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TS40 Control Valve Selection
for
Multi-Phase Flows












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Contents
Contents _______________________________________________________________2
TS40 Control Valve Selection for Multi-Phase Fluid Flows _______________________3
TS40.1 Nomenclature __________________________________________________________________ 4
TS40.2 Multi-phase Flow Valve Sizing Procedure ____________________________________________ 5
TS40.3 Process/Application Data Requirements______________________________________________ 6
TS41 Multi-phase Sizing ___________________________________________________7
TS41.1.1 Introduction ______________________________________________________________ 7
TS41.1.2Definition of Multi-phase Parameters___________________________________________ 8
TS41.2.1Multi-phase Sizing Equations_________________________________________________ 9
TS42 Multi-phase Velocity_________________________________________________15
TS42.1 Introduction ______________________________________________________________ 15
TS42.1 Factors Influencing Velocity Limitations ________________________________________ 15
TS42.2 Basis of Velocity Calculations ________________________________________________ 16
TS42.3 Procedure ________________________________________________________________ 17
Page 2
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TS40 Control Valve Selection for Multi-Phase Fluid Flows
Selection of a control valve for a multi-phase flow application involves a number of factors, which should be considered in a
logical sequence. This section of the Technical Manual provides the information necessary to consider these factors, which
include C
V
calculation, fluid velocity and noise level prediction. It is important to note that omission of these aspects could
lead to incorrect selection of a control valve for a particular application.
It should be noted that the process of sizing multi-phase fluids is extremely complicated involving phase transfer of energy.
The process and application information necessary to fully specify the size and type of valve required is detailed, together
with a flow chart indicating the sequence of steps involved.
The C
V
calculation includes consideration of the various flow regimes.
To ensure correct selection of valve size and to maximise operational life, fluid velocity calculations and limitations are
detailed for the various flow regimes.
Page 3
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Nomenclature
Unit Description Imp SI
C
V
Valve Flow Coefficient U.S. units U.S. units
K
V
Valve Flow Coefficient S.I. units S.I. units
C
f
Valve Pressure Recovery Factor - -
d Valve Bore Size inches mm
D Pipe Bore Size inches mm
P
1
Upstream Pressure p.s.i.a. BarA
P
2
Downstream Pressure p.s.i.a. BarA
P Pressure Drop across Valve p.s.i. BarA
P
sl
Sizing Pressure Drop for Liquid Phase p.s.i. Bar
P
l(limit)
Limiting Pressure Drop for Critical Flow p.s.i. Bar
of liquid phase
P
sg
Sizing Pressure Drop for Gas Phase p.s.i. Bar
P
g(limit)
Limiting Pressure Drop for Critical Flow p.s.i. Bar
of gas phase
P
sg(dissolved)
Sizing Pressure Drop for dissolved vapour p.s.i. Bar
T
1
Inlet Temperature F C
Q
L
Volume Flow Rate of liquid phase U.S.gall./min m
3
/hr
W
L
Mass Flow Rate of liquid phase lb/hr kg/hr
Q
g(ref)
Volume Flow Rate of gas phase S ft
3
/hr Nm
3
/hr
Wg Mass Flow Rate of gas phase lb/hr kg/hr
X Gas/vapour fraction (W
g
/W
tot
) - -
X
V
Gas/vapour fraction (Q
g
/Q
tot
) - -
K Expansion correction factor gas phase - -
G Specific Gravity - -
M
W
Molecular Weight of gas/vapour phase - -
F
K
/1.4 (=ratio of specific heats) - -
Z Compressibility factor for gas/vapour - -
Vg Gas/vapour phase Fluid Velocity ft/sec m/sec
V
L
Liquid phase Fluid Velocity ft/sec m/sec
SPL Sound Pressure Level dBA dBA
B Liquid noise efficiency term - -
H
1
Liquid noise trim style correction dB dB
Z
1
Liquid noise bulk flow factor - -
X Pressure Coefficient gas noise - -
Y Pressure Ratio Coefficient gas noise - -
Zg Gas flow bulk noise factor - -
Hg Trim style attenuation factor dB dB
T Valve opening reduction dB dB

Subscripts
1 Upstream
2 Downstream
g refers to gas/vapour phase
l refers to liquid stage
Tot or TOT Total
Dissolved refers to dissolved gas
s sizing
a void fraction
A flow area
TS40.1 Page 4
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TS40.2 Page 5
Multi-phase Flow Valve Sizing Procedure

The following flowchart details the overall sequence of steps used during the sizing and selection of a control valve for a multi
phase flow application. For individual consideration of multi-phase sizing, multi-phase velocity and multi phase noise
prediction, reference should be made to Sections TS41, TS42 and TS43 respectively.








