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[

NAVAL

MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE

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•-BIBLIOGRAPHY

OF REPORTED

BIOLOGICAL

PHENOMENA

('EFFECTS')

AND CLINICAL

SMANIFESTATIONS

ATTRIBUTED TO MICROWJAVE AND RADIO-FREQUENCY

RADIATIONI

S•-:RESEZARCH

REPORT

KF:•,,,12,:."524. 015-0004B

-:

NATIONAL

TECHNICAL

!_

INFORMATION

SERVICE

RE•PORTpEsDNO.

2

4(

'i

-W-

BIBLIOGPHY

OF

MANIFESTATIONS

Fmm

mrmim. r-

w

REPORTED

BIOLOGICAL

PHENOMENA

('EFFECTS')

AND

CLINICAL

ATTRIBUrED TO MICROWAVE

AND RADIO-FREQUENCY

RADIATION

Zorach R. Glaser,

LT,

MSC,

USNR

Ph.D.

Research

'Report

Project MF12.524.015-00043,Report

No.

2

Naval Medical

Research

Institute

National Naval Medical

Center

Bethesda, Maryland 20014, U.S.A.

4 October

1971

Second Printing,

with Revisions,

Corrections,

and Additions:

(Supersede3

AD No.

20 April

734391)

1972

I'

ABSTRACT

More

frequency

than

and microwave

2000

references

of

on the

biological

up

responses

to radio

are

radiation,

published

to June 1971,

included

the effects

in

the bibliography.*

on man

Particular

attention has been paid

these frequencies.

non-ionizing

radiation at

to

The

citations

are

arranged

alphabetically

by

author,

and contain

as

much

information

as possible

so

as

to assure

effective

retrieval of

the original

documents.

An outline

of the

effects whicb have been

attributed

to radio

frequency

and microwave

radiation

is

also

part of

the

report.

i

than

*Three

2300.

supplementary

listings bring the number of citations

to more

SKej Words

Biological

Effects

Non-Ionizing Radiation

Radar Radio

Frequency Hazards

Radiation

Microwave

Radiation

Health Hazards

Bibliography

Electromagnetic

Radiation

Injury

and

of

made

comments

the recommendations

criticisms

and

the literature

suggested,

the views

in

this report,

the

Department

The

and

upon

inferences

reflect

are those of the Navy

of

author,

or of

and

do not necessarily

Service.

the Naval

2

I

Secunt.

Classification

~c~f:, CIII,*t

I IdCSf ti

l

of1

UlU.

4,,dy

C'I-%tTIG AC

,VITY

C. •rpofare*utho)

DOCUMENT CONTROL

0,

abs'rct

anJ Indexing ano-.,*

NAVAL UEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE

.,TIUNAL NAVAL MEDICAL

CENTER

BETHSDA, -AW'IAND 20014

ALPORT

TITISE

DATA - R & D

-in

-ist

I

entered Alin :$ýe

zoverz

I

t.9por i~

1.s

t~d

1 Z*.

REPORT

SECURITY

CO$AS•IFICA•.O,%

UNClASSIFIED

2ib.

GROUP

4.

BIBLIUGMPHY

:ŽANIFESTATIONS ATTRIBUTED

OF

;;-ZOXTED

BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA

('EFFECTS')

AND

CLINICAL

TO MICROW&VE AND

RADIO-FREQUENCY- RADIATION

-ESC• •PTIVE

NOTES ()r.pe ofirepor: and inclusive dates)

Medicai

research

interim

report,

"AUT.ORCSI (Firstname. middie initial. last name)

bibliographic

(Current

to April

1972)

Zorach

R.

GLASLR,

Ph.D.

L-T,

MSC,

USN

REPORT

,ATE

Revised

2O

April

1972

(4.Occm.er 1971, Original)

54

CONTRACT

OR GRANT NO.-

b. ,,oJEC-

No

Va. TOTA

NO. OF PAGES

Th. No. OF REPS

2,3114

J

ORIGINATOR•S

REPORT

NUMSERteu)

F12.524.015-0004B,

Report

No.

