# INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHS WHICH ARE LINKED STRUCTURES

Roger B. Eggleton
Mathematics Department, Illinois State University Normal, IL 61790, U.S.A.

For Severino V. Gervacio, on his 65th birthday.
Abstract: This paper provides an introduction to graphs which are linked pairs, linked chains, or linked cycles. These structures allow for a generalized notion of graph factorization, permitting regular decomposition of many graphs into isomorphic links.

1. An unconventional “factorization” Consider the graph H in Fig. 1. This is an identity graph, that is, its only automorphism is the identity map on its vertices. Nevertheless it has a more subtle structural regularity which is of interest. For any subset V of the vertex set of H, let H[V] be the subgraph of H induced by V. In particular, for A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6,7} and B = {1, 2, 3, 4,8,9,10} let G0 = H[ A] and G1 = H[B] . These induced subgraphs both have order 7 and size 6. Indeed, each is isomorphic to the smallest identity tree T (a 3-legged spider with legs of length 1, 2 and 3), so H contains two isomorphic induced subgraphs. In ! two subgraphs comprise ! H. Thus H “factorizes” into fact G0 " G1 = H , so these ! two copies of the tree T. However G0 " G1 = H[1, 2, 3, 4] # 2 P2 , so G0 and G1 are not edge-disjoint. This “factorization” differs from a conventional factorization in two ways: it is less demanding insofar as its “factors” may share edges, but it is more demanding insofar as its “factors” are not simply subgraphs, they are ! by their vertex sets. ! ! subgraphs which are induced 3 7 4 5 6 H[A]

! !

9

8 H

2

1

10

H[ B ]

Figure 1. An unconventional “factorization” of H. 2. Linked pairs Let us generalize from the example in Fig. 1. Choose any finite simple graph G of order g ≥ 2, and an induced proper subgraph K of order k, where 1 " k < g . Label the vertices of K with the positive integers [1..k], and extend this labeling so that the positive integers [1..g] label all the vertices of G. Let K* be an

!

. so " (G0 ) = G1 in Fig.(2 g " k )]. H = G " G#. There are eight possible isomorphisms from K* to K. ! ! graph H is the linked pair with initial link G The new 0 = G . ! ! ! g ! ! G ! c b d K* = K b a e f a d e σ: 9 σ(a) = d σ(b) = e σ(d) = b σ(e) = a 6 5 2 1 G0 3 4 7 8 4 3 2 G1 1 10 Figure 2.GRAPHS WHICH ARE LINKED STRUCTURES 2 ! induced subgraph of G isomorphic to K. The subgraph is the kernel of the linked pair. " (7) = 10 . and " ( j ) = g + i if j is the ith vertex of G not in K*. . k ] " [( g + 1).. The resulting linked pair H = G0 " G1 is precisely the graph H in Fig.. K. " (2) = 4. as specified in Fig. Then " is the bijection " (1) = 3.. labeled as in Fig.. in [1]. so K = H[ A " B] = H[1. ! " and link isomorphism . is labeled by the positive integers [1. These notions were introduced and developed in ! ! purpose of collaboration with Peter Adams and James MacDougall.7] so that K is labeled with [1. " (3) = 2.(2 g % k )] . K* and σ. graph isomorphism from G to ! The resulting graph. the 3-legged spider with legs of length 1. 2. 2 and 3. The procedure is the linked pair construction ! with ingredients G. ! " (4) = 1.. k ] .. One possible relabeling of G with [1. K = G " G 0 1 ! ! ! K* is the prekernel ... a copy of G labeled by [1.4] yields G0 in Fig. let G be T. g ] # [1. and σ is the ! shift. g ] and B = [1. there is always at least one available choice for K*. " (6) = 9. k ] " [( g + 1). Choose one of them to be σ. k ] \$ [( g + 1). 2. where ! G0 = G = H[ A] and G1 ! = G" = H[B].. and let K* = K. 2.(2 g # k )]. Let K be the induced subgraph 2 P2 shown. Extend σ to a bijection " : [1. by requiring " (i ) = # (i ) for every vertex i of K*. since K* could be K itself. Then " induces a G". copy link G1 = G". ! ! Note that if A = [1. 1. The ! ! formal introduction to the main constructions the present paper is to give a less in that paper. Let " : K * # K be an isomorphism. " (5) = 8. For example.(2 g # k )] . 2. Linked pair construction for H.. then H != G0 " G1 ..