START
Select Different Trim Style
No
Determine the CV (use 2 term equation)
Yes
Select Trim Style* (single stage)
Convert flowrates to flow by weight
Select Design CV and Valve Size
Determine gas/vapour fraction
Is Design CV OK?
Calculate Flow Velocities
Yes
Is Velocity OK?
Calculate Sound Pressure Level
Yes
Is SPL OK
Select Design CV & Valve Size
Yes Is dissolved gas content
known
Determine the CV (use 3 term equation)
Determine C
f
value at valve opening
Re-calculate CV using appropriate equations
* Usually preferred due to interstage erosion
problems on multiphase liquids
N
N
N
END
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Process/Application Data Requirements
The information required to fully specify the size and type of valve for multi-phase service applications can be broken down
into different categories. For valve sizing and selection, this information can be classified as essential, preferred or additional.
The following chart categorises the information required into these three areas. The information presented here relates to
valve selection only, for actuator selection refer to TS8O.
Process Units Flow Units - Temp Units -
Flow Condition Max Normal Minimum
1 Quantity
2 Line Fluid
3 Liquid Phase Flow Rate
Gas/vapour Phase Flow Rate
4 Inlet
5 Outlet
6

Pressures
P
7 Temp. at Inlet
8 SpecificGravity/Molecular Weight M
W

9 Compressibility Factor, Z
10
Vapour Pressure/Ratio of Specific Heats,

11 Critical Pressure
12 DP Actuator Sizing
13 Design Press./Temp.
14 Line Size In/Out/Sch.
15
16 Predicted SPL (dBA)
17 Calculated Cv
18
19 Valve Size C.M. Trim
20 Body Form Design CV
21 Catalogue No.
22 End Conns. Style Rating
23 Rated Press. Temp.
24 Body Material
25 No of Seats Design
26 Type Rings
27 Chars Flow Dir
28

Trim
Material
29 Type of Bonnet
30 Packing Lub. /Lub No
31 Max. Leakage
32 Stem Dia Valve Duty
Absolute minimum flow information (essential)
Information required for full analysis (preferred)
Additional design information
Full valve specification

TS40.3 Page 6
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TS41 Multi-phase Sizing
Introduction
When two phases, one incompressible and the other compressible flow together ma pipe, a number of different flow patterns
may exist, such as bubble, mist, annular and slug flow. Therefore the prediction of the behaviour of the two-phase flow is very
complicated. In contrast to single component flows, for which relatively simple flow equations can be derived, the flow
equations for two component flows are very complicated and cannot be applied directly to the valve sizing problem. The
complexity of the equations is attributable to the fact that the flow cannot be assumed to be homogeneous or in a state of
thermodynamic equilibrium.
Valve manufacturers have relied heavily on the limited data available for two-phase flows through valves or flow restrictions
such as orifice plates. This information is limited to certain flow conditions and even then has a high level of uncertainty.
Experimental data for such flows is in general for low pressures. In applying this to a valve sizing technique the data has to be
scaled to high pressure applications. In a single-phase flow this is a relatively simple task, however, in a multi-component flow
this is extremely difficult and leads to greater inaccuracies.
Introl in conjunction with a major oil company, have developed the multi-phase sizing procedure presented here. The
procedure has been proven by numerous flow tests and field data, and has shown to be a reliable engineering tool for
selecting control valves operating on multi-phase flow applications.
TS41.1.1 Page 7
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Definition of Multi-phase Parameters
Gas Fraction
This is the ratio of the gas/vapour phase mass flow rate
to the total two-phase mass flow rate.
TOT
W
W
X =
Slip Ratio
When a two-phase fluid flows along a pipe the velocity
of each phase will be different. The slip ratio is the ratio
of the gas/vapour phase velocity to the liquid phase
velocity.
t
g
u
u
S =
Void Fraction
This is the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the gas
phase to the cross-sectional area of the pipe.
A
A
a
g
=
Gas Oil Ratio (GOR)
Used to quantify the amount of gas in relation to the
amount of oil. GOR is the number of Sft
3
of gas per
barrel of oil.

