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Opening Context; Sacrifice and The Law

Instructions delivered by God to Moses for Aaron and his male descendants (the Jewish priests).

Leviticus 16:3-22 (the third book of the law):

Lev 16:3. Herewith shall Aaron come into the holy place: blood with his finger seven times.
with a young bullock for a sin-offering, and a ram for a Lev 16:15. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering,
burnt-offering. that is for the people, and bring his blood within the
Lev 16:4. He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he shall veil, and do with his blood as he did with the blood of
have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy-seat, and
girded with the linen girdle, and with the linen mitre before the mercy-seat:
shall he be attired: they are the holy garments; and he Lev 16:16. and he shall make atonement for the holy place,
shall bathe his flesh in water, and put them on. because of the uncleannesses of the children of Israel,
Lev 16:5. And he shall take of the congregation of the and because of their transgressions, even all their sins:
children of Israel two he-goats for a sin-offering, and and so shall he do for the tent of meeting, that dwelleth
one ram for a burnt-offering. with them in the midst of their uncleannesses.
Lev 16:6. And Aaron shall present the bullock of the sin- Lev 16:17. And there shall be no man in the tent of meeting
offering, which is for himself, and make atonement for when he goeth in to make atonement in the holy place,
himself, and for his house. until he come out, and have made atonement for
Lev 16:7. And he shall take the two goats, and set them himself, and for his household, and for all the assembly
before Jehovah at the door of the tent of meeting. of Israel.
Lev 16:8. And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one Lev 16:18. And he shall go out unto the altar that is before
lot for Jehovah, and the other lot for Azazel. Jehovah, and make atonement for it, and shall take of
Lev 16:9. And Aaron shall present the goat upon which the the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat,
lot fell for Jehovah, and offer him for a sin-offering. and put it upon the horns of the altar round about.
Lev 16:10. But the goat, on which the lot fell for Azazel, Lev 16:19. And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with
shall be set alive before Jehovah, to make atonement for his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from
him, to send him away for Azazel into the wilderness. the uncleannesses of the children of Israel.
Lev 16:11. And Aaron shall present the bullock of the sin- Lev 16:20. And when he hath made an end of atoning for
offering, which is for himself, and shall make the holy place, and the tent of meeting, and the altar, he
atonement for himself, and for his house, and shall kill shall present the live goat:
the bullock of the sin-offering which is for himself: Lev 16:21. and Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the
Lev 16:12. and he shall take a censer full of coals of fire head of the live goat, and confess over him all the
from off the altar before Jehovah, and his hands full of iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their
sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the veil: transgressions, even all their sins; and he shall put them
Lev 16:13. and he shall put the incense upon the fire before upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by
Jehovah, that the cloud of the incense may cover the the hand of a man that is in readiness into the
mercy-seat that is upon the testimony, that he die not: wilderness:
Lev 16:14. and he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and Lev 16:22. and the goat shall bear upon him all their
sprinkle it with his finger upon the mercy-seat on the iniquities unto a solitary land: and he shall let go the
east; and before the mercy-seat shall he sprinkle of the goat in the wilderness.

Take away from this:


• The ritual / protocol of sacrifice
• The scapegoat, and how sins are laid upon it and banished with it
• What the sin offering involved
• Understand the meaning of the sacrifice to the ancient Jewish people
The Prophet Isaiah

A prophet (8th Century BC) to Israel; called be a prophet by God at a time when great destruction was
planned for the sinful nation of Israel.

Isaiah 6:1, 6:8-13:

Isa 6:1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their
sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and his train eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their
filled the temple. heart, and turn again, and be healed.
... Isa 6:11. Then said I, Lord, how long? And he answered,
Until cities be waste without inhabitant, and houses
Isa 6:8. And I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom without man, and the land become utterly waste,
shall I send, and who will go for us? Then I said, Here Isa 6:12. and Jehovah have removed men far away, and the
am I; send me. forsaken places be many in the midst of the land.
Isa 6:9. And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye Isa 6:13. And if there be yet a tenth in it, it also shall in turn
indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but be eaten up: as a terebinth, and as an oak, whose stock
perceive not. remaineth, when they are felled; so the holy seed is the
Isa 6:10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their stock thereof.

Take away from this:


• Isaiah is commissioned not to save but to oversee the destruction of Israel
• The only remainder of Israel will be the holy seed; the kernel of God

Moving forwards, Isaiah was given a prophesy about what would happen post destruction; all historical
evidence demonstrates that the promised utter destruction did take place.

