CURRENT AFFAIRS: JUNE 2011

NATIONAL AFFAIRS Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill On June 30, 2011, India took a huge leap forward towards guaranteeing equality and non-discrimination to more than 70 million of its disabled as a government committee appointed to draft a new law for the sector submitted a ground-breaking disability legislation that provides legal mechanisms to enforce civil and political rights of the persons with disabilities. The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill 2011 specifies, for the first time, criminal sanctions for acts of omission and commission against the disabled; bars discrimination on grounds of disability and proposes enhanced job quota for the disabled from 3 to 7 per cent in all establishments. The quota is to be distributed among seven listed categories of the disabled. Twenty forms of disability, including intellectual disabilities, thalassemia, dwarfism and haemophilia, are covered by the new law (against seven currently covered). There is also a provision to create a National Disability Regulatory Authority to prescribe standards on accessibility and rules for service providers. The law says no new building plan can be passed unless it meets accessibility norms; existing government buildings will have to become accessible in three years of the law’s enforcement and other public buildings will get five years. Non-compliance will result in suspension of water, electricity supply to buildings; cancellation or suspension of builders’ licence or fine up to 5 per cent of the building’s market value or a combination of all. Separate chapters have been dedicated to the rights of disabled women and children and penalties prescribed for violation. All disabled children (0 to 18 years) will be entitled to the Right to Education though the RTE Act covers those from 6 to 14 years. The Bill further replaces the existing concept of plenary guardianship with limited guardianship, which means all guardians of persons with disabilities will be legally obliged to consult them to arrive at legally binding decisions. The law prescribes severe penalties—6 months to 8 years in prison and fine—for wilfully injuring a person with disability; up to seven years and fine for wrongful medical practises that cause infertility and up to 10 years for forceful termination of pregnancy. For general violations, a penalty of 6 months and Rs 50,000 fine is proposed. The new law is in accordance with the UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disability, which India ratified in 2007. Draft Manufacturing Policy approved The UPA government has unveiled a National Manufacturing Policy (NMP). The policy seeks to create 100 million industrial jobs by 2025. The NMP has set a target of increasing manufacturing sector growth to 12-14 per cent over the medium term. The policy wants the sector to contribute at least 25 per cent to the GDP by 2025. It will address issues of rationalisation and simplification of business regulations, simple and expeditious exit mechanism for closure of sick units and financial and institutional mechanisms for technology development. Green technologies, industrial training and skill upgrade are also on the agenda. The government will take measures to make industrial land available through creation of land banks by States and utilization of lands locked under non-productive uses, including defunct or sick industries. A comprehensive exit policy has been conceptualised which will promote productivity, while providing flexibility by removing rigidity in the labour market. Home-grown technology will find favour and policies will be put in place for development of advanced indigenous , including tax concessions and government subsidies and preferential purchases by government agencies. While India will continue with bilateral and regional free trade agreements, it will be ensured that such agreements do not have a detrimental effect on domestic manufacturing. The government will also consider use of public procurement in specified sectors, with stipulation of local value addition, in areas of critical technologies like solar energy equipment, electronic hardware, fuel efficient transport equipment and ITbased security systems. Union Cabinet okays affordable housing project In an effort to create a slum-free country by 2020, the Union government has approved the development

of housing and basic facilities in slums across 250 cities in the country, under the Rajiv Awas Yojana. The slum development projects would be undertaken in 250 cities that have a population of more than one lakh. The project will be undertaken across the country by the end of the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-2017). The scheme aims at helping re-development of slums, stopping proliferation and providing a dignified life, besides property rights to the dwellers. The Union government will bear 50 per cent of the cost of the projects and Rs 1,000 crore will be provided as capital for mortgage guarantee facilities under the scheme. The Centre will provide financial assistance to States willing to assign property rights to slum-dwellers for provision of shelter and basic, civic and social services, besides creation of affordable housing stock. Around 32.1 million people live in slums in Indian cities. The foundation for the scheme was first laid by the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), which was launched on December 2005 and is the largest national urban initiative to encourage reforms and planned development of 63 identified cities. Visit of New Zealand’s Prime Minister New Zealand Prime Minister John Key arrived in India on June 26, 2011 for his first visit to India to meet his counterpart Manmohan Singh and discuss the free trade agreement between the two countries. Key was accompanied by a 26-member delegation that included Minister of Trade Tim Groser and Indianorigin MP Kanwaljit Singh Bakshi. The delegation also visited Agra and Mumbai. During his meeting, Mr Key promoted his government’s India strategy, which aims to position India as a core political, economic and trade partner for New Zealand by 2015. He said the strategy has been developed by government agencies in consultation with business houses, exporters and academics. “The trade potential of the India market is huge and we have set a target of growing two-way trade from 1.28 billion New Zealand dollars to three billion by 2014,” he added. India, Pakistan agree to more Loc trade, travel On June 24, 2011, India and Pakistan decided to initiate a series of nuclear and cross-LoC confidence building measures (CBMs) as the Foreign Secretaries of the two countries concluded their two-day talks in New Delhi on a positive note. Foreign Secretary Nirupama Rao and her Pakistani counterpart Salman Bashir said the two sides had agreed to carry forward the dialogue in a constructive and purposeful manner. Rao made it clear to the Pakistani side that it would be difficult for the two countries to move forward on the J&K issue under the shadow of the gun and extremist violence. The Indian side also conveyed to Islamabad its concern over continuing infiltration in J&K. Over the cross-LoC CBMs, Rao said the two sides agreed to convene a meeting of the working group in the matter for strengthening and streamlining the existing trade and travel arrangements and propose modalities for introducing additional cross-LoC CBMs. The two countries have decided to increase the frequency of the Srinagar-Muzafarrabad bus service, open more trade routes along the LoC, increase number of trading days as well as the validity of travel permits to six months and provide banking facilities to businessmen. They also decided to set up a group of experts on nuclear and conventional CBMs to discuss implementation and strengthening of existing arrangements and to consider additional measures to build trust and confidence and promote peace and security. The Foreign also discussed an agreement to prevent any untoward situation at high seas as was witnessed recently in the Gulf of Aden when sailors of MV Suez were being taken to safety. NATGRID gets in-principal approval After the establishment of National Investigation Agency (NIA) to probe terror cases, the Union Home Ministry has got the in-principle approval for it's another show-case project — the National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID). The law enforcement and intelligence agencies would be able to share information real time once the NATGRID becomes fully operational. NATGRID will have access to about 21 categories of databases like phone records, credit card transactions, travel details, bank accounts, income tax returns and visa and immigration records. The database will be available to 11 law enforcement and intelligence agencies. The ambitious "Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS) will lay the ground work for the NATGRID. So far, there is no system under which one police station can talk to another directly. There is no record of

crimes or criminals that can be accessed by a Station House Officer, except the manual records relating to the particular police station. Also, there is no system of data storage and data sharing. All these issues will be taken care of under CCTNS. India gets first e-waste management rules Putting the onus of re-cycling of electronic wastes (e-waste) on the producers, the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has for the first time notified e-waste management rules. The e-waste (management and handling) Rules, 2011 would recognise the producers’ liability for recycling and reducing e-waste in the country. The rules will come into effect from May 1, 2012. Personal Computer manufacturers, mobile handset makers and white goods makers will be required to come up with e-waste collection centres or introduce ‘take back’ systems. India, at present, generates about 400,000 tonnes of e-wastes annually of which only 19,000 tonnes are getting recycled. Around 40 per cent of the unused and obsolete electronic products sit idle at homes and warehouses as one does not know what to do with it or there is no systematic mechanism to dispose it. E-wastes are considered dangerous, as certain electronic components contain substances such as lead, cadmium, lead oxide (in cathode ray tubes), toxic gases, toxic metals, biologically active materials, acids, plastics and plastic additives. These substances are considered hazardous depending on their condition and density. Under the new rules, producers will have to make consumers aware about the hazardous components present in the product. They will also have to give information booklets to prevent e-waste from being dropped in garbage bins. However, according to the rules, bulk consumers such as enterprises and government will be responsible for recycling of the e-wastes generated by them. The bulk users have to ensure that the e-waste generated by them is channelized to authorised collection centres or is taken back by the producers. They also have to maintain records of e-wastes generated by them and make such records available with State Pollution Control Boards or the Pollution Control Committees

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

OECD sees growth firm Global economic recovery is on track, helped by a stronger United States, but threats ranging from high oil prices to European sovereign debt crises could yet combine to create a bout of stagflation, according to the Paris-based Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). OECD says the US and Euro area economies were growing faster than expected in forecasts six months ago, although Japan’s economy was set to contract after the March earthquake, tsunami and nuclear crisis. In its twice-yearly Economic Outlook, the OECD forecast world growth would ease to 4.2 per cent in 2011, from 4.9 per cent in 2010, before accelerating to 4.6 per cent in 2012. “This is a delicate moment for the global economy, and the crisis is not over until our economies are creating enough jobs again,” OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurria said. There is also some concern that if downside risks reinforce each other, their cumulative impact could weaken the recovery significantly, possibly triggering stagflation in some advanced economies. The OECD also cited a slow recovery in Japan as a possible threat to its economic partners, especially if global supply chains remain disrupted as a result.

immigration. . 2011 in Brussels. The reforms will allow euro zone countries and the International Monetary Fund to provide more support under a new rescue package. Governments must now take the guidelines into account when drafting their budgets and making reforms for 2012. a spiralling sovereign debt crisis in Europe and/or persisting uncertainty over budget policies in the United States and Japan. The measures should allow countries to coordinate their responses to exceptional circumstances. Euro zone leaders agreed that the private sector should provide some of the additional funding. Leaders called for proposals on common asylum procedures to be agreed by 2012. If those risks coincided with a renewed surge in oil prices. but needed to get debt down to keep it from becoming a brake on growth. OECD chief economist Pier Carlo Padoan said major economies were not only strong enough to withstand fiscal tightening. such as sudden inflows of asylum seekers. They encouraged Greece’s Parliament to pass laws on a fiscal strategy and privatisation. relations with North African countries and Croatian membership were taken during the EU Summit. They reaffirmed their commitment to do “whatever is necessary” to ensure the financial stability of the single currency. then the major economies could see stagflation—the pernicious combination of stagnant growth and high inflation. They endorsed the Commission guidelines on measures which each EU country should take to stimulate economic growth.The effect would be all the more damaging if coupled with a bigger-than-expected slowdown in China. Member governments asked the Commission for ideas on strengthening cooperation among the countries in the EU’s border-free area. It will be replaced by a permanent €500bn fund in 2013. EU leaders agreed to expand measures to coordinate economic reforms and spending policies. The situation was made all the more fragile by high levels of debt. create jobs and keep public finances under control. the OECD warned. a six-month process during which EU governments consult each other as they formulate spending plans and economic policies. EU leaders also agreed to changes increasing the effectiveness of a temporary fund providing financial help to euro zone countries in difficulty. European Union Summit Major decisions on economic policy. held June2324. with the average level of debt across the OECD expected to top 100 per cent of output in 2011. The decision closed the first “European semester”.

infanticide and human trafficking. 2011. as a result the reverse repo rate and MSF go up to 6. carved a global footprint in over 160 countries. which will invest over Rs 500 crore for marketing of Basmati rice and other food products in India. SBI. the hypermarket chain of group company Trent. scanning tunneling microscope.5%. 2013. mainframe. IBM. which leads the pack in Britain and USA. web server. it garnered over $100 billion in revenue. Facebook. India and Somalia. including the punch card. The government has put in a stiff condition that Cairn wil share the royalty on Barmer production with ONGC. Junrey Balawing of Philippines. completed 100 years of operation on June 16. They hope to sign a treaty with the country. Collected over 6000 patents worldwide (the highest fo any company in the world).5%. According to a survey conducted by Thomson Reuters’ Trustlaw Women. Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) buys Bharti Enterprises’ shares in two insurance joint ventures with AXA. Afghanistan is the most dangerous place for women. The Union government has cleared the $6 billion deal for purchase of majority stake in Cairn India by Vedanta Resources. measured at 24. India’s performance on global environment index has improved. allowing Croatia to join the EU on July 1. According to TLG’s Index of Emerging Market ‘Thought Leaders’.27 per cent stake in Riversdale.2 per cent increase in energy consumption. paving the way for Indian investors to bet on world’s most influential stock market. Chinese energy consumption grew by 11. It also plans to set up shop-in-shops inside Star Bazaar. recording a high 9. Global FMCG giant Unilever has appointed India-born Harish Manwani as its Chief Operating Officer (COO). The Repo rate was hiked to 7. followed by Maruti Suzuki. Business News Croma. has been named as the world’s shortest living man. Rice exporter Kohinoor Foods has announced a joint venture with US-based spice maker McCormick. the consumer durables and infotech chain of Tatas. IBM’s success can be traced back to history of inventions. Nokia and Facebook to the top two spots. 2011. India is the fourth most dangerous place for women in the world. Pakistan. also called the Big Blue. It has moved one notch up in the ranks. seven out of the top ten brands in India are indigenous firms.5% and 8. India ranked fourth primarily due to female foeticide.25 inches. electric typewriter. according to the Capgemini and Merrill Lynch’s World Wealth Report. earning it the 123rd rank. Hindustan Unilever and Mahindra Group. The National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) has got regulatory approval to launch futures contracts on benchmark US indices S&P 500 and Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA). Australia. overtaking the USA. is getting into a new retail format to offer best-selling products from its stores.11 billion . pushing Spain behind. a hub of legal information and legal support for women’s rights. The main topic was the challenges facing the crop and its growers in backdrop of changing climatic conditions. DO YOU KNOW A global conference on mango was held in Lucknow in June 2011. the highest for any country. Nokia.The summit also called for Croatia's membership negotiations to be concluded by the end of June 2011. to Rio Tinto for $1. failed to make a mark in the top 20 list in India.2 per cent between 2009 and 2010. Tata Steel has decided to sell off its 26. followed by Democratic Republic of Congo. India was not far behind. respectively . primarily because of progress made in renewable. the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) raised the policy rates for the 10th time in 15 months by 25 basis points. L&T. China has become the world’s largest energy consumer. India is now ranked 12th in the world in terms of the number of millionaires. Japanese car-maker Toyota has launched its much anticipated small car Liva in India. Google is at number 3. Infosys and Tata group have piped global majors like Google. 2011 . hard drive and nanotubes. On June 16. Apple. Over the last 100 years. developed a computer system called Watson which even out-smarted skilled ‘Jeopardy’ players and created smart grids and cities globally.

2011. Tata Consutancy Services (TCS) has become India’s third most valuable company in terms of market capitalisation.1%. 2011 in Washington.6 metres longer than its predecessor. the train was introduced by the British in 1912 between Peshawar and Mumbai. A holding company structure would ring-fence a bank or any other financial entity from the downside risks of its subsidiaries. ONGC is at the fourth spot. The first India-US Higher Education Summit was held on July 15-16. Two Indian firms have won the prestigious Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy. it has called for a separate regulatory framework and a new Act for regulation of FHCs. irrespective of whether they have a bank or not. considered as the ‘Green Oscar’. however. with staff drawn from both RBI as well as other regulators. followed by Coal India Ltd. RIL continues to hold the first position. A working group headed by RBI Deputy Governor Shyamala Gopinath has recommended that the FHC model can be extended to all large financial groups. this claim will not extend to the waters in the area. a standard 747 and seats 467 passengers. continues to be the biggest plane with seating capacity of 525 passengers. The scheme has been adopted for the entire country under the National Rural Health Mission. if it can demonstrate through scientific documentation that the continental shelf of the country extends beyond that distance throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory. USA consumes 14. the strongest growth since 2004. World Blood Donor Day is observed on June 14. The claim if ratified by the UNCLOS would help India in exploring additional area and exploit mineral resources in those areas. the University of Oxford celebrated an ‘Oxford-India day’ to mark 400 years of links with India. World Elder Abuse Awareness Day is observed on June 15. the panel wants the FHCs to be registered with RBI as non-banking financial companies.On June 17. Till the time a new law is enacted and existing regulations are amended. or 3. RBI feels that the implicit mandate of the central banks to ensure financial stability and monitor systemic risks makes it imperative to vest the responsibility of regulating FHCs with RBI.1 per cent. The Punjab Mail. China consumes 10. In addition. which runs from Ferozepur to Mumbai. CURRENT AFFAIRS: MAY 2011 NATIONAL AFFAIRS RBI paves way for financial holding company The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has paved the way for a holding company structure for financial entities. Sri Padmanabha Swami Temple in Kerala was in news after the Supreme Court appointed a special committee to examine the secret chambers of the temple. irrespective of a bank’s presence in the holding company. which are believed to store precious treasures of the erstwhile rulers of Travancore . Once known as the pride of Punjab. Rashtriya Janani-Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram is a scheme to provide all required healthcare facilities to pregnant women and infants free of cost. World Environment Day is observed on June 5. The Union government has approved the development of housing and basic facilities in slums across 250 cities in India under the Rajiv Awas Yojana. a coastal country can seek extension of its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) beyond the approved 200 nautical miles.9%.7 million barrels per day (bpd) in 2009-10. placing it among the few countries which have been able to give evidence to lay their claims over extended continental shelf around them. has entered its 100th year of service. while financial conglomerates having a bank within the group will need to convert to the FHC model in a time bound manner. However. . It is 5. It has been suggested that a separate unit within RBI should undertake the function of FHC regulation. The Indian Continental Shelf Project was started in 1999 by a team of 60 scientists to collect data for extension of the Indian continental shelf. Under the provision of the UNCLOS. The new Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental jetliner is the world’s longest passenger aircraft. But it was done with an important caveat—the apex bank has sought to be the sole regulator of financial holding companies (FHCs). India submitted its claim for extension of its EEZ to the UN commission in August 2010.6% of world’s oil while USA consumes 21.8%. The summit was announced during the visit of President Obama to India in 2010. China consumes 48. Airbus A380. The global oil consumption grew by 2.8% and India 7. India’s percentage of world’s consumption of oil is 3.2% of world’s coal consumption.

including the freebies. The TMC-Congress combine won 225 of the 294 Assembly seats. the thinnest majority margin in the last four decades. IT minister Debesh Das and urban development minister Ashok Bhattacharya. will be mandatory to operate under the FHC framework. Four of the five governments seeking renewed mandate in the States were tossed out by the electorate. For all other banking groups. The DMK government’s free colour TVs. As the Jaya juggernaut rolled throughout Tamil Nadu. the CPM. 2011 signaled a vote for change and a vote against corruption and poor governance. emerged successful in eight. who spearheaded the land acquisition for Tata Nano at Singur.In cases the business conglomerates do not want to convert to FHCs. conversion to the FHC model may be optional till the enactment of the FHC Act. Stalin. Upen Biswas (former Joint Director of the CBI). Housing minister Gautam Deb. The spectacular rout of the Left in West Bengal and of the DMK in Tamil Nadu. The CPM+ could manage only 63 seats against 229 in the out-going Assembly. as and when licensed. winning only five of the 63 constituencies it contested. with only the Congress government in Assam returning to power for the third consecutive term. had hoped to sweep the election by cashing in on the disenchantment of the people against the incumbent government. Achuthanandan raked up old scandals involving several senior UDF . The UDF. The ruling DMK. the working group proposes exemption of dividend distribution tax for dividends paid by subsidiaries to the FHC if the dividends are used by the FHC for investment in other subsidiaries. Since the transition to the FHC model would involve de-merger of various bank subsidiaries and transfer of ownership from bank to the holding company. In case the holding company wishes to function as an anchor for capital support for all its subsidiaries. And barring a photo-finish in Kerala. where the Congress-led United Democratic Front barely secured a majority. who defeated Chief Minister Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee. The UDF. the panel has suggested suitable amendments to various taxation provisions to make the transition tax and stamp duty neutral. the panel wants such entities to confine to only banking activities. however. Amit Mitra (economist and FICCI secretary general). medical insurance. winning only 23 seats in the 234member Assembly. a retired IAS officer and Chief Secretary. Mamata (56) swept everything before her. winning 28 of the 41 seats it contested. lost the political momentum after Chief Minister V. including Deputy Chief Minister M. Tamil Nadu. was routed this time. the panel proposes either to have the holding company listed with the subsidiaries unlisted or some of subsidiaries listed along with the holding company. bit the dust. AIADMK’s ally and actor Vijaykanth’s DMDK came out with flying colours. marriage assistance and other populist schemes failed to bring it back. the voters dished out clear and decisive mandates in West Bengal. Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee became the first Chief Minister since 1967 to lose his seat in the Assembly. Jayalalithaa-led AIADMK front struck the DMK-Congress combine like a tsunami and won a landslide victory in Tamil Nadu Assembly elections. most of the DMK ministers. Assam and Puducherry. winning 72 seats in the 140-member Assembly. cash-for-votes and caste politics. The other allies of the AIADMK. However. which contested 160 seats in the 234-member Assembly. Kerala: In a photo finish. 2011 The results of Assembly elections declared on May 13. In addition. Other CPM stalwarts who lost included industry minister Nirupam Sen. which fielded candidates in 10 constituencies. ensuring the victory of even political greenhorns like Anup Ghoshal (singer). while Chief Minister M. won 10 and the CPI. all new banks and insurance companies. the Congress-led United Democratic Front (UDF) unseated the CPM-led Left Democratic Front (LDF). which had won 16 of the 20 Lok Sabha seats two years ago and over 50 per cent local bodies in the civic body polls held six months ago. State Elections. West Bengal: The Mamata juggernaut steamrolled the Left Front in West Bengal. The Congress was decimated. up from 52 in the last Assembly. Tamil Nadu: The J. Karunanidhi was elected to the Assembly for the 12th time from his native town of Tiruvarur. Debashree Roy and Chiranjeet (cine stars). which contested 12 seats. however. Sultan Singh and Rachpal Singh (retired IPS officers) and even Manish Gupta. The AIADMK. which won 96 seats last time.S. With her call for ‘Poribartan’ (change). overshadowed an equally spectacular vote for continuity in Assam. Bratya Basu (playwright) . sweeping everything on its way. won 151 seats. Re 1 a kg rice. dislodging the longest communist government in a democratic country after 34 long years.K.

mosquito nets and blankets to BPL families and umbrellas to students from BPL families. thanks to leadership of Tarun Gogoi who has become the Chief Minister for the third consecutive term at the age of 75. The Congress ended with a tally of seven and DMK two. free thread to BPL weavers. including 11 rebel BJP and five Independent MLAs. However. may not be able to withstand the political pressures from small parties. Though the BJP was not been able to achieve its objective of opening its account in the Assembly. ending the DMK-supported Congress rule. Congress has won 76 Assembly seats in the 126-member Assam Assembly. The scandals put the UDF on the defensive. Independents and others together got 36 seats. The regional party instead of giving chances to young leaders preferred to field old horses. cash incentives against every girl child born in government hospitals. massive improvement in healthcare system in the State during the last 10 years. ruled out that the Speaker had failed to observe the basic constitutional values and principles of natural justice. The Congress government’s policy to take the party closer to the common people. the regional AGP was dogged by internal squabbles. 2011. the Supreme Court of India set aside Karnataka Speaker K. the Opposition tried to attack the Chief Minister and his family members. The MLAs were disqualified as it was apprehended that they would support the no-trust motion against the government during the voting. the MLAs had contended that their disqualification had raised substantial questions of . terming those as “sops only meant for Congress members”. the campaign did not click in the face of massive corruption scams emanating from the UPA dispensation. while disqualifying the MLAs under the Anti-Defection Act. SC quashes Speaker’s decision to disqualify Karnataka MLAs On May 13. bicycles for girl students. 2010 and were suspended on October 11. Assam: It was a hat trick for the Congress in Assam and that too in the form of a landslide victory. Bopaiah’s decision to disqualify 16 MLAs. The determined effort made by the BJP to prove its strength in the State also affected the UDF to a great extent. coupled with firm initiatives in improving infrastructure development in the State during the last 10 years also paid dividends for the party. Rangasamy led the AINRC he formed on the eve of the polls to power with the party winning 15 seats and its ally AIADMK five. ahead of the no confidence motion in 201 that had ensured survival of the Yeddyurappa government. the party considerably improved its vote share in several seats. successful implementation of mobile health clinics to take health care to far flung areas and introduction of emergency healthcare scheme were instrumental in endearing the Congress to the common man. They believe that the Congress. comprising Justices Altamas Kabir and Cyriac Joseph. The AGP and the BJP failed to make any impact in the election because the entire Opposition failed to forge an alliance to present a viable alternative before the people. Some of these included laptops to all students who have passed Class X Board exams in the first division. cash incentives to pregnant women. The 16 MLAs had withdrawn their support to the government on October 6. To make matters worse for the Opposition. who had already been rejected by the people in the 2001 and 2006 elections. the All India NR Congress in alliance with AIADMK secured a two-third majority in the 30-member Puducherry Assembly. In their appeal. especially those from rural areas and from the lower income bracket.G. DMK rebel VMC Shivakumar won the Neravi TR Pattinam segment. This affected the UDF all the more. A Bench. which has won only 38 seats. Political observers feel that the victory of the UDF by a slender margin will plunge the State into political uncertainty. It was a sweet revenge for Rangasamy who floated his own outfit after resigning from the Congress about two years after he was removed as Chief Minister in the face of revolt against his leadership. AGP got 10 and BJP only 4. Former chief minister N.leaders. The Gogoi government’s achievement in tackling insurgency in the State by bringing in many insurgents groups to the negotiation table. Instead of focusing on the failures of the government. Moreover. working capital to unmarried women and young widows. apparently paid rich dividends to the party in the election though the opposition parties had sounded skeptical about those schemes. Puducherry: Making a spectacular electoral debut. especially those with one or two seats in the Assembly.

Sugar. Panel recommends FDI in retail On May 27. rice and wheat globally have increased between 20-75%. The legislators had submitted that they had made a categorical statement in their replies to the show-cause notice issued by the Speaker before their suspension that they had no intention at all to leave BJP or the membership of its legislature party and that their letter to the Governor was aimed at "cleansing the image of the party by getting rid of Yeddyurappa as Chief Minister. without facing blockades by incumbent traders. the Inter-Ministerial Group (IMG) suggested two major steps to control inflation including opening up multi-brand retail to foreign companies and changes in agriculture marketing laws to bridge the margin between farm gate prices and retail price. rising food prices hit them the hardest. The group IMG recommended that the government consider this at the earliest.8 percentage points. The IMG said that the APMC Act ought to be amended so as to enable farmers to bring their products to retail outlets and also allow retailers to directly purchase from the farmers. It was submitted that they were disqualified before the voting actually took place in the Assembly apprehending that they would vote against the Chief Minister on the specious ground that they had voluntarily given up BJP membership. it is a recommendation. The debate on opening up the retail sector has been going on for a while now but is being strongly opposed by the domestic lobby that says that large MNC retail formats like Walmart coming in will wipe out the neighbourhood kiryana stores. We infer the increase in the number of poor from their data measure on total population (1. The APMC system has abetted monopolistic behaviour and reduced the choices available to small farmers. Food inflation jumped to a two-month high of 9% in terms of annual growth recently. which are huge in numbers and form an important constituency. Seems like anti-poverty schemes also increase the levels of poverty when they push prices up. but in India price increases for all three are at sub-10% levels. Typically. Its logic is that India’s retail sector continues to be primitive and there is evidence that there are large losses that occur as products pass through the supply chain from farm to the retail customer. The SC also held that the Independents had not “sacrificed their independent identity” by extending support to Yeddyurappa or by joining the Council of Ministers.” chief economic advisor and IMG chairman Kaushik Basu said. “We are taking a clear position on FDI in multi-brand retail. Of course. the group said. the World Bank estimates that the price increases in the second half of 2010 have increased the poverty head count in India by 0. The well-intentioned APMC law helped cartelisation and collusion amongst incumbent traders. . The key number to look for is how much they reduce poverty and how much they increase it through wage-price inflation. Rising food prices and poverty line For a country that has been reeling under the impact of higher food prices." According to the petition. here are some chilling numbers. In its recent report “Estimating the short-run poverty impacts of the 2010-11 surge in food prices”. given that poor households spend a majority of their income on food. The prices of sugar.19 billion) and the poverty rate used for their analysis (43.8%). rice and wheat price increases have also resulted in a rise in the poverty headcount in India. The price rise in food staples between June and December 2010 could have pushed as many as 10 million more Indians into poverty. 2011. cannot be regarded as voluntarily giving up the party membership as such. democratic dissent. This is an alarming wake-up call for a country that has not seen abatement in food price increases even now. And this is despite the fact that price hikes in India are nowhere near global levels. Food prices single-handedly seem to have considerable power to reverse our progress as an economy. not policy. However rising import prices of food will compound the inflation situation further.constitutional and administrative laws of public importance having serious implications for the democratic representative government and involving an interpretation of the provisions of the Tenth Schedule and the rules made there under. The IMG warned that though it was important to allow the entry of FDI into this sector in a properly regulated fashion and there is a need to guard against the risk of these new corporations becoming monopolistic and charging high prices. without any intention of leaving the party but in the hope of saving its image and reputation by getting rid of a "corrupt" Chief Minister.