Gas Solution Ratio, Rs
Quantifies the amount of gas dissolved in a liquid, i.e.
the number of Nm
3
/hr of gas per m
3
/hr of liquid.
TS41.1.2 Page 8
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Multi-phase Sizing Equations
a) Gas/Vapour Fraction
The valve sizing equations for multi-phase flows are
presented for simplicity, in terms of a total mass flow
rate and a gas/vapour fraction. In the event of flow rates
being presented in volumetric units then the first stage
in the multi-phase calculation procedure is to convert
volume flows into mass flow rates.
Convert to flow by weight
IMPERIAL
USGPM to lb/hr
l l
Q G W = 501
ft
3
/hr to lb/hr
l l
Q G W = 43 . 62
ft
3
/hr to lb/hr
g
W
g
Q
T Z
M P
W
+
=
) 460 ( 72 . 10
1
1

S. ft
3
/hr to lb/hr
gl W g
Q M W = 0028 . 0
METRIC
m
3
to kg/hr
l l
Q G W = 1000
m
3
to kg/hr
g
W
g
Q
T Z
M P
W
+

=
) 273 ( 8314
10
1
5
1

Nm
3
/hr to kg/hr
gl W g
Q M W = 0044 . 0
Calculate the mass flow rate
g l TOT
W W W + =
Calculate gas/vapour pressure
TOT
g
W
W
X =

b) Sizing Pressure Drop for Liquid Phase
Calculate supercooled vapour pressure
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
C
V
V VC
P
P
P P 028 96 . 0
Determine the limiting liquid phase pressure drop
corresponding to the occurrence of critical flow. Refer to
Table 41.1 for values of Cr
) (
1
2
lim V f it
P P C p =
Set the liquid phase sizing pressure drop, psl. If the
pressure drop across the valve is less than the limiting
pressure drop then the liquid phase is normal and
p p
Sl
=
If the pressure drop across the valve is greater than the
limiting pressure drop, then the liquid phase is critical
and
it l Sl
p p
lim
=
TS41.2.1 Page 9
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c) Sizing Pressure Drop for Gas/Vapour Phase
Calculate limiting pressure drop for gas vapour phase
1
2
lim
RP F C p
K f it g
=
where
f
f C C = 33 . 1
and 47 . 0 = R
Refer to Table 41.1 for values of C
f
or the valve
opening is known Figure 41.2.
Set the sizing pressure drop for gas/vapour phase.
If the pressure drop across the valve is less than or
equal to the limiting pressure drop the gas/vapour
phase is normal and
p p
Sg
=
If the pressure drop is greater than the limiting pressure
drop then the gas/vapour phase is critical and

it g Sg
p p
lim
=
d) Calculate Phase Specific Volumes
Liquid Phase
IMPERIAL
G
l
016 . 0
=
METRIC
G
l
001 . 0
=

Gas/vapour Phase
IMPERIAL
( )
1
460 72 . 10
P M
T Z
W
g

+
=
METRIC
( )
1
273 8314
P M
T Z
W
g

+
=

e) Calculate the Expansion Correction Factor

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
1
2
1
P C
p
K
f

where
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
92 . 0
65 . 0
K
F

or refer to Figure 41.1
f) Calculate Valve Flow Coefficient Two Phase
IMPERIAL
( )
sl
l
sg
g
TOT
p
X
p
XK
W Cv

1
0159 . 0
2

METRIC
( )
sl
l
sg
g
TOT
p
X
p
XK
W Cv

1
0368 . 0
2


TS41.2.2 Page 10
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TS41.2.4 Page 11
g) Calculate Valve Flow Coefficient - Three Phase
On many choke applications there is a combination of
oil, vapour and water in the flowing media. In such a
case, the differences in the liquids specific gravity and
the limiting pressure drops must be accounted for in the
sizing procedure. The previous two-term equation has
been modified so that the sizing pressure drop can be
calculated for each liquid phase.
Water phase
The water phase sizing pressure drop is pslw and
pslo should be calculated using the equations
presented in (b) of this procedure using the water fluid
properties.
X
lw
is the fraction of water present by weight, i.e.
TOT
lw
W
W
X =
Oil phase
The oil phase sizing pressure drop is pslo and should
be calculated using the procedure presented in (b)
using the liquid hydrocarbon (oil) fluid properties.
X
lo
is the fraction of oil present by weight, i.e.
TOT
lw
lw
W
W
X =
The sizing equations are:-
IMPERIAL
slw
lw lw
slo
lo lo
sg
g
TOT
p
X
p
X
p
XK
W Cv

