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Introduction to chemical engineering thermodynamics

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8.1 With reference to Fig. 8.1, SI units, At point 2: Table F.2, At point 4: Table F.1, At point 1: At point 3: Table F.1, x3 := 0.96 H2 := 3531.5 H4 := 209.3 H1 := H4 Hliq := H4 H3 := Hliq + x3⋅ ∆Hlv Sliq := 0.7035 For isentropic expansion, x'3 := S'3 − Sliq ∆Slv S'3 := S2 x'3 = 0.855 H'3 = 2246 η turbine = 0.805 QH := H2 − H1

3

S2 := 6.9636

∆Hlv := 2382.9 H3 = 2496.9 ∆Slv := 7.3241

H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ∆Hlv η turbine := H3 − H2 H'3 − H2

Ans.

Ws := H3 − H2 Ws = −1.035 × 10 η cycle := Ws QH

QH = 3.322 × 10 η cycle = 0.311

3

Ans.

266

8.2

mdot := 1.0 (kg/s) The following property values are found by linear interpolation in Table F.1: State 1, Sat. Liquid at TH: H1 := 860.7 State 2, Sat. Vapor at TH: H2 := 2792.0 State 3, Wet Vapor at TC: Hliq := 112.5 State 4, Wet Vapor at TC: Sliq := 0.3929 (a) The pressures in kPa appear above. (b) Steps 2--3 and 4--1 (Fig. 8.2) are isentropic, for which S3=S2 and S1=S4. Thus by Eq. 6.82): x3 := S2 − Sliq Svap − Sliq x3 = 0.741 x4 := S1 − Sliq Svap − Sliq

3

S1 := 2.3482 S2 := 6.4139 Hvap := 2550.6 Svap := 8.5200

P1 := 3.533 P2 := 3.533 P3 := 1616.0 P4 := 1616.0

x4 = 0.241

**(c) The rate of heat addition, Step 1--2: Qdot12 := mdot⋅ ( H2 − H1) H3 := Hliq + x3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) H3 = 1.919 × 10
**

3

Qdot12 = 1.931 × 10

(kJ/s)

**(d) The rate of heat rejection, Step 3--4: H4 := Hliq + x4⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) H4 = 699.083 Qdot34 = −1.22 × 10
**

3

Qdot34 := mdot⋅ ( H4 − H3) (e) Wdot12 := 0 Wdot34 := 0

(kJ/s)

Wdot23 := mdot⋅ ( H3 − H2) Wdot41 := mdot⋅ ( H1 − H4) (f) η := Wdot23 + Wdot41 Qdot12

Wdot23 = −873.222 Wdot41 = 161.617 η = 0.368

Note that the first law is satisfied: ΣQ := Qdot12 + Qdot34 ΣQ + ΣW = 0 ΣW := Wdot23 + Wdot41

267

8.3

The following vectors contain values for Parts (a) through (f). Enthalpies and entropies for superheated vapor, Tables F.2 and F.4 @ P2 and T2 (see Fig. 8.4):

⎛ 3622.7⋅ kJ ⎞ ⎜ kg ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 3529.6⋅ kg ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 3635.4⋅ ⎜ kg ⎟ H2 := ⎜ ⎟ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 3475.6⋅ kg ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ 1507.0⋅ lb ⎟ m ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ BTU ⎟ 1558.8 ⋅ ⎜ lbm ⎠ ⎝

⎞ ⎛ 6.9013⋅ kJ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ kJ 6.9485 ⋅ ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 6.9875⋅ ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K S2 := ⎜ ⎟ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 6.9145⋅ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎜ 1.6595⋅ lb ⋅ rankine ⎟ m ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ BTU 1.6759 ⋅ ⎜ lbm⋅ rankine ⎠ ⎝

Sat. liq. and sat. vap. values from Tables F.2 and F.4 @ P3 = P4:

⎛ 191.832⋅ kJ ⎞ ⎜ kg ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 251.453⋅ kg ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎜ 191.832⋅ ⎟ kg ⎟ ⎜ Hliq := ⎜ ⎟ kJ ⎜ 419.064⋅ ⎟ kg ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ 180.17⋅ lb ⎟ m ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ BTU ⎟ ⋅ 69.73 ⎜ lbm ⎠ ⎝

⎛ 2584.8⋅ kJ ⎞ ⎜ kg ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 2609.9⋅ kg ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 2584.8⋅ kg ⎟ ⎜ Hvap := ⎜ ⎟ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 2676.0⋅ kg ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ BTU ⎟ ⎜ 1150.5⋅ lb ⎟ m ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ BTU ⎟ ⋅ 1105.8 ⎜ lbm ⎠ ⎝

268

0167⋅ lbm ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 3 ⎜ ft ⎟ 0.010⋅ gm ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜ 1.78 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.9094 ⋅ ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 8.3554⋅ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎜ 1.78 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.6493⋅ kJ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ kJ 0.044⋅ ⎜ gm ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 3 ft ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ 0.3121⋅ lb ⋅ rankine ⎟ m ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ BTU 0.80 ⎠ ⎛ 0.⎞ ⎛ 0.75 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.6493⋅ ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K Sliq := ⎜ ⎟ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 1.3069⋅ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ BTU ⎜ 0.80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 0.75 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 0.7568⋅ lb ⋅ rankine ⎟ m ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ BTU 1.017⋅ cm ⎟ gm ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ 3 ⎟ cm ⎟ ⎜ 1.75 ⎠ 269 .1326 ⋅ ⎜ lbm⋅ rankine ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎛ cm ⎞ ⎜ 1.75 ⎟ ⎜ 0.1511⋅ kJ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ kJ 7.1511⋅ ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K Svap := ⎜ ⎟ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 7.0161 ⋅ ⎜ lbm ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 8.9781 ⋅ ⎜ lbm⋅ rankine ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.75 ⎟ ⎜ 0.010⋅ ⎜ gm ⎟ Vliq := ⎜ ⎟ 3 cm ⎟ ⎜ 1.75 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.80 ⎟ η turbine := ⎜ ⎟ 0.80 ⎟ η pump := ⎜ ⎟ 0.8321 ⋅ ⎟ ⎜ kg⋅ K ⎟ ⎜ kJ ⎟ ⎜ 0.