The PM held wide-ranging discussions with the Afghan leadership on ways to advance India’s partnership to a new level in the coming years. tourism and culture. 2011. led the Indian side. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh made a strong call to African countries to work collectively with India to combat the scourge of terrorism. Once large corporations begin to source their products from Indian outlets it is very likely that they will gradually take these products to sell in their outlets in other countries.” The visit took place three days after Manmohan Singh discussed with US President Barack Obama on phone the situation in the region in the aftermath of the killing of the Al-Qaida chief deep inside Pakistan. opening up exports. take stock of the global economic and political situation and review the progress the two sides have made in their cooperation in the last three years. agriculture. spending more than $ 1. on a two-day trip to reassure the Hamid Karzai government of New Delhi’s commitment to help stabilise the situation there. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s Afghanistan visit Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited Afghanistan on May 12. It is now the sixth largest contributor to Afghanistan’s reconstruction programme. emphasizing that New Delhi took a long-term view of its partnership with the embattled country. “We will also exchange views on developments in the region and our common fight against the scourge of terrorism.This will get new technology and expand organised retail and provide remunerative prices for farmers and fair prices for consumers especially during the peak marketing season. 2011. During the visit Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced a fresh aid package of $500 million for Afghanistan with focus on social sector. The visit was initially scheduled to take place in the first week of May but the American side had apparently advised New Delhi to postpone it without disclosing anything about the impending action by US forces in Abbottabad (Pakistan) in which bin Laden was killed. Visit of President of Uzbekistan On May 18. President of Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan reaffirmed its support for India’s candidature for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.” he said. Ethiopia. Second Africa-India Summit On May 24-25. capacity building and infrastructure projects. The two countries also agreed to cooperate closely in stabilising the situation in Afghanistan and condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. in which Anand Sharma. 2011. the PM asserted that India could not remain unaffected by developments in Afghanistan. including pharmaceuticals and hydrocarbons. India and Uzbekistan entered into a long-term and strategic partnership based on equality and mutual understanding and concluded as many as 34 agreements in diverse fields. The two sides also resolved to expand their cooperation within the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). health. Addressing the meet. "Apart from bilateral cooperation. counter-terrorism. preceded it. A ministerial meeting." he said at the retreat attended by leaders from 15 African countries. economic. hospitals and the electricity grid. India and Africa can and should work together on regional and international issues. “The quest of the Afghan people for peace. science and technology. Great importance is being attached to the establishment of the strategic partnership which envisages active cooperation in a wide spectrum on areas. Mr Singh also highlighted the need to chart new pathways of engagement. during the visit of Mr Islam Karimov.3 billion in Afghanistan to help build highways. India has become a key ally of the Afghan government since the fall of the Taliban regime. The IMG said that correcting the margin between the price that farmers get and price that consumers pay is not going to solve the problem of inflation for all times to come but it can have a sharp desirable effect in the short run of bringing down food inflation. energy. stability and reconciliation needs the full support of all countries in the region and the international community. India is currently an observer at the SCO and is keen to become a member of the sixnation Central Asian organisation. education. In a statement on the eve of his departure. including political. Singh noted that the current international economic and political situation was far from easy. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh attended the second Africa-India Forum Summit in Addis Ababa. Minister for Commerce & Industry. human resource development. particularly for developing countries and spoke about "new challenges" confronting the world in meeting the .

water and tissue-testing laboratories. The other players include M&M. information technology. The joint declaration also expressed support for an International Convention prohibiting the development. Trade between India and Africa crossed US $ 46 billion in 2010 and is expected to reach US $ 70 billion by 2015. efficient and effective manner and that the composition of its central organs must reflect contemporary realities.’ overshooting the deadline by a year. At present India’s OFDI is the 9th largest source of FDI into Africa. The first India-Africa Forum Summit in New Delhi in April 2008 produced a ‘Framework of Cooperation’. stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons. leading to a world free from all weapons of mass destruction as envisaged in the Rajiv Gandhi Action Plan of 1988.000 scholarships to African students An India-Africa centre for medium-range weather forecasting. entrepreneurship development and vocational training Rural technology parks. training programmes $300 million for Ethio-Djibouti rail line India-Africa virtual university with 10. 64% of Manganese & 34% of Uranium. He also declared an additional $700 million package to establish new institutions and training programmes across the continent. It took the two sides two years to finalize the joint ‘Plan of Action. However. Major sops offered during the Summit meeting were: • • • • • • • • • • • • • $5 billion line of credit for 3 years Additional $700 million for new institutions. It called for negotiating specific steps to reduce and finally eliminate nuclear weapons. leading to their destruction. 98% of Chromium. automobiles. food processing business incubation centres and centres on geo-informatics applications and rural development. reflecting India’s growing ties with the resource-rich continent.” “The expansion of the UN Security Council. Karuturi Global. Egypt. institute of agriculture and rural development Soil. pharmaceuticals and agriculture. we underscore the imperative of urgent and comprehensive reform of the UN system. food testing laboratories. Africa is on the brink of an economic take off. . 50% of Gold. New Delhi played host to Presidents and Prime Ministers from Africa. It reacted cautiously during the recent troubles in Tunisia.000 new scholarships India-Africa business council $2 million for African Union mission in Somalia Increased access of African airlines to India in next 3 years India-Africa food processing and textiles clusters More than 22. The eight-page Addis Ababa Declaration adopted at the end of the two-day Africa-India Forum Summit said the African members of the UN Security Council and India affirm their commitment to coordinate closely during India's tenure as non-permanent member of the Council. Africa is host to 90% of world’s Cobalt. Tata Africa Holdings also has a strong presence in over 10 African countries with investments exceeding US$ 100 million. production. seed production-cumdemonstration centres. more concerted efforts have been evident. We share the view that the UN should function in a transparent. Essar has steel. with increased participation of developing countries in both categories. material testing laboratories for highways Institutes for English language training. “In this context. Larsen & Toubro (L&T) and Shapoorji Pallonji. Manmohan Singh announced a mammoth $5 billion credit line to Africa for various development projects. But thereafter. Indian private sector entrepreneurs have already made investments in excess of US $ 25 billion in a wide range of sectors from telecom. With Africa’s rise no longer in doubt. Among the Indian groups that have substantial presence in Africa include Bharti Airtel. Bharti’s $ 8. Libya and the Ivory Coast. university for life and earth sciences. regional and continental levels and not seeking a role in internal affairs of African States or intra-African conflicts. oil and gas and telecom assets across Africa. in permanent and nonpermanent categories of membership. bureaucratic procedures in the African Union and in India slowed down the momentum. is central to the process of reform and for enhancing the credibility of the United Nations. regional farm science centres.” the declaration read.requirements of food and energy security. IT.5 billion acquisition of Zain in Africa is one of the largest outbound investments by India. India is concentrating on building partnerships at bilateral. India’s Vice-President as well as key ministers also travelled to several African capitals. According to a FICCI study. the world’s largest producer of cutroses. Throughout 2010.

India and Pakistan began their first attempt in three years to demilitarize the Siachen glacier. Prime Minister voiced concern over the two major problems of terrorism and piracy both countries faced and said they have decided to intensify consultations and coordination to combat such threats. a source of melt water for Pakistan's rivers. Indian and Pakistani forces.000 metres) above sea level.” said Merkel. Chancellor Merkel also received the prestigious Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International understanding for 2009. defence policy. during the three-day visit of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to Tanzania. 2011. Chancellor Merkel was also appreciative of the role being played by India in the reconstruction programme under way in Afghanistan. Here are some main facts about the Siachen glacier region: • • • • • • • Siachen is in the northern part of Kashmir. Merkel agreed to help India in areas related to nuclear safety and pledged support for the development of renewable energy. Addressing a joint press conference with Kikwete. Military experts say the inhospitable climate and avalanche-prone terrain have claimed more lives than gunfire. 2011. Ultimately. education and research to infrastructure and sustainable energy and environment technologies. “I accept this award not only as an honour to the Chancellor. She also formally launched the ‘Year of Germany in India’ with Lok Sabha Speaker Meira Kumar. Pakistan has said it is willing to do so on the condition that it is not a final endorsement of India's claim over the glacier. Both countries agree on a need to demilitarize the glacier. Indo-Pak defence talks In the month of May 2011. The meeting between the two leaders also marked the launching of the first inter-governmental consultations between the countries on the entire gamut of bilateral relations—from security. estimated to number between 10.000 troops combined. have faced off against each other in mountains above the Siachen glacier in the Karakoram range since 1984. The leaders of the two countries agreed to boost trade between the two countries to 20 billion Euros by 2020 from the present volume of 15 billion Euros. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said after wide-ranging discussions with Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete that the new line of credit will be for water supply projects in country's capital Dar-e. . India controls the heights and is loath to withdraw for fear Pakistan might walk in.000 feet (6.Visit of German Chancellor Angela Merkel On a 24-hour visit to New Delhi on May 31. The no-man's-land of Siachen is 20. She said a military solution was not an option in Afghanistan. the world's highest battlefield in the Himalayan region. trade. Four accords were signed during her visit to expand cooperation in the fields of education. neither side had troops there. that has claimed the lives of hundreds of soldiers. German Chancellor Angela Merkel tried to hard sell the Eurofighter Typhoon jets to India as she discussed a whole range of issues with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The strategic importance of the glacier is debatable. military experts say.000 and 20. vocational training. but neither side wants to take the first step.Salaam. Afghanistan would have to develop its own independent security architecture. The meeting came a day after Germany announced it would phase out all its 17 nuclear plants by 2022. research and nuclear physics between India and Germany. Until 1984. Muslim-majority Kashmir is at the heart of hostility between India and Pakistan and was the cause of two of their three wars (the third was over the founding of Bangladesh). including the situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan in the wake of the killing of Osama bin Laden. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s Tanzania visit On May 27. India announced a new line of credit of $180 million for Tanzania and signed a pact on avoidance of double taxation as the two countries agreed to intensify cooperation to combat terrorism and piracy and work closely for comprehensive UN reforms. India says it is unwilling to bring its forces down until Pakistan officially authenticates the positions they hold. but especially as a tribute to the achievements of my fellow citizens in fulfilling the values of friendship and international understanding that the award recognises.

reliable and economically viable. Because she has no money. these crimes generate annual revenue of $ 9. Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons. migrant smuggling and illicit trafficking in firearms. who along with Kanimozhi. DB Group’s Swan Telecom was ineligible for a 2G Spectrum licence and Rs. including one to combat trafficking in persons. For India. It would also have to find ways to train law enforcers who continue to book trafficked women under the provisions of Immoral Traffic Prevention Act. She was arrested and sent to Tihar jail.6 per cent of the country’s law enforcers have any kind of training in trafficking issues. the judge said there was a possibility of witnesses being influenced considering the "magnitude" of the crime. The Convention remains. one of the beneficiaries of 2G Spectrum allocation. MD and CEO of Kalaignar TV Private Ltd. with the last one scheduled to go offline in 2036. by far. a company promoted by Shahid Usman Balwa and Vinod Goenka. 214 crore in “illegal gratifications” from Dynamix Balwa (DB) Realty. Germany’s coalition government announced the decision after seven hours of negotiations that stretched into the small hours at Chancellor Angela Merkel’s office. human trafficking is the third largest organised crime in the world after the narcotics trade and illicit arms trading. 214 crore was paid to Kalaignar TV in lieu of the licence granted by the then Telecom Minister A. Together. 2011. they run the risk of getting back to brothels. Most rescued victims currently have little access to rehabilitation and care. “We want the electricity of the future to be safe. the CBI Special court hearing into the 2G Spectrum allocation scam dismissed the bail application of DMK MP Kanimozhi. but she reversed her pronuclear stance after the earthquake and tsunami crippled the Fukushima Daichi plant . Kikwete reaffirmed Tanzania's support for India's candidature for permanent membership. Raja. the development is significant considering it took 12 years to ratify the Convention. which means even after being freed. On the issue of UN reforms. faces the charge of conspiracy and bribery in accepting Rs. The National Human Rights Commission says only 6.” Merkel said. will shut down all its nuclear power plants by 2022. especially Women and Children’ means the country would now have to evolve a comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation that conforms to international standards and provisions. A woman caught under the ITPA for example is required to pay a fine to walk free. Europe’s biggest economy. 2-G Scam: Kanimozhi lands in jail On May 20. Right now. Currently. rather than booking them under provisions of the law which would see them as “victims” and not “offenders”. who is also a DMK member and close to Kanimozhi. Denying her bail. the laws are unclear.Kikwete felt that threats from piracy had never abated in the region and said it was agreed that there should be stronger collaboration through intelligence-sharing and other mechanisms.5 billion. The fact that India has ratified the ‘Protocol to Prevent. Merkel pushed through measures in 2010 to extend lifespan of the country’s 17 reactors. the most potent international instrument in the fight against trans-national organised crime. which is supplemented by protocols to combat human trafficking. with the share of human trafficking gradually rising. Kanimozhi and Kumar. As per CBI. India ratifies UN protocol against human trafficking India has ratified the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its three protocols. her brothel owner walks in again promising to rescue her from jail provided she agrees to return to sex work. a decision that would make it the first major industrialised power to go nuclearfree in the aftermath of the atomic disaster in Japan. 43-year-old Kanimozhi is daughter of former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu Karunanidhi's second wife Rajathi.200 crore from DB Realty ordering their arrest “forthwith”. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS Germany to abandon all N-power Germany. both of whom are 20 per cent stake holders in Chennai-based Kalaignar TV have been charge sheeted by the CBI of having received Rs. The judge also rejected the bail plea of Sharad Kumar.

of which EUR 3. to helping the Arab countries in their transition to free and democratic societies. 2011. with the EU offering new. Japan. triggering nuclear meltdowns.” necessitating huge efforts in boosting renewable energies. we can say to those families who have lost loved ones to Al-Qaida’s terror: Justice has been done”. Tunisia and Egypt are the first countries to commit to this transition and to join the "Deauville Partnership". Three adult males—two Qaida couriers and a son of Laden—and one woman were killed in the operation. Russia. Germany’s energy supply chain “needs a new architecture. Germany. The multilateral development banks are prepared to raise more than USD 20 billion. Laden's body was buried at sea. The G-8 partners shared the EU's resolve to strengthen the multilateral system and liberalise free trade in line with the World Trade Organisation's 2001 Doha mandate. nuclear safety and economic recovery topped the agenda of G-8 leaders. around 60 km north of Islamabad. G-8 Summit The 37th G-8 summit was held on May 26-27. the United Kingdom and the United States. efficiency gains and overhauling the electricity grid. . the German government will begin to switch to renewable energy and increase investments in energy research. the members of the G-8 have committed. was killed in a US military operation at a heavily fortified compound. to benefit Egypt and Tunisia by 2013. The G8 also endorsed the EU's call for worldwide stress tests on nuclear power plants as part of a review of international safety standards. US President Obama said. On the impetus of the President of the French Republic. Merkel said. within the framework of the "Deauville Partnership". France. Italy. “On nights like this one. The operation was wrapped up in 40 minutes and the US team left with Laden’s body.5 billion will come from the EIB. G-8 countries and multilateral development banks pledged $20bn in backing for democratic reform. 2011. which calls for a fair global trade deal. the leader of Al-Qaida and the most recognisable face of global terrorism. Osama bin Laden killed by US forces inside Pakistan On May 2. 2011 in the commune of Deauville in France. Osama bin Laden.on March 11. The G-8 is comprised of the eight main industrialised countries: Canada. The Middle East and North Africa. To make up for the loss of nuclear energy.

The recognition was granted at the first Global Ministerial Conference held at Moscow—in the run-up to the first UN Summit on NCDs to be held in September 2011. Glenmark will receive an upfront payment of $50 million. Under the agreement. GBR 500. The US had a legal and moral obligation to act on the information it had.400 crore. The small team of commandos found Laden living in a plush mansion on a secured compound in the suburb of Islamabad and not in a cave along the rugged and lawless Pakistan-Afghanistan border region. a subsidiary of Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited. one of the biggest acquisitions in the Indian IT industry.5 billion in cash. Senior US officials said the Obama Administration did not inform Pakistani authorities of the mission. Microsoft has decided to buy Skype of $8.000 crore. Bharti-Airtel has tied up with mobile software maker Comviva to manage its “value-added” services across 16 African nations where it has presence. iGate has announced the completion of acquisition of Patni Computer Systems. a move that will help the French major strengthen its access to the retail market in India for electrical goods. Apple has overtaken Google as the world’s most valuable brand.” he said. the CIA gathered leads on bin Laden’s inner circle.000 persons. a move that will bolster the software major’s presence in the highly competitive Internet market.Laden’s death came almost 10 years after Al-Qaida’s deadliest act of terrorism — attacks on the World Trade Centre’s twin towers in New York City and the Pentagon — killed nearly 3. Only a handful US officials were aware of the plan. Senior US officials said they traced Laden by monitoring an Al-Qaida courier they believed was a trusted confidant of the terrorist leader. to French drug-maker Sanofi for as much as $613 million. including his personal couriers. ending the four-year reign by the Internet search leader. the world has recognised mental disorders as one of the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that continue to be leading causes of premature deaths across the world. Thanks to the efforts by India. Glenmark Pharmaceuticals SA. The US official added that since 9/11 the US had made it clear to Pakistan that it would pursue Laden wherever he might be. The Union Cabinet has cleared the sale of loss-making Scooters India. the first strategic sale of a state-owned company in eight years. Italian luxury sports car-maker Ferrari has made its official debut in India with the opening of its first dealership in India in New Delhi. DO YOU KNOW The operation by US Special forces that killed Osama bin Laden in Pakistan was code-named “Operation Geronimo”. Schneider Electric has decided to buy 74 per cent stake in Luminous Power Technologies for Rs 1. “Pakistan has long understood that we are war with Al-Qaida. Over the years. The . where Pakistani officials said he was hiding. Business News The Adani group’s Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone has announced acquisition of Abbot Point Port in Australia for Rs 9. which will be used to repay debt. has out licensed its novel monoclonal antibody. Star India and Zee group have decided to come together to form an alliance to distribute television content.

a joint venture promoted by Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd with 26 per cent equity participation by Oman Oil Company and about one per cent by the Madhya Pradesh government. 14 from Asia. Non-paper is an off-the-record or unofficial presentation of (government) policy. India. India ranks 129th. to discuss a new 10-year aid plan to help lift nations out of poverty. has been elected to the UN Human Rights Council. The French government has conferred its highest civilian award ‘Knight of the National Order of the Legion of Honour’ to Indian businessmen Rahul Bajaj. consumables. The Health Ministry has approved a new scheme for easy access to sanitary napkins as part of the menstrual hygiene promotion programme for adolescent girls aged 10 to 19 years in villages. and include 33 African countries. an initiative aimed to drive water security for India by 2030 through public-private partnership (PPP). India’s premier sports institution. India’s largest FMCG company. drugs or diagnostics. Punjab. MD of Bharat Forge Ltd. Bangalore has become the first city of India to be selected for Street View on Google Maps. maternity treatment has been made “free of cost” in all government facilities. The Madhya Pradesh government. The India Water Body will be conducting a nation-wide study to assess the demand-supply gap for water in India. Indian Army had last conducted a transformation exercise in 2000. On June 4. Patiala. Madhya Pradesh. In broadband connectivity. Singer Shaan has been signed by the Union Ministry of Health to be its anti-tobacco ambassador. South Korea tops the list with an average speed of 13 Mbps. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh dedicated the world-class. “Vijayee Bhave” was the Indian Army’s first full-scale exercise to transform itself into a force aided by high-end technology that will ramp up the speed and accuracy of its striking capabilities. Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL). In diplomatic parlance.5 crore girls aged 10 to 19 years in 152 districts of 20 States. a “non-paper” is used when a government is conveying a point to other government/s or State actors while keeping nothing on record. has formed India’s first agriculture cabinet. A five-day UN Summit with 48 leaders of the world’s Least Developed Countries attending was held in Istanbul. India is ranked 143rd globally in Internet speed. Henceforth. celebrates its golden jubilee in 2011 The Indian Naval Marine force.8 Mbps. working style and secrecy. is modelled on the US Navy Seals in the training pattern. International Nurses Day is observed on May 12. On May 20. but with a limited scope. under Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chauhan. A pack of six napkins will cost Rs 6 (Re 1 per piece). LDC countries are defined as those with per capita income of less than $745. 2011. Its major recommendation is to sack all non-performing power regulators. In the first phase. and Baba Kalyani. Turkey in May 2011. The average Internet speed in the world has been recorded at 1. The V. to ensure improvements in India’s institutional delivery rate and benefits at the level of maternal and infant health. for the first time in India’s history. World No-Tobacco Day is observed on May 31. the world’s oldest and most prestigious art fair held in Venice every two years. and will be distributed by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs). .K. the Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports. Shunglu committee was appointed to give recommendations for improving the financial position of power distribution utilities. has been set up by Bharat Oman Refineries Ltd. 2011. It held its first meeting on June 18. the scheme will cover 25 per cent of the target population—1. six million-tonnes per annum Bina Refinery to the nation. Street View is a popular feature in Google Maps which allows users to explore and navigate neighbourhoods with the help of panoramic street level images. This initiative builds on the Sustainable Living Plan launched by Unilever in November 2010. From June 1. 2011. with an average connectivity speed of 0. Chairman of Bajaj Auto. India’s first sports gallery on Science of Sports has been set up at the Pushpa Gujral Science City in Kapurthala. India hosted its maiden pavilion at the Venice Biennale. 2011. has announced the launch of India Water Body.move will go a long way in de-stigmatising mental disorders simply by bringing them on the global discussion agenda. The girls will henceforth get a pack of six sanitary napkins under the National Rural Health Mission’s brand called “Freedays”. every pregnant women entering a government facility for delivery will be entitled to free service—whether it is blood. along with 14 other nations. which is based in Geneva. called the “Marcos”.9 Mbps. This scheme aims to spread hygiene awareness among girls. The refinery at Bina. and Haiti. US Navy Seals had conducted the operation against Osama bin Laden in Pakistan.

who headed the Bench. With his victory coming close on the heels of widespread pro-democracy protests in West Asia and North Africa. Under the Indo-Kazakh nuke accord. during the official visit of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to Kazakhstan.M. including fuel supply. 2011. Prasad. 2011. agreement for cooperation between the agriculture ministries of the two countries and an agreement between their health ministries.” said Justice C. treaty on mutual legal assistance in civil matters. Visit of Prime Minister Singh to Kazakhstan On April 16. which has started strengthening infrastructure along the border. design. leader of the largest democracy in the world. nuclear medicine. Tamil Nadu. Justice H. and condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and those who supported the menace. Krishna said that the government was seized of media reports on the subject. From India’s point of view. External Affairs Minister S. reactor safety mechanisms. with proposed extension up to Xigaze and Nyingchi. and development of road and airport facilities. In December 2010.S. a child specialist who had studied medicine at the prestigious Christian Medical College (CMC) in Vellore. including one on cooperation in the civil nuclear energy field and another for joint exploration in the oil and gas sector. . Being a sympathiser did not make him guilty of sedition. India has also started paying special attention to the development of infrastructure in the border areas opposite China in order to meet the country’s security requirements and also to facilitate the economic development in these areas. it is obviously the nuclear accord that is being considered the singular achievement of Manmohan Singh’s two-day visit. the Supreme Court granted bail to civil rights activist Dr Binayak Sen. India and Kazakhstan signed seven key accords. “If Gandhi’s books were found in my house. the Kazakh leader left no stone unturned to demonstrate his democratic credentials by inviting the envoys of nearly 50 countries to the Akorda Presidential Palace for the ceremony to accord welcome to Manmohan Singh. clarified that the State could not slap sedition charges on Sen unless there was material to show that he was actively preaching or propagating Maoist ideals. construction and operation of nuclear power plants. holding that possessing Naxal literature or visiting jailed Maoists did not amount to sedition. use of radiation technologies for healthcare. Bedi. who became the first top world leader to visit the Central Asian nation following the re-election of President Nursultan Nazarbayev for a fourth consecutive term. MoU between the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) and the Kazakhstan Computer Response Team. Another cause of worry for India is that China has been developing infrastructure in the border region opposite India in the Tibet and Xinjiang Autonomous Regions. Kazakhstan rolled out the red carpet for Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The umbrella nuclear accord envisages a legal framework for mutually beneficial cooperation between the two sides for the peaceful use of nuclear energy.CURRENT AFFAIRS: APRIL 2011 NATIONAL AFFAIRS Possession of Naxal literature is not sedition. Chinese troops in PoK worry India The presence of Chinese troops in Pakistan-occupied-Kashmir (PoK) has been causing anxiety to New Delhi. Responding to media reports about the involvement of China’s PLA (People’s Liberation Army) troops in various infrastructure projects in PoK. The Minister said India continuously reviewed and took all necessary measures to ensure the safety and security of its people. The other five accords were: joint action plan for further strengthening strategic partnership (road map). Kazakhstan would supply 2100 tonne of uranium to India by 2014. exchange of scientific and research information. The apex court said none of this amounted to seditious activities or waging a war against the State. The Bench made the remarks in connection with the State government’s contention that Sen had visited his co-accused Piyush Guha 30 times in a jail and pamphlets and documents relating to Maoist activities were recovered from his possession.K. the trial court had sentenced Sen to life imprisonment after convicting him for sedition and having links with Naxalites. rules SC On April 15. Sixty one-year-old Sen. has worked for 25 years in the tribal and Naxal-infested belt of Chhattisgarh. would that make me a Gandhian. exploration and joint mining of uranium. He is also the vice-president of the People’s Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL). This includes the Qinghai-Tibet railway line. as well as the territorial integrity of the nation. the Bench felt. He was convicted along with Naxal ideologue Narayan Sanyal and Kolkata businessman Piyush Guha.

covers an area of 1482 sq km and is at a water depth of 6-8 meters. The CBI has charged him with criminal conspiracy to buy timing. On the security side. the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty in Civil and Commercial Matters. South Korea and Japan. concurred with CBI’s apprehension that the accused might tamper with the evidence “by trying to win over witnesses. It is situated in a highly prospective region of the North Caspian sea and is in close proximity to major discoveries. Ever since the September 11. The CBI has alleged that this cost the government Rs 95 crore extra. Prime Minister of Thailand. Verma in the case. The Satpayev exploration block. 2011. 2G Spectrum Scam Five corporate honchos. The visit helped to impart a new momentum to the relations between the two countries. Visit of Prime Minister of Thailand On April 5.. 2011. the dialogue would attempt to broaden the scope of cooperation to include the Defence industry and technology. naval ships from both countries jointly patrol their respective stretches to foil any piracy or disruption of shipping through the deliberate disabling of a ship. A joint statement. The decisions were taken during the visit of Abhisit Vejjajiva. scoring and result (TSR) system from a Swiss company at an inflated cost of R141 crore. The CBI had earlier arrested former OC secretary general Lalit Bhanot and director general V.K. The court also rejected the bail plea of co-promoter of Swan Telecom Vinod Goenka and Reliance ADAG’s Surender Pipara and Hari Nair. "Investigation has revealed that the OC committee for short-listing prospective bidders for TSR was constituted by selecting handpicked officials who favoured the Swiss company while members of the tenders evaluation committee were coerced and threatened to disqualify other bidders". the two Prime Ministers resolved to improve sharing of intelligence. develop more effective counter-terrorism policies and increase interaction between law enforcement agencies. The two sides also agreed to expedite the conclusion of negotiations on a bilateral Free Trade Agreement that would include goods. which was released after the summit meeting announced the establishment of a regular High-Level Dialogue on Defence Cooperation that would consider widening the scope of cooperation in the sector. 2011. the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) arrested Suresh Kalmadi. 2011. The court. Kanimozhi has been charged under Section 7 and 11 of the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA). “A bare perusal of the facts of the case and the allegations in the charge-sheet make it out a case of the highest magnitude and gravity and there is enough incriminating material on record against the accused. This dialogue is expected to lead to a Memorandum of Understanding on Defence Cooperation and is part of India's burgeoning defence ties with ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh described Thailand as a close friend and a valued regional partner for India and noted that the two countries shared civilisation links and were maritime neighbours. tourism and culture and to aim towards doubling of their trade by 2014. In addition to taking a closer look at the ongoing exchanges between the armed forces. In this respect. were arrested on April 20. CWG Scam On April 25. India and Thailand agreed to intensify their cooperation in the areas of trade and investment. Member of Parliament and former chairman of the Organising Committee (OC) of the Delhi Commonwealth Games (CWG). On April 25.The agreement on cooperation in the oil and gas sector signed between the ONGC Videsh Limited and Kazakh national company Kazmunaigas gives effect to the transfer of participating interest of 25 per cent in the Satpayev Block from the Kazakh firm to the Indian company. The summit meeting saw both sides agreeing to intensify “coordinated patrolling”. which would be aimed at sanitising the busy but narrow and vulnerable Malacca Straits. including Unitech’s Sanjay Chandra and Reliance ADAG’s Gautam Doshi. the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) named DMK Member of Parliament Kanimozhi as a co-accused in the supplementary charge-sheet filed by it before the special CBI court in the 2G Spectrum case. however. located in the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. and sent to jail after a Delhi court dismissed their bail plea saying they might tamper with evidence and even flee to avoid prosecution in the “highest magnitude” 2G Spectrum allocation scam. education.” The court also dealt with the arguments of defence lawyers that they be granted bail “ipso facto” (by default) as they were not arrested during the probe. services and investment. they decided to expedite discussions on some of the building blocks. 2001 attacks. such as the Extradition Treaty. which .

wife of Tamil Nadu Chief Minister K. of which two are permanent. Even if the differences are overcome. Under the latest draft. This gives them a significant clout. held in Sanya on south China's tropical island of Hainan on April 13-15. CBI said that “Dayalu Ammal does not have a single signature on any paper that we have come across. Answering the question as to why Dayalu Ammal. She cannot understand any language besides Tamil and we had a hard time questioning her. and signs were already emerging that a deal on those terms would not end protests. that the grouping should take a leadership role in closing the Doha round of multilateral trade deals under World Trade Organisation (WTO). with 20. Russia. BRICS represent the world’s fastest growing market. . and Karim Morani of Cineyug Films (Pvt) Ltd were also charge-sheeted. making it more representative. A coalition of seven opposition parties said they also accepted the deal but with reservations. Besides Kanimozhi. Experts say all the member-countries must take advantage of the moment and come out with a clear map for long-term sustenance. was the first one for South Africa. they will be more effective. while the other two stakeholders of the channel (Kanimozhi and Sharad Kumar) have been charged. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS President Saleh of Yemen agrees to step down On April 24. Although the BRICS grouping is in a nascent stage it has been able to emerge as an important voice. All of them are members of the G-20. BRIC expands to BRICS BRIC. 2011. respectively. Bringing South Africa makes the grouping more representative of the emerging powers from all the developing regions. the 2011 summit. those parties do not speak for all of the protesters seeking President Ali Abdullah Saleh's removal. Yemen's Parliament would grant Saleh legal protection from prosecution. who would call for new Presidential elections. wherever required. the grouping of the four countries thought to radiate the largest lessons in developing an economy–Brazil. India and China–has decided to transform itself to BRICS. All the papers. The President would submit his resignation to lawmakers and hand power to his Vice President. Karunanidhi has been left out in the charge-sheet. the high table of global economic policy coordination.relates to acceptance of alleged gratification. with the much-awaited induction of South Africa into the cohort. Started in year 2009. Yemen's embattled President agreed to a proposal by Gulf Arab mediators to step down within 30 days and hand power to his deputy in exchange for immunity from prosecution. And. 60 and 20 per cent shares in the channel. comprising 44 per cent of the world population. it is highly unlikely that she could have been part of the conspiracy”. Under such circumstances. Dayalu Ammal and Sharad Kumar (MD Kalaignar TV). All of them are members of the UN. have been signed by Sharad Kumar. Kalaignar TV Managing Director Sharad Kumar. If they can coordinate their positions in G-20 Summits. CBI disclosed in the charge-sheet that Rs 200 crore connected with the 2G Spectrum had travelled from DB Realty to Kalaignar TV which has Kanimozhi.

Leaders of BRICS countries adopted a far-reaching declaration that. At a joint press conference by summit leaders. with a broad-based international reserve currency system providing stability and certainty. the leaders also dwelled on some of the recent events around the world. the BRICS leaders desired that the grouping should play a bigger role in global economic governance as the premier forum for international economic cooperation. banks in each country would work out modalities so that projects and loans could be encouraged in other BRICS nations. called for restructuring of international financial institutions to reflect changes in the world economy. and recognise its importance as a means to address climate change. turmoil in North Africa and the disaster in Japan. In an action plan.Besides. focusing on financial cooperation and an effective mechanism for global development. technological and innovation cooperation in BRICS format. if national laws permit them to do so. Business News Mahindra & Mahindra (M&M) has renamed its Logan car as Verito. Under the agreement. among other things. The cooperation among BRICS countries was neither directed against nor was at the expense of anyone. support development and use of renewable energy resources. such as the unrest in West Asia. Recognising that the international financial crisis has exposed the inadequacies and deficiencies of the existing international monetary and financial system. The five nations also signed an MoU on BRICS long-term business contacts to facilitate trade amongst them. the five nations decided to hold a meeting of high representatives for security issues in the latter half of 2011 in China. The FICCI will be the focal point for this on the Indian side. the leaders supported the reform and improvement of the international monetary system. engage in joint research on economic and trade issues. . thus increasing the voice and representation of emerging economies. The Chinese leader also sought to dispel the impression that BRICS wanted to emerge as a grouping aimed at countering leading global economies The BRICS countries also resolved to carry out closer cooperation on food security. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said while addressing the plenary of the BRICS leaders. encourage cooperation in sports and promote cooperation in scientific. Anup Bagchi has taken over as the MD and CEO of ICICI Securities. Supporting the G-20 initiative. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced that the designated banks of BRICS nations have signed a framework agreement on financial cooperation which envisaged grant of credit in local currencies and cooperation in capital markets and other financial services.