2
0159 . 0

METRIC
slw
lw lw
slo
lo lo
sg
g
TOT
p
X
p
X
p
XK
W Cv

2
0368 . 0



h) Calculate Valve Flow Coefficient - Gas Solution
Ratio Known (Dissolved Gas Content)
If the gas solution ratio is known this means that the
amount of dissolved gas within the liquid phase can be
calculated. This dissolved gas will come out of solution
as the fluid flows through the valve. The effect of this on
the sizing can be taken into account by utilizing the
procedure detailed below. This will lead to more a
accurate calculation of the flow coefficient.
X
free
is the free gas content by weight
X
dissolved
is the dissolved gas content by weight
The sizing pressure drop for the dissolved gas can be
determined from the equation below.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
C
f sg
P
P
P C dissolved p
1
1
2
028 96 . 0 ) (
The sizing equation becomes:

IMPERIAL
) (
2
0159 . 0
dissolved sg
lo dissolved
slw
lw lw
slo
lo lo
sg
g free
TOT
p
X
p
X
p
X
p
K X
W Cv


METRIC
) (
2
0368 . 0
dissolved sg
lo dissolved
slw
lw lw
slo
lo lo
sg
g free
TOT
p
X
p
X
p
X
p
K X
W Cv



Note: The sizing pressure drops and
lo
p
slw
p
should be calculated using the procedure shown on
TS41.2.1 and using the respective fluid properties.

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TS41.2.4 Page 12

Table 41.1 Valve Pressure Recovery and Incipient Cavitation Coefficients
Valve Type Trim Style Trim Size Flow Direction C
f
K
1

Microspline All sizes Over 0.95 0.95
Full
Under
Over
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.81
Contoured
Reduced
Under
Over
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.82
Ported All sizes Over or under 0.93 0.9
Series 10

HF, HFD, HFT All sizes Over or under 1 0.95
Full
Under
Over
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.81
Contoured
Reduced
Under
Over
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.82
Ported All sizes Over or under 0.93 0.9
Series 14
HF All sizes Over or under 1 0.95
Ported Full Over or under 0.92 0.9
HF All sizes Over or under 0.97 0.95
XHF All sizes Over or under 0.98 0.95
HFD All sizes Over or under 0.99 0.95
Series 12
XHFD,HFT,XHFT All sizes Over or under 0.97 0.95
Contoured
Full
Reduced
Over and under
0.9
0.8
0.87
0.84
Series 20
HF, HFD, HFT All sizes Over and under 1 0.95
Series 30/31 V Port All sizes Mixing and diverting 0.91 0.9
4 Stage All sizes Over 1* 0.95*
Series 51/57
7 Stage All sizes Over 1* 0.95*
Vane
<30%
Open
Through
0.98
0.9
0.9
0.75
Series 61/62
Vane and baffle
<30%
Open
Through
1**
0.98**
0.9
0.9
Contoured Full
Under
Over
0.9
0.45
0.8
0.84
Reduced
Under
Over
0.95
0.5
0.8
0.82
Ported All sizes Over or under 0.92 0.9
HF All sizes Over or under 0.96 0.92
HFD All sizes Over or under 0.98 0.95
Series 70/71
HFT All sizes Over or under 0.99 0.95
Ported All sizes Over or under 0.92 0.9
HF All sizes Over or under 0.96 0.92
XHF All sizes Over or under 0.97 0.92
HFD All sizes Over or under 0.98 0.95
Series
72/73/74
XHFD ,HFT, XHFT All sizes Over or under 0.99 0.95
Cylindrical All sizes Through 0.95 0.90
Fixed area
Flat All sizes Through 0.92 0.90
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TS41.2.5 Page 13
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Figure 41.2 Valve Pressure Recovery Values for Different Valve Series as a function of Valve Openings
