e . along with the new linked pair H = G0 " G1 . " (7) = 10 . " ( e) = e . " ( d ) = d . For the first. " (5) = 2. A third linked pair. Relabeling G like G0 in Fig. K* be the same as in Fig. let G and K be the same as in Fig. Then G1 = " (G0 ) . 3.GRAPHS WHICH ARE LINKED STRUCTURES 3 To see more of the richness of the linked pair construction. 2. but for σ take the isomorphism " ( a) = b . " (c ) = b . 2 results in " being " (1) = 8. " ( e) = e . 1. let us examine two relatives of the example constructed in Fig. K. " (3) = 3. ! ! 6 ! 5 2 1 9 8 1 2 G1 3 4 10 G0 6 3 7 ! 4 ! ! 4 10 7 3 5 8 9 2 H 1 Figure 3. For a further example. let the ingredients G. " (4) = 4. 2 results in " being " (1) = 2. A linked pair related to Fig. " (6) = 9. 2 and “deconstructed” in Fig. 4. ! ! ! ! 6 ! ! H 5 4 7 3 3 2 4 7 5 6 1 G0 10 2 1 8 G1 9 4 3 ! ! 9 10 2 1 8 Figure 4. are as shown in Fig. " (3) = 9. " (5) = 8. but now choose K * = G[ b . " (7) = 3 . " (4) = 4. . " (6) = 10. " (2) = 1. and the new linked pair H = G0 " G1 . 2. Relabeling G like G0 in Fig. f ] and let σ be the isomorphism " ( b) = a . The corresponding G1 = " (G0 ) is shown in Fig. c . " (2) = 1. " ( b) = a . " ( f ) = d . 2.

The iterated " -digraph D2 (" ) reveals the essential structure of H 4 (G. ! ! the linear ! ordering to the trajectories of " corresponding to Assign a linear ordering of their least members. The " -digraph D(" ) has another important use: the trajectories of " show us how to create an intrinsic labeling of the vertices of the relevant linked pair.. the " -digraph D(" ) in Fig. The new intrinsic labeling of any vertex v has the form (i.10 . j) with 0 " j " µ # 1.8 ! ! ! ! ! . 7). where the primary index i indicates the trajectory which contains v. A simple method would be to take the arrangement of 16 vertices used for D2 (" ) in Fig.k]. Another method is to arrange the vertices of each trajectory in D2 (" ) in a ! ! circle to reflect the rotational symmetry of the closed trajectory (Fig. insofar as they more clearly show the structural regularity of H.. 2. has its trajectories in the linear order < 6. j). 6. " ) = G0 # G1 # G2 # G3 comprising the links in Fig. 2. and insert the edges of the four links shown in ! ! Fig. ! Begin with the initial link G labeled by [1. ! Note that . " ) . 6. " ) . so it is desirable to apply D2 (! " ) to construct a drawing of H 4 (G. " ) with links in Fig.g] and the kernel K labeled by [1. such that any associated linked chain has a natural extension of this labeling. For instance.. ! and the secondary index j indicates the place of v in the sequence of all vertices ! comprising its trajectory. 5.9 < 7. ! (directed path). 5. 4) <!5. sequentially its vertices have intrinsic labels (i. 5? There is no “best” drawing of H. If the ith trajectory has order µ ..GRAPHS WHICH ARE LINKED STRUCTURES 6 ! How should we draw the 4-linked chain H = H 4 (G. ! 12 10 11 15 H[ D] 1 14 H[A] ! 7 H 4 3 13 H[C] 8 9 2 16 5 6 H[ B ] Figure 7. corresponding to the linked pair in Fig. omit all the directed edges.. indicates an open trajectory and (. and j " Zm if the trajectory is closed ( m = µ is the modulus (1. but surely some drawings are better than others. The 4-linked chain H 4 (G.. with the convention that the! first vertex of a directed cycle is its least member in the prior labeling. 3. where j " Z if the trajectory is open.) indicates a closed trajectory (directed cycle).