733 ⎞ lbm =⎜ ⎜ ⎝ mdot6 ⎠ ⎝ 153.33⋅ kPa ⎟ ⎜ 14.29 ⎠ ⎛ mdot5 ⎞ ⎛ 145.64 ⎟ kg ⎜ ⎜ mdot3 ⎟ ⎜ 62.43 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ mdot2 ⎟ = ⎜ 108.7⋅ psi ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 1⋅ psi ⎠ H1 := H4 + Wpump S'3 = S2 x'3 := ⎯⎯⎯⎯ → S2 − Sliq Svap − Sliq ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → H'3 := ⎣ H + x' ⋅ H − H ⎡ liq 3 ( vap liq) ⎤ ⎦ Wturbine := H3 − H2 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → ( H2 − H1 ⋅ mdot) ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → H3 := ⎡ H + η ⋅ H' − H 2) ⎤ ⎣ 2 turbine ( 3 ⎦ ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → Wdot mdot := Wturbine + Wpump QdotH := QdotC := QdotH + Wdot Answers follow: ⎛ mdot1 ⎞ ⎛ 70.⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 100 ⎟ ⎜ 70 ⎟ 3 Wdot := −⎜ ⎟ ⋅ 10 ⋅ kW 50 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 50 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 80 ⎠ Wpump := ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → Vliq⋅ ( P1 − P4) η pump ⎛ 10000⋅ kPa ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 7000⋅ kPa ⎟ ⎜ 8500⋅ kPa ⎟ P1 := ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 6500⋅ kPa ⎟ ⎜ 950⋅ psi ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 1125⋅ psi ⎠ H4 := Hliq ⎛ 10⋅ kPa ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 20⋅ kPa ⎟ ⎜ 10⋅ kPa ⎟ P4 := ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 101.598 ⎠ sec ⎛ QdotH1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎛ 240705 ⎞ ⎜ QdotH ⎟ ⎜ 355111 ⎟ kJ 2⎟ ⎜ =⎜ ⎜ QdotH ⎟ ⎜ 213277 ⎟ sec 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 205061 ⎠ ⎜ QdotH 4⎠ ⎝ ⎛ QdotH5 ⎞ ⎛ 192801 ⎞ BTU ⎜ =⎜ ⎜ QdotH ⎝ 228033 ⎠ sec 6⎠ ⎝ 270 .13 ⎟ sec ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ mdot4 ⎠ ⎝ 67.

3.3282 ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ 7.332 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 0.6 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ kJ H2 := ⎜ 3565. and 650 degC: 3340.333 ⎠ gm H4 := 340.9 kg ⎠ ⎝ 7. Saturated liquid at 50 kPa (point 4) V4 := 1.244 ⎟ ⎜ 0.0912⋅ By Eq.5947⋅ Wpump := V4⋅ ( P4 − P1) H1 = 343. 8. (7.3 ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ 3792.24). Svap := 7.030⋅ cm 3 ⎯⎯⎯ → Wdot η := QdotH ⎛ 0.5891 kg⋅ K ⎠ ⎝ 271 .282 ⎟ ⎜ 0.348 kJ kg Sliq := 1.911 kJ kg H1 := H4 + Wpump The following vectors give values for temperatures of 450.⎛ QdotC1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎛ 160705 ⎞ ⎜ QdotC ⎟ ⎜ 255111 ⎟ kJ 2⎟ ⎜ =⎜ ⎜ QdotC ⎟ ⎜ 143277 ⎟ sec 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 155061 ⎠ ⎜ QdotC 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ QdotC5 ⎞ ⎛ 145410 ⎞ BTU ⎜ =⎜ ⎜ QdotC ⎝ 152208 ⎠ sec 6⎠ ⎝ 8.564⋅ kJ kg P4 := 3300⋅ kPa P1 := 50⋅ kPa Saturated liquid and vapor at 50 kPa: Hliq := H4 kJ kg⋅ K Hvap := 2646. 550.328 ⎟ η =⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.0⋅ kJ kg kJ kg⋅ K Wpump = 3.0373 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ kJ S2 := ⎜ 7.4 Subscripts refer to Fig.246 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.

332 ⎠ ⎝ Ans. and 10000 kPa at 600 degC 3664.S'3 := S2 H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) QH := ( H2 − H1) 0.9013 kg⋅ K ⎠ ⎝ .314 ⎟ ⎜ 0.3. Wpump := ⎡ ⎣V4⋅ ( P4 − P1)⎤ ⎦ 294.914 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x'3 = ⎜ 0.24).491 kg ⎠ ⎝ H1 := H4 + Wpump The following vectors give values for pressures of 5000. 7500.959 ⎟ ⎜ 0.297 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ η = ⎜ 0.5 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ kJ H2 := ⎜ 3643. gm H4 := 289.5 Subscripts refer to Fig.7 ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ 3622.9441⋅ By Eq. (7. 8.936 ⎟ ⎜ 299.0526 ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ 6.7695⋅ kJ kg⋅ K Sliq := 0.022⋅ cm 3 x'3 := S'3 − Sliq Svap − Sliq Wturbine := H'3 − H2 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → Wturbine + Wpump QH η := 0.999 ⎠ ⎝ 8.4⋅ kg Svap := 7.381 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ kJ H1 = ⎜ 296.2578 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ kJ S2 := ⎜ 7.302⋅ kJ kg P1 := 30⋅ kPa 5000 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ P4 := ⎜ 7500 ⎟ ⋅ kPa ⎜ 10000 ⎠ ⎝ Saturated liquid and vapor at 30 kPa: Hliq := H4 kJ kg⋅ K kJ Hvap := 2625.7 kg ⎠ ⎝ 272 7. Saturated liquid at 30 kPa (point 4) V4 := 1.