TS41.2.6 Page 14
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TS42.1 Page 15
TS42 Multi Phase Velocity
Introduction
In selecting a valve for a multi-phase flow application
one of the major considerations is the effect of fluid
velocity. High fluid velocities can lead to erosion and
vibration problems. The higher velocity of the
gas/vapour phase will tend to lead to an increase in the
mean flow velocity of the liquid phase leading to the
possibility of an erosion problem. This section covers
the limitations imposed because of the possible effects
of high flow velocities and includes the velocity
calculation procedures for multi-phase fluids along with
the recommended velocity limits.
Factors Influencing Velocity Limitations
Selection of pipework systems includes the
consideration of fluid velocity which is limited for the
following reasons
1) reduction in pressure loss,
2) to reduce/eliminate vibration potential,
3) to minimise erosion damage.

A control valve is considered as a major part of the
pipework system and the flow velocity is limited for
similar reasons.
Although valve and piping velocity limits apply to mean
inlet/outlet flow velocities, it should be noted that the
flow through a control valve being highly turbulent
would exhibit areas of flow velocity much higher than
the mean flow velocity. Additionally, dependant on the
trim configuration the flow may impinge directly onto the
valve body wall. These factors, together with levels of
energy dissipation, mechanical vibration response, and
the material of construction influence the recommended
maximum levels presented in Table 42.1. and 42.2.
Effect of Valve/Trim Style
Reference to Table 42.1 and 42.2 will reveal varying
velocity limits for different valve sizes, trim styles and
body material. The reasons for these changes are
related to the varying flow paths through the different
configurations. For example the recommended velocity
levels are higher for cage guided trims because the
highest flow velocities, occurring just downstream of the
minimum flow area, are contained within the more
erosion resistant valve trim. Additionally, in cage guided
valves the high levels of energy dissipation are
controlled by splitting the flow into small jets with the
impingement contained within the guide.
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Basis of Velocity Calculation
If the % flash is given or can be calculated then the
relative velocities of the two phases, liquid and vapour,
can be approximated. A measure of the different phase
velocities is given by the slip ratio, s. This is the ratio of
the vapour phase to the liquid phase velocity. An
expression used to determine this value is shown
below.
2
1
1
(

+ = X X s
v
l


It is evident by examining this expression that as the %
flash increases so does the slip ratio, and hence the
vapour flow velocity. Furthermore, when the vapour
density approaches the liquid density, s tends to 1, and
the vapour velocity is almost equal to the liquid velocity.












TS42.2 Page 16
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TS42.4 Page 17
Procedure
a) Determine the liquid density and downstream vapour
density.
METRIC
1000 = G
l
42.1
) 273 ( 8314
10
2
5
2
2
+

=
T
M P
W
v
42.2
IMPERIAL
43 . 62 = G
l
42.3
) 460 ( 72 . 10
2
2
2
+

=
T
M P
W
v
42.4
b) Determine the slip ratio.
2
1
1
(

+ = X X s
v
l

42.05
c) Calculate the liquid and vapour phase mass flow rate.
TOT V
W X W = 42.06
( )
TOT l
W X W = 1 42.07
d) Calculate the downstream vapour and liquid phase
volume flow rates.
2
2
V
V
V
W
Q

=
l
l
l
W
Q

= 42.08
e) Calculate the downstream vapour volume ratio
where:
TOT
V
v
Q
Q
X
2
= 42.09
l V TOT
Q Q Q + =
2



f) Determine the void fraction and phase flow areas.
( ) ( ) s X X
X
a
V V
V
+
=
1
42.10
Liquid phase flow area
tot l
A a A ) 1 ( = 42.11
Vapour phase flow area
tot V
aA A = 42.12
Note: use the correct area units in the above
equations i.e. m
2
for METIC or ft
2
for IMPERIAL
g) Determine the liquid phase flow velocity.

3600
=
l
l
l
A
Q
V 42.13
h) Determine the vapour phase flow velocity.
3600
2

=
V
V
V
A
Q
V 42.14
i) Check that the phase velocities do not exceed their
recommended maximum levels, see Table 42.1. The
vapour phase flow velocity should not exceed 253m/s
(830 ft/sec) or 0.3 Mach. For the complete set of
velocity limits for gas/vapour flows refer to Table 42.2.
In the case that the % flash cannot be determined then the
valve size is selected based upon the design C
V
and
making reference to the line size.







