 0.02004

= 0.5

(2)

H298 := 33180

J

mol

G298 := 51310

J

mol

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order in

which they appear:

0.5

:= 1

1

i := 1 .. 3

3.280

A := 3.639

4.982

A :=

( i A i)

0.593

3

B := 0.506 10

1.195

B :=

( i B i)

A = 0.297

T := 2000 kelvin

i

4

B = 3.925 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

511

0.040

5

D := 0.227 10

0.792

D :=

( i D i)

i

C := 0

D = 5.85 10

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G = 1.592 10

G

R T

5 J

K2 := exp

mol

K2 = 6.9373 10

yNO

(1)

( yN2) ( yO2)

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

yNO := K1 ( 0.7)

(2)

P0 := 1

yNO2

P

yNO2 :=

P0

13.29

( 0.05)

yNO

=

( 0.7)

0.5

( 0.05)

0.5

= K1

yNO = 3.74962 10

Ans.

P := 200

0.5

P

=

=

K2

0.5

P0

( 0.7) ( 0.05)

yNO2

0.5

K2 ( 0.7)

0.5

( 0.05)

yNO2 = 4.104 10

Ans.

The sulfur exists PURE as a solid phase, for which the activity is f/f0. Since

f and f0 are for practical purposes the same, the activity is unity, and it is

omitted from the equilibrium equation. Thus for the gases only,

= 1

From the given data and the data of Table C.4,

H298 := 145546

J

mol

G298 := 89830

512

J

mol

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order in

which they appear:

1

:=

3

2

i := 1 .. 4

3.931

5.699

A :=

4.114

3.470

1.490

0.801 3

B :=

10

D :=

1.728

1.450

( i Ai) B := ( iBi)

A :=

D :=

B = 6.065 10

T := 723.15 kelvin

( i D i)

i

A = 5.721

0.232

1.015 105

0.783

0.121

C := 0

D = 6.28 10

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G

R T

4 J

G = 1.538 10

K := exp

mol

yH2S =

2 2

3

n0 = 3

ySO2 =

1

3

:= 0.5

By Eq. (13.28),

Given

( 2 ) 2 ( 3 )

( 2 2 ) 2 ( 1 )

(basis)

yH2O =

PC =

ni0 ni

ni0

100 =

i

ni0

100

513

2

3

(guess)

:= Find ( )

= 8 K

K = 12.9169

= 0.767

Since the reactants are present in the stoichiometric proportions, for each

reactant,

ni0 = i

PC := 100

Whence

(a)

(b)

PC = 76.667

Ans.

= 1

Data from Tables C.4 and C.1 provide the following values:

H298 := 57200

J

mol

G298 := 5080

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

A := 1.696

J

mol

T := 350 kelvin

3

B := 0.133 10

C := 0

D := 1.203 10

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G

R T

3 J

G = 3.968 10

K := exp

mol

K = 3.911

ya =

(a)

P := 5

ya :=

(b)

yb =

1+

1+

P0 := 1

:=

P0 := 1

:=

514

P

=

K

P0

K

4 P + K

ya = 0.4241

1+

P := 1

( 2 ) 2

( 1 ) ( 1 + )

= 0.4044

Ans.

K

4 P + K

= 0.7031

H := H298 + R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D

H = 56984

J

mol

:= 0.7031 0.4044

= 0.299

Q := H

Whence

( )

Q = 17021

xB B

K=

xA A

( )

ln a = 0.1 xB

J

mol

( 1 xA) B

xA A

2

ln b = 0.1 xA

(

(

Ans.

)

)

Whence

2

1 xA

1 xA exp 0.1 xA

2

2

K=

=

exp 0.1 xA xB

2

xA

xA exp 0.1 xB

K=

1 xA

xA

exp 0.1 ( 2 xA 1)

G := 1000

xA := .5

Given

J

mol

G

R T

K = exp

T := 298.15 kelvin

(guess)

1 xA

xA

G

R T

xA = 0.3955

xA := Find ( xA)

Ans.