Pakistan. Denmark topped as the most contented. Coal India. ‘Sugam’ return form is applicable for small businessmen and professionals covered under presumptive taxation. Italian luxury sports car maker Maserati has announced its foray into the Indian market with its complete range of cars. The Ashoka Pillar in Delhi was uprooted from Topra village near Yamunanagar. The Union Finance Ministry has introduced simpler income tax return forms ‘Sahaj’ and ‘Sugam’. Narayana Murthy. in place of founder N. Civil Services Day is observed on April 21. Other companies in India's top ten were ICICI Bank.Veteran banker K.V. According to Tuglaq’s court historian Shams-i-Siraj. Earlier the scholarship was offered to 1200 single girl children in a year. Sweden and Canada ranked as the second happiest countries. Ashok Soota. Haryana by Feroz Shah Tughlaq in 14th century and taken to Feroz Shah Kotla in Delhi. including Reliance Industries. India ranked 71 in a new Gallup study on overall well-being conducted in 124 countries. followed by Australia. World Health Day is observed on April 7. JP Morgan Chase is in the top spot for the second consecutive year as the world's largest company. World Heritage Day. Kamath has been appointed as the Chairman of Infosys.904-crore contract with Tata Power’s Strategic Electronics Division (Tata Power SED) for modernising 30 Indian Air Force airbases across India. China—has transformed itself to BRICS with induction of South Africa. which combined the results of Gallup's 2010 global well-being surveys. World Haemophilia Day is observed on April 17. followed by HSBC. CURRENT AFFAIRS: MARCH 2011 NATIONAL AFFAIRS . According to the study. has launched a new company by the name of Happiest Minds Technologies Pvt Ltd with a mission to “creating the happiest customers and the happiest team”. author of Tarikh-i-Feroze Shahi. This is the first time exports have crossed $200 billion. the pale pinkish sandstone pillar was ferried to Delhi by 8. The rest of Ashoka pillars have only six edicts. China is ranked 92. State Bank of India and ONGC figure in The Forbes Global 2000 list of public companies based on their rankings for sales. S.2 per cent in 2011. the ousted chairman of the Bangalore-based software major MindTree.000 people. NTPC. The latest Nielson corporate image monitor has rated Tata Steel as the best in a list of Indian firms. Now the UGC has decided to lift the cap and open the scholarship programme to all girls who meet the eligibility criteria. With only 12 per cent happy respondents.R.9 billion registering a growth of 37. whose economy is in tatters. followed by Tata Motors and Aditya Birla Nuvo.5 per cent. has been ranked as the 40th happiest nation in the world. Finland and Venezuela. is observed on April 18. Larsen & Toubro and Tata Motors. DO YOU KNOW As many as 57 Indian companies. India’s exports for 2010-11 have clocked $245. BRIC or the group of four most developing countries—Brazil. The project is officially called Modernization of Airfield Infrastructure (MAFI) Leading global consumer goods firm Reckitt Benckiser Group plc. Wipro retained the fourth rank and Bharti Airtel was ranked fifth. India. has appointed India-born Rakesh Kapoor as its global CEO. The African nation of Chad remained at the bottom of the list with less than one per cent reporting they were thriving. With only 17 per cent people describing themselves as “thriving”. Russia. While ‘Sahaj’ is for salaried people. also known as the international day for monuments. Indira Gandhi Scholarship Scheme offers scholarships to single girl child for post-graduate studies. mainly because of tight monetary policy measures. assets and market value.D. According to International Monetary Fund (IMF) India’s economic growth rate will moderate to 8. profits. Haemophilia is a genetic blood disorder in which blood does not clot properly. The Delhi pillar is the only Ashoka pillar that has seven edicts issued by Ashoka. The ancient Brahmi script used to write on the pillars was first deciphered on Ashoka pillar at Delhi by a British expert James Prinsep in 1837. Bharti Airtel. majority of Indians (64 per cent) believe they are “struggling” while 19 per cent think they are “suffering”. The Union Ministry of Defence has signed a Rs 1. Shibulal has been elevated as the CEO and MD.

was sworn in as President. the country’s first in 20 years. Now. “The decision to devolve authority has not been taken because I feel disheartened. Junta rule ends in Myanmar On March 30. 2011. we have clearly reached the time to put this into effect. Former PM Thein Sein. Harper announced the official launch of the campaign. contrasting his Conservatives' economic recovery plan with the prospects of opposition parties forming a leftist coalition. to whom I can devolve power. It is to benefit the Tibetans in the longer run. The snap poll was forced following the passage of the no-confidence vote against the minority government engineered by the opposition Liberal Party and backed by two other opposition parties. Myanmar’s military handed power to a nominally civilian government after almost half a century of army rule. But the army hierarchy retains a firm grip on power in the resource-rich Southeast Asian country. 2011. and many analysts believe Senior General Than Shwe will attempt to retain some sort of control behind the scenes.” the 75-year-old Nobel Peace Laureate. said. From the steps of the official residence of Queen Elizabeth II's representative in Canada. I have repeatedly stressed that Tibetans need a leader. elected freely by the Tibetan people. Announcing that he would step down as political head of the Tibetan government-in-exile. a key Than Shwe ally. The handover came after controversial elections in November 2010. the Dalai Lama announced his retirement plan on the 52nd anniversary of the Tibetan Uprising Day. the Dalai Lama in his speech said he would hand over his “formal authority” to a “freely-elected” leader.INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS Canadian Parliament Dissolved On March 26. the fourth in seven years. as the junta was disbanded and a new President appointed. on the heels of a historic contempt of Parliament charge. He is among a slew of generals who shed their army uniforms to contest the elections and are now civilian members of Parliament. I feel gradually people will . which were marred by the absence of democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi and claims of cheating and intimidation. which also has a quarter of its seats kept aside for the military. “As early as the 1960s. Canada's Governor-General dissolved the Parliament after a vote of no-confidence in Tory Prime Minister Stephen Harper's government. 2011. who has been at the forefront of a six-decade-long struggle for freedom of Tibetans. Dalai Lama announces his retirement as political head On March 10. The Dalai Lama further said he was committed to playing his part for the "just cause" of Tibet. setting up a May 2 election.

” said the spiritual leader. This was strong enough to leave a 300 km rupture on the ocean floor. The 8. They believe only a spiritual leader could take place of Dalai Lama rather than the political leadership.come to understand my intention and will support my decision and let it take effect. homes. 2011 morning. especially those living in Tibet. with shipping containers cluttering the landscape. US and European planes hit Libya Starting March 19. and used these as battering rams as it charged up to 15 kms inland. moving at an estimated 50 kmph. Western forces launched a series of air and missile strikes . There is also an apprehension that the political leadership elected by around 80. By devolving his powers. He has formally proposed to the Tibetan Parliament in-exile to make necessary amendments to the Charter for Tibetans-in-Exile reflecting his decision to devolve his authority. The aging Dalai is concerned about the future of Tibetan struggle after him. Tens of thousands of once orderly acres became a jumble of broken homes. Homes were flattened. Japan woke to find itself a country that had. The subsequent tsunami—sending 30ft-high waves lashing into Japan's north-east coast—turned a disaster into a cataclysm. has ever recorded. would not be on anything like the scale or severity of Chernobyl. He wants that a Tibetan leadership should evolve during his lifetime that has the acceptance of all members of the community and can take the freedom struggle further after him. However. As per the Tibetan Charter. are still spiritual and believe in the institutions of lamas. most Tibetans. demolishing all that stood in its way. radiation leak from a nuclear plant crippled by an explosion threatens to convert into a major nuclear disaster. according to which the Tibetan government-inexile runs. Only 300 km from Tokyo. and concrete. Japan faces its worst disaster since World War II After a cataclysm so powerful that it moved the Earth 10 inches off its axis. Officials were swift to assert that any meltdown. the Dalai Lama is the head of state and also the political and administrative head of Tibetans. the world's most tremor-prone country. Neighbourhood after neighbourhood was submerged under a grotesque soup of water and debris. swallowed boats. been shunted two meters from where it was on March 11. if it came. trees and even small planes. The wall of water.000 Tibetans living in exile might not have legitimacy of the people in Tibet in the absence of the Dalai Lama. boats. the Dalai Lama hopes to give the Prime Minister greater clout as the region seeks autonomy from China.9 Richter scale earthquake was the most monstrous that Japan. 2011. literally. cars. cars. The first estimates of the total insured loss caused by the quake and tsunami were put at USD 12 billion—an unwelcome burden on an economy that had just starting to show signs of revival.

will distribute general insurance products in India through its online portal and tele-marketing arm." said Christian Le Miere of the International Institute for Strategic Studies. American and Canadian action supported by a UN resolution aimed at protecting civilians—they will deny that it is about Gaddafi. a UNSC resolution had imposed a no-fly zone over Libya. according to an annual survey by US . India stayed away from voting. wanted the UNSC to wait for the report of the special envoy of the Secretary-General. Business News AT&T Inc has decided to but T-Mobile USA for $ 39 billion. India. unity and territorial integrity of Libya. along with four other countries. the need to secure oil supplies and tackle a history of appeasement toward Muammar Gaddafi are some of the less-publicised reasons for Europe taking on a leadership role in prodding the world to act over Libya. it is French President Nicolas Sarkozy who has led calls for military intervention. Italy sources some 25 percent of its oil imports and 10 percent of its gas from Libya and billions of Euros are tied up in infrastructure and security projects in the country. "This is a European. HDFC Ltd is the only Indian company on a list of 110 world’s most ethical companies. Days into the enforcement of a no-fly zone and with the US continuing to take a backseat. however. His reasons could be far more personal than Cameron's: in 2007. In Britain. analysts say. Prime Minister David Cameron defended committing British forces by declaring the action "necessary. It has become a “corporate agent” of Bajaj Allianz General Insurance. disagree that domestic political reasons characterize European action. Sarkozy became the first western leader in decades to welcome Gaddafi on an official State visit. India also made it clear that it was very important to fully respect sovereignty. Even more than Cameron. there is much speculation over the surprising swiftness with which France and Britain have galvanised European military action on Libya. one of the world’s most successful investors. Berkshire Hathaway. Away from principles of democracy. The deal will give AT&T additional capacity to expand and meet ever-increasing demands for videos and data from devices such as Apple Inc’s iPhone. Earlier. it is also pushed by a mix of unstated personal and political factors rooted in Europe. legal and right". on March 18. Some strategic analysts. owned by Warren Buffet. Italy has more reasons to be wary of events in Libya than Britain or France. With his approval ratings sinking to record lows and a presidential election due in summer 2012. Sarkozy has strong domestic political reasons to be seen to be acting swiftly and decisively.against forces of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi to force him to stop war on opposition forces in Libya. While the UN resolution authorizing the enforcement of a no fly zone is aimed at protecting civilians and backed by the Arabs. Libya's most important European economic partner.

Pratip Chaudhuri has been appointed as the new Chairman of State Bank of India. US firm Sara Lee Corp has terminated the licence of Godrej Household Products Ltd to sell Kiwi shoe care and Kiwi Kleen brands in India and Sri Lanka. Dadar & Nagar Haveli. to become the first Indian automobile manufacturer to attain this milestone. followed by Finland. US-based paper and packaging firm International Paper Co. who is ranked second among 68 people "who matter". while China is ranked 125. India now accounts for 17. Cricket is known as “ban qiu” in Chinese. Norway and Sweden. No Chinese firm could make the cut.4%. It raised short-term lending (repo) and borrowing (reverse repo) rates to 6. India Post has launched online portal ‘e-post office’ to provide postal transactions and tracking service online. instant money order (iMO). Andaman & Nicobar and Sikkim. The International Council for Small Business (ICSB) has decided to launch its operations in India through the Indian Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Beam. Software giant Microsoft has appointed Bhaskar Pramanik as chairman for its India operations. DO YOU KNOW Child sex ratio of India.think-tank Ethisphere Institute. Tata Sons chairman Ratan Tata and head of ArcelorMittal Lakshmi Mittal also make the list. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) raised key policy rates by 25 basis points (100 basis points equals 1 per cent) for the eighth time since March 2010 to cool down inflation. India's business tycoons Reliance Industries chairman Mukesh Ambani. In its credit policy review. The move will make loans costlier. West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) has launched iON—a fully integrated information technology solution for small and medium businesses (SMBs). The cafe had entered the Indian market in 2010 and currently has presence in three metros. on March 17. Japanese insurance firm Nippon Life Insurance Company has decided to acquire 26% share in Reliance Life Insurance for Rs 3. is 914 females against 1000 males. tracking of . Philippine Airlines (PAL) has entered into a code share agreement with Kingfisher Airlines. ICSB is a global membership organisation for those interested in theory and practice of entrepreneurship and the development of small and medium enterprises. Five least populated States/UTs are: Lakshadweep. as per Census 2011. Facebook Credits is a virtual currency which enables the users of Facebook to watch films on the site or buy various applications. Singh comes in at number 18. Pakistan is ranked 58. Maruti Suzuki India Ltd rolled out its 10 millionth car from its facility in Gurgaon on March 15. Bihar.75 per cent. Sonia ranks 9th on the Forbes 2010 list of the "world's most powerful people". Five most populated States of India are (as per 2011 Census): Uttar Pradesh. Denmark is ranked first in the list of world’s happiest countries. India is ranked 115 and shares the spot with Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. a mobile-commerce company has applied to the RBI for permission to make Facebook Credits available in India. The overall sex ratio has risen by 7 points to 940 females per 1000 males. 2011. Chinese President Hu Jintao has been named the most powerful person in the world by Forbes. the franchise model bar and restaurant of the English Premier League football team. 2011. a list that also includes Congress President Sonia Gandhi and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Has picked-up 53. China accounts for 19. Tata Motors have become the first Indian company to produce one lakh commercial vehicles in a financial year.062 crore.5% of the world’s population. Manchester United Cafe. sale of philatelic stamps. Subway has surpassed McDonalds to become the largest restaurant chain in the world. has planned to invest Rs 100 crore in India as part of its expansion. This portal will provide electronic money order (eMO). Maharashtra. ahead of US President Barack Obama.75 per cent and 5. respectively. postal information. This is lowest since independence.3% share in Andhra Pradesh Paper Mills for around $257 million. Daman & Diu. The list does not give ranks and has 42 companies from outside USA—six from Japan.

Carlos Slim Helu.83% a decade ago. while in the urban areas it stood at Rs 44. The amendment is required as currently the Centre cannot impose excise duty beyond the manufacturing stage and the States cannot levy a tax on services. Delhi (11. The density of population of India (as per Census 2011) is 382 persons per sq km. The biennial Wind Power India conference was held in Chennai. the Mexican telecom baron stayed the richest. handicrafts and other products made by small-scale industries. TN. increased by 14. The Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission (FSRLC) has been set up by the Union government to re-write and clean-up financial laws of India.000 decisions from 37 courts and tribunals. The RBI has suggested a 49% limit on foreign shareholding and a two-year deadline to list shares for new banks. often used to measure a country's standard of living. The online portal provides for 300. as per Census 2011 has gone up to 74. proposes to give powers to both the Centre and the States to make laws with respect of Goods and Services Tax (GST).5 billion. With a net worth of $31.000 cities. As per the base year 2004-05. Karnataka are in zone 3. Through this portal. Over 4. World Water Day is observed on March 22.5 are females and 623. 2011 in New Delhi. It is headed by Justice B.54% in the previous decade. Maharashtra and Kaiga. Out of this 586. TN and Rawatbhata.327. NUJS-Kolkata and RGSOIPL-IIT Kharagpur have come together to set up the Legal Information Institute of India. The 11th Info-Poverty World Conference was held in March 2011 at the United Nations. 2011 Seismic zones are divided into zones from 1 to 5 with 1 being least active to 5 being highest.4% is male literacy and 65. Srikrishna The three-day world Sufi music festival was held on March 11-13. Globally.N. according to the annual Forbes list of World Billionaires for 2011. with its 55 billionaires.223.5 per cent during 2009-10 to Rs 46. The per capita income at factor cost is estimated as Rs 46.46 is female literacy.492. Tarapur. NATIONAL AFFAIRS Draft guidelines for new bank licences On August 29.252). The Constitution (115 Amendment) Bill. India. Indian N-plants at Kakrapar. The 2011 BRICS summit was hosted by China at Sanya. The next version of the portal is expected to be launched in Bangla and Kannada language. the per capita income in rural areas was Rs 16.492 at current prices. Rajasthan lie in zone 2. The draft also spelt out the framework for converting non-banking financial companies into banks. PIN code search and registration of feedback and complaints online. 800 bilateral treaties. India’s total population. Arunachal Pradesh is the least dense State with a density of 17.2 million. after the US and China. India’s per capita income. has the third largest pool of billionaires.1 billion (Rs 1. Kalpakkam. World House Sparrow day is observed on March 20.297) is the densest State. NALSAR-Hyderabad. Literacy rate of India. The content of the portal is in English. Kudankulam. . as per the 2011 Census is 12102. Mittal is ranked sixth richest in the world. 2011. followed by Chandigarh (9. Gujarat. 82. NLSIU-Bangalore. It was 21. the Reserve Bank of India released its much-awaited draft guidelines for new banking licences. increasing his worth by $ 20. 2011.7 are males. Narora in Uttar Pradesh lies in zone 4. Steel tycoon Lakshmi Mittal has overtaken Mukesh Ambani to become the wealthiest Indian.express and international shipments. with the basic message that it is looking for companies with diversified ownership and less exposure to risky business such as broking and real estate. The decadal growth rate of population in 2001-11 was 17.04% from 64.64%. DoP will also sell products. from 131 countries turned off their lights during the global Earth Hour observed on March 26. The guidelines had been under discussion for more than a year. including New Delhi and Mumbai. 500 law journal articles and much more. NLU-Delhi. These allow business houses with successful track record and a minimum capital of Rs 500 crore to set up commercial banks.4 lakh crore).

Delhi and Sikkim. which has historically been cautious about opening up the sector to more players due its apprehensions on controlling bad loans. The last time India issued a banking license was in 2004. The decline in global commodity prices has not been significant. Overall growth in 2010-11 is estimated at 8. Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh showed disappointing results. Himachal Pradesh. new banks’ total exposure to their founding groups should be limited to 20%. to Yes Bank Ltd. The report shows the ranking of Indian States in terms of the sustainability of their growth story. RICS. Haryana. environment and climate change. released by Marcus Potter. Andhra Pradesh. the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has cautioned about emerging downward risks emanating from the uncertain global environment and domestic inflationary pressures. Companies like Larsen & Toubro Ltd. Heavyweight States such as Tamil Nadu. which include social inclusion. oil prices are back to earlier levels. The States sustainability competitiveness is accessed on four basic pillars. developing markets. On global factors. The central bank also said global commodity prices would shape its monetary policy stance in the future. executive director. where it saw downside risks outweighing upside ones.. and despite all the financial market turbulence. In its annual report for 2010-11. The States have been divided into three categories based on the density of population and Delhi tops the sustainable competitiveness index in the high density States. the downside risks arise from falling business confidence in the wake of global uncertainties. On environment and climate change. RBI had retained its growth projection at eight per cent for 2011-12 in its first quarter review in July..5 per cent. with the exposure to a single entity capped at 10%. West Bengal. Mahindra & Mahindra Financial Services Ltd. and Reliance Capital Ltd.. followed by Punjab. political factors and firm commodity prices amidst high inflation and a weak response of supply . Sustainable Competitiveness Report 2011 Punjab. Mizoram ranks as the number one State nationally on social inclusion. to qualify. Indiabulls Financial Services Ltd. remains high and could adversely impact growth. have a fair chance to gain banking licenses. with a reasonably diversified shareholding. Kerala. respectively. The IFC-RICS Sustainability Competitiveness Report seeks to raise awareness and promote inclusive growth amongst cities. it is Arunachal Pradesh that tops the national rankings.” RBI Deputy Governor Subir Gokarn said. Mizoram. the top three winners are Goa. RBI said high oil and commodity prices. The central bank also painted an uncertain picture of the industrial sector. According to RBI. These conditions may make it difficult for keen aspirants such as Religare Enterprises Ltd. though overall the State ranks number 10. Among the laggards. When seen as an overall ranking. Bihar and Jharkhand fared the worst. Delhi and Goa top the national rankings across the economic development and resource availability and utilisation categories. represent a business model and business culture which are quiet misaligned with a banking model. analysts said. “Downside risks to growth have increased since our assessment in July. Growth prospects for 2011-12 subdued: RBI While retaining economic growth estimates for 2011-12 at eight per cent. economic development and resource availability and utilisation. “apart from being inherently riskier. Karnataka.” said the central bank. Himachal Pradesh and Haryana rank among the top 10 States in a report titled Sustainable Competitiveness Report 2011 for Indian States. Activities such as real-estate and broking. respectively. Gujarat and Arunachal Pradesh. even after some correction.According to the draft. When seen against individual ranking parameters or categories. Goa and Sikkim top the list for the medium and low population density States. and is likely to be higher after factoring in the new index of industrial production series.

must cover corruption by lower bureaucracy through appropriate mechanisms. roadside features and town facilities on a simple flip-over style map. and further resolves to forward the proceedings of the House to the Standing Committee on Law and Justice. in a bid to settle the long-standing frontierrelated discord. with Leaders of Opposition in both Houses steering the consensus. Except on the inclusion of judiciary and MPs’ conduct inside the Parliament under the Lokpal as Anna had demanded in the Jan Lokpal Bill. A strip map is an un-scaled drawing of a route to include critical points along the border. 2011.side factors. The report itself notes PLA has replaced its older liquid-fuelled. The committee is already seized of the Lokpal Bill the government had introduced in Lok Sabha on August 4 and those prepared by the National Advisory Council member Aruna Roy and Dr Jayprakash Narain. the extraordinary 12th day of Anna Hazare’s anti-corruption fast. In doing so. lower bureaucracy under the Lokpal through an appropriate mechanism. . US warns India of Chinese build-up The latest US assessment of the expanding military might of China paints a scary picture of the frenetic pace at which the 2. public order and foreign policy. and establishment of the Lokayukta in the States. the Parliament paved the way for the Gandhian to end his fast. The “Sense of the House” resolution reads: “This House agrees ‘in principle’ on the following issues: citizen charter. Though the US report holds that thwarting any American intervention in Taiwan remains PLA’s “main strategic direction”.000-kilometre international border between the two neighbours. This signing of the strip maps containing the Bangladesh-India International border boundary line coordination point will end an outstanding issue which remained unresolved since 1947. the Parliament responded with extraordinary grace to show what it could do to honour a crusader’s urge. RBI expects inflation to come down to seven per cent by March 2012. New Delhi can ill-afford to ignore China’s increasing trans-border military capabilities. must have an inbuilt grievance redress system which Anna calls the citizens’ charter and should provide for enabling laws to establish Lokayuktas in States on the lines of the Lokpal at the Centre. the two Houses agreed that the anti-graft law. nuclear-capable CSS-2 intermediate range ballistic missiles with the “more advanced” solid-fuelled CSS-5 mediumrange ballistic missile systems along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) to “strengthen its deterrent posture” against India. its assiduous strategic encircling of India and hardening posture in the border talks. especially on conditional inclusion of the PM on matters except in issues of national security.” Delhi. the central bank has maintained its earlier stance that a moderation in prices can only be expected by the end of 2011-12. Dhaka ink strip maps to mark border On August 20.25-million People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is being modernized. the Government and the Opposition in both the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha came together to agree “in-principle” to the three major demands the activist had raised in his letter to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh as a condition to end his protest. After over eight hours of debate around the structure of the Lokpal Bill. to be effective. Earlier. The map usually incorporates distances. Parliament yields to Anna’s demands on Lokpal Bill On August 27. Bangladesh and India inked strip maps to demarcate over 4. The debate ended amidst members thumping their desks to applaud the agreement which Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee summed up as “the sense of two Houses” which would now be conveyed to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Law and Justice for its consideration. 2011. in the backdrop of uncertainty over its long-term intentions. On inflation. the BJP-led Opposition and the Government broadly agreed on all other issues.

500-km away.000-1. All this might not startle the Indian defence establishment. after all. the road-mobile DF-31A capable of hitting targets 11. They include missiles like the DF-21D ballistic missile to kill aircraft carriers or large ships over 1. and multiple aircraft carriers after its first.000 soldiers) to the LAC within a month to outnumber Indian forces by at least three-is-to-one due to the huge military infrastructure build-up in Tibet.200) SRBMs. "China's nuclear arsenal currently consists of 55-65 ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles).000 soldiers each) in Nagaland and Assam.000 combat troops) in 2012-2017. Pakistan remains China's primary customer for weapons. of course. China. (75-100) MRBMs and (1. tanks and missiles.“A high level of mistrust continues to strain the bilateral relationship. After taking over as the Prime Minister he said that he would work to complete the fragile peace process within six months and form a national unity government to bring political stability in the nascent republic. also helps Pakistan to boost its military capabilities. which also keeps a close tab on PLA. London erupts over fatal police firing London picked itself up on August 7.500tonne Varyag acquired surreptitiously from Ukraine." says the Pentagon report.India remains concerned over China’s close military relationship with Pakistan and Beijing’s growing footprint in the Indian Ocean.200km. began sea trials recently.000 people. after raising two new divisions (over 15. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS Bhattarai sworn-in as Prime Minister of Nepal Maoist ideologue Baburam Bhattarai was sworn in as Nepal’s new Prime Minister on August 29. The 57-year-old Jawaharlal Nehru University scholar ascends to the post at a crucial time in Nepal and faces the twin challenge of integrating and rehabilitating over 19. apart from (5-20) IRBMs.. which politicians and police blamed on criminal thugs but . the 67. and the JL-2 submarine-launched ballistic missile with a reach beyond 7. with sales ranging from JF-17 and F-7 fighters. but the fact remains that China can now move over 30 divisions (each with over 15. The Maoist supremo had quit after President Yadav reinstated Katawal. China has a hyper-active ballistic and cruise missile programme to add to its already huge nuclear arsenal. Prachanda had dismissed Katawal after accusing him of undermining the civilian government. is fast steaming ahead with its projects to build its first stealth fighter. Moreover. the J-20. 2011. But a lot more clearly needs to be done. China. Bhattarai said that he hoped to lead a consensus government to break the political deadlock that has stalled the peace process and delayed the drafting of a new constitution. from some of the worst violence seen in the British capital in years.200-km away. India has taken some steps in recent years to counter China. two major conditions of a 2006 peace deal which ended a decade-long civil war that killed some 16. Central Asia and Africa. F-22P frigates and early warning and control aircraft. missile batteries and spy drones in the North-East. The Maoists with 236 seats are the largest party in Parliament but left power in May 2009 in a row over the dismissal of the then Nepal Army Chief Rukmangad Katawal. 2011. which range from planning a new mountain strike corps (over 35. says the report. to deploying Sukhoi-30MKI fighters. with the clear intention to bog down India in South Asia.” says the report.000 former Maoist guerrillas and preparing the first Constitution..

2011. but perhaps this was the first time that it chose to openly point finger at it. The government will release foreign-exchange reserves to the Japan Bank for International Cooperation for funding to aid exporters and spur purchases overseas. The riots came amid deepening gloom in Britain with the economy struggling to grow amid deep public spending cuts and tax rises brought into help eliminate a budget deficit. Finance Minister Yoshihiko Noda told reporters in Tokyo today. the world’s largest after China. The yen touched a post-war high of 75.95 per dollar on August 19 in New York. the East Turkmenistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) in Pakistan before entering Xinjiang to organise terrorist activities. when Islamabad is reeling under pressure being exhorted by the US . rampaged overnight through an economically deprived district. The riots erupted after a street protest over the fatal shooting of a man by armed officers.” an official statement said. signalling that officials may be resigned to the currency remaining high. “The initial probe found that the group’s leaders had learned how to make explosives and firearms in overseas camps of the terrorist group. The one-year funding program through the export credit agency is intended to encourage the private sector to exchange yen-denominated funds to foreign currencies by supporting exports by small and mid-sized companies. Japan has amassed $1. 2011. While. The Bank of Japan applauded the finance ministry’s announcement. saying in a statement that the measures would “contribute to the stability” of currency markets. Japan unveiled a $100-billion effort to help companies cope with a surging yen. as the lender is known. is a state-run export credit agency. Japan’s debt rating was lowered by Moody’s Investors Service. setting police patrol cars. securing energy resources and helping Japanese companies to purchase foreign businesses.07 trillion in foreign-exchange reserves. throwing petrol bombs. China blames Pak-trained militants for Xinjiang violence On August 1. JBIC. which peaked at more than 10 per cent of the GDP. buildings and a double-decker bus on fire. Japan unveils $100-billion package to cope with Yen On August 24. China blamed Uyghur “militants” trained in Pakistan for the deadly violence in its restive Xinjiang province which left at least 20 persons dead in two days. it was no secret that China has been pressing Pakistan to crackdown on ETIM militants for a long time. which cited “weak” prospects for economic growth that will make it difficult for the government to rein in the world’s largest public debt burden. for the first time.” Moody’s said. Rioters.residents attributed to local tensions and anger over rising financial hardship. The advancing yen is a “headwind against export competitiveness.

limits payment through coins up to Rs 1. the world’s secondlargest chip-maker. The Coinage Bill. President of Standard & Poor’s (S&P). and would have its own identity. This is the first time in India that a social game would be based a film character. Deven Sharma. G. Kamath has taken charge as the first non-founder chairman of INFOSYS in its threedecade history. DO YOU KNOW The Parliament has permitted the government to mint coins of Rs 1. many of which. known for its light commercial vehicle brands like Tempo. Business News The Union government has given its nod to Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) for stake sale to British Petroleum (BP) for US$7. passed by Rajya Sabha in August 2011. The province borders eight countries. Force Motors has launched its first sports utility vehicle (SUV). ‘Force One’. On August 25. 2011. S. in an attempt to buy insurance against increasingly aggressive legal attacks from rivals such as Apple Inc. In Xinjiang.5 billion. including PoK and Afghanistan. Google Inc. which will be called the “Airtel Grand Prix of India”. have been plagued by terrorism and targeted by the “East Turkistan” separatist forces.One has roped in UTV Indiagames to design a social game based on the film. Kris Gopalakrishnan has been appointed as executive co-chairman.5 per cent of its population. making way for another co-founder.000 denomination. The Lok Sabha had passed the Bill without discussion in March. Uygurs constitute 41. Bharti Airtel has joined hands with the Formula 1 Group Companies to become the title sponsor of the Indian leg of the race. K.V. that sparked a row with the Treasury. Shibulal. “Future is Me” is the tag line of advertisement campaign by AMD India.D. has invested around Rs 150 crore in developing the SUV.One. . The Xinjiang region remained a hot bed for extremism after massive riots by Muslim Uyghurs in the provincial capital Urmuqi in 2009 against the Chinese mainland Hans who settled down in the region in large numbers over the years. while Hans are about 40 per cent.to carry out operations against Al-Qaida and Taliban.000. capping two weeks of controversy following the rating agency’s downgrade of US government debt on August 5. 2009. 2011.2 billion. has resigned. It has been proposed to change the name of West Bengal to Paschimbanga. as MD and CEO. The company. has decided to buy Motorola Mobility Holdings for US$12. The name change will become official after it is cleared by the Parliament. Steve Jobs resigned as CEO of Apple Inc and passed the reigns to his right-hand man Tim Cook Actor-producer Shah Rukh Khan’s latest offering Ra. Matador and Traveller.