Table 42.1 Recommended Maximum Velocities for Liquid Service
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TS42.4 Page 18
Maximum Velocity
Valve Size
Carbon Steel Alloy Steel Bronze, Cu/Ni Alloys
Valve Type Valve Rating Trim Style
in mm ft/s m/s ft/s m/s ft/s m/s
Series
10/14/20
All Contoured
0.5-2
3-6
8-14
16-18
20
24
15-50
80-150
200-350
400-450
500
600
41
34
29
22
18
12
12.5
10.4
8.9
6.7
5.5
3.7
46
34
29
22
18
12
14
10.4
8.9
6.7
5.5
3.7
25
20
17
13
11
7
7.6
6.2
5.2
4
3.4
2.1
All
Ported + HF
family
1-12
14-20
24
25-300
350-500
600
43
35
25
13.1
10.7
7.6
52
43
35
15.8
13.1
10.7
26
21
15
7.9
6.4
4.6
Series 12/51 All
Ported + HF
family
1-12
14-20
24
25-300
350-500
600
43 (60)
35 (50)
25 (35)
13.1 (18.3)
10.7 (15.2)
7.6 (10.7)
52 (70)
43 (60)
35 (50)
15.8 (21.3)
13.1 (18.3)
10.7 (15.2)
26 (35)
21 (30)
15 (21)
7.9 (10.7)
6.4 (9.1)
4.6 6.4)
Series 30/31
Up to and
including
ANSI 600
"V" Port
1-2
3-6
8-12
25-50
80-150
200-300
31
26
19
9.5
8
5.8
35
26
19
10.7
8
5.8
19
16
11
5.8
4.9
3.4
Series 61/62
Up to and
including
ANSI 300
Vane
4-12
14-24
>24
100-300
350-600
>600
25
15
10
7.6
4.6
3
25
15
10
7.6
4.6
3
15
9
6
4.6
2.7
1.8
Series 70/71 All Contoured All sizes All sizes Refer to Series 10 velocity limits
Series
70/71/72
73/74/57
All
Ported + HF
family
1-12
14-20
24
25-300
350-500
600
48 (65)
40 (55)
30 (42)
14.6 (19.8)
12.2 (16.8)
9.1 (12.8)
57 (75)
48 (65)
40 (55)
17.4 (22.9)
14.6 (19.8)
12.2 (16.8)
29 (39)
24 (29)
18 (25)
8.8 (11.9)
7.3 (8.8)
5.5 (7.6)

TABLE 42.2. Recommended Maximum Velocities for Gas/Vapour
Valve
Type
Valve
Rating
Trim
Style
Valve Size
Maximum Inlet
Velocity
Maximum Outlet
Velocity
Max. Outlet Mach no. for
Required Noise Level
in mm ft/s rn/s ft/s rn/s >95 dBA <95 dBA <85 dBA
0.5-2 15-50 340 104
3-6 80-150 295 90
8-14 200-350 265 81
16-18 400-450 190 58
20 500 150 46
Up to and
including
ANSI 600
Contoured
24 600 115 35
1-12 25-300
14-20 350-500
Series
10//14/20
All
Ported +
HF family
24 600
475 144
830 253
0.65 0.5 0.3
1-12 25-300
14-20 350-500 830 253 0.65 0.5 0.3 Series 12 All
Ported +
HF family
24 600
475 144
(1150) (350) (0.9) (0.7) (0.4)
1-2 25-50 226 78
3-6 80-150 220 67 Series 30/31
Up to and
including
ANSI 600
V Port
8-12 200-300 200 61
640 195 0.65 0.5 0.3
4-12 100-300 200 61
14-24 350-600 100 30 Series 61/62
Up to and
including
ANSI 300
Vane
>24 >600 80 24
350 107 0.65 0.5 0.3
Series 70/71 All Contoured All sizes
Refer to Series 10
velocity limits
Sonic 0.65 0.5 0.3
1-12 25-300
14-20 350-500 0.65 0.5 0.3
Series 70/71
72/73
All
Ported +
HF family
24 600
475 144 Sonic
(0.9) (0.7) (0.4)