2,

Ke~ise

d.

Z

*ISTRI8b

T:CN

C.

STATEMENT

1 Ob.

OT#4ERk

REPORT

ftOMS (Any other num~bers that may be assigned

this gep@fl)

 

.

ITHiIS

LOWUMENT

UNLIMITED.

HALS

BEEN

APPROVED FOR

PUBLIC

RELEASE

AND

SALE;

ITS DISTRIBUTION

IS

-II:b.PPLEAENTAR~.NOTES

12-.

SPONSORINGBUEUOMDIIEADSRRY(V)MILI TARY AC

TI VIT Y

WASHINGTON,

D.C.

20390

:3

AUJS TACT-

More

than 2300

relerences

on

the biological responses

to radio

trequency

and

microwave

radiation,

published

and

up

these

t

April 1972, are included in this bibliography attention has been paid to the effects on man

'requencies.

as

much

The

citations

as

are

arranged

so

as

information

possible

to

ot the world iiterature.

o:

Particular

at

alphabetically

non-ionizing

radiation

by author,

contain

fliterature is included in detail. An outline of the effects which have been

assure

eltective

retrieval of the

original

documents.

Soviet

and East European

attributed

The

inclusion

and adoitions

tu radio

report

oi three

to

trequency

and microwave

radiation

is

included

is

as Chapter

1.

revised

(which

supplementary

supersedes

DDC report

AD#734391)

updated with

many

the

listings,

and has

incorporated

corrections

the original

2100 citations.

I

"

ov .,473

UNCIASSIFIED

Security Classification

j

I

1 j

A

UNCLASSIFIED

Security Chtssifii.tion

biooica-

eieiects

Non-iouizing

radiation

KEY

WORDS-

Radar

hazards

Radio

Irequency

radiation

I

:Aicrowave

radiar iton

lleair.

hazards

iEiec:r~a6netic

radiation

Siblio6raphy

injury

i-aCau.'amn adverse etlects

II I

I

•II

 

%-IN. A

LINK

B

 

-

 

I

 

,

I

I

I2

I

I

I

I

*

 

I

 

22

I

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2

 

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I

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Abstract

2

Table of

Contents

 

3

Foreword

4

Acknowledgments

 

5

Chapter 1,

Outline

of Reported

Biological

Phenomena

('Effects')

7

and Some Clinical

Hanifestations

Attributed

to

Microvave and

Radio-Frequency

Radiation

Chapter

2,

Bibliography,

Alphabetical

Listing

12

 

Unsigned

Reports

and Articles

83

Addenda,

Alphabetical by Author

87

Addenda,

Unsigned Reports and Articles

89

Fir3t Suppleeuntary

Listing

(5 October

1971)

91

Appendix A,

Accession Numbers and Sources

92

Second Supplementary

Listing

(21

November

1971)

93

Third

Supplementary

Listing

(17 April 1972)

95

34

Foreword

 

It

is

the

hope

of

the

author

that

this bibliography

will provide guid-

ance

to

the

diffuse

and

conflicting

literature

on the

biological

responses

to

electromagnetic

in

radiation

to

at radio-

of

and microwave-frequencies,

concern

with

is

particular

needed

exposure

reference

the

to

the effects

and

to man.

Such guidance

limits of human

formulation

appraisal of

criteria

and

"non-ionizing"

radiation, and in

the planning

and

conduct of

future

research.

The original

plans were

to categorize

and

key

the

literature

cita-

tions

to

the

"outline of biological

and

clinical

effects"

(Chapter

1).

This

proved

to

be

a much more

dif"icult

and

time-consuming task than

 

anticipated,

and

was actually

completed

only

for about

400

papers.

Thus,

the

letter-number

combinations

given

in

square

brackets

for some of

the

"A"

through

"C"

citations

refer

to the

outline.

INV] indicates the cita-

tion

was

"not

verified".