Given

1 xA

xA

G

R T

xA := Find ( xA)

= exp

515

xA = 0.4005

= 0

From the the data of Table C.4,

J

mol

H298 := 41166

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

A := 1.860

G298 := 28618

J

mol

T := 800 kelvin

3

B := 0.540 10

C := 0

D := 1.164 10

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

3 J

G = 9.668 10

mol

= 0

G

R T

K := exp

K = 4.27837

negative.).

(c) Basis: 1 mol CO, 1 mol H2, w mol H2O feed.

From the problem statement,

nCO

nCO + nH2 + nCO2

= 0.02

By Eq. (13.4),

1

1+1++

1

2+

nCO = 1

nH2 = 1 +

= 0.02

:=

NCO2 =

0.96

1.02

= 0.941

By Eq. (13.5),

yH2O =

w

2 z

=

2+w

2 + 2 z

yCO =

516

1

2 + 2 z

yH2 =

1+

2 + 2 z

yCO2 =

z := 2

By Eq. (13.28)

( 1 + )

Given

(d)

2 + 2 z

( 2 z ) ( 1 )

z := Find ( z)

= K

(guess)

z = 4.1

Ans.

= 1 (gases)

H298 := 172459

J

mol

G298 := 120021

3

A := 0.476

B := 0.702 10

J

mol

5

C := 0

D := 1.962 10

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

4 J

G = 3.074 10

mol

G

R T

K := exp

K = 101.7

yCO2

( yCO)

= K = 101.7

If the ACTUAL value of this ratio is GREATER than this value, the

reaction tries to shift left to reduce the ratio. But if no carbon is present, no

reaction is possible, and certainly no carbon is formed. The actual value of

the ratio in the equilibrium mixture of Part (c) is

yCO2 :=

2 + 2 z

yCO2 = 0.092

RATIO :=

yCO2

( yCO) 2

yCO :=

1

2 + 2 z

3

yCO = 5.767 10

RATIO = 2.775 10

517

= 2

(1)

This is the reaction of Pb. 13.21, where the following parameter values are

given:

J

mol

H298 := 90135

J

mol

G298 := 24791

T := 550 kelvin

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

3

A := 7.663 B := 10.815 10

C := 3.45 10

D := 0.135 10

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G

R T

4 J

G = 3.339 10

)

4

K1 := exp

mol

K1 = 6.749 10

= 0

(2)

H298 := 41166

J

mol

G298 := 28618

T := 550 kelvin

J

mol

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order in

which they appear:

1

:=

1

1

i := 1 .. 4

3.249

5.457

A :=

3.376

3.470

A :=

0.422

1.045 3

B :=

10

D :=

0.557

1.450

( i A i)

B :=

A = 1.86

( i B i)

i

B = 5.4 10

518

C := 0

0.083

1.157 105

0.031

0.121

D :=

( i D i)

i

D = 1.164 10

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G = 1.856 10

G

R T

4 J

K2 := exp

mol

K2 = 0.01726

0.15 mol CO, 0.05 mol CO2, and 0.05 mol N2.

i.j

Stoichiometric numbers,

i=

H2

CO

CO2

CH3OH

H2O

_______________________________________________

j

1

2

-2

-1

-1

1

0

-1

1

0

0

1

By Eq. (13.7)

yH2 =

0.75 2 1 2

yCO2 =

1 2 1

0.05 2

yCO =

0.15 1 + 2

1 2 1

yCH3OH =

1 2 1

P := 100

P0 := 1

By Eq. (13.40),

1 := 0.1

yH2O =

1 2 1

2 := 0.1

2

1 2 1

(guesses)

Given

)2

1 1 2 1

( 0.75 2 1 2) 2 ( 0.15 1 + 2)

( 0.15 1 + 2) 2

( 0.75 2 1 2) ( 0.05 2)

= K2

519

P

=

K1

P0

1

:= Find ( 1 , 2)

2

1 = 0.1186

yH2 :=

2 = 8.8812 10

0.75 2 1 2

yCO2 :=

yCO :=

1 2 1

0.05 2

0.15 1 + 2

1 2 1

yCH3OH :=

1 2 1

yH2O :=

1 2 1

1 2 1

13.34

yH2 = 0.6606

yCO = 0.0528

yCO2 = 0.0539

yCH3OH = 0.1555

yH2O = 0.0116

yN2 = 0.0655

= 2

Ans.