The panel on new takeover regulations had recommended an open offer for buying up to 100 . SEBI liberalises takeover norms On July 28. Most new private banks which have already drawn up branch expansion plans in large cities have decided to go ahead even if this means having to identify places that have never seen a bank branch before. This is seen as an attempt to lure investment after mergers and acquisitions fell 37 per cent. the central bank has decided to give private banks a push to go rural. 2011. Earlier banks were expected to reach most of the un-banked customers through the use of business correspondents.12 crore. while the trigger for such offer has also been raised from 15 per cent in the existing regulations.884. INSPIRE Internship (for 16-17 age group). The new norms mark an increase in the open offer size for public shareholders from 20 per cent currently.64 billion now. Private banks are taking the change in policy in their stride although some feel RBI’s policy increases the onus on smaller banks. With financial inclusion being a key agenda of both RBI and the government. INSPIRE Scholarship for Higher Education (for 17-22 age group). due to increase in earnings from domestic assets. The new circular shifts the emphasis to a physical branch. INSPIRE programme covers students in the age group 10-32 years and has five components: INSPIRE Awards (for 10-15 age group). the trigger requires an acquirer to make an offer for the entire company. The Reserve Bank of India’s gross income for 2010-11 rose by 12. the Department of Posts released a commemorative stamp in Santanam’s memory. The decision was taken at the India-South Africa CEOs Forum. In Japan. from $10.” An un-banked rural centre would mean a rural (tier 5 and tier 6) centre that does not have a brick-and-mortar structure of any scheduled commercial bank for customer.based banking transactions. The rural directive could be a setback albeit a small one for new generation private banks which have turned into profit machines with earning growing over 20%. NATIONAL AFFAIRS RBI links new bank licence to rural branch Signboards of new private banks which are common on high street will soon be visible in the remotest of rural areas with the Reserve Bank India (RBI) linking new branch licensing to the number of rural branches that banks open. 2011. and INSPIRE Faculty (for 27-32 age group) for assured career opportunity.3 per cent. Pandit K. from Rs 32. in its circular. He was a conservative Iyengar from Tamil Nadu but chose to make Lahore his permanent home. Santanam was the man who first bared the horrors of Jallianwala Bagh massacre to the world.070. 62 years after he passed away.Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) is a national programme implemented by the Union Ministry of Science and Technology to attract talent amongst students to study science and pursue career with research.99 per cent. it would be difficult to break even in an un-banked branch unless banks are able to find some way to generate interest income by growing loans in rural areas.14 crore a year ago. held in New Delhi in August 2011. In all three.73 per cent to Rs 37. On August 25. For these banks with heavy investment in technology. said that “banks should allocate at least 25% of the total number of branches proposed to be opened during a year in un-banked rural (tier 5 and tier 6) centres. RBI. the Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI) announced that an entity buying 25 per cent stake in a listed firm will have to mandatorily make an offer to buy additional 26 per cent from public shareholders. India and South Africa have decided to increase two-way trade between both the countries to $15 billion by 2014. while in Hong Kong it is 30 per cent and in Singapore it is 29. INSPIRE Fellowship (for 22-27 age group) for doctoral research. the trigger for an open offer is 33.

India and Bangladesh inked a key agreement aimed at enhancing quality of border management and ensuring cross-frontier security through measures like joint vigils to deal with human trafficking and smuggling of drugs and weapons. she said. at the talks between External Affairs Minister S. Chidambaram. Visit of Pakistan’s Foreign Minister On July 27. of which 6. 50-member elected hill council will have more administrative and financial powers to independently run the three hill sub-divisions of Kurseong. which. New Delhi extracted an assurance from Islamabad to fight and eliminate the scourge of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council. 2011. The agreement for Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA) was signed in the presence of Union Home Minister P. For removal of non-compete fees. as compared to its former avatar. 2011. which could be as high as 25 per cent of deal value. China and India to help drag Britain out of the financial crisis.096 km border. Mamata Banerjee also assured a complete economic package to the GTA. Britain and India confirmed trade deals worth billions of dollars between the two countries at talks in London.2-billion) deal for Reliance Industries Ltd to sell a major stake in two dozen of its oil and gas blocks to Britain's BP. India and Bangladesh share 4. While 45 members will be elected. the logic was given that promoters should not get higher price than that for public shareholders. Chidambaram said the agreement. Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee and Gorkha Janmukti Morcha President Bimal Gurung. was expected to resolve all outstanding frontier issues. the remaining five will be nominated by the government. would function within West Bengal. The CPI(M) and other Left parties boycotted the function. Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee.1 km is still un-demarcated. met in London for discussions on boosting economic ties between the G-20 partners. The new autonomous. London is determined to boost trade with Brazil. There will be a direct flow of funds from New Delhi to the GTA for development works. India strike major trade deals On July 25. signed by Border Guard Bangladesh’s Director General Maj Gen Anwar Hossain and his Indian counterpart from the Border Security Force (BSF) Raman Srivastava. food and agriculture. India and Pakistan also announced additional cross-LoC travel and trade confidence-building measures (CBMs) and resolved to find a peaceful solution to the Kashmir issue by narrowing down . a historic tripartite agreement for a new council with more powers was signed on July 18.M. India-Bangladesh ink border management deal On July 30. Britain’s Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne and his Indian counterpart. Refraining from rhetoric with a clear intent to keep the dialogue process on track. The GTA will get 60-odd different government departments. electricity. 2011. health. even as the West Bengal government ruled out any division of the State. Kalimpong and Darjeeling. While the recommendation on trigger has been accepted. Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee has already sanctioned Rs 600 crore as special assistance for Darjeeling. 2011. while suggesting an increase in the trigger limit to 25 per cent. A 48hour bandh was observed in the adjoining Terai and Dooars in the plains against the signing. including finance. The meeting came after India cleared a £4. Chidambaram and his Bangladeshi counterpart Sahara Khatun. However.per cent in the target company. the Home Department (police) will not be under its control. land reform. The comprehensive border management agreement was signed in the presence of visiting Home Minister P. Britain. irrigation and waterways and tourism. Krishna and his young Pakistani counterpart Hina Rabbani Khar. including combating crossborder crimes. the same for the offer size has been kept lower due to intense opposition from industry and market participants. Gorkhas get more autonomy in Bengal Ending two decades of uncertainty in the Darjeeling hills. formed in the late 1980s.4-billion ($7.

France. The glamorous Pakistani minister. “We feel the relationship between the two countries should not be held hostage by the past. the two sides fielded Foreign Secretary Nirupama Rao and her Pakistani counterpart Salman Bashir to address the media. The two countries also signed a MoU to promote closer cooperation and the timely exchange of information between the organisations of their respective governments responsible for cyber security. Russia. however. did earn the wrath of New Delhi for meeting separatist leaders from J&K shortly after her arrival in New Delhi. India. Significantly.” She said officials on both sides must be “respectful of the reality of the two countries”. Therefore. There were apprehensions that it could be deferred yet again after the July 13 explosions in Mumbai but Clinton decided to stick to the schedule. South Korea ink N-deal On July 25. paving the way for the possibility of Seoul exporting its atomic power plants. was postponed to July in view of the developments in North Africa and the Assembly elections in India. India and South Korea had decided to start talks on civil nuclear cooperation during a meeting between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Lee on the sidelines of the ASEAN Summit in Hanoi in October 2010. peaceful and prosperous Pakistan and wished the people of the neighbouring country well. On her part. Canada. which was originally scheduled to be held in April. Argentina and Namibia. signed after summit talks between President Pratibha Patil and her South Korean counterpart Lee Myung-bak. New Delhi also drew Pakistan’s attention to the anti-India statements being made on a regular basis by some key terrorist leaders like Jamat-ud-Dawaa (JuD) chief Hafiz Mohammed Saeed. The statement touched all outstanding issues between the two countries that have bedevilled their ties and reaffirmed the importance of carrying forward the dialogue process. The Pakistani side again sought to brush the provocative statements under the carpet. provides legal ground for South Korea’s participation in atomic power plant construction projects in India. Mongolia. giving a setback to the attempts to revive the dialogue process. 2011. saying one should not consider the views held by an individual as those of the State. A joint statement issued after the strategic dialogue said the two sides covered a wide range of bilateral issues as well as global developments during the four-hour talks. South Korea has now become the ninth country which had signed nuclear agreement with India after it got the waiver from the Nuclear Suppliers’ Group (NSG) in 2008. Khar said Pakistan desired a genuine interaction with India in order to maintain cooperative relations. The dialogue. did express its sense of dissatisfaction over the progress in trial of the seven accused lodged in Pakistani jails for their involvement in the 26/11 Mumbai attacks. a joint press interaction by the two ministers was carefully avoided. there was no reference to the Mumbai attacks in a joint statement that was released after nearly two-and-a-half hours of deliberations. during the visit of US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. India-US Strategic Dialogue The India-US strategic dialogue was held in New Delhi on July 18. However. The two sides have perhaps learnt a lesson from what happened in July 2010 when Krishna’s joint press conference with his then Pakistani counterpart Shah Mehmud Qureshi in Islamabad ended in a disaster. Defence. security and counter-terrorism were high on the agenda since the dialogue. Kazakhstan. . the two sides also signed a memorandum of understanding on media exchanges and another agreement on administrative arrangements to provide social security to people working in India and Korea. however. India. The agreement. Instead. Besides the agreement on nuclear cooperation. Krishna and Khar just gave soundbytes at the conclusion of their meeting and did not take any questions. the usual acrimony associated with an India-Pakistan dialogue was clearly missing this time around as Krishna set the tone for talks by declaring that India desired to see a stable.differences and building convergences. India signed a “historic” civil nuclear cooperation agreement with South Korea. The other countries are the US. 2011.

Slamming the government for conducting the investigations “at a laggardly pace. “Pakistan is a key ally in the fight against terrorism. Clinton was quite forthright in telling Pakistan that it was in its own interest to deal with violent extremism. The SIT would keep the SC informed of all major developments by filing periodic status reports. 2011. Shah. while reassuring Washington’s commitment to the 123 agreement. both internal and external. Hegde said while the guidance value of the plot suggested that . We have made it clear to Islamabad that terrorism threatens Pakistan itself… bombings in mosques. submitted to the State government on July 27. initiate proceedings and prosecute the accused in all black money related cases. Describing the price as “abnormally high”. markets. wanted India to sign the Convention on Supplementary Compensation (CSC) for nuclear damages with the IAEA before the end of the year. We do not believe there are any terrorists who should be given a safe haven or free pass by any government. of the country. Justice Hegde. Yeddyurappa of corruption and asked the Governor to take action against him under the Prevention of Corruption Act. Riberio. directed the government to set up a Special Investigation Team (SIT).” Citing another instance of illegal gratification received by Yeddyurappa’s kin. the SC clarified.” The Bench passed the order on a bunch of PILs seeking steps to bring back over $1trillion of black money taken out of the country illegally by individuals and entities in order to evade tax. police stations and government buildings. Karnataka Lokayukta report nails Yeddyurappa Karnataka Lokayukta Santosh Hegde’s report on illegal mining.S.” In a clear reference to the US raid that found and killed Osama Bin Laden in Abbottabad in early May. has accused Chief Minister B. especially when viewed from the perspective of larger issues of security. while addressing the media. notwithstanding the recent decision of the Nuclear Suppliers’ Group (NSG) to deny access to enrichment and reprocessing (ENR) technologies to countries which are not signatories to the NPT. and disclose the names of such bank account holders against whom show-cause notices have been issued." On the civil nuclear cooperation. Among the petitioners are former law minister Ram Jethmalani and former police chiefs of Punjab—KPS Gill and Julio F.P. Hegde said they sold a plot near the Bangalore airport to a mining company at an exorbitant price. mainly because they are unable to find insurance to cover them for potentially crippling claims for damages. Sudershan Reddy and S. The SIT would have powers to investigate. she said: “We want mutual recognition that we cannot tolerate a safe haven for terrorists anywhere. headed by former SC judges B. But one major positive that emerged from the strategic dialogue from India’s perspective was Washington’s commitment to New Delhi that the process of reconciliation with the Taliban in Afghanistan would be Afghan-led and Afghan-driven. Private US nuclear firms are unwilling to sign up. Nijjar observed that even the “named individuals had not yet been questioned with any degree of seriousness. The main problem for US operators is a clause in the Indian law that makes the suppliers of reactors liable for 80 years for any accident at a plant. Pakistan must act on its own behalf to protect its territorial integrity and sovereignty. However. we need to work together. 2011. Jeevan Reddy and M. Supreme Court appoints SIT to probe black money In a far-reaching order to deal with the “massive” problem of “astronomical levels” of black money stashed in secret overseas bank accounts.B. and not dictated by Pakistan or any other country. Clinton.On the issue of terrorism.” a Bench comprising Justices B. These are serious lapses. said: “In the course of the investigation. it was found that a trust run by family members of the Chief Minister had received a donation of Rs 10 crore from a firm dealing in iron ore. When we know the location of terrorists whose intentions are clear. on July 4. differences continued to plague the two sides on the civil nuclear deal though Clinton expressed the Obama’s administration commitment to implementing the accord in letter and spirit.S. the Supreme Court.

a Lok Sabha MP from Shimoga). it was sold for a staggering amount of Rs 20 crore. both Cabinet ministers in Karnataka. the President of Sudan.D. Hegde said. affiliated to the Jindal group. northern and southern leaders have still not agreed on a list of issues.085 crore INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS South Sudan formally declares independence Tens of thousands of South Sudanese danced and cheered as their new country formally declared its independence on July 9. He said that in the light of these two cases. the climax of a 2005 peace deal that ended decades of fighting with the north. “to take further steps in this regard”. Kumaraswamy and Congress MP Anil Lad. Hegde said about 100 companies were found guilty during the investigations. who now leads just the north. On the money received by the Prerna Trust run by Yeddyurappa’s two sons (including Raghavendra. The United States. at a ceremony to mark the birth of the new nation. a move that smoothed the way to the division. JD(S) leader and former Chief Minister H.4 crore. Mark Bowden. the United Nations declared famine in two regions of southern Somalia and said it could quickly spread unless donors took action. UN declares famine in south Somalia On July 20. “I find it extremely difficult to accept that someone has to borrow money for making a donation”. the ownership of the disputed Abyei region and how they will handle oil revenues. most importantly the line of the border. The North Sudan’s government was the first to recognise South Sudan. China. Under-developed. with about 1. He has suggested cancellation of their mining leases. Somanna. The President of South Sudan.its price should not exceed Rs 1. 2011. waving flags. Security forces at first tried to control the streets in the south’s dusty capital Juba. he indicted the CM under the Prevention of Corruption Act and made a recommendation to the Governor. which are sited in the south. The total loss to the State exchequer caused due to illegal mining during the period under investigation (2006-10) was an estimated Rs 16. Sudan now shrinks to being the third largest State in Africa. However. Salva Kiir. 2011. Janardhana and Karunakara. freedom o-yei”. the lifeblood of both economies. He said the nature of the two payments — the donation and the purchase of the land from CM’s sons by a mining company—has led him to conclude that the “payments were made for reasons other than the genuine reason”. Hegde said the South West Mining Company. but retreated as jubilant crowds moved in overnight and through the day. oil-producing South Sudan won its independence in a January 2011 referendum. Omar Hassan al-Bashir. India and Britain signalled their recognition of the State on July 9. The report also names the two Reddy brothers. also a member of the Yeddyurappa-led Cabinet. had to borrow money from others for making the donation. the Republic of Sudan lost almost a third of its territory and about three quarters of its oil reserves. stood next to his old civil war foe. a hard-won separation from the north that also plunged the fractured region into a new period of uncertainty. who is the competent authority for acting against the CM. hours before the split took place. V. With the split.86 million sq km of territory. . dancing and chanting “South Sudan o-yei.

human rights and religious freedom.” Foreign Ministry spokesman Ma Zhaoxu said in a statement.000 per day and malnutrition rates of above 30 per cent. Obama met the Dalai Lama and conveyed his “strong support” for human rights in Tibet during their 44-minute. hours after President Barack Obama had an audience with the Dalai Lama. The UN is also appealing for $300 million over the next two months for Somalia. immediately adopt measures to wipe out the baneful impact. hurt the feelings of Chinese people and damaged the Sino-American relations. so naturally he is showing concern about basic human values. a crude mortality rate of more than two persons per 10. who are fighting to topple the Western-backed government. Years of drought.8 million are in the south. stop interfering in China’s internal affairs and cease to connive and support anti-China separatist forces that seek ‘Tibet’s independence’. Some analysts say they are allowing aid in because they fear a public backlash if they do not. “This meeting underscores the President’s strong support for the preservation of . or almost half the population. China slams US over Obama-Dalai Lama talks On July 17. China summoned top US diplomat in Beijing to convey its “strong indignation” over the meeting. saying it amounted to “gross interference” in its internal affairs and damaged the bilateral ties. After the meeting. In early July. Bowden said. half the children are malnourished. Brushing aside strong objections from China. Of them 2. The south is controlled by al Shabaab Islamist insurgents. The UN said 3.humanitarian coordinator for Somalia. Others say the rebels want bribes. the rebels lifted a ban on food aid which they had said created dependency. that have also affected Kenya and Ethiopia. Obama’s meeting with the Dalai “has grossly interfered in China’s internal affairs. In the worst affected areas. said southern Bakool and Lower Shabelle had been hit by the worst famine in the region for 20 years. have hit harvests and conflict has made it extremely difficult for agencies to operate and access communities in the south of the country.7 million people across the war-ravaged Horn of Africa country. the Dalai said Obama is the President of the greatest democratic country. “We demand the US side to seriously consider China’s stance. The UN defines famine as at least 20 percent of households facing extreme food shortages. 2011. The group also controls parts of the capital Mogadishu and central Somalia. were now in danger. affiliated to Al-Qaida.” he said. The UN is proposing “exceptional measures” of providing cash relief while it finds ways of getting larger volumes of food aid into southern Somalia.

Uttar Pradesh has the maximum number of its people living in rural areas. Union Cabinet has cleared the US$7. The Union Cabinet has cleared the third phase of expansion of FM radio by approving eauctioning of 839 new private radio stations in 227 towns and cities.000-crore RPG empire is now complete. The Central Board of Trustees of Employees' Provident Fund (EPF) has appointed Reliance Capital Asset Management. India’s largest arbitrage and proprietary book player has decided to shut shop. for the high net-worth community in India. stressing that he encouraged direct dialogue to resolve the issue. In the previous phases.24 crore in the last ten years. Obama. with R.Tibet’s unique religious.5 per cent stake in Genesis Luxury Fashion Pvt Ltd. which will make PNB the single-largest shareholder in the private insurance company. DO YOU KNOW The annual use of postcard (Meghdoot service) in India has declined from 336. Business News The split of the Rs 19. for a period of three years. Mumbai .P. Goenka’s younger son. The deal is seen as the biggest foreign direct investment into India.5 trillion. BLB Limited. reiterated the US policy that Tibet is part of China and the US does not support independence for it.” the White House said in a statement. having more than 35 per cent of their population living in urban areas. Punjab National Bank has agreed to pick up a 30 per cent stake in MetLife India.2 billion Reliance-BP deal which will enable BP (British Petroleum) to buy 30% stake in RIL’s oil and gas blocks. along with HSBC Bank. L Capital Asia. HDFC Bank has launched a premier credit card.45 crore to just 78.5 crore people in UP live in rural areas. the government had offered 250 stations across the country in 86 cities. Walt Disney Company will spend Rs 2000 crore to take complete control of the Mumbai-based UTV Software Communications. including the show-piece KG-D6 gas fields. Punjab. a private equity fund of global luxury giant LVMH Group has announced its first investment in India by picking up 25. The government has also permitted private radio channels to broadcast news of All India Radio (AIR). The Dalai Lama said he was not seeking independence for Tibet and hoped the dialogue between his representatives and China can soon resume. who last met the Dalai Lama in February 2010. carving out a separate corporate identity—the RP-Sanjiv Goenka Group— independent of elder brother’s RPG. Kerala and Karnataka are now among the most urbanized States in India. cultural and linguistic identity and the protection of human rights for Tibetans. ICICI Securities and State Bank of India to manage its corpus of Rs 3. Infinia. The card is expected to compete with American Express or Amex card. Sanjiv Goenka. 55.

Mumbai and Delhi are among the five cheapest places in the world. The five cheapest cities are: Karachi (Pakistan). With this India became the second country after England to have its currency symbol printed on its notes.S. The Union Cabinet has cleared a massive hike of Rs 3 crore per MP in the annual allocation of MPLAD fund that enables every MP to recommend development works in his/her constituency. The first sitting of NGT was held on July 4.370 crore annually. The construction of the plant started on July 17. brought out by UNCTAD. Those living on less than $1. as many as 320 million people in India and China are expected to come out of extreme poverty by 2015. 2011. India’s 25th nuclear power plant is being built at Rawatbhatta. “News of the World”. Osaka Kobe (Japan). On July 26. On July 8. Hyderabad will host the Table Tennis World Championship. Paris (France). 168-year-old newspaper of Britain. Tunis (Tunisia). Oslo (Norway). according to the Worldwide Cost of Living survey.25 a day are considered extremely poor. The missile can also be launched form a road mobile system. 2011. while India’s poverty rate is projected to drop to 22%. India has slipped from being the 8th largest recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) in 2009 to the 14th largest in 2010. Prahaar is a surface-to-surface quick-reaction tactical missile of India. the Reserve Bank of India hiked the benchmark rates again by stiff 50 basis . 2011. National Green Tribunal (NGT) is a judicial body constituted to try all matters related to environmental issues. 2013 Juba is the capital of the new nation of South Sudan which declared independence on July 9. Zurich (Switzerland). The four-day fifth conference of SAARC Speakers and Parliamentarians was held in New Delhi from July 9. It has a range of 150 km and is capable of carrying different types of warheads. 2011. Tehran (Iran) and New Delhi (India). The five costliest places are: Tokyo (Japan). Rajasthan. It is a 700 MW indigenously built pressurised heavy water reactor plant. The uniqueness of the missile is that in one salvo six missiles can be fired at multiple targets in all directions. World Population Day is celebrated every year on July 11.tops the list of places having maximum number of people in urban area at 5 crore. according to the World Investment Report. The Tribunal is headed by Justice L. The allocation has been hiked from Rs 2 crore per MP to Rs 5 crore per MP and will cost the exchequer an additional Rs 2. Punjab has become the first State in India to start an integrated solid waste management programme in the entire State. in that order. 2011. from 55% in 1990. Panta. Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee launched a new set of coins and Rs 10 notes bearing the rupee symbol. is closed down in a breathtaking response to a phone-hacking scandal engulfing the media empire of Rupert Murdoch. 2011. Mumbai (India). 2011. According to the UN Millennium Development Goals Report.

The Bill states that the law will apply when the government acquires land for its own use or with the ultimate aim of transferring it for use of private companies for stated public purpose or for immediate and declared use by private companies for public purpose.000. 2011. which. taking the Repo rate to 8 per cent and Reverse Repo rate to 7 per cent.000 and above in mutual funds. . deleting from it the previously proposed provision to impose a blanket-ban on the acquisition of multi-cropped. Draft Mining Bill In a landmark decision that will impact the entire mining and mineral-based industry in India. The industry fears it will make mining unattractive in the country.5 per cent of their investment towards expanses of fund management. It proposes that market value calculated for the land will be multiplied by a factor of two in the rural areas. For SCs and STs affected by acquisition. 20 per cent of developed land will be offered to the affected owners. On August 1. The Bill also provides that any land. 1957 and instead place a new Bill in Parliament in the Winter session. The new framework will introduce a benefit-sharing regime while laying down the policy contours for leases given out by state governments. To tackle illegal mining. besides up to 2. New investors will now have to cough up an additional Rs 150 for investment of Rs 10. as and when it is passed. India assumed the monthly Presidency of the UN Security Council after a gap of 19 years. Investors are already paying a commission in some cases. Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill 2011. for the first time. The Bill envisages additional benefits of 2. while the charge will be Rs 100 for existing investors. NATIONAL AFFAIRS Land Acquisition.5 acres of land to each affected SC/ST family. irrigated land. In districts with net sown less than 50 per cent of the geographical area. the Government has introduced in the Lok Sabha an amended version of the Land Acquisition. will be transferred to the States' land bank and upon every such transfer. The new Bill. ensures a comprehensive compensation package for land owners and livelihood losers. Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill. security and rehabilitation following calamities. The Bill makes even the permission ‘as a last resort’ conditional by providing that an equivalent area of culturable wasteland would have to be developed if multi-crop land is acquired. 20 per cent of its appreciated value will be shared with the original land owner. Solatium will also be increased up to 100 per cent of the total compensation. will replace the 117-year old Act of 1894 and will allow acquisition of multi-cropped irrigated land as a “last resort”. 25 per cent additional rehabilitation/resettlement benefits for families settled outside the district. 2011 Bowing to agrarian States like Punjab and Haryana. The government plans to repeal the existing Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act. protections have been given. the government has announced an overhaul of the law governing the sector.points. The Bill. not more than 10 per cent of the net sown area will be allowed to be acquired. according to SEBI. The consent of 80 per cent project affected families would have to be obtained prior to acquisition and urgency clause has been limited to exigencies of national defence. the Bill proposes punitive action. not used within 10 years for the purpose for which it was acquired. as well as creation of special courts at the state level for speedier disposal of cases. Where land is acquired for urbanisation. The changes are aimed at dealing with popular resistance to mining projects on the grounds of corruption and adverse social and environmental impact. one-time financial assistance of Rs 50.

It will also make it compulsory for all non-coal mining companies to share an amount equal to their royalty payment to State governments for the benefit of project-affected people. The un-demarcated boundary in all three segments has now been demarcated. fair and amicable arrangement for the sharing of Teesta and Feni river waters. The industry had opposed the benefit-sharing proposal.215 has been addressed. the Centre’s overarching legislation. The outstanding issues addressed in the boundary accord include: un-demarcated land boundary in three sectors. Upset at India backing out of the Teesta water-sharing treaty at the eleventh hour. as well as companies like Tata Steel. He said the two countries would also improve border infrastructure that would facilitate Bangladesh’s exports to India and provide it greater opening to India and other neighbouring countries. Other highlights of the visit were: Agreement on development programmes. NTPC and RPower that have captive mines associated with their projects. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.5 per cent of excise or customs duty. set the rules of the game. India and Bangladesh signed a slew of agreements and resolved their long-standing boundary dispute. In the case of coal companies. 2011. Though mining activities are controlled by the States. China warns against oil exploration in Vietnam India and China appear to be on a collision course over Beijing’s objection to ONGC Videsh . Besides. who arrived at Dhaka on a two-day visit. Cooperation between Doordarshan and Bangladesh TV. the increased revenues collected with District Mineral Development Fund will be frittered away as the absorptive capacity does not exist. Pact on overland transit traffic between Nepal and Bangladesh. This will directly impact purely mining companies like Coal India. Visit of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to Dhaka On September 6. The Bill also had punitive provisions to prevent illegal mining. Delhi. Sesa Goa and NMDC. MoU between NIFT. and the BGMEA Institute of Fashion Technology. The status of 111 Indian enclaves in Bangladesh with a population of 37. viz Daikhata-56 (West Bengal). the new Bill also obligates mining companies to pay a Central cess equivalent to 2. Apart from compensating the project-affected people through profit-sharing and royalty. saying it would squeeze their margins. but failed to ink any water-sharing deal. On iron ore. Industry also sees the proposal would create problems for existing mines where affected persons are not easily identifiable. The new Bill would introduce a better legislative environment for attracting investment and technology into the mining sector. and (iii) adverse possessions. Prime Minister Singh also announced that India would provide duty-free access to 46 textile “tariff lines” as requested by Bangladesh. Cooperation between Dhaka University and JNU. the amount will be equal to 26 per cent of their profit. MMDR Act. Protocol on conservation of Royal Bengal Tiger. aluminium and other mineral-based produce. In the case of coal. (ii) enclaves. the effective rate of taxation will rise to 61 per cent from 43 per cent at present. The issue of Adversely Possessed Lands along the India-Bangladesh border in West Bengal. Muhuri River-Belonia (Tripura) and Dumabari (Assam). it will increase the cost of companies into the businesses of cement. MoU on renewable energy. Bangladesh. there will be a State cess of 10 per cent of total royalty. MoU on conservation of Sundarban. and the expenditure involved in the capacity building of the Indian Bureau of Mines would be met from the cess levy. The activities of an independent National Mining Tribunal and National Mining Regulatory Authority at the Central level. it will increase to 55 per cent from 43 per cent. Tripura. New Delhi. India would supply bulk power to Bangladesh by connecting its national grids. following West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee’s refusal to endorse the accord. sought to calm down tempers in Bangladesh over the Teesta controversy by telling Sheikh Hasina that the two sides would continue discussions on water-sharing accords to reach a mutually acceptable. SAIL. Understanding on promoting fisheries. Besides.334 and 51 Bangladesh enclaves in India with a population of 14. Besides. Meghalaya and Assam has also been mutually finalised. Bangladesh retaliated by holding back the big-ticket transit treaty that would have given the North-Eastern States in India easier and faster access to the rest of the country.

Islamic law as the main source of legislation and Arabic as its official language. According to a Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson. political views. social status or tribal. besides the Philippines. Libya is a democratic. India’s stand is apparently guided by Vietnam’s claim that it had the rights over the two blocks under the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Seas. norms and conventions. without directly referring to India. faith. group or family affiliation. wealth. The State will establish a democratic political system based on political and party pluralism aiming for a peaceful. With claims over the entire South China Sea. virtually dismissing Beijing’s objection. had a major spat over the issue recently after Chinese maritime vessels stopped exploration activities in the waters they claims as theirs. a subsidiary of Essar Oil Ltd. The NTC is the highest authority. China and Vietnam. China enjoyed indisputable sovereignty over the South China Sea and. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS Libya’s new rulers lay a road map for polls Libya’s National Transitional Council (NTC) has set out steps leading to democratic elections monitored by the UN within 18 months. China is engaged in running disputes with several members of ASEAN and Japan. It is made up of representatives of local councils who are chosen to reflect population density. independent State with Tripoli its capital. the OVL alone had made investments to the tune of about 225 million dollars. Essar. New Delhi said the OVL had been in Vietnam for quite some time in offshore oil and natural gas exploration field and was in the process of further expanding its operations. language. hydrocarbon and renewable energy was an important facet of India-Vietnam relations. though NTC chairman Abdel Mustafa Jalil said the conditions for such a declaration included the capture or death of Muammar Gaddafi. The NTC will be based in Tripoli and will appoint an Executive Office. ancestry. All Libyans are equal before the law and are not discriminated against because of religion. India said it supported freedom of navigation in the South China Sea and hoped all countries would abide by the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea. democratic transition of power. The NTC’s Constitution Declaration for governing during the transitional period sets out the main guidelines for the way the country is to be overseen as it emerges from six months of war. The plan goes into effect with a “declaration of liberation” which the NTC has not defined precisely.Limited’s (OVL) plans to undertake oil exploration in two Vietnamese blocks in the South China Sea. has also been awarded a gas block in Vietnam. The rights of minority groups are guaranteed. sharia. gender. The Indian spokesman explained that cooperation in the field of energy. Of the nearly 400 million dollars worth of investments by India in Vietnam. or interim . “Our cooperation with Vietnam or any other country is always as per international laws. Islam its religion. asked all countries to refrain from oil exploration in maritime areas offered by Vietnam.” External Affairs Ministry spokesman Vishnu Prakash told reporters here.