The

standard

format

used

throughout

the bibliography

is: author,

(date),

journal,

volume,

(issue):

page,

"title".

The authors

are alpha-

betized,

and

in

chronological

order.

Multiple

authora

'xe also alphabeti-

cally ordered according to the second,

Inclusive

pagination is given where possible, as is the original language of the

third,

etc.,

author.

citation.

Report

accession

and

translation numbers

(some

of

which

are

cited

in

Appendix

A),

and

alternate

listed when known.

The

title

of books

is

underlined.

 

sources are When the title

of

the

report was not

avail-

able (or not given), a short (one line) description of the paper is listed whenever possible. Reports in which the name of the author was not given are listed chronologically using the format, "title", reference, source,

(date).

In

many

cases

the

citation was obtained from secondary

(and

tertiary) sources. For this reason it was impossible to put every citation

into

a

consistent

format.

 

In

a

few

cases,

papers

have been

cited which were presented

at

symposia

or

meetings devoted

to

the present

topic,

even when

the

report

title

suggests

that

it

does not

pertain

directly

to

the topic.

This has

been

done

to

show

the wide

range

of

items

considered

relevant

(at least

at the time of the meeting, and by the organizing chairman) in past years.

An

example

is

"electroanesthesia".

A few

citations

that

needs.

of marginal

reader

Examples

been

so vidual research

included

the

effects of

static and alternating

and/or peripheral

relationship

have also

may

judge

the applicability

to his

indi-

are reports

dealing with

the

biological

magnetic

fields,

experimental

techniques

using

radio

frequency

and

microwave

radiation

(e.g.,

electron

spin reso-

nance,

and

nuclear magnetic

resonance

spectroscopy),

and microwave

expo-

sure

limits,

regulations,

and

standards.

References

for

a few

available

upon request.

limited-distribu

4

ion

government

reports

are

The author welcomes

information which will correct

errors

and omis-

sions (both of which no doubt exist).

greatly appreciated, graphy periodically.

Copies of new papers would be

updating

and

revising

and would encourage

the biblio-

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The assistance

and support

received

and

bibliography

have been considerable,

during

I

the preparation

of

this

am happy

to acknowledge my in-

debtedness and gratitude. Drs. John Keesey and Dennis Heffner, former and present Heads of the Biophysics Division, and Dr. Seymour Friess, Director of the Environmental Biosciences Department of the Naval Medical Research Institute, permitted me the opportunitj to work on the bibliography, and offered frequent encouragement.

-

Acknowledgment

is

also due to many friends and associates

for their

helpful suggestions, comments, and loans and/or gifts of reports or other

material, which have been invaluable in the course of the work. "r. Glenn Heimer of the Naval Ship Engineering Center contributed an extensive collec-

tion of government reports

been cited

and dccuments,

many of which

had not previously

in

the open literature.

Special help in

been received

from

tracing

and in

the

acquisition of relevant papers has

the

librarians

and staff

members

of the NMRI library:

Mrs.

Thelma

Robinson,

Mrs.

Ernestine Gendlemen,

Mrs.

Eleanor Capps, and

Miss

Deborah Grove.

Their diligence

and resourcefulness

in

tracing and

obtaining

of Incomplete

copies of

a

large number

of papers

and

reports, other

and/or inaccurate

citations

given in

me to

include many

relevant

items in

the bibliography.

sources, often in

enabled spite

Mr.

Christopher

Dodge of

the

Scientific

and

Technical

Center,

Depart-

sent of

and

and

noteworthy

ing his reading

the Navy,

provided much

assistance,

of the Soviet

and in

Bloc

literature,

linguistic

comments

Especially

follow-

other technical encouragement

addition offered valuable

of

this report.

suggested

throughout

the preparation

were the corrections

of

and improremeuts

by Chris

the entire manuscript.

 

Helpful also

in

locating

some of

the

Soviet literature

was

Mr. E.

S.

Serebrennikov,

of the

Science

and

Technology Division,

The Library

of

Congress.

 
 

Credit is

due Mrs.