(1)

H298 := 205813

J

mol

G298 := 141863

J

mol

The following vectors represent the species of the reaction in the order in

which they appear:

A :=

1

:=

1

1.702

3.470

A :=

3.376

3.249

9.081

1.450 3

B :=

10

0.557

0.422

2.164

0.0 6

C :=

10

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.121 5

D :=

10

0.031

0.083

i := 1 .. 4

( i A i)

i

A = 7.951

B :=

( i B i)

C :=

( i C i)

i

B = 8.708 10

( i D i)

i

C = 2.164 10

520

D :=

D = 9.7 10

T := 1300 kelvin

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G

R T

5 J

G = 1.031 10

K1 := exp

mol

K1 = 13845

= 0 (2)

This is the reaction of Pb. 13.32, where parameter values are given:

H298 := 41166

A := 1.860

J

mol

G298 := 28618

3

B := 0.540 10

C := 0.0

J

mol

5

D := 1.164 10

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

G = 5.892 10

3 J

mol

G

R T

K2 := exp

K2 = 0.5798

(c) The value of K1 is so large compared with the value of K2 that for all

practical purposes reaction (1) may be considered to go to

completion. With a feed equimolar in CH4 and H2O, no H2O then

remains for reaction (2). In this event the ratio, moles H2/moles CO

is very nearly equal to 3.0.

521

ratio, reaction (2) becomes important. However, reaction (1) for all

practical purposes still goes to completion, and may be considered

to provide the feed for reaction (2). On the basis of 1 mol CH4 and

2 mol H2O initially, what is left as feed for reaction (2) is: 1 mol

H2O, 1 mol CO, and 3 mol H2; n0 = 5. Thus, for reaction (2) at

equilibrium by Eq. (13.5):

yCO = yH2O =

1

5

( 3 + )

( 1 )

Ratio =

yH2

Ratio :=

yCO

(guess)

:= Find ( )

= K2

3+

5

yH2 =

:= 0.5

By Eq. (13.28),

Given

yCO2 =

3+

= 0.1375

Ratio = 3.638

Ans.

(e) One practical way is to add CO2 to the feed. Some H2 then reacts

with the CO2 by reaction (2) to form additional CO and to lower the

H2/CO ratio.

(f) 2CO(g) = CO2(g) + C(s)

= 1 (gases)

This reaction is considered in the preceding problem, Part (d), from

which we get the necessary parameter values:

H298 := 172459

J

mol

G298 := 120021

For T = 1300 K,

T := 1300 kelvin

A := 0.476

B := 0.702 10

C := 0.0

T

H298 G298 ...

T0

+ R IDCPH T0 , T , A , B , C , D ...

+ R T IDCPS T0 , T , A , B , C , D

G := H298

522

J

mol

T0 := 298.15 kelvin

5

D := 1.962 10

G = 5.673 10

G

R T

4 J

K := exp

mol

K = 5.255685 10

depends on:

RATIO =

yCO2

( yCO) 2

When for ACTUAL compositions the value of this ratio is greater than the

equilibrium value as given by K, there can be no carbon deposition. Thus

in Part (c), where the CO2 mole fraction approaches zero, there is danger

of carbon deposition. However, in Part (d) there can be no carbon

deposition, because Ratio > K:

Ratio :=

( 1 )

Ratio = 0.924

C + 2H2 = CH4

H2 + (1/2)O2 = H2O

C + (1/2)O2 = CO

C + O2 = CO2

Elimination first of C and then of O2 leads to a pair of reactions:

CH4 + H2O = CO + 3H2

(1)

CO + H2O = CO2 + H2

(2)

Stoichiometric numbers, i.j

i=

CH4

H2O

CO

CO2

H2

_________________________________________________

j

1

2

-1

0

-1

-1

1

-1

0

1

523

3

1

2

0

For initial amounts: 2 mol CH4 and 3 mol H2O, n0 = 5, and by Eq. (13.7):

yCH4 =

yCO2 =

2 1

5 + 2 1

2

5 + 2 1

3 1 2

yH2O =

yH2 =

yCO =

5 + 2 1

1 2

5 + 2 1

3 1 + 2

5 + 2 1

yCO ( yH2)

yCH4 yH2O

yCO2 yH2

= k1

= k2

yCO yH2O

G1 := 27540

J

mol

G2 := 3130

G1

K2 := exp

K1 = 27.453

K2 = 1.457

R T

Given

R T

2 := 1

(guesses)