9 ⎟ kg ⎜ ⎝ 3049.442 ⎟ kJ =⎜ ⎜ −565.4⋅ kJ kg S1 := 7.78 ⎛ 3023.925 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x'3 = ⎜ 0.9 ⎞ ⎜ 3032.359 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ η = ⎜ 0.4939 ⎞ ⎜ 7.4898 ⎟ kJ S2 := ⎜ ⋅ ⎜ 7.2200⋅ kJ kg⋅ K S'2 := S1 For sat. and sat. 8. vap.3 ⎞ ⎜ 3194 ⎟ kJ H2 = ⎜ ⎜ 3200.2 at 7000 kPa and 640 degC: H1 := 3766.8321⋅ kJ kg Hvap := 2609.S'3 := S2 H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) QH := ( H2 − H1) 0.4851 ⎟ kg⋅ K ⎜ ⎝ 7.89 ⎟ kg ⎜ ⎝ −559.873 ⎠ ⎝ x'3 := S'3 − Sliq Svap − Sliq Wturbine := H'3 − H2 η := ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → Wturbine + Wpump QH 0.0 ⎠ W12 := η ⋅ ( H'2 − H1) H2 := H1 + W12 W12 ⎛ −579.453⋅ Sliq := 0.15 ⎞ ⎜ −572.4797 ⎠ .9⋅ Svap := 7. liq.8 ⎠ 273 ⎛ 7.386 ⎠ ⎝ Ans.6 From Table F.5 ⎟ kg ⎜ ⎝ 3206.375 ⎟ ⎜ 0.2 at four values for intermediate pressure P2: ⎛ 725 ⎞ ⎜ 750 ⎟ P2 := ⎜ ⋅ kPa ⎜ 775 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 800 ⎠ η := 0. at 20 kPa: Hliq := 251.9094⋅ kJ kg kJ kg⋅ K kJ kg⋅ K The following enthalpies are interpolated in Table F.5 ⎟ kJ H'2 := ⎜ ⋅ ⎜ 3040.895 ⎟ ⎜ 0.572 ⎠ ⎛ 3187.

4869⋅ kJ kg kJ kg⋅ K We can now find the temperature at this state by interplation in Table F. The work calculations must be repeated for THIS case: W12 := H2 − H1 W12 = −568.46 kJ kg H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) H'3 = 2.2 at P2.9⋅ S2 := 7.2. P .16⋅ kPa) = 3197.0⎤ = 765.811 ⎟ kJ ∆W = ⎜ ⎜ 5.9 linterp ( P2 .073 ⎟ kg ⎜ ⎝ 17.469 × 10 3 kJ kg 274 .16 kPa 2 ⎥ kJ ⎞ ⎛ ⎢⎜ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ kg ⎠ ⎦ (P2) Also needed are values of H2 and S2 at this pressure. 765.16⋅ kPa) = 7. H2 .5 kJ kg x'3 := S2 − Sliq Svap − Sliq x'3 = 0.723 ⎠ The work difference is essentially linear in P2. S2 . and we interpolate linearly to find the value of P2 for which the work difference is zero: linterp ⎢ ⎡ ∆W . 765.6 degC.4869 kJ kg kJ kg⋅ K H2 := 3197. This gives an intermediate steam temperature t2 of 366.where the entropy values are by interpolation in Table F.817 ⎞ ⎜ −7. Again we do linear interpolations: linterp ( P2 . x'3 := S2 − Sliq Svap − Sliq H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) W23 := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2) ∆W := W12 − W23 ⎛ −20.94 W23 := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2) W23 = −568. 0.

Work := W12 + W23 Work = −1137 kJ kg For a single isentropic expansion from the initial pressure to the final pressure.2 3 kJ x'3 = 0.903 W' := H'3 − H1 Whence the overall efficiency is: η overall := Work W' kg kJ kg η overall = 0.8202 Ans. 275 . which yields a wet exhaust: x'3 := S1 − Sliq Svap − Sliq H'3 := Hliq + x'3⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) H'3 = 2.38 × 10 W' = −1386.

586 kJ kg H3 := H2 + WI Isentropic expansion to 20 kPa: S'4 := S2 Hliq := 251. liq.0311⋅ kJ kg⋅ K S'3 := S2 By interpolation at 350 kPa and this entropy.8.78 H3 = 2.7 From Table F.9094⋅ kJ kg kJ kg⋅ K kJ kg⋅ K 276 .: Hvap := 2609. & vap.9⋅ Svap := 7. H'3 := 2770.6⋅ kJ kg η := 0.2 for steam at 4500 kPa and 500 degC: H2 := 3439.8321⋅ kJ kg Exhaust is wet: for sat.453⋅ Sliq := 0.3⋅ kJ kg S2 := 7.918 × 10 3 kJ WI := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2) kg WI = −521.

87 degC.083 − 1.2): H7 := 584.073⋅ cm 3 gm Also by approximation.32 × 10 K 277 .5⋅ kg Psat := 294. 132.564 × 10 3 3 kJ x'4 = 0. at 350 kPa (Table F.liq ⎝ 20 ⎠ gm⋅ K 1 ⋅⎛ ⎜ −4 1 3 P1 := P6 β = 9.294 kJ kg Wpump = 5.26⋅ kPa Vsat.063 ⎞ cm ⋅ Vsat. the definition of the volume expansivity yields: β := 1.841 For sat.270⋅ kJ kg t7 := 138.87 At this temperature.liq := 558.317 × 10 H4 = 2.017⋅ V5⋅ ( P6 − P5) η kJ kg cm gm P5 := 20⋅ kPa Wpump := H6 := H5 + Wpump H6 = 257.87 − 6 T1 := ( t1 + 273. liq.x'4 := S'4 − Sliq Svap − Sliq H'4 := Hliq + x'4⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) H'4 = 2.1 gives: kJ Hsat. interpolation in Table F. where the pressure is 4500 kPa and the temperature is: t1 := 138.15) ⋅ K t1 = 132.87 (degC) We need the enthalpy of compressed liquid at point 1.liq := 1.876 H4 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'4 − H2) kg 3 kJ kg P6 := 4500⋅ kPa H5 := Hliq V5 := 1.

