Alexis Smith English 301 10/25/12 Literature Review Draft Introduction The focus of this literature review is determining the

positive and negative effects social networking sites have on corporations versus non- profit organizations. Both groups want to spread information about their organizations, but for very different reasons. As a result, they use social networking sites in different ways. The goal of this review is to discern the ways in which social networking works for and against corporations and on-profits. The audience for this review consists of professional writers interested in social networking, as well as individuals interested in business and charity/community work. Sources 1. Westland, J. J. (2012). The adoption of social networking technologies in cinema releases. Information Technology & Management, 13(3), 167-181. doi:10.1007/s10799-012-0114-0 This article discusses the ways in which social networking promotion affects cinema releases. The author argues that social networking strategies are more "cost-effective" (Westland), since traditional advertising campaigns that include tv and print advertising spots are so expensive. Westland uses data from internet search engines to conduct his research. The quantitative data that results from his research will help me

illustrate the effects of social networking in advertising. Also, the idea that advertising through social networks is so much cheaper than traditional advertising campaigns strikes me as a point I should research further. 2. A systematic examination of the use of Online social networking sites for sexual health promotion. (2011). BMC Public Health, 11(1), 583-591. doi:10.1186/14712458-11-583 This article examines how and with what frequency social networking sites are used for sexual health promotion. It argues that organizations decided to start using the sites to promote awareness because of the ever increasing interest in social networking. Researchers gathered data and information from scientific literature, electronic sources, and social networking sites. This type of research yields both quantitative and qualitative data. In the end, the researchers exemplified 178 examples of sexual health promotion on social networking sites. This article offers a different type of advertising perspective to my research question, since it does not deal with companies selling a product, but rather mostly non-profit organizations raising sexual health awareness. It's research and data showed me how advertising through social networking can be used for the good of communities, rather than just financial gain.

3. Ardito, S. C. (2012). Pharma's Battle With Social Media. Searcher, 20(2), 44-48.

This article explores the conflict that followed Facebook's 2011 decision to take away pharmaceutical companies' ability to restrict users from commenting on company

Facebook pages. Pharmaceutical companies want the FDA to create rules and regulations to prevent Facebook users from criticizing companies/brands, as well as discussing adverse effects that companies would then have to report and investigate. Another major problem social networking sites present for companies is that the criticisms will remain on the internet unless they are manually removed, even after the issues brought up are resolved. This article is valuable to my research because it depicts how advertising and publicity through social networking sites can be problematic for companies and organizations. The concept that regulatory laws should be enacted to protect companies from damaging criticism is a point I would like to explore further. 4. Waters, R. D., Burnett, E., Lamm, A., & Lucas, J. (2009). Engaging stakeholders through social networking: How nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Public Relations Review, 35(2), 102-106. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2009.01.006 This article discusses how organizations have started using social network sites as a main component of their public relations strategies. The author touches on the fact that forprofit organizations use social networking to promote products, and then acknowledges that there is a lack if information relating to social networking use by non-profits. The article analyzes 275 Facebook profiles associated with non-profits, hoping to shed light on how they are used. This article is valuable to my research questions because it identifies an area where there are gaps in research. The methods they use to analyze the profiles could help me further the study of non-profit social networking. 5. Lovejoy, K., Waters, R. D., & Saxton, G. D. (2012). Engaging stakeholders through Twitter: How nonprofit organizations are getting more out of 140 characters or less. Public Relations Review, 38(2), 313-318. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2012.01.005

This article discusses the features of Twitter and studies the way non-profits use the site to engage viewers. The article analyzes non-profit organizations and their activities on Twitter. Activities they focus on are tweet frequency, following behavior, hyperlinks, hashtags, public messages, retweets, and multimedia files. After examining these factors, the article determines that non-profits are not successfully engaging the public through the social networking site. These findings are interesting, because they show areas where non-profits can improve to better utilize social networking. 6. Quain, J. R. (2010). Social Network Cause and Effect. U.S. News & World Report, 147(10), 36-38. This article examines the ways in which charities use social networking sites to promote their causes and the use of the sites to actually create charitable organizations. It also discusses how social networking can encourage volunteerism for various causes. This article is relevant because it further explains how non-profits utilize social networking and also adds something new by discussing volunteerism. 7. Krause, S., & Quick, D. (2011). Using technology to help save mothers and babies. Forced Migration Review, (38), 16-17. This article discusses how a particular non-profit organization, “Mama: Together for Safe Births in Crises”, uses social networking. It emphasizes the fact that social networking helps create a community of health care workers around the world. Through the online community, members can share information and tools to benefit the cause. This article is important because it focuses on a specific non-profit, allowing it to go into more detail. Also, it emphasizes the globalized nature and potential of social networking sites.

8. Switzer, C. (2012). How Charities Can Face Down Troublemakers on Social Networks. Chronicle Of Philanthropy, 24(8), 1. This article explains how non-profit organizations deal with criticism on social networking sites, such as Facebook. Apparently, many non-profits have issues with continuous criticism by certain individuals who are only interested in starting fights. These confrontations mainly occur because not everyone agrees with some non-profits’ causes. This subject is interesting because there are not many studies that address how social networking can work against non-profits and their causes. Conclusion The information and sources included in this review cover the general ways in which corporations and non-profits use social networking sites. In order to contribute to the existing research, it would be beneficial to study more specific corporations and organizations. Also, more studies should be conducted on the negative effects of social networking, because there is a lack of research in that area.

Smitko, K. (2012). Donor engagement through Twitter. Public Relations Review, 38(4), 633-635. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2012.05.012

Berkman, J. (2011). In Reaching Young Adults, Nonprofits Seek to Appeal to Them as a 'Tribe'. Chronicle Of

Philanthropy, 23(16), 23-24.

Switzer, C. (2012). How Charities Can Face Down Troublemakers on Social Networks. Chronicle of Philanthropy, 24(8), 1.

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