( 1 2) ( 3 1 + 2) 3

= K1

2

( 2 1) ( 3 1 2) ( 5 + 2 1)

(

)

( 1 2) ( 3 1 2)

2 3 1 + 2

1

:= Find ( 1 , 2)

2

yCH4 :=

T := 1000 kelvin

G2

K1 := exp

1 := 1.5

J

mol

2 1

5 + 2 1

= K2

1 = 1.8304

yH2O :=

3 1 2

5 + 2 1

524

2 = 0.3211

yCO :=

1 2

5 + 2 1

yCO2 :=

yH2 :=

5 + 2 1

3 1 + 2

5 + 2 1

yCH4 = 0.0196

yH2O = 0.098

yCO2 = 0.0371

yH2 = 0.6711

yCO = 0.1743

Ethylene oxide(1): p1 = y1 P = 415 x1 P := 101.33 kPa

x2 Psat2 = y2 P

Water(2):

x1 =

x2 =

y1 P

415 kPa

y2 P

Psat2

(steam tables)

Ethylene glycol(3):

Psat3 = 0.0

Therefore, y2 = 1 y1

y3 = 0.0

x3 = 1 x2 x3

and

(CH2)2O(g) + H2O(l) = CH2OH.CH2OH(l)

By Eq. (13.40) and the stated assumptions,

k=

3 x3

y P x

( 2 2)

1

P0

x3

T := 298.15 kelvin

y1 x2

G298 := 72941

G298

12

k := exp

k = 6.018 10

R T

525

J

mol

Ans.

approaches zero, y2 approaches unity, and the phase-equilibrium

expression for water(2) makes x2 = 32, which is impossible. Thus x2

must approach zero, and the phase-equilibrium equation requires y2 also

to approach zero. This means that for all practical purposes the reaction

goes to completion. For initial amounts of 3 moles of ethylene oxide and

1 mole of water, the water present is entirely reacted along with 1 mole of

the ethylene oxide. Conversion of the oxide is therefore

33.3 %.

1 1

13.41

1 0

a) Stoichiometric coefficients: :=

1 1

Number of components: i := 1 .. 4

v j :=

i , j

Number of reactions:

1

1

v=

50

Initial

50 kmol

numbers of n0 :=

0 hr

moles

0

n0 :=

Given values:

yA := 0.05

yB := 0.10

Guess:

yC := 0.4

yD := 0.4

n0i

j := 1 .. 2

n0 = 100

kmol

hr

2 := 1

kmol

hr

1 := 1

kmol

hr

Given

yA =

yC =

n01 1 2

n0 1 2

n03 + 1 2

n0 1 2

n02 1

yB =

n0 1 2

yD =

yC

yD

:= Find ( yC , yD , 1 , 2)

1

Eqn. (13.7)

n04 + 2

n0 1 2

1 = 44.737

526

kmol

hr

2 = 2.632

kmol

hr

kmol

hr

kmol

nB = 5.263

hr

(i) nA := n01 1 2

nA = 2.632

nB := n02 1

kmol

hr

kmol

nD = 2.632

hr

kmol

Ans.

n = 52.632

hr

nC := n03 + 1 2

nC = 42.105

nD := n04 + 2

n := nA + nB + nC + nD

yC = 0.8

(ii)

yD = 0.05

1

b) Stoichiometric coefficients: :=

1

0

Number of components:

v j :=

i , j

i

i := 1 .. 4

1

2

0

1

Ans.

40

Initial

40 kmol

numbers of n0 :=

0 hr

moles

Number of reactions:

1

2

v=

n0 :=

Given values:

yC := 0.52

yD := 0.04

Guess:

yA := 0.4

yB := 0.4

n0i

j := 1 .. 2

n0 = 80

1 := 1

kmol

hr

2 := 1

Given

yA =

yC =

n01 1 2

n0 1 2 2

n03 + 1

n0 1 2 2

yB =

yD =

n02 1 2 2

n0 1 2 2

n04 + 2

n0 1 2 2

527

kmol

hr

Eqn. (13.7)

kmol

hr

yA

yB

:= Find ( yA , yB , 1 , 2)

1

1 = 26

nC := n03 + 1

nD := n04 + 2

1

c) Stoichiometric coefficients: :=

1

0

Number of components:

yB = 0.2

i := 1 .. 4

1

1

0

1

Ans.