Larger Euro zone economies and the IMF extended Athens an emergency credit line in May 2010. The NTC will be dissolved at the first meeting of the PNC. If it is approved by a two-thirds majority. and it will be ratified by the PNC. Then. Euro zone politicians were slow to react and nervous investors who began pulling their money out of the country and demanding punitive interest rates on its debt. The PNC will approve the draft constitution and will put it to a referendum within 30 days. the NTC will issue legislation about the election of a Public National Conference (PNC). appoint an elections commission and call for the election of the PNC. The Executive Office is responsible to the NTC for implementing NTC policy. . the Constituent Authority will have to re-draft it and put it to a referendum again within 30 days. Spain and Ireland had realty booms. Within 90 days of declaring liberation. The bursting of the housing bubble in the US and Europe in late 2007 dealt the first blow to the Euro zones aura of invincibility. the PNC will appoint a PM who will nominate his government which will become an interim government. Within 30 days of its first meeting. Investors quickly turned on the weaker economies of Portugal and Spain. unified interest rates allowed members to borrow heavily. saddled with massive debts and weakened by political division over how to find a way out. driving up borrowing costs. when a new Greek government found that its predecessor lied about its borrowings and had run up huge debts. If it is rejected. It will consist of 200 elected members. Bonds issued by southern European nations were taken to be as safe as German ones. the NTC will move to its headquarters in Tripoli and form a transitional government within 30 days. After “declaring liberation”. Money flowed into Greece. just as the world economy flirts with another downturn. uncompetitive Portugal then followed in May 2011. Euro zone debt crisis The 17 nations sharing the euro are in deep crisis. The PNC will issue a general elections law in line with the constitution within 30 days and a general election will be held within 180 days of the declaration of the laws. Massive losses at banks in Ireland’s stemming from the housing bubble forced Ireland to take a bailout six months after Greece. The PNC will be elected within 240 days of the declaration of liberation. in late 2009. but by then Greece’s finances had destroyed the illusion that all Euro zone members were equal. the Constituent Authority will endorse it as the constitution. the revelation provoked a drastic loss in investor confidence that spread across the currency bloc. The PNC will appoint a Constituent Authority for drafting a constitution which should submit a draft constitution to the PNC within 60 days of its first meeting.government. With the euro introduction in 1999. consisting of a head and members to run specific portfolios.

whether it be with the ECB intervening in markets to buy riskier debt or providing more funding to recapitalize European banks. 2011. Reluctance in Germany to fully commit to helping member States meant the rescues did not constitute an effective firewalls. with Japan expected to try to weaken the yen if the Swiss action diverts more safe-haven inflows into the currency. by setting an exchange rate cap on the soaring franc to stave off a recession. The central bank could also increase its program of buying Italian debt to contain the widening spreads over German benchmark bonds. But implementation of such an idea could take years and there is fierce opposition to the idea in Germany.20 francs to the euro and would defend the target by buying other currencies in unlimited quantities. Earlier also. Using some of the strongest language from a central bank in the modern era. Even countries central to the European project. . the SNB said it would no longer tolerate an exchange rate below 1. which had soared by a third since the collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008. But for now.Still. to do whatever it takes to back weaker Euro zone nations.80 francs per German Mark—when the franc was soaring in the aftermath of an oil crisis. but at the price of soaring inflation. are increasingly wary. The bonds would create a common interest rate for the bloc and allow weaker States to access markets at reasonable rates. particularly on issues such as budget sovereignty. the EU’s pay master. Analysts said that the SNB should be able to defend 1. More immediate solutions include sorting out weak banks and helping economies where growth has been hit by budget-cutting measures. and discouraging investors anxious about flagging global growth from using the currency as a safe haven. weakening government finances. Swiss set exchange rate cap on soaring franc The Swiss National Bank (SNB) shocked markets on September 6. The move was seen as a new shot in the currency wars. and successfully defended that rate. To get out of the crisis some European politicians and economists say euro zone States should consider issuing bonds jointly underwritten by all countries in the bloc.20 as it can print unlimited francs but that long-term success depended on efforts to deal with the euro zone’s debt problems. but the bank is divided and the scheme has already prompted ECB chief economist Juergen Stark to resign in protest. The risk of a collapse of the euro or even of the European Union itself could eventually force Germany. European politicians seem more divided than ever. as investors used it as a safe haven from the euro zone’s debt crisis and stock market turmoil. Euro zone leaders missed another chance to reassure markets. in 1978. the SNB had set a formal exchange rate target—above 0. The move immediately knocked about eight per cent off the value of the franc. such as the Netherlands.

while the tourism sector was also suffering as foreign visitors started staying away. large emitters of carbon dioxide. Munter said in a wideranging interview with ‘Radio Pakistan’. which has claimed responsibility for many terrorist attacks inside India. The non-EU ICAO members have termed as “unilateral” the imposition of EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS). US links Pakistan to Haqqani network The US has evidence linking the Pakistan government to the Haqqani network. Pakistan has angrily rejected the US administration’s charges. The EU-ETS. including the most recent .The strong franc had started to dampen exports. A “lot of work” is needed to put Pakistan-US ties back on track and Islamabad must sever its links with militant groups like the Haqqani network. which was behind this attack on the American embassy in Kabul. hurting companies like specialty chemicals maker Clariant AG which cut its 2011 sales target. within the EU must monitor and annually report their carbon dioxide emissions. They are obliged every year to return an amount of emission allowances to the government that is equivalent to their carbon dioxide emissions in that year. saying such accusations were “out of line” with ongoing counter-terrorism cooperation between the two sides. The SNB step will also help economies in eastern. Munter’s remarks came close on the heels of a warning from Defence Secretary Leon Panetta that the US would retaliate against attacks on its forces in Afghanistan by Pakistan-based militants. according to US Ambassador to Pakistan Cameron Munter. with two-thirds of mortgages in Hungary and about half of Poland’s denominated in Swiss francs. The EU move would lead to a hike in air fares on these flights as the airlines. Under the EU-ETS. including airlines. have opposed the European Union’s plan to include aviation under its emission trading scheme (ETS) and impose emission charges on airlines flying into the region starting 2012. Russia and Brazil. EU plan on emission trading opposed India and 25 other countries including the US. would pass them to their customers. also known as the European Union Emissions Trading System. US Vice-President Joe Biden too has criticised Pakistan as an unreliable ally in the war against terrorism. is the largest multi-national emissions trading scheme in the world. in September 2011. US declares Indian Mujahideen a terror entity The United States has designated Indian Mujahideen. China. saying it was “inconsistent with applicable international law”. which would be paying the ETS charges.

Marking its re-entry into India. The CEOs Forum was announced during the visit of Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao to India in December 2010. the world’s second biggest brewer by volume. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has selected Anil Ambani. In a surprising move. French car maker Renault has launched its premium sports utility vehicle ‘Koleos’ in India. In the first public-private participation in defence sector. as a global terrorist organization with links to Pakistan. SabMiller Plc (SAB). The move represents an effort to challenge Google. Hospital chain Fortis Healthcare (India) Ltd has decided to buy Singapore-based sister firm Fortis Healthcare International. French auto major PSA Peugeot Citroen has inked an MoU with the Gujarat government to set up an integrated manufacturing facility at Sanand. Pipavav Defence anfd Offshore Engineering Company (earlier Pipavav Shipyard) has entered into a joint venture with Mazagon Dock to build warships for the Indian Navy. AOL and Microsoft have created an unusual partnership in which they will sell ads for one another. . Chairman of Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group (ADAG) to head the ambitious India-China CEO Forum. Jaish-e-Mohammad and Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami. IM maintains close ties to other US-designated terrorist entities. including the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Taiba. This is M&M’s first global offering with significant inputs in styling and development taken from customers across the globe. in a move to bring all of the group’s health businesses under one company. XUV500 in India and South Africa. has agreed to acquire Foster’s Group Ltd (FGL) in a $10.2-bn deal. which dominates the search advertising market. despite the efforts of some analysts in Washington and leaders in India to attribute an entirely indigenous hue to the group and its attacks. India’s largest retailer. Business News The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has notified a new take-over rule under which an entity buying 25% stake in a listed company will have to mandatorily make an open offer to buy an additional 26% shares from the public. has entered into an agreement with Himachal Pradesh government for providing direct market linkages to the State’s agricultural produce. Yahoo!. IMs stated goal is to carry out terrorist actions against non-Muslims in furtherance of its ultimate objective of an Islamic Caliphate across South Asia. near Ahmedabad. at an investment of Rs 4.000 crore.bombings in Mumbai and New Delhi. The Forum aims to achieve $100 billion worth of two-way trade by 2015. the US State department also clearly and bluntly identified and cited the terrorist group’s significant links to Pakistan. the Future Group. Mahindra & Mahindra has launched its new global sport utility vehicle.

has been declared as the world’s shortest woman by Guinness Book of World Records. Montek Singh Ahluwalia. the municipality of Haifa. to celebrate 5. the Asian Advertising Congress. National Voluntary Blood Donation Day is celebrated on October 1. on a Nano car platform. India has fallen 5 notches since 2010. Goldplus is the world’s first pure gold jewellery car.DO YOU KNOW AdAsia. The museum happens to be the largest bamboo structure in India. beating Harvard for the second year. India’s first “Bamboo Museum” is located at the Institute of Himalayan Bio-resource Technology (IHBT) in Palampur. for use in carbonated water. China is ranked 26. The annual Global Competitveness Report (GCR) of the World Economic Forum (WEF) has ranked Switzerland as the most competitive country globally. Bridgette Jordan. 22. 275 km east of Colombo. It has been made jointly by Tata Motors and Titan Industries. . deputy chairman of Planning Commission. MIT was ranked third and Yale University fourth. a natural sweetener. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI). The University of Oxford ranked fifth. Israel. International Literacy Day is celebrated on September 8. The University of Cambridge has retained its premier status in the QS World University Rankings. the regulatory body which makes rules for food safety. soft drink concentrates. Uttarkhand’s Tehri district is all set to become the first Himalayan site to host a wind energy farm. Jammu & Kashmir has become the first State of India to get “MY Stamp” by which people will get personalised stamps with their photographs on these. while India is ranked 56th. Singapore is the second most competitive country. chewing-gums and table-top sweeteners. It will be held in New Delhi from October 30 to November 3. in September 2011. SLINEX-II was the joint Indo-Lankan naval exercise held at the Trincomalee navy base. India and China launched their first economic dialogue in end-September. has recommended the use of Stevia. which is being set-up on a hill top in Bachhelikhal. International Day of Older Persons is celebrated on October 1. has come back to India after eight years. as part of the history textbooks. 2011. led the strategic dialogue from Indian side.000 years of Indian jewellery In a tribute to Indian soldiers. A 69 cm tall college student of USA. TRAI has renamed the National Do Not Call list as the National Consumer Preference Registry. World Heart Day is celebrated on September 29. has decided to include the stories of their valiant efforts in liberating the city during the First World War in Israeli school curricula. Himachal Pradesh. with an aim to increasing Indian investment in China and addressing the burgeoning trade deficit. It has been built by the Uttarakhand Bamboo Board at a cost of Rs 65 lakh.

4%) and South Africa (44. with just 10. by Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU). who evolved over the years into a . at 44th. It revised up the benchmark inflation estimate based on wholesale prices to 7. The lowest—nil—is in Saudi Arabia. NATIONAL AFFAIRS RBI’s Mid-Term Policy Review On January 25.th and 55th levels. India ranks 100th. oil-seeds.0% at end-March from 5. beating Germany which stands at rank 18th. The RBI raised the repo rate. 2011. As per data compiled on participation of women in the Parliaments. These now stand at 8. by 25 basis points to 6. The Union government has decided to reduce the lock-in period of investment by FIIs in longterm infra bonds to one year.5%. fish. “Inflation stemming from structural demand-supply mismatches in several non-cereal food items such as pulses. underlining a grim posture. 2010. The highest representation of women is in Rwanda (56. 49. Former atomic energy commission chairman Anil Kakodkar has been made head of the highlevel committee to review railway safety. Solomon Islands and Tuvalu." said INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS Dilma Rousseff is Brazil’s first woman President On January 1. is all set to to be implemented from October 1. a group of 154 national Parliaments across the world. Colonel in the Indian Army. while the reverse repo. Dilma Rousseff became the Brazil's first female President. Also ahead of India are Singapore. She has promised to build on an unprecedented run of economic success achieved by her popular predecessor and mentor. Nepal is best placed at 17th rank.25 per cent. Such squeezes are aimed at making loans costlier to control demand. even as it maintained that GDP growth would be a strong 8. squeezing money supply again in the economy in its battle to control price rise. Dhoni have been conferred the honorary rank of Lt.5% in 2010-11.5%. followed by Sweden (46. Shooter Abhinav Bindra and cricketer M.5%. respectively. which would allow policy holders to switch insurers. inflation. meat and milk is likely to persist till supply response kicks in.S. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.3%). Health Insurance portability service. Pakistan and China. at which it takes bank funds. eggs.On September 16.8 per cent women in the Parliament.25 per cent and 7. the Reserve Bank of India raised its policy interest rates by a quarter percentage point. and thus. respectively. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) raised the repo rate (the rate at which it lends to the bank) and the reverse repo rate (the rate at which it borrows from the banks) by 25 basis points each (100 basis points equals one per cent). It also upped its inflation forecast. although it might ease the following year. rose by the same measure to 5. In South Asia. Thousands of admirers braved a driving rain and cheered as Rousseff rode to her inauguration in a 1953 Rolls Royce flanked by an all-female security detail. In 2011 Delhi is celebrating 100 years of completion. The former Marxist guerrilla. at which it lends to banks.5%). with 33. 2011. 2011. The RBI kept options open for a further squeeze on rates.2% women in Parliament.

pragmatic civil servant with a professed obsession for reducing poverty. the average they receive is under Rs 100 a day. Though the Ministry claims the revision takes NREGA wages above the minimum wages in 26 States and Union Territories. The earlier Prime Minister Samir Rifal was criticized for following a . Though numerous villages. with massive. including an overvalued currency that is hurting industry.50 lakh petitions. and notorious bureaucracy that stifles investment and discourages innovation. like Saru in Udaipur district of Rajasthan. analysis shows the other eight States that continue getting less than minimum wages constitute 1. The move came following protests inspired by mass demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt. Perhaps the biggest task will be living up to the example set by Lula. 2011. New PM appointed in Jordan following protests On January 31. The coming decade also looks bright. smiled broadly and clapped along with spectators as she was sworn in before the Congress. Rural job Plan turns five but a lot needs to be done The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. Rousseff also faces a long list of daunting challenges that Lula failed to tackle.the RBI. the Ministry of Rural Development issued a notification revising the wage rates under the MNREGA from Rs 100 per day to between Rs 117 and Rs 181 (17-30 % hike) in different States. newly discovered offshore oil reserves due to be exploited and the World Cup and Olympics to be hosted here. rampant public spending that is fueling inflation. have benefited from MNREGA. But. post officebank payments into the mother of all schemes with a budget allocation of Rs 40. Srikrishna Committee report was made public on January 6. The revision under Section 6(1) of the 2005 Act.” the committee said in its 500page report. turned five on February 2. After an elaborate exercise involving interactions with various groups. more than 30% of the rural India working under the right-to-work act continue to receive wages below the guaranteed minimum as per the minimum wages act. It has strongly advocated maintaining united Andhra Pradesh along with creation of statutory Telangana Regional Council to address the core socio-economic concerns of the backward region. However. UPA’s flagship aam admi scheme. Srikrishna panel report The Justice B. forcing many to go in search of work as far as Ahmedabad. The five-member panel was set up in February 2010 to examine the competing demands for carving out a separate Telangana State and maintaining the status quo.1 crore households provided work till January 31. the States also include the two showpieces under MNREGA—Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan— that brought in reforms like social audit. but the opposition dismissed the move as insufficient. thanks largely to his social welfare policies and stable economic management that made Brazil a darling among Wall Street investors. field visits and examining over 2. especially among the poor. On January 14. 2011. Yet. which have less number of workers under the scheme. Marouf Bakhit was appointed as the Prime Minister of Jordan by King Abdullah.100 in 2010-11.3 crore households or 31% of the total 4. the committee presented a set of six options and discussed their pros and cons in great detail. 2011. adjusts the wages by indexing it to the Consumer Price Index of Agricultural Laborers (CPIAL). The eight include smaller States such as Goa and Mizoram. “This is the most workable option in the given circumstances and in the best interest of the social and economic welfare of people of all the three regions in the state. 2011. a former metalworkers' union leader who leaves office with an approval rating of 87 per cent and near folkhero status. More than 20 million Brazilians were lifted out of poverty during Lula's eight years in office. coming in wake of inflationary pressures on the poor.N. Surat where they Rs 200 to Rs 250 per day.

once again drew attention to Pakistan's controversial blasphemy laws. 2011. the Committee said it was the “second best option” but could be recommended “only in case it is unavoidable and if this decision can be reached amicably among all three regions. —Bifurcation into Telangana and Seemandhra as per existing boundaries with Hyderabad as the capital of Telangana and Seemandhra to have a new capital. 2011. Governor of Punjab province of Pakistan assassinated for supporting a woman convicted under blasphemy law The assassination of former Governor of Punjab province of Pakistan. which the Maoists do not agree to.000 Maoist combatants confined in the cantonments uncertain. the Committee said: “The division will also have serious implications outside AP. —In 1953. Elaborating further on consequences of splitting the State. Salmaan Taseer. —Bifurcation into Rayala-Telangana and coastal Andhra regions with Hyderabad being an integral part of Rayala-Telangana. The UN mission was tasked to supervise the arms and the army of the former rebels and the military. The government said a special committee comprising representatives from the main political parties would monitor the ex-guerrillas. Religious parties have been able to force Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani to . the UN ended its peace mission as the government and the main Opposition Maoists inked a crucial eleventh-hour deal to monitor fragile peace process.” The panel said: “We are convinced that the development aspect is of utmost importance for the welfare of all the three regions and could best be addressed through a model that includes deeper and more extensive economic and political decentralisation. Andhra and Rayalaseema separated from Madras.” The OPTIONS —Maintaining status quo but allow economic and political de-centralisation. —Bifurcation of the State into Seemandhra and Telangana.The stress on maintaining unity formed a common thread that ran through the report. Historical Timeline —Andhra. —In 1956.” However. UN ends Peace Mission in Nepal On January 15. —2001: K. as that would only create a demand for a great number of smaller States resulting in problems of coordination and management. On bifurcation.” the report said. the committee warned that division of the State would have repercussions in other regions. —1972: Jai Andhra movement in Rayalaseema and coastal Andhra. makes the fate of the 19. It will give fillip to other similar demands. —1969: Telangana Praja Samiti was formed. as there is no clear road-map regarding the future monitoring. The matter should also be seen in the larger context of whether a region can be allowed to decide for itself what its political status should be. The two States will develop their own capitals in due course of time. this decision will give rise to serious and violent agitations in coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions where backlash will be immediate. which has been the single point agenda of Telangana protagonists. the key issues being Hyderabad and sharing of water and irrigation resources. with Hyderabad as a Union Territory. His opponents sought to reverse free market reforms they say have cut State support for East Bank Jordinians. Chandrashekhara Rao forms Telangana pro-Western reforms agenda. which have been at the center of debate of late. —Telangana was part of the Hyderabad State for 400 years. on January 4. —Bifurcation into Seemandhra and Telangana with enlarged Hyderabad Metropolis as a separate Union Territory. The UNMIN closure. integration and rehabilitation of the former combatants. —2000: TDP opposes creation of Telangana. however. “If earlier agitations are anything to go by. Rayalaseema were part of Madras province. Andhra merged with Telangana. the original inhabitants of the country who depend on government support more than Jordinains of Palestinian origins. This Union Territory will have geographical linkage and contiguity via Nalgonda district in the south-east to district Guntur in coastal Andhra and via Mahboobnagar district in the south to Kurnool district in Rayalaseema.

as per the result declared on January 30. Visit of President of Indonesia History met geography when Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono took the salute as the Chief Guest at India’s 62nd Republic Day parade on January 26. a Christian woman awarded the death sentence for committing blasphemy. As a step towards this objective. protocol for extension of the MOU on cooperation in marine and fisheries. According to data compiled by the National Commission for Justice and Peace. with the Indians looking to put their money in infrastructure projects such as airports. railways and ports. MOU on cooperation in oil and gas. In the field of tourism. 2011. The JBC will be managed by FICCI from the Indian step back from the government's earlier stance of changing these laws Taseer's killing due to his support for a woman convicted under the blasphemy law is yet another addition to the list of those killed as a direct or indirect consequence of this legislation. Threats were made. The vote was promised in a 2005 peace-deal which ended decades of north-south conflict. and therefore. the head of the former southern rebel Sudan People’s . 238 million population. and expressed his support for her. infrastructure and manufacturing. In a joint statement issued after the talks between the Prime Minister and the Indonesian President. India. the two leaders recognized that a quantum leap in tourism between India and Indonesia was desirable to strengthen vibrant and long-standing people-to-people ties. small and medium enterprises. a region of over 300 million people that spans 10 States from Myanmar to the Philippines. the two countries unequivocally condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and stressed that there could be no justification whatsoever for any act of terrorism. instituted by military strongman General Zia Ul Haq. MOU on cooperation in the field of micro. President Yudhoyono came to Delhi with a large business delegation and witnessed the signature of a clutch of agreements. Kiir. to work together in areas like ICT. 2011. but the laws were in place since 1980. danced and ululated after officials said 99.Rashtra Samiti (TRS). New investment commitments worth $12 billion were signed. President Soekarno. Africa’s longest civil war which cost an estimated 2 million lives. in Rome. was the Chief Guest at the founding of the Indian republic. The decision was taken during the meeting of India’s Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma and Italian Minister for Economic Development Paolo Romani. MOU on cooperation in science and technology.57 per cent of voters from the south’s 10 States chose to secede. the Prime Minister announced a scheme of granting visa on arrival to the citizens of Indonesia. including between private enterprises. MOU for the development of urea manufacturing plant in Indonesia. whose close friends Jawaharlal Nehru and Biju Patnaik helped defy the Dutch colonial embargoes of the late 1940s that enabled Indonesia gain independence. a local NGO. Italy to set-up joint trade panel On January 31. and pledged to achieve a bilateral trade target of $ 25 billion by 2015. but also because it is the gateway to the ASEAN. extrajudicial killings of those accused under the country's blasphemy laws started in 1990. and protests held against Taseer after he visited Aasia Bibi. a bilateral trade cooperation body. Thousands cheered. a large market. 2011. South Sudan says “Yes” to secession South Sudan has overwhelmingly voted to split from the north in a referendum intended to end decades of civil war. Indian business interest in Indonesia is kindled not only by the fact of its large. India and Italy decided to set up a Joint Business Council (JBC). India and Indonesia signed nearly 30 agreements. in 1950. and MOU between the Press Council of India and the Press Council of Indonesia. air services agreement. The main accords signed by the two sides were: MOU for cooperation in the field of education. including an extradition treaty and a mutual legal assistance treaty. MOU on the establishment of biennial trade ministers’ forum. from about $ 11 billion in 2009-10.

the panel was set up on December 13 2010 to look into the Spectrum allocation procedures and policies from 2001 to 2009. USA lifts export curbs on DRDO. It will meet once a year. The two ministers also discussed the importance of SMEs and it was agreed that soon industry chambers of both the countries would organise workshops and seminars. including the position of their shared border. and Vikram Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC) are the four ISRO subsidiaries. who was appointed by the Telecom Ministry to look into the lapses in the allocation of the 2G Spectrum.side and by CONFINDUSTRIA from the Italian side. praised his former civil war foe. This was the first visit of a Chinese President to USA in 13 years. The period also included the issuing of telecom licences during the NDA regime. has identified the guilty in the report which was submitted on January 31. Sudan’s overall president Omar Hassan al-Bashir. “These changes reaffirm the US commitment to work with India on our mutual goal of strengthening the global non-proliferation framework. Patil. four remaining subsidiaries of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) in the US sanction list and another four of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). and results in the companies off the list being treated the same way as any other destination in India for export licensing purposes. Romani assured India that Italian entrepreneurs would take huge advantage of the investment opportunities in India. The State-run Chinese media recorded the visit as a successful summit of equals. 2010. Leaders from the SPLM and Bashir’s northern National Congress Party (NCP) still have to agree on a list of politically sensitive issues. Missile Research and Development Complex and Solid State Physics Laboratory Liquid Propulsion Systems Center. after their summit talks in New Delhi. UN Secretary General Ban Kimoon praised north and south Sudan for the peaceful vote but said he was concerned about the unresolved issues. The DRDO subsidiaries are Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE). the pomp and rhetoric did little to resolve acrimony between the two countries over ‘US interference’ in South China Sea. The US decision meets a long pending Indian demand and is the first step to implement the export control policy initiative announced by US President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on November 8. Sharma informed Romani that India would soon come out with a manufacturing policy aimed at increasing the contribution of manufacturing to 24 per cent of the GDP. Removal from the ‘Entity List’ eliminates a licence requirement specific to the companies. During the joint press conference President Jintao admitted that his . 2011. According to the terms of the accord. Seeking closer cooperation in infrastructure sector. After former Telecom Minister A. pending any legal challenges to the results. However. including those from ISRO and DRDO. Raja resigned. Hirschhorn. Solid Propellant Space Booster Plant (SPROB).” said US Under-Secretary of Commerce Eric L. the Dalai Lama. south Sudan will be able to declare independence on July 9. coinciding with the bilateral ministerial meeting. currency and trade differences. Justice Patil report on 2G Scam The one-man committee headed by retired Supreme Court judge Justice Shivraj V. how they would split oil revenues after secession and the ownership of the disputed Abyei region. from 16 per cent now. Liberation Movement (SPLM). Defence Research and Development Lab (DRDL). from its export control ‘Entity List’ in an attempt to expand high technology trade and strategic cooperation with India. for agreeing to the 2005 accord. 2011. ISRO The US has removed nine Indian space and defence related companies. US policies on Taiwan. Sriharikota Space Center (SHAR). The nine entities are Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL). Visit of Chinese President to USA President Hu Jintao of China visited USA in second week of January 2011 to narrow rifts between the world’s top two economies.

Key findings between 2009 and 2010 innovation data include: Aerospace technology area blasts into a new orbit: In addition to increasing overall activity by 25% year over year. He said that procedural shortcomings were found in applications of telecom operators and that there were many shortcomings on the part of DoT officials in implementing procedures. followed by Korean manufacturers LG and Samsung. Chandolia. Patil said he could not produce supporting documents as they were with the CBI. President Jintao warned USA to keep away from Tibet or else bilateral ties will be greatly effected. The 2010 Innovation Report: Twelve Key Technology Areas and Their States of Innovation tracks patent activity in key technology areas using the Thomson Reuters Derwent World Patents Index® (DWPISM) database.K. Semiconductor innovation short . Raja for procedural lapses. Justice Patil clarified that procedural lapses of different types were found in different periods and that referred to not just the particular year in question but also before that. The report also named seven other officials in the Department of Telecom (DoT). which jumped up 108%. The three companies in this area were Japanese manufacturer Sharp. The panel was also asked to examine if procedures were followed consistently and if these were followed in fair and transparent manner and report any deviation. The human rights were clearly the top concern of USA despite the economic ties between the two countries. a former lieutenant of Raja. posting on websites the names of officials involved in corruption cases and permission to prosecute identified cases. the largest aerospace sub-sector increase from 2009 to 2010 occurred in the field of Space Vehicles and Satellite Technology. the BJP-led NDA Government was at the Centre and Raja had been saying that he only followed the policies of his predecessors. 2010 Innovation levels. as measured by patent volume. A 20-point agenda to bring about procedural improvements to achieve this goal is on the anvil. including former DoT Secretary Siddharth Behura and R. Global Innovation Report. Country’s top audit body Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) had earlier alleged that several operators had suppressed information while applying in 2007 to bag licences and the 2G Spectrum from A Raja. Adoption of Finland’s procedural model is also under consideration. country needed to do a lot more on human rights.During 2001-04. according to the second annual analysis of world patent activity published by the IP Solutions business of Thomson Reuters. the world's most trusted source of patent information. Concerning the guilty identified in the report. shifted across 12 major technology areas from 2009 to 2010. Critical steps under active consideration by the government include instructions to clearly mention on files involving clearances by them whether the decision was a government one (taken by the Cabinet) or one by the official himself. The panel has nailed A. Other steps being planned are: Proper scrutiny of officials before appointments. a day after President Obama asked him to talk to representatives of the Dalai Lama to resolve the issue. especially to critical posts. Justice Patil said that in the report he had suggested remedial measure with regard to the licensing policies and procedures. Prime Minister draws up 20-point agenda on Corruption Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has outlined a comprehensive agenda to make transparency and ethics the core focus of governance at all levels. shortcomings and lapses.

circuits: The Semiconductor technology area saw the largest drop in innovation activity across the 12 areas tracked. The Future of the Global Muslim Population may be the first to attempt to map the Muslim population of most of the world's countries. Computers & Peripherals tops the list of the most innovative technology areas with the highest volume of patent activity for second consecutive year. earning it the top slot among the 12 areas in the analysis. Muslim demographic peak over next 20 years The world's Muslim population will grow at double the rate of non-Muslims over the next 20 years. The analysis was conducted by two giant non-profit groups interested in religion: the Pew Research Center and the John Templeton Foundation. The one Semiconductor sub-sector showing growth in 2010 was Materials and Processes. However. The innovators with the most patent activity in this sub-sector were Korean manufacturers Samsung and Hynix Semiconductor. The drop was driven by sub-sector declines in Integrated Circuits. This is . despite an overall decline from 2009: The Computers & Peripherals technology area published 212.622 unique inventions in 2010. and Memories. this is a 6% decline from the level seen in 2009. Film & Hybrid Circuits. falling 9% last year. according to a broad new demographic analysis that is likely to spark controversy in the West. Discrete Devices. followed by Japan's Toshiba.

with France and Belgium at 10.part of a larger project to map the population of all the world's religions. The analysis could fuel critics of Islam in Europe and the United States. The study— which uses a dizzying mix of public and private data sources— makes it clear that even rapid growth among Muslims will not produce dramatic demographic shifts in most parts of the world. in 2030.4 percent of the world's population of 6. West Asia and North Africa. Muslims make up 23. Eighty-two percent of the world's Muslims live in Asia. —Muslim population growth and fertility rates will continue to decline. Among its other projections are: —Muslim populations in some parts of Europe will reach the double digits.4. Or it could calm those fears by providing evidence that Muslim populations in the West will remain relatively tiny. who argue that the religion is at odds with Western values and worry that the number of Muslim extremists is on the rise. and that number is projected to be around 79 percent in 2030. —The number of US Muslims will more than double. —Pakistan will overtake Indonesia as the world's most populous Muslim nation. According to the study's projections.2 million in 2030. .9 billion. —India will remain home to the world's third largest Muslim population. from 2. that percentage will be 26.6 million in 2010 to 6.3 percent by 2030.