8. (7.2861 Ans. Although entropy values are not needed for most points in the process.8.7431⋅ BTU lbm⋅ rankine 278 .567 kJ Wnet = −823.4⋅ BTU lbm η := 0.78 H3 = 1242. they are recorded here for future use in Problem 15.3 kJ Wnet QH η = 0.liq + Vsat. ( ) H1 = 561. H'3 := 1180. H1 := Hsat.8 Refer to figure in preceding problem.By Eq.2 BTU lbm WI := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2) WI = −219.6671⋅ BTU lbm⋅ rankine S'3 := S2 By interpolation at 50(psia) and this entropy. From Table F.liq⋅ 1 − β ⋅ T1 ⋅ ( P1 − Psat) By an energy balance on the feedwater heater: mass := H1 − H6 H3 − H7 ⋅ kg mass = 0.024 BTU lbm H3 := H2 + WI S3 := 1.305 kJ kg Work in 2nd section of turbine: WII := ( 1⋅ kg − mass) ⋅ ( H4 − H3) Wnet := ( WI + Wpump) ⋅ 1⋅ kg + WII QH := ( H2 − H1) ⋅ 1⋅ kg QH = 2878 kJ η := WII = −307.2⋅ BTU lbm S2 := 1.4 for steam at 650(psia) & 900 degF: H2 := 1461.25).13028 kg Ans.

at 50(psia) (Table F.1326⋅ x'4 := S'4 − Sliq Svap − Sliq H'4 := Hliq + x'4⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) H'4 = 931.8 BTU lbm x'4 = 0.21⋅ BTU lbm t7 := 281. & vap.8748 BTU lbm⋅ rankine V5 := 0.9781⋅ Sliq := 0.4): H6 := H5 + Wpump H7 := 250.8⋅ Svap := 1.67) ⋅ rankine t1 = 270.204 H4 = 1047.01 S7 := 0.01 − 11 T1 := ( t1 + 459.Isentropic expansion to 1(psia): Exhaust is wet: for sat. liq.219 BTU lbm ft 3 x4 = 0.831 H4 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'4 − H2) x4 := H4 − Hliq Hvap − Hliq BTU lbm S4 := Sliq + x4⋅ ( Svap − Sliq) S4 = 1.4112⋅ BTU lbm⋅ rankine We need the enthalpy of compressed liquid at point 1.: S'4 := S2 BTU lbm BTU lbm⋅ rankine Hliq := 69. where the pressure is 650(psia) and the temperature is t1 := 281.73⋅ BTU lbm BTU lbm⋅ rankine Hvap := 1105.944 P5 := 1⋅ psi V5⋅ ( P6 − P5) η H5 := Hliq lbm Wpump := Wpump = 2.489 P6 := 650⋅ psi For sat.0161⋅ BTU lbm H6 = 72. liq.01 279 .

WII = −158. Work in 2nd section of turbine: WII := ( 1⋅ lbm − mass) ⋅ ( H4 − H3) Wnet := ( WI + Wpump) ⋅ 1⋅ lbm + WII QH := ( H2 − H1) ⋅ 1⋅ lbm η := Wnet QH η = 0.liq⋅ β ⋅ ( P1 − Psat) By an energy balance on the feedwater heater: ( ) H1 = 257.051 BTU Wnet = −374.liq := 0.01 degF.liq := 0. H1 := Hsat.At this temperature.01726 − 0.586 BTU QH = 1.25) and (7. (7.18687 lbm Ans. interpolation in Table F. 270.liq + Vsat.95 × 10 −5 3 P1 := P6 1 rankine By Eq.liq⋅ 1 − β ⋅ T1 ⋅ ( P1 − Psat) S1 := Ssat.6 S1 = 0.01709 ⎞ ft β := ⋅⎛ ⋅ ⎜ Vsat.397 BTU lbm BTU lbm⋅ rankine mass := H1 − H6 H3 − H7 ⋅ lbm mass = 0.204 × 10 BTU 3 280 .1717⋅ ft 3 lbm BTU lbm⋅ rankine Ssat.96⋅ BTU lbm Vsat.3 gives: Psat := 41.liq + Vsat.87⋅ psi Hsat.liq := 238.3112 Ans.26).3960⋅ The definition of the volume expansivity yields: 0.liq ⎝ 20 ⎠ lbm⋅ rankine 1 β = 4.

2.1.1: kg kJ kg 281 . 5 deg higher than the temperature of the feed water to the boiler at point 1. from Table F.9⋅ 3 kJ WI := η ⋅ ( H'3 − H2) WI = −407.0 kPa.6 kJ kg H3 := H2 + WI From Table F. The steam at point 3 is superheated vapor at this pressure. corresponding to 195 degC.244 × 10 H10 := 829.1⋅ kJ kg S2 := 7. S'3 := S2 H'3 := 3142.80 H3 = 3. η := 0.2: H2 := 3652.6⋅ kJ kg By double interpolation in Table F.8. and if expansion from P2 to P3 is isentropic.9 Steam at 6500 kPa & 600 degC (point 2) Table F. is 1399.1258⋅ kJ kg⋅ K P2 := 6500⋅ kPa At point 3 the pressure must be such that the steam has a condensation temperature in feedwater heater I of 195 degC. Its saturation pressure.