Ann& Woke

(of this

Institute)

for translating many

of

the German papers;

to Dr.

Emilio Weiss,

who translated from the Italian,

and to Mrs.

Glaser

Edith Pugh who typed many "first

many aspects

of

drafts";

for her help in

the work.

also

to Mrs.

Rhoda

Mrs.

Fannie Epstein

Aeserves

special mention for her outstanding

editorial assistance, and especially for the heroic typing, organization, and checking of the entire report.

---z-

_

o

-'--

~5

--.----

!

 

T-

.aut line of Reported Biological Phenomena ('Effects') and

 

I

Clinical eal1festations Attributed to Microwave and Radio-Frequency

Radiatior, is patterneh

after that given by R. Murray, .et al., in an

 

article entitled, "Has-osafe are alcrowaves", which appeared in Non- Ionizing Radiation 1(1):7-8 (1969). Some of the "effects" were listed in the r#.ort by S. F. Cleary and W. T. Ham, Jr., entitled, "Considera- tions in the evaluation of the biological effects on exposure to micro- wave radiation!, (3ackground document, Port 1, 1969, for the Task Force

on Research

Planving in

Environmental Health,

on Physical

Factors in

Byron McLees,, Edward Finch,

the Environment).

The discusbion

Subtask Force and suggestions

offered

by

Lewis Gersbman,

and Christopher

Dodge relat-

 

ing to the Outline are also gratefully acknowledged.

 

Prepare-r *.-n

of the bibliography was supported by the Bureau of

 

Medicine

A,;,,

-.irgery,

Department of the Navy,

under vork unit HF12.524.

0105-OO'V.

 

II

A

61

74

 

CIHAPTER

I

Peported

Diolorical

Phenomena

(*Effects')

and

Some

Clinical

Manifestations

Attributed

to

!Iicrowave

and

P.adlo-Frequency

Padiation

(See

Note)

A.

Heating

of Organs*

(Applications:

Diathermy,

rlectrosurrerv,

Flectro-

coagulation,

I.lecrrodesicoation,

lectrotomy)

1.

2.

3.

4.

M.ole

Skin

Bone (a)

Body

(temnerature

repulation

defect),

-

due

Lens and

of Bone

Lye . t arro: (cataractous

lesions

to

!Hyperpyreyla

the avascular

nature of the lens vhich prevents adequate heat dissipat i,w.I

(M) Corneal

damane

also poosil le

at

extrei.ely

5. e'enitalia (tubular dreg.?neration of testicleF)

C

7. Sinuses

S.

The

hrain

etal

effects

Inplants

are

(burns

:tneralPy

near

reversible

hip

?ins,

erc.)

except

for 4a.

0It fro- u4-i.

B. Chianes in liv, o.ogic .function

I.

2.

Striated

:ttscte

of

Contraction

Alteration

DWi-meter of

Blood Vessels

(increasec'

va.tcr-lar

elasticity),

Dilation

Changes in

the Oxidative

Processes

in

Tissues

and

ArranL

Liver

A.ltered

Decreased

Lnlargement

Sensitivity

to Drug Stitruli

(decreased

Spernato.enesis

fertility,

to

S.

4.

5.

6.

7. Altered Sex Patio of Blrths (more girls!)

steril.)

'c.

 

8.

Altered ,!enstrual Activity

 

9.

Altered Fetal Devwlopment

I.

iAecreasee Lactation in :ursing ":others

'.l.

Reduction in i'iuresis (',a+ excretio:,, via urine output)

!2.

Altered !'era!! function (decreased filtratir," ::- tul alef)

13.

U:hanf-es in (onditioned P:eflexes

 

14.

iecreased .;lectrical .eristance of Skin

 

15.

Changes in tbU

Structure

of

Skin

re.cptorn

of tie

(a)

i.-ti~e,

 

and

(b)

i-loot'-Carryinr

Systcr.-:

 
 

16.

Alterrd

mIood

Fnow

!:ate

*

It

is

also reported

that

leov

levels of

irradiation

produce

a cooling

effect -

"hypercor.pensation".