.Europe is home to 2. an alliance in the air charter industry. Starbucks will set up stores in the Tata group’s retail outlets and hotels and source roast coffee beans from Tata Coffee’s Kodagu facility. has had his Deccan Charters Ltd join hands with Taj Air. Infrastructure. to launch Powerfly. India’s seventh largest IT services firm. has entered into an agreement with Tata Coffee for a strategic alliance in India. the cash-strapped company owned by family members of disgraced Satyam founder Ramalinga Raju. Gopinath. a percentage that is predicted to remain stable. Kurien as Wipro’s new CEO. has launched a pick-up vehicle based on the Xylo model.7 percent of the world's Muslims.R. ICICI Bank has entered into an agreement with Indian Army for extending modern banking products to the personnel in uniform. catapulting the group to become the world leader in carbon black. known as the pioneer of lowcost carriers in India. to create a $1-billion entity Starbucks. The Aditya Birla group has bought the $1billion revenue earning US firm Colombian Chemicals for $875 million. the market leader in utility vehicles. The vehicle has been named Genio. Under the nonbinding MoU between the two. Opening another chapter in aviation history. Mahindra & Mahindra. Leasing & Finance Services (IL&FS) will be the new promoter of Maytas Properties. Maruti Suzuki India Ltd has entered into luxury sedan segment with launch of its car Kizashi. Wipro Chairman Azim Premji has done away with the dual helmsman-ship model and appointed T. the world’s largest coffee retailer. Business News The NASDAQ-listed iGate has sealed the deal to buy Patni Computers. Page’s assumption of day-to-day operations marks a return to Google’s technological roots. Google Inc co-founder Larry Page has taken over as CEO from Eric Schmidt. the executive charter service of Indian Hotels Company Ltd and with Business Jets India Pvt Ltd. 13 years after he and fellow Stanford University student Sergy Brin founded what has become the world’s number one internet search engine.K. from its number four position that it held before the acquisition. G.

Personal income tax exemption limit raised to Rs 180.230 crore (Rs 61. is the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. Per capita income means earnings of each Indian if the national income is evenly divided among the country's population at 117 crore (1. the Indian economy expanded by 8 per cent during the fiscal ended March 2010.801 in the previous year. The gross domestic product (GDP). The restaurant is 92 meter taller than the world’s second highest eatery. no change in CENVAT rates. 8.332. much like the IPCC for Climate Change.000 more than the previous estimate of Rs 44. According to him. companies and the government in a single measure. RBI has decided to circulate Rs 5 coins to commemorate the 125th birth anniversary of Dr Rajendra Prasad.8 per cent growth in fiscal 2008-09. the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund accepted GDP as a method to assess a nation's economy. Punjab and any other State which may join at alter date over the next five-year period.86 billion) in FY'09. India’s first President. In 1944. Per capita income (at 2004-05 prices) stood at Rs 33. but carry 40 per cent of road-based traffic.800 crore) for building 24. January 14. The defeat of the Marathas by the army of Ahmad Shah Abdali prepared the ground for the gradual take-over of India by the East India company. It is 42.DO YOU KNOW Per capita income of Indians grew by 14.5 billion (about Rs 6. Army Day is observed in India on January 15. 2011. The world’s highest restaurant is located on the 122nd floor of the world’s tallest building Burj Khalifa.82. a UN body.48 km long.000km of all-weather roads in the rural seven economically poor and hilly areas States—Himachal Pradesh. Gujarat. GDP would rise in good times and fall during any crisis. Jharkhand. Indian Navy commissioned a squadron of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). This is higher than 6. is expected to push for action on biodiversity front. The size of the economy at current prices rose to Rs 61. Uttar Pradesh. On January 17.731 in FY10 against Rs 31. to enhance coastal surveillance capabilities. Meghalaya. National Highways comprise less than 2 per cent of the road network.086 crore (Rs 52. at Porbander. GDP was first developed by Simon Kuznets for a United States Congress report in 1934. 2011. The bridge links the main urban area of Qingdao city in east China’s Shandong province with Huangdao district. 2011 marked the 250th anniversary of the third battle of Panipat. While 2010 was observed as the International Year of Biodiversity. named INAS 343. Rural roads account for about 61% of India’s road length. The 98th Indian Science Congress was held at SRM University near Chennai. It is called At.33.000 from Rs 160.30 billion) in 2009-10. The new per capita income figure estimates on current market prices is over Rs 2.5 per cent to Rs 46.1 per cent over Rs 52.820. or gross domestic income (GDI). Objective Anti-Leprosy Day is observed in India on January 30.345 calculated by the Central Statistical Organisation.605 in 2008-09. People power forces Hosni Mubarak to quit as President of Egypt On February 11.492 in 2009-10.04 km further than the distance between Dover and Calais. The World Bank has offered to India a loan of $1. CURRENT AFFAIRS: FEBRUARY 2011 NATIONAL AFFAIRS Union Budget 2011 Highlights INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS • • Standard rate of excise duty held at 10 percent. from 2011 starts the Decade of Biodiversity. Based on 2004-05 prices. The UAVs have been nick-named “Frontier Formidables”. The idea of gross domestic product came into existence after the Great Depression and World War II. from Rs 40. The Qingdao Haiwan Bridge in China is the world’s longest sea bridge. the revolving 360 Restaurant in Toronto’s CN Tower.mosphere.000 for individual tax payers. Hosni Mubarak stepped down as Egypt's . During the decade.17 billion). His idea was to calculate all economic production by individuals. up 16. Uttarkhand. as also longer than a marathon.

25 trillion rupees in 2011-12. • • Works of art exempt from customs when imported for exhibition in state-run institutions. till a free and fair presidential election is held in September.” The 82-year-old Mubarak's downfall after 18 days of unprecedented mass protests was a momentous victory for people power and is sure to rock autocrats throughout the Arab world and beyond.7 billion rupees. Hundreds of thousands of protesters rallied across Egypt.000 per day. diagnostic tests. • Service tax widened to cover hotel accommodation above Rs 1. Peak rate of customs duty maintained at 10 per cent in view of the global economic situation. Service tax on air travel increased by Rs 50 for domestic travel and Rs 250 for international travel in economy class. as well as in Tanta and other Nile Delta centers.5 percent from 18 percent. including in the industrial city of Suez. To reduce surcharge on domestic companies to 5 percent from 7. Total expenditure in 2011-12 seen at 12. State-run oil retailers to be provided with 200 billion rupee cash subsidy in 201112. Non-tax revenue seen at 1. Food subsidy bill in 2011-12 seen at 605. Revised food subsidy bill for 2010-11 at 606 billion rupees. A/C restaurants serving liquor. Plan expenditure seen at 4. A military council would run the affairs of the Arab world's most populous nation.1 percent of GDP in 2010-11.6 percent of GDP in 2011-12. On higher classes.58 trillion rupees.41 trillion rupees in 2011-12. Gross tax receipts seen at 9. Citizens over 80 years to have exemption limit of Rs 5 lakh.3 percent. Fiscal deficit seen at 4. • • • • • • Subsidy bill in 2011-12 seen at 1. hundreds of thousands of protesters broke down in tears.44 trillion rupees.50 lakh. The sharpening confrontation had raised fear of uncontrolled violence in the most populous Arab nation. Revised fertilizer subsidy bill for 2010-11 at 550 billion rupees. it will be ten per cent flat. • • • • • • • Fiscal deficit seen at 5. celebrated and hugged each other chanting: “The people have brought down the regime. up 18.32 trillion rupees in 2011-12. some category of hospitals. .6 trillion rupees in 2011-12. raise minimum alternate tax to 18. earlier the scene of some of the fiercest violence in the crisis. Revised petroleum subsidy bill in 201011 at 384 billion rupees. a key US ally in an oil-rich region where the chance of chaos spreading to other long stable but repressive States troubles the West. and the second city of Alexandria. Corporate tax receipts seen at 3.5 percent. the qualifying age reduced to 60 years and exemption limit raised to Rs 2. President. this now extended to private institutions. A new revised income tax return form 'Sugam' to be introduced for small tax papers. bowing to escalating pressure from the military and protesters demanding that he go.• • • • • • • For senior citizens. Washington has called for a prompt democratic transition to restore stability in Egypt. handing over to the army and ending three decades of autocratic rule. After a speaker made the announcement in Cairo's Tahrir Square. Iron ore export duty raised to 20 percent Nominal one per cent central excise duty on 130 items entering the tax net.

A graduate in political science and history from Tribhuvan University.6 billion rupees.5 billion rupees capital infusion in state-run banks in 2011-12.• • • • • • • Tax-to-GDP ratio seen at 10. Food security bill to be introduced.47 trillion rupees. poverty. He was one of the founding members of the National Co-ordination Committee for all Communist Revolutionaries of Nepal in 1975 Disinvestment in 2011-12 seen at 400 billion rupees.5 billion rupees for the education sector. Public debt bill to be introduced in parliament soon.17 trillion rupees. To create infrastructure debt funds. To boost infrastructure development with tax-free bonds of 300 billion rupees. Egyptians had been demonstrating in huge numbers against rising prices. pension funds. Gross market borrowing for 2011-12 seen at 4. Setting up independent debt management office. which triggered protests around the region.21. To provide 201. Rs. Customs revenue seen at 1. UML chairman Khanal. elected veteran communist leader and chairman of the Communist Party of NepalUnified Marxist Leninist (CPNUML) Jhalanath Khanal as the new Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Nepal. Corpus of rural infrastructure development fund raised to 180 billion rupees in 2011-12. To allocate 520. Economy expected to grow at 9 percent in 2012. Government committed to retaining 51 percent stake in public sector enterprises. . Khanal entered politics in 1965. unemployment and their authoritarian regime.64 trillion rupees to defence sector in 2011-12. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Net market borrowing for 2011-12 seen at 3.25 percent. Nepal's Parliament. 61. To permit SEBI registered mutual funds to access subscriptions from foreign investments. Since the fall of Tunisia's longtime leader Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali.54 crore each for AMU (Aligarh Muslim University) centres at Murshidabad and Mallapuram. who was elected chairman of the UML in February 2009. banking to be introduced. plus or minus 0. 2011. Service tax receipts seen at 820 billion rupees in 2011-12. Revised gross market borrowing for 2010-11 at 4. was elected by securing 368 votes in the 601-member Parliament. Jhalanath Khanal. Rs.500 crore more for national skill development fund. Rs. FDI policy being liberalized.52 trillion rupees in 2011-12.000 crore for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. Inflation seen lower in the financial year 2011-12. Bills on insurance. seen at 10. To raise health sector allocation to 267. on February 3.8 percent in 201213. decided to withdraw its candidate and forge a Left alliance by extending support to Khanal. To allocate more than 1.43 trillion rupees. Nepal finally gets a Prime minister after seven months and sixteen attempts Ending a seven-month-long standoff over the Prime Ministerial election. down from 3. Khanal proved lucky and became the third communist Prime Minister after the April 2006 uprising by replacing his fellow comrade Madhav Kumar Nepal after the Unified CPN-Maoists. was born in Ilam in May 1950.4 percent in 2011-12.45 trillion rupees in 2010-11. the single largest party in the Parliament. Raised foreign institutional investor limit in 5-year corporate bonds for investment in infrastructure by $20 billion.

23 percent higher allocation in 2011-12. LPG and fertilizers. On February 25. New coins carrying new rupee symbol to be issued.500 to Rs.630 crore.3. Railway Minister Mamata Banerjee made an attempt to come out with the “aam aadmi” budget sparing the passengers and industry from fare and freight hikes and announcing the highest ever investment of Rs 57. he was a minister in the interim government formed in 1990.1. with 68 new trains.58. After restoration of democracy. which was opposed to inclusion of foreign exchange reserves and its exchange rate among the guidelines. This issue seems to have been put on back seat as a lot of time was spent on reaching an agreement with China.10. To raise target of credit flow to agriculture sector to 4. G-20 ministers reach deal to correct economic flaws G-20 Finance Ministers have reached a compromise deal to correct global economic imbalances and expressed concern over excessive commodity price volatility impacting the world food security. reached a text in the face of tough resistance from China to agree on guidelines for removal of structural flaws in the global economy. foreign tax division of CTBT strengthened. 15 more mega food parks to be set up in 2011-12. He was jailed for a total of 26 months in his early political career and went underground in 1979.25 lakh. to complete its work in 24 months. 2011.000 crore. 3 percent interest subsidy to farmers in 2011-12. Infrastructure critical for development. Mamata vowed to build a stronger railroad infrastructure based on the Vision 2020 document while announcing a slew . major economies.• • Rs. headed by former Supreme Court judge B. 2011 For the third year in a row. Comprehensive policy on further developing PPP (public-privatepartnership) model. faced with uneven recovery and downside risks. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme wage rates linked to consumer price index. He was elected as a lawmaker in the 1991 and 1994 general elections. and CPN (ML) in 1978. Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission. Housing loan limit for priority sector lending raised to Rs. • • • • • • Removal of supply bottlenecks in the food sector will be in focus in 2011-12. to overhaul financial regulations. increase of Rs.000. New Delhi wanted that G-20 should urge all jurisdictions to conclude Tax Information Exchange Agreements so that menace of black money in tax havens can be tackled. 15 set up. of 30 sanctioned in previous fiscal. China is sitting on a $2. 13 new double taxation avoidance agreements. will rise from existing Rs. • • • • • To move towards direct transfer of cash subsidy for kerosene. • • • • Railway Budget. Food storage capacity to be augmented. an issue pressed by India. Anganwadi workers salary raised from Rs.8 trillion forex reserves and is accused by the US of manipulating its currency yuan.100 per day. Cold storage chains to be given infrastructure status. To provide 3 billion rupees for 60. Srikrishna. • Five-fold strategy against black money. presenting her third Railway Budget in UPA-II in the Lok Sabha. However. strength of Enforcement Directorate increased three-fold. the document did not talk about an issue of much interest to India. Bill to be introduced to review Indian Stamp Act. Capitalisation of National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) of 30 billion rupees in a phased manner.75 trillion rupees.000 crore for Bharat Nirman. After two days of hard bargain by their Finance Ministers.000 hectares under palm oil plantation.

Gross traffic receipts have been fixed at Rs 94.Ratangarh -JakhalLudhiana. has a network of 64. New Shatabadi to link Ludhiana with New Delhi. which have exceeded $100 per barrel.000 freight trains to carry 850 million tonne of cargo. Durontos on the Allahabad-Mumbai. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton launched a landmark nuclear arms reduction pact with Russia. on Bandra (T)-Jammu Tawi Express route via Marwar-Degana.017 km gauge conversion targeted in 2011-12. The budget estimates for 2011-12 project a freight loading of 993 million tonne and a passenger growth of 6. Rs 9. without targets will be used to assess: i) public debt and fiscal deficit.650 crore and appropriation to depreciation reserve fund pegged at Rs 7. India also pressed for a coordinated approach to tackle food. a matter of great concern to India. the world’s second largest under a single management. The ordinary working expenses have been fixed at Rs 67. Chennai. Indian Railways. Industrial park in Nandigram. including reducing the eligibility age of senior women citizens from 60 to 58 years and raising the fare concession for senior citizens (above 60) from 30 to 40 per cent.000 crore.099 km to ferry as many as 18. Highest ever plan outlay of Rs 57.000 crore. The new START officially came into force when Clinton and Russian counterpart Sergei Lavrov • • • • • • • • No hike in passenger fare and freight rates. The document also expressed its worries on the impact of rising oil prices. which make emerging economies "vulnerable". Ten-year backlog of 1. Ahmedabad.017 km of gauge conversion has been set.000 ex-servicemen to be given jobs in railways. Russia launch nuclear arms reduction pact On February 5. a showpiece of Washington’s “reset” of ties with its former Cold War enemy. Secunderabad-Visakhapatnam. 867 km of doubling of lines and 1. • • • • • • • .300 km of new lines. monetary and other policies. US. 3 new Shatabdis and 9 Durontos to be introduced. said that indicative guidelines. fiscal. private savings and private debt. with an operating ratio of 98. Metro coach factory for Singur.906 stations. which is higher by Rs 75 crore over budget estimates. On the most contentious guidelines to remove structural imbalances. commodity and oil price volatility. instead. It also runs 4.4 per cent.of concessions.735 crore has been made for dividend payment and the excess for railways for the new fiscal has been projected at Rs 5. ii) external imbalances composed of trade balance and net investment income flows and transfers. Sealdah-Puri.000 trains daily. Integrated suburban network to be set up in Mumbai. from 6. 867 km doubling of lines and 1. Concession for senior citizens increased from 30% to 40%. MaduraiChennai routes. taking into due consideration of exchange rate.300 km new lines. 2011.840 crore. The ministers agreed on a plan to strengthen the international monetary system (IMS) with regard to disruptive capital flows and disorderly movement in exchange rates. The communiqué.258 crore. 56 new Express Trains.75 lakh jobs to be addressed.9 million passengers on 7. Pune-Ahmedabad. Centre for excellence in software at Darjeeling. 1.583 crore provided for new lines. New weekly train. "Vivek Express". A target of 1. Ordinary working expenses have been estimated at Rs 73. 16. A bridge factory in Jammu & Kashmir and a state-of-art institute for tunnel and bridge engineering proposed at Jammu. A provision of Rs 6. the communique appeared to have accommodated China's objections to including forex reserves and current account deficit. Highlights Faced with a double-digit food inflation.630 crore proposed.1 per cent.

Review of economic growth story of India As per the Economic Survey 2011. The Economic Survey reveals that though Rajasthan.59 per cent growth in 2008-2009. Business News Reliance Industries Ltd and UK’s oil and gas exploration company BP have announced a historic deal under which BP will pay $7. Madhya Pradesh. “Today we exchange the instruments of ratification for a treaty that lessens the nuclear danger facing the Russian and American people and the world. Multi-purpose smart card to be introduced for all-India travel. Fortis Global Healthcare Holdings will acquire a majority stake in Australia’s Dental Corporation Holdings (DCH). “The percentage of people below the poverty line is very high in Orissa. The Survey places Bihar on top in terms of performance on growth. UP. followed by Karnataka. with the State posting a whopping 16.” The pact slashes existing warhead ceilings by 30 per cent over the next 10 years and limits each side to 700 deployed long-range missiles and heavy bombers. Maharashtra. The original 1991 pact expired at the end of 2009 amid stark differences over how the two sides planned to proceed. Interesting to see is the fact that out of top five growing States in the country. Future performance payments of up to $1. provided maximum employment under MNREGA in 2009-2010. Andhra Pradesh. Ironically. it was Punjab (ruled by the Shorimani Akali Dal-BJP combine) which employed the maximum Scheduled Castes under the programme (Punjab also reports the lowest number of people below poverty line in India) while the BJP-ruled Madhya Pradesh employed the maximum STs.2 billion to acquire 30 per cent equity stake in 23 oil and gas production sharing contracts that RIL operates in India. non-Congress ruled states like Orissa and Bihar continue to perform poorly on poverty indicators. So far as the progress under the National Rural Health Mission goes. start of Rajrani Express. the Opposition-ruled States of Jharkhand (where the JMM and BJP are in coalition). Madhya Pradesh. though they are doing well in terms of economic growth. Rural income inequality is the highest in Haryana and urban income inequality is the highest in Madhya Pradesh. followed by Andhra Pradesh. with the exception of Haryana which stands fourth in this list. UP. Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Bihar. The chief US diplomat hailed the pact as another example of “cleareyed” cooperation between the two military powers. Fortis Global is the wholly-owned overseas investment vehicle of Fortis Healthcare Ltd. Tamil Nadu and Bihar. exchanged ratification documents at a security conference in the German city of Munich. After Punjab. Gujarat and Chhattisgarh. Haryana and Bihar. Educomp Solutions has picked up a majority stake in test preparation company Gateforum Educational Services which provides preparatory tools for Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE).trains to be started. Chhattisgarh. On gross enrollment ratios in elementary education also. Uttrakhand and Madhya Pradesh. the maximum health centers have come up in Tamil Nadu.8 billion could be paid based on exploration success.” Lavrov told the Munich conference that the agreement would “enhance international stability. Plan to deal with black money menace Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee has said that the government had adopted a five-fold strategy to deal with the problem of generation and circulation of black money. the latest year for which the data is available. the maximum SC employment under MNREGA was reported from Tamil Nadu. But Gujarat pips Bihar (which is followed by Orissa. four are ruled by non-Congress governments. including the KG D6 block. Presenting the Budget. non-Congress States are scripting India’s economic growth story.• • • • Age for senior women citizens’ concession reduced to 58 from 60. Haryana and Uttrakhand) to the lead spot when the growth performance is measured from 2002-2003 onwards to 2009. Student special . “part of a journey we have been taking for more than 60 years. an entrance test for . Jharkhand. Pradhan Mantri Rail Vikas Yojana to be launched. followed by Jharkhand. Chhattisgarh and Gujarat rank the highest.” Clinton said.

The pact was signed between Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma and Japanese Foreign Affairs Minister Seiji Maehara in Tokyo. The agreement has ensured that the sensitive sectors for India are fully protected. To reduce the burden of small tax-payers. Indian government has set a target of doubling bilateral trade to $25 billion by 2014.344 crore.3 billion. from 279. developing systems for implementation and imparting skills to the manpower for effective action. India and Japan signed a comprehensive economic partnership agreement (CEPA) to open markets and reduce barriers on goods. basmati rice. India’s foreign exchange reserves touched $ 297. a decline of 22 per cent over 2009. India has the fourth largest foreign exchange reserves in the world. services and movement of natural persons. including agriculture. which is currently at $10. will see Indian mangoes.he said: “The five-fold strategy consists of joining the global crusade against black money. Nokia Oyj. for which he was awarded the Nobel prize. “Discussions have also been concluded for 11 Tax Information Exchange Agreements and 13 new Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs). has been introduced. Japan sign free trade agreement On February 16. Malaysia ink free trade pact On February 18. South Zone. services and movement of people between the two countries. the world’s biggest maker of mobile phones. The Union Budget 2011 has increased the Defence budget by 11 per cent. CEPA will lead to a quantum increase in bilateral trade and investment flows. Central Institute of Fisheries Technology. besides enhanced cooperation on protection of intellectual property. cotton. fruits. As a quid pro quo. among other things. This agreement is the most ambitious agreement signed by India so far and covers trade in goods. signed the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA). The Hyderabad international airport has bagged the first rank in its category in the latest Airport Service Quality (ASQ) rankings of the Airports Council International (ACI). setting up institutions for dealing with illicit funds. Additional Rs 17.000 crore will be spent on Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan. As per the Economic Survey. by relaxing barriers to trade in goods. simplified income tax return form. which comes under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). Cochin. The NASSCOM India Leadership Forum (NILF) was held in Mumbai in February 2011. in the presence of Prime Minister Najib Razak and several leading captains of industry from both sides. . betting that together the two companies can challenge Google Inc and Apple Inc. planes. India’s Commerce Minister Anand Sharma and his Malaysian counterpart Mustapa Mohamed.V. Rs 6. About Rs 69. Raman in 1928.071 crore have been allotted over 2010 Budget figure of Rs 1. 2011. wheat.. 2011. 2011. The SAARC Foreign Ministers’ meet was held in Thimpu. DO YOU KNOW India’s first inland fish processing unit has been set up in the village of Bhutana in Karnal district of Haryana. wines and spirits and also certain categories of industrial products such as auto and auto parts. 2011. The agreement. India. has formed a software partnership with Microsoft Corp. The unit has been set up in technical collaboration with ZTM BPD Unit. motorcycles.” He added that while the membership of the Financial Action Task Force was secured in June 2010.104 crore) in the calendar year 2010.213 crore on secondary education and Rs 2. The Budget 2011 has earmarked Rs 52. services and investment under its ambit. which was reached after seven rounds of negotiation. 2011 was “De Ghuma Ke”. It was composed by the trio of Shankar.1 billion in March. ships. Eurasian Group and Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes.47. the government has also joined the Task Force on Financial Integrity and Economic Development.” he said. special classified projects etc. edible oils. Ehasan and Loy India received foreign direct investment (FDI) worth $21 billion 9Rs 96. The National Science Day is observed on February 28 to mark the discovery of Raman Effect by Sir C.000 crore for education. Bhutan on February 8. India and Malaysia signed a comprehensive market opening pact that throws up myriad trade opportunities for both sides and give a boost to India's Look-East Policy and the prospects for its economic integration with South-East Asia.3 billion in December 2010. along with revision of provisions of 10 existing DTAAs. This agreement follows from the commitment of the two Prime Ministers in October 2010. Sugam. creating an appropriate legislative framework.199 crore has been earmarked for capital expenses like weapons. a new. spices. The theme song of Cricket World Cup. out of which Rs 21. trucks and basmati rice attract less duty in Malaysia. the South-East nation will face admission to postgraduate courses in technical institutes in India.200 crore on higher education. India.

Winston Churchill. which is looking into the criminal culpability in the scam. of having a UN observer for the talks. Time’s top 25 political icons are: Mahatma Gandhi. to Sri Lanka for an exposition to celebrate his 2600th year of enlightenment in 2011. pointed out that preconditions set by both ULFA and the government had stood in the way of holding peace talks since 1992. including “sovereignty” as the core issue. Sasadhar Choudhury. King Richard the Lionheart and Saladin. Paresh Barua was invited to both the central executive committee and general council meeting. the chairman and the deputy Mahatma Gandhi and the Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama have been listed by the Time magazine as the world’s top 25 political icons. but he didn’t come. Benito Mussolini. Patil panel report on 2G scam Unveiling the report of the Shivraj V Patil panel that went into the lapses made during the allocation of the 2G Spectrum. In what could be a damning admission of Raja not following procedures despite advice from other ministries. the report says that the DoT did not follow the advice of the Law Ministry or the views of the Finance Ministry over Spectrum pricing. Nelson Mandela. were procedurally wrong.” the ULFA leaders said. surpassing Japan. Charles de Gaulle. USA continues to be the largest economy of the world with the economy worth $14.less barriers on the sale of its fruit. Alexander the Great. Shivraj V. which had held on to the position for over four decades. China has emerged as the world’s largest economy. Franklin Roosevelt. holding talks in a third country. one.5 trillion and that of China $5. which led the Union government banning the organisation. ULFA claims to have been founded on April 7. Mao Zedong. Genghis Khan. Anyone defying it will face disciplinary action as per the provision of the ULFA’s constitution. famously known as Kapilavastu relics. the outlawed United Liberation Front of Assam( ULFA) has finally decided to sit for “unconditional” talks with the Government of India. 2011. Queen Victoria. Abraham Lincoln. Margaret Thatcher. On February 5.8 trillion. The ULFA foreign secretary. Chidambaram for a preliminary round of talks in New Delhi. as a prelude to formal negotiations that would materialize once ULFA submitted its charter of demands.6 trillion. including the UPA regime. Japanese economy was estimated to be worth about $5. The findings on procedural lapses are being sent to the CBI. . the Dalai Lama. Kim Il-Sung. At the end of 2010. On ULFA commander-in-chief Paresh Barua airing his opposition to dialogue. ULFA agrees to unconditional talks After three decades of armed conflict that cost thousands of lives in Assam. the outfit leaders said he had done it before the general council of ULFA decided on unconditional talks. two. leaders of the outfit informed that ULFA had been invited by Union Home Minister P. Haile Selassie. Qin Shi Huang. Cleopatra. “The decision of the general council is binding on everyone. three. With this ULFA has finally given up its earlier preconditions of. engineering goods and chemicals in India. Military operations against it by the Army also began in 1990. Ronald Reagan. Louis XIV. In the past two decades. the committee had concluded that all decisions on Spectrum allocation since 2003 by successive governments. Telecom Minister Kapil Sibal said on February 4. We have conveyed our decision for talks to him and are waiting for his response. some 10. 1979. 2011. Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara. It initiated major violent activities in 1990. the year ULFA leaders had met then Prime Minister P.000 people have died in clashes between the rebels and the government. Akbar the Great. In December 2009. Simón Bolívar. Narasimha Rao only to renege on their promise to come forward for a dialogue on a later date. Adolf Hitler. India has agreed to temporarily lend fragments of Buddha’s bones.V. Lenin.

the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. 2002. Two different panels appointed to inquire into the 2002 case had given different views on the Godhra train burning incident. The accused were charged with criminal conspiracy and murder in burning of the S-6 coach of the train on February 27. began in June 2009 with the framing of charges against 94 accused. about 125 km from Ahmedabad.C. Of the 94. had in the first part of the report concluded that the fire in the S-6 coach was not an accident. conducted inside the Sabarmati Central Jail. appointed by the Gujarat government to probe the carnage. out of which 14 were released due to lack of evidence. For other uses. United Nations From Wikipedia. near Godhra. against whom the trial was conducted. As many as 253 witnesses were examined during the trial and over 1. The one-man U. but was caused by throwing petrol inside it. and 16 are absconding. Banerjee Commission appointed by the Railway Ministry under Lalu Prasad Yadav had said that the fire was "accidental". Ahmedabad. which significantly assisted India and led to ULFA softening its stand and dropping the demand for independence as a condition for talks. including the main accused Maulvi Umarji. were acquitted by a special court in the 2002 Godhra train burning incident that left 59 persons dead and triggered violence in Gujarat that claimed the lives of over 1200 people. The Court accepted the conspiracy theory. five were juvenile. 2011. Godhra Train Burning Case On February 22. search For other uses. see United Nations (disambiguation). thirty one persons were convicted and 63 others.commander-in-chief of ULFA were arrested. five died during proceedings of over nine years. see UN (disambiguation). "UN" redirects here. in which 59 people were killed. 80 are in jail and 14 are out on bail. United Nations ‫الممم المتحدة‬ 联联联 Organisation des Nations unies Организация Объединённых Наций . There were a total of 134 accused in the case.500 documentary evidences were presented before the court by the Gujarat police. The Nanavati Commission. There has also been a large ULFA crackdown in Bangladesh in last one year. The trial.

social progress. Headquarters Official languages Membership - - Secretary-General Deputy SecretaryAsha-Rose Migiro General General Assembly Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser President Security Council Vitaly Churkin President Establishment United Nations 26 June 1945 Charter signed Entry into force of 24 October 1945 Charter Website UN. human rights. . international security.[1] nor does it accurately reflect which areas' governments have UN representation. to stop wars between countries. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.org International territory in New York City. USA Arabic Chinese English French Russian Spanish 193 member states Leaders Ban Ki-moon The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law. and to provide a platform for dialogue. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations. and achievement of world peace. economic development.Organización de las Naciones Unidas Flag Map showing the Member states of the United Nations This map does not represent the view of its members or the UN concerning the legal status of any country.

English. the Secretariat (for providing studies. The UN's most visible public figure is the Secretary-General. Chinese. Other prominent UN System agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO). the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security). with further main offices at Geneva.There are currently 193 member states. From its offices around the world. and Vienna. and Spanish. the World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. The organization is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Nairobi.[2] . Russian. The organization has six principal organs: the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly). French. and facilities needed by the UN). the Economic and Social Council (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development). and the United Nations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive). The United Nations Headquarters resides in international territory in New York City. information. the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ). who attained the post in 2007. and has six official languages: Arabic. currently Ban Ki-moon of South Korea. including every internationally recognised sovereign state in the world but the Vatican City.