Isaiah 11:1-

Isa 11:1. And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock Isa 11:9. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy
of Jesse, and a branch out of his roots shall bear fruit. mountain; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of
Isa 11:2. And the Spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon him, the Jehovah, as the waters cover the sea.
spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel Isa 11:10. And it shall come to pass in that day, that the root
and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of of Jesse, that standeth for an ensign of the peoples, unto
Jehovah. him shall the nations seek; and his resting-place shall be
Isa 11:3. And his delight shall be in the fear of Jehovah; and glorious.
he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither Isa 11:11. And it shall come to pass in that day, that the
decide after the hearing of his ears; Lord will set his hand again the second time to recover
Isa 11:4. but with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and the remnant of his people, that shall remain, from
decide with equity for the meek of the earth; and he Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from
shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth; and with Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from
the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.
Isa 11:5. And righteousness shall be the girdle of his waist, Isa 11:12. And he will set up an ensign for the nations, and
and faithfulness the girdle of his loins. will assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together
Isa 11:6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the
leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the earth.
young lion and the fatling together; and a little child Isa 11:13. The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and they
shall lead them. that vex Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy
Isa 11:7. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim.
ones shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw Isa 11:14. And they shall fly down upon the shoulder of the
like the ox. Philistines on the west; together shall they despoil the
Isa 11:8. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the children of the east: they shall put forth their hand upon
asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the Edom and Moab; and the children of Ammon shall obey
adder's den. them.
Isa 11:15. And Jehovah will utterly destroy the tongue of Isa 11:16. And there shall be a highway for the remnant of
the Egyptian sea; and with his scorching wind will he his people, that shall remain, from Assyria; like as there
wave his hand over the River, and will smite it into was for Israel in the day that he came up out of the land
seven streams, and cause men to march over dryshod. of Egypt.

This 'shoot of Jesse' is the 'arm of God' who is going to bring about salvation... later on more specific
prophesy is provided, I will only provide a short section of it to give a general idea.

Isaiah 42:1-4

Isa 42:1. Behold, my servant, whom I uphold; my chosen, Isa 42:3. A bruised reed will he not break, and a dimly
in whom my soul delighteth: I have put my Spirit upon burning wick will he not quench: he will bring forth
him; he will bring forth justice to the Gentiles. justice in truth.
Isa 42:2. He will not cry, nor lift up his voice, nor cause it to Isa 42:4. He will not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set
be heard in the street. justice in the earth; and the isles shall wait for his law.

Isaiah 53:1-12

Isa 53:1. Who hath believed our message? and to whom dumb, so he opened not his mouth.
hath the arm of Jehovah been revealed? Isa 53:8. By oppression and judgment he was taken away;
Isa 53:2. For he grew up before him as a tender plant, and as and as for his generation, who among them considered
a root out of a dry ground: he hath no form nor that he was cut off out of the land of the living for the
comeliness; and when we see him, there is no beauty transgression of my people to whom the stroke was
that we should desire him. due?
Isa 53:3. He was despised, and rejected of men; a man of Isa 53:9. And they made his grave with the wicked, and
sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and as one from with a rich man in his death; although he had done no
whom men hide their face he was despised; and we violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth.
esteemed him not. Isa 53:10. Yet it pleased Jehovah to bruise him; he hath put
Isa 53:4. Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering
sorrows; yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days,
God, and afflicted. and the pleasure of Jehovah shall prosper in his hand.
Isa 53:5. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he Isa 53:11. He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be
was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our satisfied: by the knowledge of himself shall my
peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. righteous servant justify many; and he shall bear their
Isa 53:6. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have iniquities.
turned every one to his own way; and Jehovah hath laid Isa 53:12. Therefore will I divide him a portion with the
on him the iniquity of us all. great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong;
Isa 53:7. He was oppressed, yet when he was afflicted he because he poured out his soul unto death, and was
opened not his mouth; as a lamb that is led to the numbered with the transgressors: yet he bare the sin of
slaughter, and as a sheep that before its shearers is many, and made intercession for the transgressors.

Points of note:
• This shoot of Jesse is not to be splendid like a king of the world
• He is to bear the troubles and sins of mankind
• Through bearing the troubles and sins he is to heal mankind
• The sins are laid upon him to carry [cf scapegoat in Leviticus]
• He is to be oppressed, judged and condemned to death
• By knowledge of him many people will be saved and he will bear their sins
• He is to be counted sinful due to the sins he carries, and being innocent pray for forgiveness

Importantly, all this is recorded long before Christ; there is historical evidence to support all of this. In
additional the text can be found in the Torah as well as the Bible. Christians believe this root of Jesse
to be Christ (which means 'the anointed' rather than being an actual name).