Note:

Thece

effects

are

listed without comment or endorse.:ent

:Aince.

t-e

literature

abounds with

conflicting

reports.

In sonte

cases

the !:asi.

f~nr

reporting

an

"effect"

was

a single

or a non-statistical

observaticr,

i'"ich

may have

been

drawn

from

a poorly

conceived

(and

poorly

executed)xpevri-

fnente

7

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

Alterations

In

(in animals)

the Siocurrents

(KW?)

of the Cerebral

Cortex

Changes In the Rate of Clearance of Tagged Ions

Reversible

Diencephalon

Electrocardiographic (EKG) Changes

Alterations In Sensitivity to Light, Sound, and Olfactory StImuli

Functional (a) and Pathological (b) Changes in the Eyes:

from Tissue

Structural Changes In

the Cerebral Cortex and the

(a) decrease in

size of blind spot,

altered color recogPltion,

changes In Intraocular pressure, lacriaation, trembling cf eye-

altered tissue respira-

lids;

Myocardial tion, and altered Necrosis reduction-oxidation processes

(b)

less opacity

in

Lungs,

and coagulation,

J At Fatal Levels of Radiation

Hemorrhage

Generalized Degeneration of all Body Tissue Loss of Anatomical Parts

Liver, Gut,

and Brain

Death

Dehydration

Altered Rate of Calcification of Certain Tissue

C.

Central Nervous System Effects

 
 

1.

Headaches

2. Inomnia

 

3. Restlessness

(Awake and During Sleep)

 

4. Electroencephalographic (EW) Changes

5. Cranial Nerve Disorders

6. Pyramidal Tract Lesions

7. Condittoned

Reflex Disorders

8. Vagominetic Action of the Heart; Sympaticouminetic Action

9. Seizures,

Convulsions

D.

Autonomic Nervous System Effects

 
 

1.

Neuro-vegetative Disorders

(e.g.,

alteration of heart rhythm)

2.

Fatigue

3.

Structural Alterations Lu the Synapses of the Vague Nerve

4.

Stimalatin of Parasympathetic Nervous System (Bradycardia), and lnhbition of the Sympathetic Nervous System

E.

Peripheral Nervous System Effects

 

Effects on Locowtor Nerves

Y

F. Psychological

Disorders

(and

"Psychophysiologic

("Human

Behavioral

Studies")

Psychosomatic)

Responses"

I. Neurasthenia-

2. Depression

3. Impotence

(general

4. Anxiety

5. Lack of Concentration

6.

Hypochondria

Dizziness

Hal lucinations

7.

,S.

9. Sleepiness

"bad" feeling)

10.

Insomnia

II.

Increased

Irritabiiity

12. ')ecreased

Appetite

13.

14.

Loss

Scalp

Tncreasee

of

!:er-ory

15.

16. Chest rainA

17.

Sensarions

Fatirabilty

the lianus

Tremor of

-

G. Behavioral (Cnanres (Aninal Studies)

the

so-called

Peflexive,

Operant,

tvoldance,

and

DIscrinination

Belaviors

Moodl.

Disorders

Changes

in:

(V

=

in vivo)

(v

=

in

vitrt.'

1.

2.

Bloo.' anC Bone *:arrcn%

Pha~oryt.:r

(polrVorphs)

and

S3. llemol.-s.s .at* (increase),

Bactericidal

"unctiornr

f

(a

shortene,! lifeaz~:

of

,

•.

"5.

St-dir.enta-ion

;ate

(increase),

(due

to

,-e.

;n

sp,

levels or ar:ount of fitrino-er. (?))

 

::uriber of L.rythroc'tes

(Cecrease),

also

nneher

of

1.yr-

.

c,

"

t

tt'.

Bl.ood CtluccFe foncentration (increase)

,v)

" I

7.

Llood 11istanine rontent

 

Z.

Cholesterol and Lipids

9.