100

Initial

0 kmol

numbers of n0 :=

0 hr

moles

Number of reactions:

1

1

v=

n0 :=

n0i

Given values:

yC := 0.3

yD := 0.1

Guess:

yA := 0.4

yB := 0.4

1 := 1

kmol

hr

j := 1 .. 2

n0 = 100

kmol

hr

2 := 1

kmol

hr

Given

yA =

yC =

n01 1 2

n0 + 1 2

n03 + 1

n0 + 1 2

kmol

hr

nA = 12

nB := n02 1 2 2

i , j

2 = 2

yA = 0.24

kmol

hr

kmol

nB = 10

hr

kmol

nC = 26

hr

kmol

nD = 2

hr

nA := n01 1 2

v j :=

kmol

hr

=0

yB =

yD =

n02 + 1 2

n0 + 1 2

n04 + 2

n0 + 1 2

528

Eqn. (13.7)

yA

yB

:= Find ( yA , yB , 1 , 2)

1

1 = 37.5

yA = 0.4

nA = 50

nB := n02 + 1 2

nC := n03 + 1

nD := n04 + 2

1

1

d) Stoichiometric coefficients: := 1

0

0

Number of components:

i , j

yA := 0.2

0

1

1

i := 1 .. 5

Ans.

40

60

Initial

kmol

n0

:=

numbers of

0

moles

0 hr

Number of reactions:

1

0

Guess:

v=

kmol

hr

2 = 12.5

yB = 0.2

kmol

hr

kmol

nB = 25

hr

kmol

nC = 37.5

hr

kmol

nD = 12.5

hr

nA := n01 1 2

v j :=

kmol

hr

n0 :=

n0i

j := 1 .. 2

n0 = 100

kmol

hr

yD := 0.20

yB := 0.4

529

yE := 0.1

1 := 1

kmol

kmol

2 := 1

hr

hr

Given

yA =

yC =

n01 1 2

yB =

n0 1

n03 + 1

yD =

n0 1

yA

yB

yE := Find ( y , y , y , , )

A B E 1 2

1

n02 1 2

n04 + 2

yE =

n0 1

1 = 20

kmol

hr

(i)

13.45

Eqn. (13.7)

n0 1

n05 + 2

n0 1

2 = 16

kmol

hr

(ii)

kmol

hr

kmol

24

hr

kmol

20

hr

kmol

16

hr

kmol

16

hr

nA := n01 1 2

nA = 4

yA = 0.05

nB := n02 1 2

nB =

yB = 0.3

nC := n03 + 1

nC =

nD := n04 + 2

nD =

nE := n05 + 2

nE =

Ans.

yC = 0.25

yD = 0.2

yE = 0.2

T0 := 298.15kelvin

1 = C2H4(g)

P0 := 1bar

H0f1 := 52500

T := 400kelvin

J

mol

J

mol

J

3 = C2H5OH(g) H0f3 := 235100

mol

2 = H2O(g)

H0f2 := 241818

530

P := 2bar

G0f1 := 68460

J

mol

J

mol

J

G0f3 := 168490

mol

G0f2 := 228572

kJ

mol

kJ

G0 = 8.378

mol

H0 = 45.782

A := ( 1.424) ( 3.470) + ( 3.518)

A = 1.376

3

B = 4.157 10

C := [ ( 4.392) ( 0) + ( 6.002) ] 10

D := [ ( 0) ( 0.121) + ( 0) ] 10

G0

R T0

a) K0 := exp

C = 1.61 10

D = 1.21 10

H0

T0

1

T

R T0

b) K1 := exp

K298 = 29.366

3

K1 = 9.07 10

Eqn. (13.22)

T

+

IDCPS ( T0 , T , A , B , C , D)

K2 := exp

K400 := K0 K1 K2

Ans.