Because of the widespread recognition that humankind could not afford a third world war.1 Group of 77 5 Stated objectives 5.5 International Criminal Court 3.3 Secretariat  3.2 Security Council 3.1 Relations between specific states and the United Nations 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links History Main article: History of the United Nations The Chilean delegation signing the UN Charter in San Francisco.1 Greening the Blue 5.4.2 Human rights and humanitarian assistance 5.3 Social and economic development 5. the United .5 Other 6 Funding 7 Personnel policy 8 Reform 9 See also 9.3.Contents [hide] • • • o o o o o o o • o • o o o o o • • • • o • • • 1 History 2 Legal basis of establishment 3 Organization 3.1 Peacekeeping and security 5.4 Mandates  5.4 International Court of Justice 3.7 Specialized institutions 4 Membership 4.6 Economic and Social Council 3.1 General Assembly 3. 1945 The League of Nations failed to prevent World War II (1939–1945).1 Secretary-General 3.

Nations was established to replace the flawed League of Nations in 1945 in order to maintain international peace and promote cooperation in solving international economic, social and humanitarian problems. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization was begun under the aegis of the U.S. State Department in 1939. Franklin D. Roosevelt first coined the term 'United Nations' as a term to describe the Allied countries. The term was first officially used on 1 January 1942, when 26 governments signed the Atlantic Charter, pledging to continue the war effort.[3] On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the United Nations Charter. The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council—France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States—and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, and the Security Council, took place in Westminster Central Hall in London in January 1946.[4] The organization was based at the Sperry Gyroscope Corporation's facility in Lake Success, New York, from 1946–1952, before moving to the United Nations Headquarters building in Manhattan upon its completion. Since its creation, there has been controversy and criticism of the United Nations. In the United States, an early opponent of the UN was the John Birch Society, which began a "get US out of the UN" campaign in 1959, charging that the UN's aim was to establish a "One World Government." After the Second World War, the French Committee of National Liberation was late to be recognized by the US as the government of France, and so the country was initially excluded from the conferences that aimed at creating the new organization. Charles de Gaulle criticized the UN, famously calling it le machin ("the thing"), and was not convinced that a global security alliance would help maintain world peace, preferring direct defence treaties between countries.[5]

Legal basis of establishment
Shortly after its establishment the UN sought recognition as an international legal person due to the case of Reparations for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations[6] with the advisory opinion delivered by the International Court of Justice (ICJ). The question arose whether the United Nations, as an organisation, had "the capacity to bring an international claim against a government regarding injuries that the organisation alleged had been caused by that state."[7] The Court stated: the Organization was intended to exercise and enjoy, and is in fact exercising and enjoying functions and rights, which can only be explained on the basis of the possession of a large measure of international personality and the capacity to operate upon an international plane ... Accordingly, the Court has come to the conclusion that the Organization is an international person. That is not the same thing as saying that it is a State, which it certainly is not, or that its legal personality and rights and duties are the same as those of a State ... What it does mean is that it is a subject of international law and capable of possessing international rights and duties, and that it has capacity to maintain its rights by bringing international claims.[8]

Organization
Main article: United Nations System The United Nations' system is based on five principal organs (formerly six – the Trusteeship Council suspended operations in 1994, upon the independence of Palau, the last remaining UN trustee territory);[9] the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice. Four of the five principal organs are located at the main United Nations Headquarters located on international territory in New York City.[10] The International Court of Justice is located in The Hague, while other major agencies are based in the UN offices at Geneva,[11] Vienna,[12] and Nairobi.[13] Other UN institutions are located throughout the world. The six official languages of the United Nations, used in intergovernmental meetings and documents, are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.[2] The Secretariat uses two working languages, English and French. Four of the official languages are the national languages of the permanent members of the Security Council (the United Kingdom and the United States share English as a de facto official language); Spanish and Arabic are the languages of the two largest blocs of official languages outside of the permanent members (Spanish being official in 20 countries, Arabic in 26). Five of the official languages were chosen when the UN was founded; Arabic was added later in 1973. The United Nations Editorial Manual states that the standard for English language documents is British usage and Oxford spelling, the Chinese writing standard is Simplified Chinese. This replaced Traditional Chinese in 1971 when the UN representation of China was changed from the Republic of China to the People's Republic of China (see China and the United Nations for details).

General Assembly

United Nations General Assembly hall Main article: United Nations General Assembly The General Assembly is the main deliberative assembly of the United Nations. Composed of all United Nations member states, the assembly meets in regular yearly sessions under a president elected from among the member states. Over a two-week period at the start of each session, all members have the opportunity to address the assembly. Traditionally, the Secretary-General makes the first statement, followed by the president of the assembly. The first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Westminster Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.

When the General Assembly votes on important questions, a two-thirds majority of those present and voting is required. Examples of important questions include: recommendations on peace and security; election of members to organs; admission, suspension, and expulsion of members; and, budgetary matters. All other questions are decided by majority vote. Each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, resolutions are not binding on the members. The Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security that are under Security Council consideration. Conceivably, the one state, one vote power structure could enable states comprising just eight percent of the world population to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote (see List of countries by population). However, as no more than recommendations, it is difficult to imagine a situation in which a recommendation by member states constituting just eight percent of the world's population, would be adhered to by the remaining ninety-two percent of the population, should they object.[citation needed]

Security Council

United Nations Security Council chamber Main article: United Nations Security Council The Security Council is charged with maintaining peace and security among countries. While other organs of the United Nations can only make 'recommendations' to member governments, the Security Council has the power to make binding decisions that member governments have agreed to carry out, under the terms of Charter Article 25.[14] The decisions of the Council are known as United Nations Security Council resolutions. The Security Council is made up of 15 member states, consisting of 5 permanent members–China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States–and 10 non-permanent members, currently Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Colombia, Gabon, Germany, India, Lebanon, Nigeria, Portugal, South Africa. The five permanent members hold veto power over substantive but not procedural resolutions allowing a permanent member to block adoption but not to block the debate of a resolution unacceptable to it. The ten temporary seats are held for two-year terms with member states voted in by the General Assembly on a regional basis. The presidency of the Security Council is rotated alphabetically each month.[15]

Secretariat
Main article: United Nations Secretariat

assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide.[citation needed] Secretary-General Main article: Secretary-General of the United Nations . The United Nations Charter provides that the staff be chosen by application of the "highest standards of efficiency. organizing international conferences. information. The Secretary-General alone is responsible for staff selection. The Secretary-General's duties include helping resolve international disputes. The Charter provides that the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any authority other than the UN. and integrity. and other UN bodies. gathering information on the implementation of Security Council decisions. competence.The United Nations Secretariat Building at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City. administering peacekeeping operations. the UN Economic and Social Council. may threaten international peace and security. in his or her opinion. The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter that. Key Secretariat offices in this area include the Office of the Coordinator of Humanitarian Affairs and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Each UN member country is enjoined to respect the international character of the Secretariat and not seek to influence its staff. and consulting with member governments regarding various initiatives. the UN General Assembly. and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by the UN Security Council." with due regard for the importance of recruiting on a wide geographical basis. The United Nations Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General. It provides studies.

The current Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General, who acts as the de facto spokesperson and leader of the UN. The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon, who took over from Kofi Annan in 2007 and has been elected for a second term to conclude at the end of 2016.[16] Envisioned by Franklin D. Roosevelt as a "world moderator", the position is defined in the UN Charter as the organization's "chief administrative officer",[17] but the Charter also states that the Secretary-General can bring to the Security Council's attention "any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security",[18] giving the position greater scope for action on the world stage. The position has evolved into a dual role of an administrator of the UN organization, and a diplomat and mediator addressing disputes between member states and finding consensus to global issues.[19] The Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly, after being recommended by the Security Council, where the permanent members have veto power.[20] The General Assembly can theoretically override the Security Council's recommendation if a majority vote is not achieved, although this has not happened so far.[21] There are no specific criteria for the post, but over the years, it has become accepted that the post shall be held for one or two terms of five years, that the post shall be appointed on the basis of geographical rotation, and that the SecretaryGeneral shall not originate from one of the five permanent Security Council member states.[21]
Secretaries-General of the United Nations [22] Country of Took office Left office Note origin 2 February 10 November Resigned Norway 1946 1952 18 September Died while in office Sweden 10 April 1953 1961 30 November 31 December First Secretary-General Burma 1961 1971 from Asia 1 January 31 December Austria 1972 1981 1 January 31 December First Secretary-General Peru

No. 1 2 3 4 5

Name Trygve Lie Dag Hammarskjöld U Thant Kurt Waldheim Javier Pérez de

6 7 8

Cuéllar Boutros BoutrosGhali Kofi Annan Ban Ki-moon

Egypt Ghana South Korea

1982 1 January 1992 1 January 1997 1 January 2007

1991 from the Americas 31 December First Secretary-General 1996 from Africa 31 December 2006 Incumbent

International Court of Justice

Peace Palace, seat of the International Court of Justice at The Hague, Netherlands Main article: International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice (ICJ), located in The Hague, Netherlands, is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. Established in 1945 by the United Nations Charter, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the Court.[23] It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, sharing the building with the Hague Academy of International Law, a private centre for the study of international law. Several of the Court's current judges are either alumni or former faculty members of the Academy. Its purpose is to adjudicate disputes among states. The court has heard cases related to war crimes, illegal state interference and ethnic cleansing, among others, and continues to hear cases.[24]

International Criminal Court
Main article: International Criminal Court The International Criminal Court (ICC), it came into being on 1 July 2002 with the entering into force of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which was adopted on 17 July 1998. It is the first permanent international court charged with trying those who commit the most serious crimes under international law, including war crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity and the crime of aggression (although it cannot exercise jurisdiction over this crime prior to 2017). The ICC is functionally independent of the UN in terms of personnel and financing, but some meetings of the ICC governing body, the Assembly of the States Parties to the Rome Statute, are held at the United Nations. There is a "relationship agreement" between the ICC and the UN that governs how the two institutions regard each other legally.[25]

Economic and Social Council
Main article: United Nations Economic and Social Council

The ECOSOC chamber The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ECOSOC has 54 members, all of which are elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term. The president is elected for a one-year term and chosen amongst the small or middle powers represented on ECOSOC. ECOSOC meets once a year in July for a four-week session. Since 1998, it has held another meeting each April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Viewed separate from the specialized bodies it coordinates, ECOSOC's functions include information gathering, advising member nations, and making recommendations. In addition, ECOSOC is well-positioned to provide policy coherence and coordinate the overlapping functions of the UN’s subsidiary bodies and it is in these roles that it is most active.

Specialized institutions
Main article: List of specialized agencies of the United Nations Many UN organizations and agencies exist to work on particular issues. Some of the most well-known agencies are the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization, UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), the World Bank and the World Health Organization. It is through these agencies that the UN performs most of its humanitarian work. Examples include mass vaccination programmes (through the WHO), the avoidance of famine and malnutrition (through the work of the WFP) and the protection of vulnerable and displaced people (for example, by the UNHCR). The United Nations Charter stipulates that each primary organ of the UN can establish various specialized agencies to fulfil its duties.
Organizations and specialized agencies of the United Nations No. Acronyms Logo 1 2 FAO IAEA Agency Food and Agriculture Organization International Atomic Energy Agency Headquarters Rome, Italy Vienna, Austria Head Jacques Diouf Yukiya Amano Established in 1945 1957

1977 Nwanze Juan Somavía 1946 (1919) 1948 1945 (1944) 1947 (1865) 9 UNESCO 10 UNIDO 11 UPU 12 WB 13 WFP 14 WHO 15 WIPO 16 WMO 17 UNWTO Efthimios International Maritime London. Italy Sheeran World Health Margaret Geneva. Italy Geneva.. 1948 Organization Chan Switzerland World Intellectual Property Organization World Meteorological Organization World Tourism Organization Geneva.C. USA Lagarde International Hamadou Geneva. Christine Fund D.C. Switzerland Madrid. 1947 (1874) Dayan Switzerland Washington. Organization United Kingdom Mitropoulos International Monetary Washington. USA Zoellick Josette World Food Programme 1963 Rome. Canada Rome. Scientific Irina Paris. E. World Bank 1945 (1944) D. Robert B.3 4 5 6 7 8 ICAO IFAD ILO IMO IMF ITU International Civil Aviation Organization International Fund for Agricultural Development International Labour Organization Montreal. Switzerland Geneva. Kandeh Industrial Development Austria Yumkella Organization Universal Postal Union 1946 1967 Edouard Bern. France and Cultural Bokova Organization United Nations Vienna. Spain Francis Gurry 1974 Alexander 1950 (1873) Bedritsky Taleb 1974 Rifai Membership Main article: Member states of the United Nations .. Switzerland Raymond 1947 Benjamin Kanayo F. Telecommunication n Touré Switzerland Union United Nations Educational.

The group was founded on 15 June 1964 by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states that accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and. The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967. 2. according to the UN. Chapter 2. where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun. http://www.[29] Stated objectives Peacekeeping and security Main article: United Nations peacekeeping . and the territories administered by the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Kosovo are considered by the UN to be provinces of the People's Republic of China and Republic of Serbia. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.un. There were 77 founding members of the organization.An animation showing the timeline of accession of UN member states. Note that Antarctica has no government. —United Nations Charter. designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. Article 4. With the addition of South Sudan on 14 July 2011. respectively. political control of Western Sahara is in dispute. which holds sovereignty over the state of Vatican City. is a permanent observer). but the organization has since expanded to 130 member countries.org/aboutun/charter/ Group of 77 The Group of 77 at the UN is a loose coalition of developing nations. including all fully recognized independent states[27] apart from Vatican City (the Holy See. in the judgment of the Organization.[26] there are currently 193 United Nations member states. are able and willing to carry out these obligations.[28] The United Nations Charter outlines the rules for membership: 1.

The peacekeeping force as a whole received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988. after approval by the Security Council. peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member states of the UN. also called the "Blue Helmets".[30] . Since the UN does not maintain its own military.See also: List of United Nations peacekeeping missions Darfur Western Sahara Israel/Palestine Kosovo Cyprus Golan Lebanon Haiti Liberia Côte d'Ivoire DR Congo Sudan East Timor Jammu and Kashmir Afghanistan Current UN peacekeeping missions The UN. who enforce UN accords. which are considered international decorations instead of military decorations. sends peacekeepers to regions where armed conflict has recently ceased or paused to enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants from resuming hostilities. The forces. are awarded United Nations Medals.

and the authorization of intervention in Iraq after the Persian Gulf War in 1990. The UN has also drawn criticism for perceived failures. starting in 2003. the UN Disarmament Commission. in the Congo. the UN is also active in encouraging disarmament. Regulation of armaments was included in the writing of the United Nations Charter in 1945 and was envisioned as a way of limiting the use of human and economic resources for the creation of them.The founders of the UN had envisaged that the organization would act to prevent conflicts between nations and make future wars impossible.[39] In 2004.[31] Also in 2005. the advent of nuclear weapons came only weeks after the signing of the charter and immediately halted concepts of arms limitation and disarmament. It compared UN nation-building efforts to those of the United States. genocides and human rights abuses since the end of the Cold War.[38] Burundi and Côte d'Ivoire. A 2005 RAND Corp study found the UN to be successful in two out of three peacekeeping efforts.[33] failed to provide humanitarian aid and intervene in the Second Congo War. and considerations have been made of the merits of a ban on testing . and presented evidence. however the outbreak of the Cold War made peacekeeping agreements extremely difficult because of the division of the world into hostile camps. UN peacekeepers have also been accused of child rape. not an independent organization. In many cases. Gold specifically mentions Yasser Arafat's 1988 invitation to address the General Assembly as a low point in the UN's history. former Israeli ambassador to the UN Dore Gold criticized what it called the organization's moral relativism in the face of (and occasional support of)[40] genocide and terrorism that occurred between the moral clarity of its founding period and the present day. resulting in the first resolution of the first ever General Assembly meeting calling for specific proposals for "the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other major weapons adaptable to mass destruction". as compared with four out of eight US cases at peace. an issue that stems from the UN's intergovernmental nature—seen by some as simply an association of 193 member states who must reach consensus. that international activism—mostly spearheaded by the UN—has been the main cause of the decline in armed conflict since the end of the Cold War. albeit circumstantial. Following the end of the Cold War. as several dozen ongoing conflicts continue to rage around the globe. sexual abuse or soliciting prostitutes during various peacekeeping missions.[35][36] Liberia. and the Conference on Disarmament.[37] Sudan and what is now South Sudan. failure to deliver food to starving people in Somalia. Disagreements in the Security Council about military action and intervention are seen as having failed to prevent the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. the Human Security Report documented a decline in the number of wars.[34] Haiti.[41] In addition to peacekeeping.[43] The principal forums for disarmament issues are the General Assembly First Committee. there were renewed calls for the UN to become the agency for achieving world peace. and continuing failure to prevent genocide or provide assistance in Darfur. and found that seven out of eight UN cases are at peace.[42] However. member states have shown reluctance to achieve or enforce Security Council resolutions. failed to intervene in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre and protect a refugee haven by authorizing peacekeepers to use force. failure to implement provisions of Security Council resolutions related to the IsraeliPalestinian conflict.[32] Situations where the UN has not only acted to keep the peace but also occasionally intervened include the Korean War (1950–1953).

Security Council resolutions. The UN and its agencies are central in upholding and implementing the principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. including recently in Afghanistan and East Timor. economic. and transforming armed movements into political parties have contributed significantly to democratization worldwide. the banning of chemical weapons and land mines. though not legally binding. improving judicial structures. The purpose of the United Nations Human Rights Council. training human rights officials. and may not serve three consecutive terms.[46] A candidate to the . Human rights and humanitarian assistance Eleanor Roosevelt with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1949 The pursuit of human rights was a central reason for creating the UN. World War II atrocities and genocide led to a ready consensus that the new organization must work to prevent any similar tragedies in the future. which took place in the United Arab Emirates in October 2008. The Council is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. the reduction of military budgets. The UN has helped run elections in countries with little or no democratic history. The UN Charter obliges all member nations to promote "universal respect for. which was often criticized for the high-profile positions it gave to member states that did not guarantee the human rights of their own citizens. a major international conference on the effects of global catastrophes and disasters. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. or International Court of Justice rulings.[45] The council has 47 members distributed by region. was adopted by the General Assembly in 1948 as a common standard of achievement for all. and social life of their countries.nuclear weapons. drafting constitutions. The UN contributes to raising consciousness of the concept of human rights through its covenants and its attention to specific abuses through its General Assembly. Technical assistance in providing free and fair elections. human rights" and to take "joint and separate action" to that end. An early objective was creating a legal framework for considering and acting on complaints about human rights violations. The UN is also a forum to support the right of women to participate fully in the political. which each serve three-year terms. nuclear-weapon-free zones. The Assembly regularly takes up human rights issues. nuclear and conventional disarmament. A case in point is support by the UN for countries in transition to democracy. and measures to strengthen international security. and observance of. outer space arms control.[44] is to address human rights violations. The UN is one of the official supporters of the World Security Forum. established in 2006.

The UN Population Fund is a major provider of reproductive services. The forum is an advisory body within the framework of the United Nations System that reports to the UN's Economic and Social Council. displaced by war. 4. the council has strict rules for membership. identity.[49] . reduce child mortality. It also prohibits discrimination against indigenous peoples and promotes their active participation in matters that concern their past. including a universal human rights review. the UN provides food. 7.[48] The United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues is the UN's central coordinating body for matters relating to the concerns and rights of the world's indigenous peoples. language. the office of the High Commissioner for Refugees with projects in over 116 countries. drinking water. The UN is involved in supporting development. Social and economic development Millennium Development Goals 1. especially in poor countries. The declaration aims to maintain. education. 5. or afflicted by other disasters. promote gender equality and empower women. In addition. The UN Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. shelter and other humanitarian services to populaces suffering from famine.g. employment and health. malaria. e. cultures and traditions. 8. and other diseases. by the formulation of the Millennium Development Goals. thereby addressing post-colonial issues that had confronted indigenous peoples for centuries. and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS. In conjunction with other organizations such as the Red Cross. UNAIDS. While some members with questionable human rights records have been elected. Major humanitarian branches of the UN are the World Food Programme (which helps feed more than 100 million people a year in 80 countries). develop a global partnership for development. Organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO). 32 UN agencies performing tasks on development are coordinating their efforts through the United Nations Development Group or UNDG. eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.[47] The rights of some 370 million indigenous peoples around the world are also a focus for the UN. ensure environmental sustainability. and 3. Tuberculosis and Malaria are leading institutions in the battle against diseases around the world. as well as peacekeeping projects in over 24 countries. 6. 2. combat HIV/AIDS.[48] The declaration outlines the individual and collective rights to culture. achieve universal primary education.body must be approved by a majority of the General Assembly. present and future. improve maternal health. it is fewer than before with the increased focus on each member state's human rights record. with a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples being approved by the General Assembly in 2007. strengthen and encourage the growth of indigenous institutions.

Although the specialized institutions. One of the outcomes of the 2005 World Summit was a mandate (labelled id 17171) for the Secretary-General to "review all mandates older than five years originating from resolutions of the General Assembly and other organs". education. They were initially formed as separate from the UN through the Bretton Woods Agreement in 1944. were originally set up by this means. they are not the same as mandates because they are permanent organizations that exist independently of the UN with their own membership structure. specialized agencies and observers within the UN framework. .[51] The UNDP annually publishes the Human Development Index (HDI). or "encourages". which set them up. are independent. particularly the UNDP. Most mandates expire after a limited period and require renewal from the body. such as the WHO.” The UN's progress towards achieving this goal is communicated through the initiative Greening the Blue (see external links below).[50] The World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund (IMF). signed in September 2000) are eight goals that all of the then 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. These mandates can be as little as researching and publishing a written report. or mounting a full-scale peacekeeping operation (usually the exclusive domain of the Security Council). literacy.[52] The Millennium Development Goals (declared in the United Nations Millennium Declaration. the Secretariat has produced an online registry of mandates to draw together the reports relating to each one and create an overall picture. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon made public his ambition to make the United Nations more efficient in its operations: “I would like to see our renovated Headquarters complex eventually become a globally acclaimed model of efficient use of energy and resources. and other factors. which the Secretary-General interprets as a mandate to set up a temporary organization or do something.The UN also promotes human development through some related agencies. the initiative should include the other United Nations headquarters and offices around the globe. according to a 1947 agreement. Beyond New York. To facilitate this review and to finally bring coherence to the organization.[53] Mandates See also: Category:United Nations Security Council mandates From time to time. One could say that original mandate was simply to cover the process of setting up the institution. for example. and has therefore long expired. the different bodies of the United Nations pass resolutions that contain operating paragraphs that begin with the words "requests". a comparative measure ranking countries by poverty. life expectancy. On 5 June World Environment Day 2007.[54] Greening the Blue In 2007. "calls upon".

123% 4. It has also supported the new states that have arisen as a result of self-determination initiatives.000 km² and removed them from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. the UN has focused considerable attention on decolonization. a country larger than the UK only relinquished by Spain in 1975.207% 3.189% 3. 2011[57] Member state USA Japan Germany United Kingdom France Italy Canada China Spain Mexico Other member states Contribution (% of UN budget) 22. The committee has overseen the decolonization of every country larger than 20. over 80 colonies have attained independence. Earth Day and International Year of Deserts and Desertification. The General Assembly approves the regular budget and determines the assessment for .Other Over the lifetime of the UN.356% 27. besides Western Sahara.[55] The General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples in 1960 with no votes against but abstentions from all major colonial powers. Funding Top 10 donators to the UN budget.000% 12. a specially designed logo for the year. Using the symbolism of the UN.018% 6.797% The UN is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from member states. The UN declares and coordinates international observances. World Tuberculosis Day.530% 8. periods of time to observe some issue of international interest or concern.999% 3. and the infrastructure of the United Nations System. Through the UN Committee on Decolonization. various days and years have become catalysts to advancing key issues of concern on a global scale.[56] created in 1962.604% 6. For example.177% 2.

Personnel policy The UN and its agencies are immune to the laws of the countries where they operate. Since their funding is voluntary. with some 70. Japan. as measured by their gross national income (GNI). safeguarding UN's impartiality with regard to the host and member countries.001% of the UN budget.each member. the WFP and UNDP) are financed by voluntary contributions from other member governments. the top 10 providers of assessed financial contributions to United Nations peacekeeping operations were: the United States. In July 2009.[62] Despite their independence in matters of human resources policy. Most of this is financial contributions. the UN and its agencies voluntarily apply the laws of member states regarding same-sex marriages. Canada. In December 2000. This surcharge serves to offset discounted peacekeeping assessment rates for less developed countries. Italy.[58] In addition to the ceiling rates. the World Food Programme reported that it has been forced to cut services because of insufficient funding. Thus. Spain and the Republic of Korea.5 billion.5 billion (compared to approximately US$1. A large share of UN expenditures addresses the core UN mission of peace and security. the regular budget ceiling was reduced from 25% to 22%. allowing decisions about the status of employees in a same-sex partnership to be based on nationality.000 troops deployed in 17 missions around the world.[61] It has received barely a quarter of the total it needed for the 09/10 financial year. China. many of these agencies suffer severe shortages during economic recessions. As of 1 January 2011.01% is applied. but some is in the form of agricultural commodities donated for afflicted populations. €995 million for the UN core budget over the same period).[58] The Assembly has established the principle that the UN should not be overly dependent on any one member to finance its operations. The UN and its agencies recognize same-sex marriages only if the employees are citizens of countries that recognize the marriage. France. but including a weighted surcharge for the five permanent Security Council members. Refer to the table for major contributors. there is a 'ceiling' rate. For the least developed countries (LDCs). with adjustments for external debt and low per capita income. the Assembly revised the scale of assessments to reflect current global circumstances. a ceiling rate of 0. the minimum amount assessed to any member nation (or 'floor' rate) is set at 0. €2. using a formula derived from the regular funding scale. Germany. setting the maximum amount any member is assessed for the regular budget. This practice is not specific to the recognition of same-sex marriage but reflects a common practice of the UN for a number of human resources matters.[60] Special UN programmes not included in the regular budget (such as UNICEF. The peacekeeping budget for the 2005–2006 fiscal year was approximately US$5 billion. As part of that revision. who must approve all peacekeeping operations. It has to be noted though that some agencies provide limited benefits to domestic partners of their staff and that some .[59] UN peace operations are funded by assessments. the United Kingdom. This is broadly based on the relative capacity of each country to pay.

and to make it better equipped at facing 21st century issues. human rights and development. Reforms mentioned include changing the permanent membership of the Security Council (which currently reflects the power relations of 1945). a Human Rights Council and a democracy fund. calling the summit "a once-in-a-generation opportunity to take bold decisions in the areas of development.agencies do not recognise same-sex marriage or domestic partnership of their staff. [citation needed] Reform Main article: Reform of the United Nations In 2005. including: the creation of a Peacebuilding Commission. security. The UN has also been accused of bureaucratic inefficiency and waste. making the bureaucracy more transparent. human rights and reform of the United Nations.[64] An official reform programme was begun by Kofi Annan in 1997. the UN convened a World Summit that brought together the heads of most member states. During the 1990s. In 1994. security. the United States withheld dues citing inefficiency. accountable and efficient. . The World Summit Outcome Document delineated the conclusions of the meeting. and imposing an international tariff on arms manufacturers worldwide. although little consensus on how to do so. and for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly.[citation needed] In September 2005. Some want the UN to play a greater or more effective role in world affairs. for different ways of electing the UN's SecretaryGeneral. while others want its role reduced to humanitarian work. then-Secretary General Kofi Annan published his report In Larger Freedom."[65] Kofi Annan had proposed that the summit agree on a global "grand bargain" to reform the UN. making the UN more democratic. there have been many calls for reform of the United Nations. and only started repayment on the condition that a major reforms initiative was introduced. renewing the organization's focus on peace. Since its founding.[63] There have also been numerous calls for the UN Security Council's membership to be increased. a proposal for reform of the UN. to help countries emerging from conflict. the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) was established by the General Assembly to serve as an efficiency watchdog. a clear and unambiguous condemnation of terrorism "in all its forms and manifestations".

In the meantime. to improve the oversight and auditing capabilities of the General Assembly. and.with the understanding that the international community is prepared to act "collectively" in a “timely and decisive manner” to protect vulnerable civilians should a state "manifestly fail" in fulfilling its responsibility. The dispute centres on whether mandates that have been renewed should be examined. have the "responsibility to protect" populations from genocide. Not all member states agree on which of the over 7000 mandates should be reviewed. ‘Delivering as One’ at the country level to enhance the consolidation of UN programme activities and a unified gender organization. the lack of information on the resource implications of each mandate – constituted sufficient justification for the General Assembly to discontinue the mandate review in September 2008. ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. In June 2007. In addition. UN Women was established by unifying the resources and mandates of four small entities for greater impact and its first head is Ms. covering international environmental governance. the ethics office also plans to implement a policy to avoid fraud and corruption. former President of Chile Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar From Wikipedia. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.[69] The Secretariat is in the process of reviewing all UN mandates that are more than five years old. because of the completion of its mission. the Fifth Committee created a draft resolution for the terms of reference of this committee. the agreement that individual states. and will receive more resources.agreements to devote more resources to the Office of Internal Oversight Services.[70] Indeed.[66] The Office of Internal Oversight Services is being restructured to better define its scope and mandate.[67][68] An ethics office was established in 2006. responsible for administering new financial disclosure and whistleblower protection policies. search This article needs additional citations for verification. The review is intended to determine which duplicative or unnecessary programmes should be eliminated. the General Assembly launched a number of new loosely related reform initiatives in April 2007. (August 2011) . Whereas little was achieved on the first two issues. war crimes. agreements to spend billions more on achieving the Millennium Development Goals. the obstacles identified – in particular. with the assistance of the international community. Working with the OIOS. Michelle Bachelet. the General Assembly approved in September 2010 the establishment of ‘UN Women’ as the new UN organization for gender equality and the empowerment of women. an Independent Audit Advisory Committee (IAAC) is being created. the dissolution of the Trusteeship Council. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

(August 2011) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Born Died Occupation Nationality Ethnicity Citizenship Genres Literary movement 26 September 1820 Ghatal subdivision. reformer. translator. printer. educator. His efforts to simplify and modernize Bangla prose were significant.[1][2] Vidyasagar was a philosopher. This title was mainly given for his vast knowledge in all subjects which was compared to the vastness of the ocean.to a poor religious family. philanthropist Bengal Renaissance Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar CIE (Bengali: ঈশ্বর চন িবিদ্যাসাগর Ishshor Chôndro Biddashagor 26 September 1820 – 29 July 1891).This section may contain original research. reformer. lecturer Indian Bengali British India Philosopher. After a year he fell ill with chronic fever and inflammation of the spleen.[4] Early life Ishwar Chandra was born at Birsingha village. He also rationalized and simplified the Bengali alphabet and type. Thereafter he continued his studies in the same school till the age of eight. India 29 July 1891 (aged 70) Calcutta. West Bengal. publisher. academic.He was the first child to Thakurdas Bandyopadhyay and Bhagavati Devi. his maternal grandfather took him for Ayurvedic treatment. publisher. and philanthropist. In Sanskrit. reformer. Thakurdas was employed in a shop and had a income of approximately eight rupees per month. He joined a local school at the age of five. More details may be available on the talk page. India Writer. Vidya means knowledge or learning and Sagar means ocean or sea. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. printer. born Ishwar Chandra Bandopadhyaya (Bengali: ঈশ্বর চন বিোপাধ্ন্দ্যাপাধ্যায. entrepreneur. translator. When he didn't recover even after six months. entrepreneur.D.[3] He received the title "Vidyasagar" ("Ocean of learning" or "Ocean of knowledge") from the Calcutta Sanskrit College (where he graduated). academic. which had remained unchanged since Charles Wilkins and Panchanan Karmakar had cut the first wooden Bangla type fonts in 1780. in the [Ghatal] subdivision of [Midnapore] District. . educator. was an Indian Bengali polymath and a key figure of the Bengal Renaissance. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. West Bengal. He recovered completely within three months and subsequently returned to Birsingha. Paschim Medinipur. Ishshor Chôndro Bôndopaddhae). due to his excellent performance in Sanskrit studies and philosophy. in 26 September 1820 A. writer.