15) ⋅ K V6 := Vliq [Eq. At point 6. (7.678 K t7 := tsat + + t7 t8 := t9 + 5 .408 × 10 −4 1 3 CP := 272. the properties of sat. we have saturated liquid at 20 kPa. and that fixes the pressure of stream 4 so that its saturation temperature is 5 degC higher. liq.453⋅ Sliq := 0. then t8 is the mid-temperature between t7 and t1(190 degC). vap.25) for delta T gives: ∆T67 := ∆H67 − Vliq⋅ 1 − β ⋅ Tsat ⋅ ( P2 − P6) CP ∆T67 K t9 := 190 − t7 2 282 ( ) ∆T67 = 0.24)] P6 := 20⋅ kPa Wpump = 8. and its properties from Table F.012 ⎞ cm β := ⋅⎜ ⋅ Vliq ⎝ 20 ⎠ gm⋅ K β = 5.8321⋅ kJ kg Hvap := 2609.18 Solving Eq. At the exhaust conditions of 20 kPa.25) for the calculation of the temperature change from point 6 to point 7. (7. They can be estimated from data in Table F. and sat. For this we need values of the heat capacity and volume expansivity of water at about 60 degC.9094⋅ kJ kg kJ kg⋅ K Vliq := 1.09 H6 := Hliq Wpump := V6⋅ ( P2 − P6) η kJ kg Tsat := ( tsat + 273.2 kJ ⋅ 10 kg⋅ K kJ kg⋅ K K CP = 4.2 are: tsat := 60.1: 1 ⎛ 1.023 − 1.Similar calculations are required for feedwater heater II. (7.238 ∆H67 := Wpump We apply Eq.0 − 230.9⋅ Svap := 7.017⋅ cm gm 3 kJ kg⋅ K If we find t7. are: Hliq := 251.

9⋅ kPa Psat.128) ⋅ ∆V 9 1 gm ⋅ ∆V 1 ∆T := 20⋅ K Vsat.25).11563 kg Ans. .089 kJ kg Now we can make an energy balance on feedwater heater I to find the mass of steam condensed: mI := H1 − H9 H3 − H10 ⋅ kg 283 mI = 0.1: H8 := 547.691 kJ kg From Table F.1 + Vsat.9 ∆T −4 1 β 1 := Vsat.1 := 1255.1 := 1.9 T1 = 463.1 at saturation temperatures t9 and t1: 3 Hsat. (7.056) ⋅ gm gm β 9 := 1 ⋅ ∆V1 := ( 1.6⋅ kJ kg Vsat.9 := 526.226 × 10 kJ kg K H9 := Hsat.9⋅ 1 − β 9⋅ T9 ⋅ ( P2 − Psat. the streams are compressed liquid (P=6500 kPa).1 ∆T −3 1 β 9 = 8.15 K H1 = 810.15 + t9) ⋅ K At points 9 and 1.142⋅ cm 3 cm gm cm 3 Psat.9 := 1.t7 = 60.15 + 190) ⋅ K H1 := Hsat.1) ( ( ) ) H9 = 530. and we find the effect of pressure on the liquid by Eq.5⋅ kg ∆V9 := ( 1.38 T9 := ( 273.38 H7 := Hliq + ∆H67 H7 = 259.1⋅ kPa cm 3 kJ Hsat.9) T1 := ( 273.065⋅ Vsat.9 + Vsat.9 := 234.156 − 1.075 − 1.1⋅ 1 − β 1⋅ T1 ⋅ ( P2 − Psat.1 := 807.9⋅ kJ kg t9 = 125.92 × 10 K β 1 = 1.768 t8 = 130. Values by interpolation in Table F.

where the exhaust is wet. Isentropic expansion of steam from the initial conditions to this pressure results in a slightly superheated vapor.4 kJ kg H5 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'5 − H2) The work of the turbine is: Wturbine := WI⋅ 1⋅ kg + ( 1⋅ kg − mI) ⋅ ( H4 − H3) . The final stage of expansion in the turbine is to 20 kPa. 284 .28 kPa..38 (see above) is the saturation temperture in feedwater heater II.09971 kg Ans.1 is 273.3265 Ans.842 × 10 kJ 3 η := Wturbine + Wpump⋅ 1⋅ kg QH η = 0..889 Then kg H5 = 2609. t8 = 130.941 × 10 3 kJ kg We can now make an energy balance on feedwater heater II to find the mass of steam condensed: mII := ( H9 − H7) ⋅ 1⋅ kg − mI⋅ ( H10 − H8) H4 − H8 mII = 0. The saturation pressure by interpolation in Table F.2⋅ kJ kg Then H4 := H2 + η ⋅ ( H'4 − H2) H4 = 2. For isentropic expansion.2: H'4 := 2763.2 kJ QH := ( H2 − H1) ⋅ 1⋅ kg QH = 2.349 × 10 3 kJ x'5 = 0.The temperature at point 8. x'5 := S2 − Sliq Svap − Sliq H'5 := Hliq + x'5⋅ ( Hvap − Hliq) H'5 = 2. + ( 1⋅ kg − mI − mII) ⋅ ( H5 − H4) Wturbine = −936. for which by double interpolation in Table F.