Eqn. (13.23)

K400 = 0.263

Eqn. (13.20)

Ans.

y1 =

1 e

2 e

y2 =

1 e

y3 =

2 e

y3

y1 y2

= K

P

P0

531

e

2 e

e

2 e

1 e 1 e

2 e 2 e

= K400

P

P0

e := 0.5

Guess:

Given

y1 :=

2 e

= K400

1 e 1 e

2 e 2 e

1 e

y2 :=

2 e

y1 = 0.447

P

P0

1 e

2 e

y2 = 0.447

( )

e := Find e

y3 :=

e = 0.191

e

2 e

y3 = 0.105

Ans.

to the left and the mole fraction of ethanol will decrease.

H0fH2O2 := 136.1064

S0H2 := 130.680

kJ

mol

J

mol kelvin

S0H2O2 := 232.95

T := 298.15kelvin P := 1bar

S0O2 := 205.152

J

mol kelvin

J

mol kelvin

S0fH2O2 = 102.882

G0f = 105.432

532

kJ

mol

J

mol kelvin

Ans.

13.48

C3H8(g) -> C2H4(g) + CH4(g) (II)

T0 := 298.15kelvin

P0 := 1bar

T := 750kelvin

1 = C3H8 (g)

H0f1 := 104680

2 = C3H6 (g)

H0f2 := 19710

3 = H2 (g)

H0f3 := 0

4 = C2H4 (g)

H0f4 := 52510

5 = CH4 (g)

J

mol

P := 1.2bar

G0f1 := 24290

J

mol

G0f2 := 62205

J

mol

G0f3 := 0

J

mol

H0f5 := 74520

J

mol

J

mol

G0f4 := 68460

J

mol

J

mol

J

mol

G0f5 := 50460

J

mol

kJ

mol

kJ

G0I = 86.495

mol

H0I = 124.39

AI := ( 1.213) + ( 1.637) + ( 3.249)

AI = 3.673

3

6

CI := [ ( 8.824) + ( 6.915) + ( 0) ] 10

DI := [ ( 0) + ( 0) + ( 0.083) ] 10

G0I

R T0

KI0 := exp

CI = 1.909 10

DI = 8.3 10

Eqn. (13.21)

H0I 1 T0

T

R T0

KI1 := exp

BI = 5.657 10

Eqn. (13.22)

KI0 = 0

T

+

IDCPS ( T0 , T , AI , BI , CI , DI)

Eqn. (13.23)

KI2 := exp

533

13

KI1 = 1.348 10

KI = 0.016

Eqn. (13.20)

kJ

mol

kJ

G0II = 42.29

mol

H0II = 82.67

AII := ( 1.213) + ( 1.424) + ( 1.702)

AII = 1.913

3

BII = 5.31 10

CII = 2.268 10

DII := [ ( 0) + ( 0) + ( 0) ] 10

G0II

R T0

KII0 := exp

DII = 0

8

KII0 = 3.897 10

Eqn. (13.21)

T

R T0

KII1 := exp

KII1 = 5.322 10

T

+

IDCPS ( T0 , T , AII , BII , CII , DII)

Eqn. (13.23)

KII2 := exp

KII = 21.328

y1 =

y4 =

1 I II

1 + I + II

II

1 + I + II

y2 =

I

1 + I + II

y5 =

II

1 + I + II

y3 =

I

1 + I + II

Eqn. (13.7)

y2 y3

y1

P0

P

= KI

y4 y5

y1

P0

P

= KII

534

Eqn. (13.28)

I

I

1 + I + II 1 + I + II = KI P0

1 I II

P

1 + I + II

II

II

1 + I + II 1 + I + II = KII P0

1 I II

P

1 + I + II

Use a Mathcad solve block to solve these two equations for I and II. Note

that the equations have been rearranged to facilitate the numerical

solution.

Guess:

I := 0.5

II := 0.5

Given

I

1 + I + II 1 + I + II

II

II

1 + I + II 1 + I + II

P0 1 I II

P 1 + I + II

= KI

y4 :=

1 I II

1 + I + II

II

1 + I + II

y1 = 0.01298

P0 1 I II

P 1 + I + II

= KII

I

:= Find ( I , II)

II

y1 :=

I = 0.026

y2 :=

I

1 + I + II

y5 :=

y2 = 0.0132

II = 0.948

y3 :=

I

1 + I + II

II

1 + I + II

y3 = 0.0132

535

y4 = 0.4803

y5 = 0.4803

A summary of the values for the other temperatures is given in the table below.

