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Separate an angle to three equals

We don’t know by which conditions was placed the problem


“Separate an angle to three equals using ruler without numbers
and a divider” in the ancient Greece.

Source (in Greek):


http://www.telemath.gr/mathematical_ancient_times/unsolved_
mathematical_problems/unsolved.php#2

Then many different ancient Greek geometry mathematicians


try to solve this problem without to achieve it, so they try to find
other ways to solve this problem, not using ruler(without
number) and a divider but with an auxiliary curve .

Α:Random point
O1O2 = O2 OZ
I make circles (O1 , R), (O2 , R) με O1O2 = R , I draw a beeline ε 1 ⊥ O1O2 .
From the random point Α I draw a radius AO2 = AO1 = AZ
∆ ∆
ΑO1 ∆ = ΑΟ2 ∆ because AO2 = AO1 = AZ ,ΔΑ:common side,
O1 A = O2 A
⇒ A1 = A3
A1 + A3
therefore A1 =
2

∆ ∆
O1 AO2 = O2 AZ because O1O2 = R = O2 Z and AO1 = AO2 = AZ
therefore ( A1 + A3 ) = A2
So the angle A1 + A2 is separated to three equals

d1 = A1O2 , d 2 = A1 B1 , O2 A2 = A2 B2 = P

ε 2 // ε 1 , Μ:the middle of Β2∆
let’s imagine that we have a strand with a constant lenght
2Ρ, which is moving on the beeline ε 1 and at an area of the
circumference of the circle (O2 , R) .
While the strand is moving to the point A1 , the distance d 2
became longer and the distance d1 became shorter

( The circumference Β 2 Μ IS ALLOWABLE AREA WHERE
WE HAVE THE LENGHT 2P )

From the figure we have:

d 2 − Γ1Β1 = Ρ
d1 + d 2 = 2 P ⇒ d1 = 2 P − ( P + Γ1Β1 ) ⇒ d1 = P − Γ1Β1
At the moment when we don’t know the beeline ε 2 we don’t

know the allowable area of the circumference Β 2 Μ . So from the

point Μ which is the middle of Β 2 ∆ we draw MA3 // A2 B2
We can prove that the point Μ is belong to the beeline O1O2
when it will be extended.

We can choose the point M because it can be the middle of each



bow Β 2 ∆ of each corresponded angle ∆Α1Β1 which we want to
separate to three equals.

^
So if we want to separate an angle Α to three equals we do the
following steps.

-We draw A1 B1 // MA3 (I know the point M, just we extend the


beeline O1O2 until the circumference of the circle (O2 , R) )
O2 A3 + A3 M
- d1 + d 2 = 2 P = O2 A3 + A3 M ⇒ P = 2
-From the point O2 I draw a radius Ρ which που intersect the
beeline ε 1 to the point A2 .
-From the point A2 we draw a radius Ρ which intersect the
circumference of the circle to the point B2 .
^ ^
-We configure the transferee angle ∆Α 2 Β 2 = ∆Α 3 Μ which is
separated to three equals.
Evagoras Savva Georgiou
Apsiou-Limassol
Cyprus