48⋅ bar ω := 0.945⋅ 10 −6 .15) with D = 0: τ := 0.1⋅ K Pc := 36.0 ) mol 285 ..114 τ := Find ( τ ) The enthalpy change for this final temperature is given by Eq. let the initial state be represented by symbols with subscript zero and the final state by symbols with no subscript.92) combined with Eq. P .3064 −3 C := Pr0 := P0 −11.181 For isentropic expansion in the turbine. P . 37. 1.853⋅ 10 ∆Hig = −1.8. 0.141 × 10 4 J ( −3 . (6.853⋅ 10 B := K Tr0 = 1.945⋅ 10 K 2 −6 Pc P Pr := Pc Pr0 = 1. ω − SRB T .15⋅ K ∆S := 0⋅ J mol⋅ K P0 := 4800⋅ kPa P := 450⋅ kPa For the heat capacity of isobutane: A := 1.123 Use generalized second-virial correlation: The entropy change is given by Eq. Then T0 := 533..⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎜P 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ 0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎞ ⎛ τ ⋅ T0 ⎢ ⎥ + SRB .852 T := τ ⋅ T0 Tr := T Tc T = 454.91). T . −11.677 Tr0 := T0 Tc 37. with HRB at the above T: ∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T0 . (5.3158 Pr = 0. (6.8 (guess) Given ∆S = R⋅ ⎢A⋅ ln ( τ ) + ⎢ B⋅ T0 + C⋅ T0 ⋅ ⎜ 2 ⎛ τ + 1 ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ( τ − 1) − ln ⎛ P ⎞ . ω ( ) ⎜ r r0 r0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ Tc ⎠ ⎦ ⎡ ⎡ ⎣ τ = 0.49 K Tr = 1.10 Isobutane: Tc := 408.677 .

37.8 mol J mol Wpump := Vliq⋅ ( P0 − P) The flow rate of isobutane can now be found: mdot := 1000⋅ kW Wturbine + Wpump mdot = 119.24). ω − HRB Tr0 .59 mol sec Ans. (7. Pr .15) ⋅ K Tsat = 307.7⋅ mol Zc := 0. The saturation temperature at 450 kPa is given by the Antoine equation solved for t degC: VP := 450⋅ kPa Avp := 14. 0.57100 tsat := Bvp VP ⎞ Avp − ln ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ kPa ⎠ cm 3 Bvp := 2606.853⋅ 10 286 ( −3 .15 K Enthalpy change of cooling: HRB at the initial state has already been calculated. Pr0 .0 ) .15 K b.48 to 307.775 − Cvp tsat = 34 Cvp := 274.72). (3. and for this we need an estimate of the molar volume of isobutane as a saturated liquid at 450 kPa. Condensation of the vapor at 307.068 Tsat := ( tsat + 273.362 Wpump = 488.∆Hturbine := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Tr .15 K Vc := 262. −11. This is given by Eq.15 K: ∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T . ω ∆Hturbine = −8850. Cooling of the vapor from 454. The enthalpy change of the isobutane in the cooler/condenser is calculated in two steps: a.945⋅ 10 −6 . Tsat . For saturated vapor at 307. 1.6 J mol Wturbine := ∆Hturbine ( ( ) ( )) The work of the pump is given by Eq.282 Trsat := Tsat Tc cm 3 Trsat = 0.753 2⎤ ⎡ ⎢ ⎥ (1−Trsat) 7⎦ ⎣ Vliq := Vc⋅ Zc Vliq = 112.677 .

11 Isobutane: Tc := 408.187 8. ω ∆Ha = −18082 J mol ( ( ) ( )) For the condensation process. (4. let the initial (inlet) state be represented by symbols with subscript zero and the final (exit) state by symbols with no subscript.15⋅ K ∆S := 0⋅ J mol⋅ K P0 := 3400⋅ kPa P := 450⋅ kPa molwt := 58.12) and (4.930 − Trn 0.756 × 10 4 J mol ∆Ha := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Trsat .4⋅ K R⋅ Tn⋅ 1.13): Tn := 261.092⋅ ⎜ ln ⎜ ∆Hn := Trn := Tn Tc Trn = 0. Qdotin := Wturbine + Wpump ⋅ mdot + Qdotout Qdotout = −4360 kW Qdotin = 5360 kW η = 0.1⋅ K Pc := 36.181 For isentropic expansion in the turbine. we estimate the latent heat by Eqs.∆Hig = −1.118 × 10 4 J mol ⎛ 1 − Trsat ⎞ ∆Hb := −∆Hn⋅ ⎜ ⎝ 1 − Trn ⎠ ∆Hb = −18378 J mol Qdotout := mdot⋅ ∆Ha + ∆Hb ( ) η := 1000⋅ kW Qdotin Ans.641 ⎛ ⎛ Pc ⎞ ⎞ − 1. Then T0 := 413. Pr .013 ⎝ ⎝ bar ⎠ ⎠ 0.48⋅ bar ω := 0.38 ∆Hn = 2. Pr .123 gm mol 287 . ω − HRB Tr .

Pr .677 .6 J mol 288 ( ( ) ) Wturbine := ∆Hturbine .945⋅ 10 K 2 −6 Tr0 = 1. −11.8 Given (guess) ∆S = R⋅ ⎢A⋅ ln ( τ ) + ⎢ B⋅ T0 + C⋅ T0 ⋅ ⎜ 2 ⎛ τ + 1 ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ( τ − 1) − ln ⎛ P ⎞ .⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎜P 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ 0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ T ⋅ τ ⎞ ⎛ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎢+ SRB ⎜ Tc . 37.160 The entropy change is given by Eq.0 ) mol ∆Hturbine := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Tr .819 τ := Find ( τ ) The enthalpy change for this final temperature is given by Eq. (6.853⋅ 10 K −3 C := −11.15) with D = 0: τ := 0. (5.677 Tr0 := T0 Tc B := 37.0124 Pr0 := P0 Pc P Pr := Pc Pr0 = 0.91).For the heat capacity of isobutane: A := 1. with HRB at the above T: ∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T0 . Pr .3 × 10 3 J ( −3 . 1. designating values by HRLK and SRLK: HRLK0 := −1.809 T := τ ⋅ T0 Tr := T Tc T = 334.92) combined with Eq.945⋅ 10 −6 . ω − HRLK0 ∆Hturbine = −4852.08 K Tr = 0.530 SRLK0 := −1. (6.. ω − SRLK0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎡ ⎡ ⎣ τ = 0. 0.853⋅ 10 ∆Hig = −9. T .932 Pr = 0..123 Use Lee/Kesler correlation for turbine-inlet state.