T=

y1

y2

y3

y4

y5

13.49

750 K

0.0130

0.0132

0.0132

0.4803

0.4803

1000 K 1250 K

0.00047 0.00006

0.034

0.0593

0.034

0.0593

0.4658 0.4407

0.4658 0.4407

T0 := 298.15kelvin

P0 := 1bar

1 = n-C4H10(g)

H0f1 := 125790

2 = iso-C4H10(g)

T := 425kelvin

J

mol

J

H0f2 := 134180

mol

H0 = 8.39

G0 := G0f1 + G0f2

A := ( 1.935) + ( 1.677)

A = 0.258

3

B = 9.38 10

C = 5.43 10

B := [ ( 36.915) + ( 37.853) ] 10

C := [ ( 11.402) + ( 11.945) ] 10

D = 0

Eqn. (13.21)

K0 = 5.421

H0

T0

1

T

R T0

b) K1 := exp

D := [ ( 0) + ( 0) ] 10

G0

R T0

J

mol

J

G0f2 := 20760

mol

G0f1 := 16570

kJ

mol

kJ

G0 = 4.19

mol

H0 := H0f1 + H0f2

a) K0 := exp

P := 15bar

Eqn. (13.22)

K1 = 0.364

IDCPH ( T0 , T , A , B , C , D) ... K2 = 1

T

+ IDCPS ( T0 , T , A , B , C , D)

K2 := exp

536

Ans.

Eqn. (13.23)

Ke := K0 K1 K2

Ke = 1.974

Eqn. (13.20)

Ans.

y1 = 1 e

y2 = e

y2

= Ke

y1

( 1 e)

= Ke

e :=

1

1 + Ke

y1 := 1 e

e = 0.336

y1 = 0.664

y2 := e

y2 = 0.336

Ans.

b) Assume the gas is an ideal solution. In this case Eqn. (13.27) applies.

( yi i) =

K

P0

Eqn. (13.27)

( 1 e) 2 = K

e 1

e =

2

2 + Ke 1

For n-C4H10:

Tr1 :=

T

Tc1

1 := 0.200

Tc1 := 425.1kelvin

Tr1 = 1

Pr1 :=

For iso-C4H10:

Tr2 :=

T

Tc2

P

Pc1

Pc1 := 37.96bar

Pr1 = 0.395

1 = 0.872

2 := 0.181

Tc2 := 408.1kelvin

Tr2 = 1.041

Pr2 :=

537

P

Pc2

Pc2 := 36.48bar

Pr2 = 0.411

Solving for e yields:

y1 := 1 e

e :=

2 = 0.884

2

2 + Ke 1

y1 = 0.661

y2 := e

e = 0.339

y2 = 0.339

Ans.

The values of y1 and y2 calculated in parts a) and b) differ by less than 1%.

Therefore, the effects of vapor-phase nonidealities is here minimal.