Ishwar started living in Bhagabat Charan's house where Thakurdas had already been staying for some years.After his grandfather's demise. In the year 1839. girls would have to travel through public places in order to reach school. In 1851. he was made special inspector of schools with additional charges. In 1855. Vidyasagar learned English numbers by following the mile-stones labels on his way to Calcutta. Vidyasagar resigned from Sanskrit College and rejoined Fort William College. Iswar Chandra became the principal of Sanskrit College. Ishwar Chandra joined the Fort William College as a head of the Sanskrit department.as a head clerk. he again joined Sanskrit College. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar successfully cleared his Law examination. His quest for knowledge was so intense that he used to study on street light as it was not possible for him to afford a gas lamp at home. in 1846. They feared that schools would take away girls from home and prevent them from doing their domestic duties. In 1841. . He cleared all the examinations with excellence and in quick succession. many people were afraid of them. at the age of twenty one years. Vidyasagar left Fort William College and join the Sanskrit College as 'Assistant Secretary'. To support himself and the family Ishwar Chandra also took a part-time job of teaching at Jorashanko. They thought that girls should stay away from public spaces. most educated women were taught at home by their liberal fathers or husbands. In Calcutta. In 1849. After five years. Bhagabat's youngest daughter Raimoni's motherly and affectionate feelings towards Ishwar touched him deeply and had a strong influence on his later revolutionary work towards the upliftment of women's status in India. But following the matter of Rasomoy Dutta. He was rewarded with a number of scholarships for his academic performance. as a professor of literature. When the first schools were opened in the mid nineteenth century.1 Widow Remarriage 3 Bengali Alphabet and language reconstruction 4 Meeting with Sri Ramakrishna 5 Accolades 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links [edit] Teaching career Vidyasagar in Calcutta and many other reformers in Bombay set up schools for girls. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • 1 Teaching career 2 A compassionate Reformist o 2.There was a serious discussion between Ishwar Chandra and College Secretary Rasomoy Dutta. Moreover. Thakurdas decided to take Ishwar to Calcutta for further studies. Therefore.

One of the issues was that while Rasamoy Dutta wanted the College to remain a Brahmin preserve. It is located at 36. he and a friend of his. Limited parking area is available very close to the museum. and so he resigned in 1849. to replace most of ancient Hindu philosophy. Though he was very outspoken and blunt in his . southwards from its junction with Vivekananda Road. His own books. set up the Sanskrit Press and Depository.a fact that posits him as a pioneer of the Indian Renaissance. and the few English translations. Telephone : 033 2360 5093. in Kolkata. The park has a milk vending booth at a corner. some serious differences arose between him and Rasamoy Dutta who was then the Secretary of the College. Vidyasagar Street. In 1841. are unsatisfactory. In 1846. he joined the Sanskrit College as Assistant Secretary. and introduced many far-reaching changes to the College's syllabus. with scant mention of God and religious verities . and again left at the end of the park. Vidyasagar rejoined the College.Vidyasagar House. Open between 11 AM and 5 PM. Turn left at the booth. In the face of opposition from the Hindu establishment. Vidyasagar took the job of a Sanskrit pandit (professor) at Fort William College in Kolkata (Calcutta). a print shop and a bookstore. Vidyasagar's house is on the right and is marked IGNOU. Carry drinking water. His remarkable clarity of vision is instanced by his brilliant plea for teaching of science. the visit is worth the effort. A year later. reveal a strong emphasis on enlightened materialism. Later. Proceed along Amherst Street from this junction up to the first park on the left. The main regret is that it is almost entirely in Bengali. While Vidyasagar was working at the Sanskrit College. [edit] A compassionate Reformist Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar felt very sorry and compassionate whenever he saw poor and weak people were in distress. Entrance fee is Rs 2/-. both men and women mathe mathe should receive the best education. Kolkata 700 006. Madan Mohan Tarkalankar. Vidyasagar wanted it to be opened to students from all castes. Vidyasagar's house at Calcutta is in the process of being transformed into a museum. Vidyasagar vigorously promoted the idea that regardless of their caste. mathematics and the philosophies of John Locke and David Hume. Access is along Amherst Street. The displays are hazy in parts. written for primary school children.

Ironically. to needy neighbours. [edit] Widow Remarriage Main article: Widow Remarriage Act Vidyasagar championed the uplift of the status of women in India. to villagers who needed help and to his village surgery and school. he appealed for help to Vidyasagar. In 1853 it was estimated that Calcutta had a population of 12. sufferings of the sick and injustice to humanity.ocean of kindness. for his immense generosity. yet Vidyasagar had a heart of Gold. This he continued without break even when he was unemployed and had to borrow substantially from time to time. went to crematoriums to bury unclaimed dead bodies.718 prostitutes and public women. He opened the doors of the Sanskrit College to lower caste students (previously it was exclusive to the Brahmins). especially if they were subsequently widowed. when he started earning. many of these girls would run away and turn to prostitution to support themselves.[6] . these girls would usually be left behind in their parental homes. In earlier times. the economic prosperity and lavish lifestyles of the city made it possible for many of them to have quite successful careers once they had stepped out of the sanction of society and into the demi-monde. however. He was also known for his charity and philanthropy as "Daya-r sagar" or "Karunar Sagar" . Vidyasagar introduced the practice of widow remarriages to mainstream Hindu society. Unable to tolerate the ill treatment. He always reflected and responded to distress calls of the poor. he paid fixed sums of monthly allowances to each member of his joint family. he sought. supposedly to spare their parents the shame of having an unmarried girl attain puberty in their house. remarriages of widows would occur sporadically only among progressive members of the Brahmo Samāj. rigid and dangerous daily rituals of purity and cleanliness. to transform orthodox Hindu society "from within". Michael Madhusudan Dutta. France. hard domestic labour. The prevailing deplorable custom of Kulin Brahmin polygamy allowed elderly men — sometimes on their deathbeds — to marry teenage or even prepubescent girls. nursed sick cholera patients. particularly in his native Bengal. Later on. to family servants.mannerisms. he would spend part of his scholarship proceeds and cook paayesh (rice pudding) to feed the poor and buy medicines for the sick. These included a semi starvation diet. where they might be cruelly subjected to orthodox rituals. fell hopelessly into debts due to his reckless lifestyle during his stay in Versailles. and close restriction on their freedom to leave the house or be seen by strangers. dined with the untouchables and walked miles as a messenger-man to take urgent messages to people who would benefit from them. When the eminent Indian Poet of the 19th century. Vidyasagar did not believe that money was enough to ease the sufferings of humanity. While being a student at Sanskrit College. After such marriages. who laboured to ensure that sums owed to Michael from his property at home were remitted to him and sent him a large sum of money to France. Unlike some other reformers who sought to set up alternative societies or systems.[5] With valuable moral support from people like Akshay Kumar Dutta.

better known as M. Vidyasagar Setu (commonly known as the Second Hooghly Bridge). a lay disciple of Ramakrishna and the then headmaster in the Metropoliton school owned by Vidyasagar. on different manifestations of God's power. The meeting was arranged by Mahendranath Gupta. He was highly educated and hence influenced by Western thoughts and ideas. According to the gospel Ramakrishna discussed various topics including the world of duality and trascendental nature of Brahman. produced a man!" After death. Ramakrishna in contrast did not have any formal education. the wood cutter and the ant and the sugar hill. At that time Vidyasagar used to stay in Badur bagan in North Calcutta. and Vidyasagar.[7] [edit] Bengali Alphabet and language reconstruction Vidyasagar reconstructed the Bengali alphabet and reformed Bengali typography into an alphabet (actually abugida) of twelve vowels and forty consonants. in the process of producing forty million Bengalis. [edit] Meeting with Sri Ramakrishna One of the important chapters in the The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna is the depiction of the meeting between Sri Ramakrishna. Rabindranāth Tāgore reverently wrote about him: "One wonders how God.Vidyasagar took the initiative in proposing and pushing through the Widow Remarriage Act XV of 1856 in India. Vidyasagar was himself secular and liberal in his outlook even though he was born in an orthodox Hindu Brahmin family. kindness and compassion and suggested him to do these activities in a selfless spirit. he is remembered in many ways. He also demonstrated that the system of polygamy without restriction was not sanctioned by the ancient Hindu Shastras. on ego and suffering. It links the city of . citing the parables of the salt doll. on discrimination between true and false knowledge. some of them include: Vidyasagar Setu 1. Vidyasagar contributed significantly to Bengali and Sanskrit literature.[8] [edit] Accolades Shortly after Vidyasagar's death. Sri Ramakrishna in the course of the conversation apparently praised him on his philanthropic activities. on power of faith etc. India. the author of the Bengali version of the Gospel. the 19th century Indian saint and mystic. is a bridge over the Hooghly River in West Bengal.

2. Kolkata and a university named Vidyasagar University in Paschim Midnapore. 3. search Raja Ram Mohan Roy রাজা রামোমাহন রায . an old tribe in India. the district center of Uttar 24 Pargana Ram Mohan Roy From Wikipedia. 4. which is named after him. he chose to spend his days among the "Santhals". 6. There is a reputed college named after him and it is located in college street. The bridge is named after Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. There is Vidyasagar Street in Central Kolkata. and he was certainly ahead of his time. it has been held simultaneously in Kolkata and Birsingha. Rectitude and courage were the hallmarks of Vidyasagar's character. In recognition of his scholarship and cultural work the government designated Vidyasagar a Companion of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1877[7] In the final years of life. A fair named Vidyasagar Mela (Bengali: িবিদ্যাসাগর েমেলা Biddashagor Mêla). Since 2001. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. has been held annually in West Bengal since 1994. which is dedicated to spreading education and increasing social awareness. The state government of West Bengal has established a stadium named after this great man (িবদযাসাগর কীডাঙন. 5. Howrah to its twin city of Kolkata.Vidyasagar Stadium) at Barasat.

or Ram Other names Mohan Ethnicity Bengali Hindu Occupation Social Reformer Known for Bengal Renaissance. Bristol Nationality Hindustani Rammohun. Bristol Cause of death Meningitis Resting place Arnos Vale Cemetery. of the Brahmo Sabha in 1828. . He is sometimes called the father of modern India.Raja Ram Mohan Roy portrait 22 May 1772 Born Radhanagore. and educational reformer who challenged traditional Hindu culture and indicated the lines of progress for Indian society under British rule. Bengal 27 September 1833 (aged 61) Died Stapleton. Brahmo Samaj Height 1.[citation needed] He founded.75 mts Weight 56 Successor Dwarkanath Tagore Religion Hinduism Spouse Uma Devi Parents Ramakanta Roy Raja Ram Mohan Roy (Bengali: রাজা রামেোপাধ্মোহন রায) (22 May 1772 – 27 September 1833) was an Indian religious. social. along with Dwarkanath Tagore and other Bengalis. Rammohan.

founded the Brahmo Samaj.1 Early life and education (1772–1792) 1. and education. This was unusual for Vaishanavites did not commonly marry Shaivites at that time. Contents [hide] • o o o o o • o o o • • • • 1 Biography 1.5 Personal 2 Religious reforms 2. in August 1772[1] or 22 May 1774. and campaigned against sati.2 Educationist 2. public administration.2 Early political and religious career (1792–1820) 1.[2] into the Rarhi Brahmin caste. as well as religion. [4] He wandered around the Himalayas and went to Tibet. a sastrin. Bengal. [edit] Early political and religious career (1792–1820) Ram Mohan Roy's impact on modern Indian history concerned a revival of the ethics principles of the Vedanta school of philosophy as found in the Upanishads. his father Ramkanto Roy was a Vaishnavite.4 Life in England and death (1830–1833) 1. . His influence was apparent in the fields of politics. one parent wanted him to be a scholar.3 Journalist 3 Cenotaph 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit] Biography [edit] Early life and education (1772–1792) Roy was born in Radhanagore. an influential Indian socio-religious reform movement during the Bengal Renaissance. He sought to integrate Western culture with features of his own country's traditions.1 Social Reforms of Rammohan 2. He preached about the unity of God.[3] His family background displayed religious diversity. made early translations of Vedic scriptures into English.3 Middle "Brahmo" period (1820–1830) 1. which was secular public administration. the Hindu funeral practice in which the widow immolated herself on her husband's funeral pyre.which engendered the Brahmo Samaj. Thus. He established schools to modernize a system of education in India. while the other wanted him to have a career dedicated to the laukik. while his mother Tarinidevi was from a Shivaite family. co-founded the Calcutta Unitarian Society. He is known for his efforts to abolish the practice of sati.

Between 1796 and 1797 the trio of Carey. then headquartered at Fort William. In the following year. In 1815. Ram Mohan Roy estimated how much money was being driven out of India and where it was headed towards. Carey made contact with a Sanskrit scholar. In 1792. settled at Serampore and the trio renewed their association with one another. the Tantric Hariharananda Vidyabagish. as well as the reliance on pundits as sources of Hindu Law.[5] while being employed by the East India Company and simultaneously pursuing his vocation as a Pandit. Raja Ram Mohan Roy formed Atmiya Sabhan spent many years[when?] at Rangpur and elsewhere with Digby. From 1803 to 1815.[6] He realized the "mobile" (i.[9] The Maha Nirvana Tantra's significance for Brahmoism lay in the wealth that accumulated to Rammohan Roy and Dwarkanath Tagore by its judicial use. later made a living off the spurious Maha Nirvana Tantra under the pseudonym Arthur Avalon. and his religious and political ambitions were increasingly intertwined. He predicted that around half of the total revenue collected in India was sent out to England. Ram Mohan Roy acted as a political agitator and agent.[10] whose distant nephew. Carey was joined by missionary Joshua Marshman and the printer William Ward at the Danish settlement of Serampore.[11] . Roy wished to learn English. leaving India to fill taxes with the remaining money. Vidyavagish has a brief falling out with Carey and separated from the group but maintained ties to Ram Mohan Roy. its usage. However.e. commencing as private clerk "munshi" to Thomas Woodforde.[7] who later introduced him to Ram Mohan Roy. the British Baptist shoemaker William Carey published his missionary tract "An Enquiry of the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of Heathens. In 1795. was quickly deprecated. and he began gathering them. The document's judicial sections were used in the law courts of the English Settlement in Bengal as Hindu Law for adjudicating upon property disputes of the zamindari. Vidyavagish and Roy fabricated a spurious religious work known as the "Maha Nirvana Tantra" (or "Book of the Great Liberation")[8] and attempted to portray it as an ancient religious text to "the One True God". British magistrates and collectors[who?] began to suspect it as a forgery. In 1799. where he renewed his contacts with Hariharananda. William Carey was also aligned with the English Company. also a Magistrate. Rammohan served the East India Company's "Writing Service".During these overlapping periods[when?]. service classes) Brahmins and Pundits were most able to help him in this endeavor. William Carey had. by this time. Registrar of the Appellate Court at Murshidabad. He learned the Buddhist and Jain religious works as a means to improve his argument in promotion for Christianity in the cultural context. and not due to any religious wisdom within. William Carey landed in India to settle. The East India Company was taking money from India at a rate of three million pounds a year in 1838. which was actually the Holy Spirit of Christianity masquerading as Brahma. publish and distribute the Bible in Indian languages and propagate Christianity to the Indian peoples. His objective was to translate.

especially their younger disinherited sons forced into service who constituted the mobile gentry or "bhadralok" of Bengal. namely his own Kulin Brahmin priestly clan (then in control of the many temples of Bengal) and their priestly excesses. the edition of a Sanskrit treatise against caste. although considerably decreased after the battles of Plassey and Buxar. and a tract in English on the disposal of ancestral property by Hindus. Roy wrote a letter to Rev. "Religious Instructions founded on Sacred Authorities" was published in English and Sanskrit. Roy was in charge of a Bengali tract. A Bengali tract on the qualifications of a God-loving householder. In 1829. H.[12] Under Carey's secret tutelage[13] in the next two decades. although the priest later accepted Hinduism. A petition against Suttee also took place in 1829. In 1830.[14] . Sivanath Sastri wrote that Roy was part of a second appeal to the Christian Public. A Persian paper called Mirat-ul-Akbar contained a tract entitled "Brief Remarks on Ancient Female Rights". an address to Lord William Bentinck congratulating him for the abolition of Sati. and a Grammar of the Bengali language in English were written in 1826. from the Mughal zamindari system and align them to their new overlords of Company. II and III. a document in English of the arguments regarding the burning of widows. A form of divine worship and a collection of hymns were composed by Roy and his friends in 1828. Brahmanical Magazine Parts I.At the turn of the 19th century. A Sanskrit tract on "Divine Worship by Gayatri" with an English translation. [edit] Middle "Brahmo" period (1820–1830) Commenting on his published works. Ware on the "Prospects of Christianity in India" and an "Appeal for Famine-Smitten Natives in Southern India" in 1824. The social and theological issues Carey chose for Rammohan were calculated to weaken the hold of the dominant Kulin class. a Bengali book concerning the Bengali language. The third and final appeal to the Christian public took place in 1823. a tract in Bengali on a controversy with a Kayastha. was processed in 1821. The Kulin excesses targeted included child marriage and dowry. Rammohan launched his attack against the bastions of Hinduism of Bengal. Carey tried to convert Raja to Christianity and appointed a religious priest to try to convert Raja. with Bengali translation and a new Bengali newspaper called Sambad Kaumudi. a book in Bengali called Answers to Four Questions was released the same year. and the previously noticed tract called "Answer of a Hindu to the Question" was released in 1827. In fact. still posed a political threat to the Company. the trust deed of the Brahmo Samaj. In 1822. a Bengali tract called "Anusthan" was also published that year. the Muslims. Rammohan was now chosen by Carey to be the agitator among them.

which was a movement of reformist Bengalis formed to fight against social evils. Brahmos believe that worship of Him needs no fixed place or time. His cause of death was meningitis. on 27 September 1833. Roy's third wife. Uma Devi. Roy also visited France. set up the Brahmo Sabha. and worship Him alone. in 1828. Brahmos believe in the existence of One Supreme God. outlived him. Bristol. [edit] Religious reforms The religious reforms of Roy contained in beliefs of the Brahmo Samaj expounded by Rajnarayan Basu[16] are: Brahmos believe that the fundamental doctrines of Brahmoism are at the basis of every religion. which was then a village to the north east of Bristol but currently a suburb. he was buried in Arnos Vale Cemetery in southern Bristol. which was then the sea port of Bengal and is currently in East Midnapore. Roy was an ambassador of the Mughal emperor Akbar II.[15] At the time. [edit] Social Reforms of Rammohan Roy demanded property inheritance rights for women and. followed by man. England In 1830. .[edit] Life in England and death (1830–1833) Statue in College Green. who conferred on him the title of Raja to convince the British government for welfare of India and to ensure that the Lord Bentick's regulation banning the practice of Sati was not overturned. Roy died at Stapleton. West Bengal. Ram Mohan Roy travelled to the United Kingdom from the Khejuri Port. [edit] Personal Ram Mohan Roy was married three times.

In 1822. Vedanta College offered courses as a synthesis of Western and Indian learning. Ram Mohan Roy's ideas of religion sought to create a fair and just society by implementing humanitarian practices similar to Christian ideals and thus legitimize Hinduism in the modern world. [edit] Journalist Roy published magazines in English. . and Bengali. he helped Alexander Duff in establishing the General Assembly's Institution. He spent his money on a college to promote these studies. science. In 1817. He published Brahmonical Magazine in English in 1821. He wrote: "The present system of Hindoos [sic] is not well calculated to promote their political interests…. published in 1821. he set up the Hindu College at Calcutta. The ordinance stated that a license from the Governor General in council would be mandatory to publish any newspaper. He advocated the study of English.[20] In 1830. Persian. western medicine and technology. polygamy and child marriages. Roy founded the Anglo-Hindu school.[19] These practices were often the reasons British officials claimed moral superiority over the Indian nation. followed four years later by the Vedanta College. He published newspaper to register his protest against the introduction of Press Ordinance of 1823. [edit] Educationist Roy believed education to be an implement for social reform. Ram Mohan published Mirat-ul-Akbar in Persian language. One notable magazine of his was the Sambad Kaumudi. this affected his religious reforms. covered topics such as freedom of press. But Sambad Kaumudi."[17] Rammohan Roy's experience working with the British government taught him that Hindu traditions were often not respected or thought as credible by Western standards. a news weekly. Being an activist. induction of Indians into high ranks of service and separation of the executive and judiciary. Sambad Kaumudi became bi-weekly in January 1830 and continued for 33 years. Brahmonical Magazine ceased to exist after publication of few[weasel words] issues. western curriculum". Roy supported induction of western learning into Indian education. where he insisted that his teachings of monotheistic doctrines be incorporated with "modern. He wanted to legitimize Hindu traditions to his European acquaintances by proving that "superstitious practices which deform the Hindoo [sic] religion have nothing to do with the pure spirit of its dictates! [sic]"[18] The "superstitious practices" Rammohun Roy objected included sati. Rammohan composed two memorials against this in 1829 and 1830 respectively.Roy's political background influenced his social and religious to reforms of Hinduism. Hindi. In 1822. caste rigidity. It is necessary that some change should take place in their religion. he steadily opposed social atrocities like Sati and child marriage. When the English Company censored the press. at least for the sake of their political advantage and social comfort. in collaboration with David Hare. by providing him the venue vacated by Brahma Sabha and getting the first batch of students.

[edit] Cenotaph Epitaph for Ram Mohan Roy on his cenotaph Cenotaph of Ram Mohan Roy in Arno's Vale Cemetery. who had accompanied Dwarkanath for this purpose to Britain. In 1845. Muslim and Sikh women sang Sanskrit prayers of thanks. In June 2007. decided to raise funds to restore the cenotaph. Rammohan's relics were cremated near Kolkata on 28 February 1846 by his family. [23] In June 2008. the tomb is located in the Arnos Vale Cemetery on the outskirts of Bristol. Bristol. who was amongst the representatives from the Indian High Commission. the Mayor of Kolkata Bikash Ranjan Bhattacharya.000 towards the restoration of Rammohan's memorial after being approached by the Mayor of Calcutta for funding.[21] In September 2006.[22] Following this visit. the free encyclopedia .net stated. Thebrahmosamaj. England The tomb was built by Dwarkanath Tagore in 1843. the Arnos Vale restorers conceded that they could not locate Roy's remains at the site after searching for it by digging. During the ceremony Hindu. "To everyone`s surprise the coffin was not to be seen under the chattri Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay From Wikipedia. Dwarkanath Tagore arranged for Rammohan's remains to be removed and returned to India through Roy's nephew. 10 years after Rammohan Roy's death in Bristol on 27 Sep 1833. representatives from the Indian High Commission came to Bristol to mark the anniversary of Ram Mohan Roy's death. businessman Aditya Poddar donated £50.

He was educated at Hoogly College and Presidency College. journalist Subjects Literature Literary Bengal Renaissance movement Author of Anandamath containing Notable the National Song of India Vande work(s) Mataram Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (Bengali: বিিঙ্কিমেচন চোপাধ্ট্টাপাধ্যায Bôngkim Chôndro Chôţţopaddhae)[1] (27 June 1838 [2] – 8 April 1894) was a famous Bengali writer. until his retirement in 1891. originally a Bengali and Sanskrit stotra personifying India as a mother goddess and inspiring the activists during the Indian Freedom Movement. India 8 April 1894 (aged 55) Died Kolkata. India Occupation Magistrate. He was one of the first graduates of the University of Calcutta.[3] He was the composer of India’s national song Vande Mataram. From 1858. Bengal. Bankim Chandra was born to an orthodox Brahmin family at Kanthalpara. lecturer Nationality Indian Ethnicity Bengali Hindu Alma mater University of Calcutta Genres Poet. writer. Calcutta.Jump to: navigation. serio-comic. Bengal. novelist. he served as a deputy magistrate and deputy collector in the Government of British India. His works were widely translated into other regional languages of India as well as in English. search Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay বিঙমচন চোটাপাধযায Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay 27 June 1838 Born Naihati. scientific and critical treaties’ in Bengali. essayist. Bankim Chandra wrote 13 novels and several ‘serious. . poet and journalist. North 24 Parganas. satirical.

and provided an inspiration for authors across India. the youngest of three brothers.[3] When Bipin Chandra Pal decided to start a patriotic journal in August 1906. after Bankim Chandra's song. to Yadav (or Jadab) Chandra Chattopadhyaya and Durgadebi. and his father. he was made a Companion. retiring from government service in 1891. graduating with a degree in Arts in 1857.in an orthodox Bengali Brahmin family. He was appointed as Deputy Collector. including novels. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • 1 Early life and background 2 Literary career 3 Personal life 4 Quotes 5 Bibliography 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links [edit] Early life and background Bankim Chandra was born in the village Kanthalpara in the district of Naihati. just like his father. of Jessore. he named it Vande Mataram. However.[3] He is still held to be one of the timeless and brightest figures of not only Bengal. essays and commentaries. Order of the Indian Empire in 1894. [edit] Literary career Part of a series on Hindu politics . was also a novelist and his known for his famous book "Palamau". were a breakaway from traditional verse-oriented Indian writings. Sanjeeb Chandra Chatterjee. He was educated at the Mohsin College in Hugli-Chinsura[4] and later at the Presidency College. Lala Lajpat Rai also published a journal of the same name.Bankim Chandra is widely regarded as a key figure in literary renaissance of Bengal as well as India. but also of the entire literati of India. a government official who went on to become the Deputy Collector of Midnapur. His years at work were peppered with incidents that brought him into conflict with the ruling British. He was one of the first two graduates of the University of Calcutta . One of his brothers. Some of his writings. His family was orthodox. Chatterjee went on to become a Deputy Magistrate. in 1869.[5] He later obtained a degree in Law as well.

The heroine of this novel. is modelled partly after Kalidasa's Shakuntala and partly after Shakespeare's Miranda. He had chosen Dariapur in Contai Subdivision as the background of this famous novel. was published in 1865. historical and miscellaneous essays. in which he was strictly a writer of romances. 1873) is the first novel of Bankim Chandra that appeared serially in Bangodarshan. Mrinalini (1869). The magazine carried serialized novels. named after the mendicant woman in Bhavabhuti's Malatimadhava. Kapalkundala (1866) is Chatterjee's first major publication. This book marks the shift from Chatterjee's early career. and turned to fiction. literary criticisms and reviews. However. It was written in English and was probably a translation of the novelette submitted for the prize. religious discourses. His majestic talents showed him other directions. humorous sketches. and Chatterjee's heroine may be completely his original. the partial similarities are only inferential analysis by critics. He did not win the prize. informative articles. His next romance. His first attempt was a novel in Bengali submitted for a declared prize. the first edition of which was filled almost entirely with his own work. to a later period in which he aimed to stimulate the intellect of the Bengali speaking people and bring about a cultural renaissance of Bengali literature. . marks his first attempt to set his story against a larger historical context. began his literary career as a writer of verse. Vishabriksha (The Poison Tree. his first Bengali romance and the first ever novel in Bengali. following the model of Ishwarchandra Gupta. He started publishing a monthly literary magazine Bangadarshan in April 1892. His first fiction to appear in print was Rajmohan's Wife. stories. and the novelette was never published.Concepts[show] Freedom Fighters[show] Political leaders[show] Major political parties[show] Authors on Hindu politics[show] Politics portal Portal:Himalaya region Government of India portal v·d·e Bankim Chandra.[citation needed] Durgeshnondini.

rewritten and enlarged 1893).13-which deal with the immortality of the soul and its reincarnation[7] . His final novel. with a blind girl in the title role. Bankim Chandra's humorous sketches are his best known works other than his novels. One of the many novels of Bankim Chandra that are entitled to be termed as historical fiction is Rajsimha (1881. torn between his wife and the woman he desires but unable to attain. but Bankim Chandra goes much beyond with his deft handling of sarcastic. The novel is loosely based on the time of the Sannyasi Rebellion. the literary magazine that Bankim founded in 1872[6]. which features an autobiographical plot. was taken up by many Indian nationalists. Finally. His belief was.It was a brilliant depiction of the contemporary India. makes a series of blunders and takes arrogant. Sitaram (1886). Through this work. similar to De Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater.regenerated and purified". 1885) contains half humorous and half serious sketches. self-destructive decisions. It was later revived by his brother. He wrote an extensive commentary on two verses in particular-2. critics saw resemblance to Western novels. The plot is somewhat akin to that of Poison Tree. The book calls for the rise of Hindu nationalism to uproot the foreign Turko-Afghan Muslim rule of Bengal and put forth as a temporary alternative the East India Company till Hindus were fit for Self Rule. 1878) Chatterjee produced a complex plot. Anandamath (The Abbey of Bliss.12 and 2. which contains two largely unrelated parallel plots.In that complexity. lifestyle and corruption. His next novel was Rajani (1877). 1875. and a precedent for blind girl in a central role existed in Edward Bulwer-Lytton's Nydia in "The Last Days of Pompeii". that there was "No serious hope of progress in India except in Hinduism-reformed. set to music by Rabindranath Tagore. 1882) is a political novel which depicts a Sannyasi (Hindu ascetic) army fighting the soldiers of the Muslim Nawab of Murshidabad. and is now the National Song of India. Bankim Chandra's next novel. Sanjeeb Chandra Chatterjee. the novel is not historical. Kamalakanta is an opium-addict. The novel first appeared in serial form in Bangadarshan. though the similarities of Rajani with these publications end there. he must confront his self and motivate the few loyal soldiers that stand between his estate and the Muslim Nabab's army about to take over. In Krishnakanter Will (Krishnakanta's Will. Hindus sannyasis and Muslim fakirs both rebelled against the British East India Company. Kamalakanter Daptar (From the Desk of Kamalakanta. Autobiographical plots had been used in Wilkie Collins' "A Woman in White". Bankim Chandra's next major novel was Chandrasekhar (1877). Bankim Chandra's commentary on the Gita was published eight years after his death and contained his comments up to the 19th Verse of Chapter 4. In the actual rebellion. Devi Chaudhurani. enlarged as Kamalakanta. he attempted to reassure Hindus who were increasingly being exposed to Western ideas. political messages that Kamalakanta delivers. tells the story of a local Hindu lord.Bangodarshan went out of circulation after 4 years. was published in 1884. Although the scene is once shifted back to eighteenth century. The novel was also the source of the song Vande Mataram (I worship my Motherland for she truly is my mother) which.

They have felt that in a colonised nation Bankim could not overlook politics. Their belief is that few writers in world literature have excelled in both philosophy and art as Bankim has done.Critics. He was one of the first intellectuals who wrote in a British colony. consider Bankim Chandra as the best novelist in Bangla literature. like Pramathnath Bishi. accepting and rejecting the status at the same time. The artist in Bankim cannot be understood unless you understand him as a moralist and vice versa . Bishi also rejects the division of Bankim in `Bankim the artist' and `Bankim the moralist' .for Bankim must be read as a whole.

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