15 K b.0 ) ∆Ha := ∆Hig + R⋅ Tc⋅ HRB Trsat . 1. Pr .10: ∆Hb := −18378⋅ J mol Qdotout := mdot⋅ ∆Ha + ∆Hb Qdotout = −27553 kW Ans. Cooling of the vapor from 334. (7.753 . Condensation of the vapor at 307. ω ∆Ha = −2975 J mol ( ( ) ( )) For the condensation process. 0.15 K Enthalpy change of cooling: HRB at the initial state has already been calculated.945⋅ 10 −6 ∆Hig := R⋅ ICPH T . For saturated vapor at 307.15 K it was found in Problem 8.10 as: Tsat := 307. ω − HRB Tr . Tsat .The work of the pump is given by Eq. −11. 289 ( ) . the enthalpy change was found in Problem 8.677 .853⋅ 10 ∆Hig = −2.817 kJ mol ( .36⋅ cm mol 3 Wpump := Vliq⋅ ( P0 − P) Wpump = 331.15K Trsat := Tsat Tc −3 Trsat = 0.24). and the required value for the molar volume of saturated-liquid isobutane at 450 kPa (34 degC) is the value calculated in Problem 8.07 to 307.462 J mol For the cycle the net power OUTPUT is: mdot := 75 kg ⋅ molwt sec Wdot := −mdot⋅ ( Wturbine + Wpump) Wdot = 5834 kW Ans. 37. Pr . The enthalpy change of the isobutane in the cooler/condenser is calculated in two steps: a.10: Vliq := 112.

175 Ans. η = 0.8.8 W'pump = 414. Qdotin = 33280 kW Ans. We now recalculate results for a cycle for which the turbine and pump each have an efficiency of 0. The increase in pump work shows up as a decrease in the heat added in the heater/boiler.For the heater/boiler: Qdotin := Wdot + Qdotout η := Wdot Qdotin Qdotin = 33387 kW Ans.. Thus Qdotin := Qdotin − ( W'pump − Wpump) ⋅ mdot η := Wdot Qdotin η = 0.e.3 J mol Ans. Thus Qdotout := Qdotout + ( Wturbine − W'turbine) ⋅ mdot Qdotout = −28805 kW Ans. 290 . i.8⋅ Wturbine The work of the pump is: W'pump := Wpump 0. W'turbine = −3882 J mol Wdot := −mdot⋅ ( W'turbine + W'pump) Wdot = 4475 kW The decrease in the work output of the turbine shows up as an increase in the heat transferred out of the cooler condenser.134 Ans. The work of the turbine is 80% of the value calculated above. W'turbine := 0.

434 ⎠ 291 Ans.12) now becomes: ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ ⎛ 0. re = 2.341 ⎟ η =⎜ ⎜ 0. Eq.13 Refer to Fig.248 ⎞ ⎜ 0.841 8.10.14 ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ 5 Ratio := ⎜ ⎟ ⎜7 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝9 ⎠ γ −1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎢ γ ⎥ 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎢ ⎥ η := 1 − ⎜ Ratio ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ Ratio = PB PA γ := 1. 8.396 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.30c): 1 CP := 7 ⋅R 2 PD := 5⋅ bar γ 1 TC := 293. (8.15⋅ K PC⋅ VC = PD⋅ VD γ γ := 1.30b): ⎛ PD ⎞ TD := TC⋅ ⎜ ⎝ PC ⎠ TA := QDA := 1500⋅ QDA CP J mol QDA = CP⋅ ( TA − TD) R⋅ T C + TD TA = 515.35 Eq. (3.4 ⎛ PD ⎞ = ⎜ V D ⎝ PC ⎠ VC γ or ⎛ PD ⎞ r := ⎜ ⎝ PC ⎠ γ −1 γ γ r = 3.157 Ans. PC := 1⋅ bar By Eq. (3. .845 K re = VB VA = VC VA = PC R⋅ T A PA PA := PD re := T C PA ⋅ T A PC Ans.8.

Since the two work terms are equal but of opposite signs. (7.552 292 .15⋅ K CP := ⋅ R 2 By Eq.8. cr := 6.15⋅ K TC := 1373. 7 TA := 303.22) R ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ CP ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎢⎛ PB ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ 7 WAB = CP⋅ TA⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ = CP⋅ TA⋅ ⎝ cr − 1⎠ ⎣⎝ PA ⎠ ⎦ R ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ CP ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎢⎛ PD ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ 7 WCD = CP⋅ TC⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ = CP⋅ TC⋅ ⎝ er − 1⎠ ⎣⎝ PC ⎠ ⎦ where cr is the compression ratio and er is the expansion ratio.5 er := 0.16 Figure shows the air-standard turbojet power plant on a PV diagram.5 (guess) Given ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎜ 7 ⎜ 7 TC⋅ ⎝ er − 1⎠ = −TA⋅ ⎝ cr − 1⎠ er := Find ( er) er = 0.

(7.By Eq.355 .0 . 0.05bar PB := 7. 3. PE := 1⋅ bar PD := cr⋅ er⋅ PE PD = 3. 8.575⋅ 10 Cpmair = 29.11) γ −1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎢ ⎥ γ 2 ⋅ γ ⋅ P ⋅ V P ⎥ D D ⎢ ⎛ E⎞ 2 2 uE − uD = ⋅⎢ 1 − ⎜ ⎥ γ−1 ⎣ ⎝ PD ⎠ ⎦ (A) We note the following: er = PD PC cr = PB PA = PC PE cr⋅ er = PD PE The following substitutions are made in (A): uD = 0 Then 2⎤ ⎡ 7⎥ ⎢ 7 R 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎥ uE := 2⋅ ⋅ ⋅ TD⋅ ⎢ 1 − ⎜ 2 molwt ⎣ ⎝ cr⋅ er ⎠ ⎦ γ−1 γ = 2 R = 7 CP PD⋅ VD = R⋅ TD molwt := 29 PE PD gm mol = 1 cr⋅ er uE = 843.8 Assume air to be an ideal gas with mean heat capacity (final temperature by iteration): Cpmair := MCPH 298.921 J mol⋅ K 293 ( −3 .17 TA := 305⋅ K PA := 1.589 bar Ans. (7.15K .5bar η := 0.4 m sec Ans. 0.016⋅ 10 ⋅ R 5 ) . 582K .18): TD = TC⋅ ⎜ ⎛ PD ⎞ ⎝ PC ⎠ 2 7 R CP This may be written: TD := TC⋅ er By Eq. −0.