538

- JF Physical Chemistry 2013 - 2014 Past Exam QuestionsUploaded byNadherdaman Alshamary
- Propylene production HYSYS.pdfUploaded byKashif Chaudhry
- KI1101-2012-KD Lec02b TheMoleAndStochiometryUploaded byAchmad Rochliadi
- Elemental Balance 1shekjxbejUploaded byJames Nevin Go
- Fiitjee AitsUploaded byullasagw
- HYSISUploaded byNGUYỄN HOÀNG LINH
- Mass Balance Report(1)Uploaded bySzelee Kuek
- (Stoichiometry of Cell Growth and Product Formation)Uploaded bymichsantos
- Introduction to ModellingUploaded byDonna Joy Mallari
- Chem Module 2 SyllabusUploaded byAnthony
- 1-s2.0-S1385894707005220-mainUploaded bycelcenu
- Chemical Equilibrium FinalUploaded byJagmohan Singh
- Exercise_2_Partition_coefficient_of_succinic_acid.pdfUploaded byKezia
- CHME 314 Lecture 08 Rate Laws and Stoichiometry 3Uploaded byAmroKasht
- Chemical Equilibrium.pptUploaded bySaiful Islam Tamim
- Combustion ThermodynamicsUploaded byNorBertoChavez
- CHEMISTRY Index and Assessment Tracker YEAR 13Uploaded bynimrab_angel99
- Mock ThreeUploaded byFred
- June 2015 QP - Unit 4 Edexcel Chemistry A-level.pdfUploaded byMaria Kolokasi
- Chapter 3 -CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS.pptxUploaded bySai Raghava
- Analisis Data KSPUploaded byAnisa Fauziah Miftahul Jannah
- SCI_3224Uploaded byNino Bluashvili
- TakeHomeQuiz2.CalcI&II Compre.2ndsem1718(1)Uploaded byDianne Aicie Arellano
- Exercise 2Uploaded byAddison Juttie
- book nameUploaded byjaya
- Example Ch 8Uploaded byabsmeena
- 2_100_StoichiometricUploaded bySanishka Niroshan
- combustion.pdfUploaded bythe scorpion 2500
- quiz1_chem1001_2010_quizzes.pdfUploaded bySteve E Putter
- MT101- Lesson 11- Phase Diagrams [SHU a B]Uploaded byMalith Deemantha

- Chapter14 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter4 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter3 BUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter3 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter12 BUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter11 BUploaded byNic Blando
- SM_2BUploaded byFranco Espinoza
- Chapter2 AUploaded byngurah-gede-pandu-4319
- Chapter14 BUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter5 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter1_BUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter1 AUploaded byYoon-gil Nam
- Chapter11 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter10.1 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter4 BUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter8 BUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter9 BUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter10.3 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter8 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter7 BUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter16 BUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter6 BUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter7 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter5 BUploaded byGerson Guedes
- Chapter15 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter9 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter16 AUploaded byNic Blando
- Chapter13 BUploaded byNic Blando
- Solução Teórica - Cap 10Uploaded byFabio George

- Turbomachinery LectureUploaded byAneeq Raheem
- 1208.0177Uploaded byaldo
- Chapter 1 Organic ChemistryUploaded byyeeooo
- The Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Relativistic Quantum TheoryUploaded byCraig Millar
- _Review_CH_1-5Uploaded byDimmu Borgir
- Handout_2-Density of StatesUploaded bypaul kamweru
- Ultrafiltration.docUploaded byVel Murugan
- StoichiometryUploaded byMomo
- P_1_03.pdfUploaded byVanessa Moreno
- Experimentos_AIQ_jan2011Uploaded bySarah Arruda
- Chapter 9 SolutionsUploaded bybrayan
- Concentration of Brines by Natural EvaporationsUploaded byChris Quero
- Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics, & KineticsUploaded byLorena Monterrosas Pérez
- KPDP DetailUploaded byvamc232855
- Comparison of European, Us & Japan Pharmacopeia of Medicinal GasesUploaded bySarahi Roldan Morales
- Impacto de Quimicos Campo en Corrosion RefineríaUploaded byAnonymous 9lckaf9st6
- Dirac1927.pdfUploaded byFranz Schindler
- Exp 105 InterpretationUploaded bymajetislove
- Critical Flow Constrains Flow Hydraulocs in Mobile-bed StreamsUploaded byall_cr4zy
- CBSE-XII-Chemistry-Measuring-the-Amount-of-Acetic-Acid-In-Vinegar-by-Titration-with-an-Indicator-Solution.pdfUploaded byshikhar
- tmp83CBUploaded byFrontiers
- Lecture Note - ColumnUploaded byJoannaJames
- IndexUploaded bymerge662
- Engleski reciUploaded byDanilo Radin
- Formulation and Evaluation of Microemulsion Based Gel of KetoconazoleUploaded byAndre Hopfner
- stereoCh4 (1)Uploaded byAminahNatasha
- FM2018pdfUploaded byAnonymous gb6ARMg
- Gas Circulation - Cement Plant.pdfUploaded byKenny Ruiz
- 2014 Forward Osmosis in India- Status and Comparison WithUploaded byDr-Manoj Garg
- HVHBJUploaded byFlowerPower3477