Garma

(also u and

0) Gl.obulin, and Total Protein Concentration

10.

Number of

Eosinophils

11. Albumin/Globulin ratio (decrease)

12. PHemopoiesis (rate

of formation

of blood

corpuscles)

13.

Leul-openia

(increase

in

number of

x0.ito cells),

14.*

.eticulocytosis

 

ancl

1. Vascular Disorders

1. Thrombosis

2. Hypertension

9

Leu1-oc-,orosis

41

A

-4

h

S12.

SK.

JS Enzyme and Other Biochemical Changes

Changes

in

activity

of:

1. Cholinesterase (V,v)

Phosphatase

Transaminase

Amylase

5. Carboxydismutase

2.

3.

4.

(v)

(v)

(v)

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

13.

Protein

Toxin,

Denaturation

Fungus,

and

Virus

levels),

Bacteriostatic

Inactivation

Effect

(at high radiation dose

Tissue

Alteration

Cultures

In

Killed

of

iRate

Coll

Increased

Concentration

of

Division

RVA in

Lymphocytes,

and

Decreased

Concentration

in in

Alteration

in

Changes Change

in

Brain,. Liver,

Acid,

Lactic

of

and

Spleen

and

Pyruvic

Acid,

in

Creatinine

LxereJions

Concentration

Glycogen

of 17-

Liver

(Hlyperglycevia)

in Urine

Concentration

Ketosterolds

Metabolic

Disorders

Glycosuria

(sugar

in

uriTe;

related with blood sugar?)

2.

Increase

in

Urinary

Phenol

(derivatives?

DOPA?)

3.

Alteration

of rate

of ietabolic

Enzymatic

Processes

L.

S4. Altered

Carbohydrate

Metabolism

Gastro-Intestinal

Disorders

1. Anorexia (loss of appetite)

 

2.

3.

4.

Epigastric

Constipation

Altered

Pain

Secretion

of

Stomach

"Digestive

Juices"

 

It.

Endocrine

Gland

Changes

 

1.

Altered

Pituitary

runction

2.

Ilyperthyroidism

3.

Thyroid

Enlargement

4.

Increased

Uptake

of Radioactive

Iodine by Thyroid Gland

5.

Altered Adrenal

Cortex Activity

 

6.

Decreased

Corticosteroids

in

Blood

S7.

Decreased

Glucocorticoidal

Activity

 

8.

1lypogonadism

(usually decreased

testosterone

production)

S2.

IN. Histological Changes

1.

Changes Gross

Changes

in

Tubular

Epithelium

10

of Testicles

0.

Genetic and Chromoscrtal

Changes

 

A

1.

Chromosome Aberrations (e.g., linear shortening, pseudochiasm, diploid structures, amitotic division, bridging, "sticky"

2.

chromosomes, Mutations

irregularities

in

chromosomal

env-zlope)

=

3.

Mongolism

 

4.

Somatic Alterations (changes in cell not involving nucleus or chromosomes, cellular transformation)

 

5.

Neoplastic Diseases (e.g*, tumors)

 

P. Pearl Chain Effect (Intracellular orientation of subcellular part cles,

 
 

and orientation

of cellular

and other

(non-biologlc)

particles)

Also, orientation of animals, birds, and fish in electromagnetic

 

fields

 

Q.

Miscellaneous

Effects

1.

Sparking

between dental

fillings

 

2.

Peculiar metallic

taste

in

mouth

3.

Changes

in

Optical

Activity of

Colloidal

Solutions

4.

Treatment for

Syphilis, Poliomyelitis,

Skin

Diseases

 

5.

Loss of flair

 

6.

Brittleness

of flair

7. Sensations of Buzzing Vibrations, Pulsations, and Ticklinp About

 
 

the Head and

Ears

 
 

8.

Copious Perspiration,

Salivation,

and Protrusion

of Tonpue

9.

Changes

in

the Operation

of

Implanted

Cardiac

Pacemakers

 

10.

Changes

in

Circadian

PMythms

 
 

I

I

 

II

I