593 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 0.21N-2) mol O2 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 2 ⎟ n := ⎜ ⎜ .126 K Combustion: CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O Basis: Complete combustion of 1 mol CH4.79N mol N2.1 for 298 K: 4.470 ⎟ A := ⎜ ⎜ 3.227 ⎠ .21⋅ N − 2 ⎠ i := 1 .157 ⎞ ⎜ 0.280 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 3.15 − 300) ⋅ K ∆HR = −4. The value for air is given above.217*R..638 (This is the final value after iteration) ∆HR := Cpmair⋅ N⋅ ( 298. The solution process requires iteration for N. Because the combustion is adiabatic.121 ⎟ 5 D := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.045 ⎞ ⎜ 1. For methane the temperature change is very small. the mean heat capacities for air and methane are required. Assume a value for N until the above energy balance is satisfied. 0. 4 294 ⎛ 5.79⋅ N ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ .217⋅ R⋅ ( 298.040 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ −0.03) ⋅ K + 4. Reactants are N mol of air and 1mol CH4.15 − 582.506 ⎠ ⎛ −1. the basic equation is: ∆HR + ∆H298 + ∆HP = 0 For ∆H_R.457 ⎞ ⎜ 3. and (0.292 × 10 3 J mol TB := TA + Wsair Cpmair TB = 582.Compressor: R ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ Cpmair Cpmair⋅ TA ⎢⎛ PB ⎞ ⎥ Wsair := ⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ η ⎣⎝ PA ⎠ ⎦ Wsair = 8. use the value given in Table C.450 ⎟ − 3 B := ⎜ ⋅ 10 ⎜ 0.896 × 10 5 J mol The product stream contains: 1 mol CO2. 2mol H2O.639 ⎠ ⎛ 1. (a) TC := 1000K N := 57.

387 × 10 CpmP := MCPH 298. −1. 198. −1.517 B = 0.638 moles of combustion product: R ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ Cpm 58.K . to 1. Ans.036 D = −1.) mol Thus..∑ ni = 58. Thus iteration starts with this value. For an initial calculation use the mean heat capacity already determined. and depends on the temperature of the exhaust gases from the turbine. 198. 343. The mean heat capacity is that of the combustion gases.0 . This calculation yields an exhaust temperature of about 390 K. .15K) ∆HP = 1.) Ans.0361 . B. 0. Parameters A.0361 .5bar The pertinent equations are analogous to those for the compressor. which must therefore be found by iteration. 0. Assume expansion of the combustion products in the turbine is to 1(atm). and D have the final values determined above.3872⋅ 10 ⋅ R Cpm = 1. 1000.e.292 × 10 J mol 6 J ( ) mol From Ex.15K .3872⋅ 10 ⋅ R ∆HP := CpmP⋅ ( TC − 298.638 i A := ∑ ( ni⋅Ai) i B := ∑ ( ni⋅ Bi) i D := ∑ ( ni⋅Di) i 5 5 A = 198.12K . Cpm := MCPH 1000K . N = 57.0 .0133 bar: PD := 1. 0.214 × 10 6 J mol TD := TC + Ws Cpm TD = 343.638⋅ Cpm⋅ TC ⎢⎛ PD ⎞ ⎥ Ws := ⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ η ⎣⎝ PC ⎠ ⎦ Ws = −1.0133bar PC := 7.123 K 295 (Final result of iteration.517 .223 J (This result is sufficiently close to zero. i.517 . 4.7: ∆H298 := −802625 ∆HR + ∆H298 + ∆HP = 136.849 × 10 3 ( 5 ) J mol⋅ K For 58. 0.638 moles of air per mole of methane fuel.

4K η Carnot := 1 − TC TH TH := 300K η Carnot = 0. 8.Wsnet := Ws + Wsair⋅ N Wsnet = −7.123 5 Wsnet := −5.00 dollars GJ Cost_electricity := Cost_fuel ⎡ ⎣η tm⋅ η me⋅ ( 1 − line_losses)⎤ ⎦ cents kW⋅ hr Ans. with the following results: (b) TC := 1200 (c) TC := 1500 N := 37.377 Assume as a basis: QH := QC ∆ Hnlv W η HE QC := QH⋅ 1 − η HE ( ) QC = 1.48 N := 24. Cost_electricity = 0.629 W := 1kJ QH = 2.651 kJ W = 0.206 kJ mol η HE := 0.651 kJ ∆Hnlv := 8.6⋅ η Carnot η HE = 0.94 8.365⋅ 10 5 TD := 343.95 line_losses := 20% Cost_fuel := 4. (J per mole of methane) Parts (b) and (c) are solved in exactly the same way.364 × 10 5 J mol Ans. 296 .35 η me := 0.18 η tm := 0.07 Wsnet := −7.05 This is about 1/2 to 1/3 of the typical cost charged to residential customers.201 mol kJ Ans.19 TC := 111.7519⋅ 10 TD := 598.

c) The thermal efficiency is low and high fluid rates are required to generate reasonable power.6⋅ 2 3 TC := ( 6 + 273.20 TH := ( 27 + 273.15)K η Carnot = 0.028 Ans. 297 . This argues for working fluids that are relatively inexpensive. and propane.07 η actual = 0. Ans.8. n-butane.15)K TC a) η Carnot := 1 − TH b) η actual := η Carnot⋅ 0. Candidates that provide reasonable pressures at the required temperature levels include ammonia.

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