Types of modes

Transverse modes are classified into different types: TE modes (Transverse Electric) no electric field in the direction of propagation. TM modes (Transverse Magnetic) no magnetic field in the direction of propagation. TEM modes (Transverse ElectroMagnetic) neither electric nor magnetic field in the direction of propagation. Hybrid modes nonzero electric and magnetic fields in the direction of propagation. Some authors use an alternate notation; H modes have a magnetic field component in the direction of propagation. H modes are equivalent to TE modes. E modes have an electric field component in the direction of propagations. E modes are equivalent to TM modes. In rectangular waveguides, rectangular mode numbers are designated by two suffix numbers attached to the mode type, such as TEmn, where m is the number of half-wavelengths across the width of the waveguide and n is the number of half-wavelengths across the height of the waveguide. In circular waveguides, circular modes exist and here m is the number of halfwavelengths along a half-circumference and n is the number of halfwavelengths along a radius.[2] Modes of hollow metallic waveguides filled with a homogeneous, isotropic material are TE or TM. Light travelling in an optical fiber or other dielectric waveguide forms hybrid-type modes. The fiber modes are usually referred to as LP (linear polarization) modes, which refers to a scalar approximation for the field solution, treating it as if it contains only one transverse field component (this is accurate because of the low refractive index contrast in typical fibers, the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) type.[3] Optical resonators exhibit linearly polarized TEM modes. [edit]Laser modes

The overall size of the mode is determined by the Gaussian beam radius w. In many lasers. The electric field pattern at a point (x.φ (in polar coordinates) from the centre of the mode is given by: where ρ = 2r2/w2. w is the spot size of the mode corresponding to the Gaussian beam radius. and Gouy phase shift as given for a Gaussian beam. With p=l=0. Modes with increasing p show concentric rings of intensity.y. respectively.z) for a beam propagating along the z-axis is given by[4] where . .2. rotated 360°/4i with respect to one another. These modes are designated TEMmn with m and n being the horizontal and vertical orders of the pattern. transverse modes with rectangular symmetry are formed. The TEM0i* mode. and this may increase or decrease with the propagation of the beam. The corresponding intensity pattern is . spot size. radius of curvature. Higher order modes are relatively larger compared to the TEM00 mode. In these lasers. and has a constant phase across the mode.3). or fundamental transverse mode of the laser resonator and has the same form as a Gaussian beam. and is the kth physicist's Hermite polynomial. . is a normalization constant. the so-called doughnut mode. the symmetry of the optical resonator is restricted by polarizing elements such as Brewster's angle windows. The pattern has a single lobe. and modes with increasing l show angularly distributed lobes.Cylindrical transverse mode patterns TEM(pl) In a laser with cylindrical symmetry. the transverse mode patterns are described by a combination of a Gaussian beam profile with a Laguerre polynomial. and Lpl is the associated Laguerre polynomial of order p and index l. The modes are denoted TEMpl where p and l are integers labeling the radial and angular mode orders. and are the waist. and thus the fundamental Gaussian mode of a laser may be selected by placing an appropriately sized aperture in the laser cavity. the TEM00 mode is the lowest order. The intensity at a point r. is a special case consisting of a superposition of two TEM0i modes (i=1. In general there are 2l(p+1) spots in the mode pattern (except for l=0). however the modes preserve their general shape during propagation.

These simplifications of complex field distributions ease the signal processing requirements of fiber-optic communication systems. Because these modes change over time according to a simple set of rules. The overall intensity profile of a laser's output may be made up from the superposition of any of the allowed transverse modes of the laser's cavity.[5] Decomposition of field distributions into modes is useful because a large number of field amplitudes readings can be simplified into a much smaller number of mode amplitudes. higher-order modes have a larger spatial extent than the 00 mode. To determine the number of modes in a step-index fiber.[6] . is the fiber's core radius. it is also possible to anticipate future behavior of the field distribution. Fiber with a V-parameter of less than 2.405 only supports the fundamental mode (a hybrid mode). and is therefore a single-mode fiber whereas fiber with a higher V-parameter has multiple modes. the V number needs to be determined: where is the wavenumber. Modes with increasing m and n show lobes appearing in the horizontal and vertical directions.Rectangular transverse mode patterns TEM(mn) The TEM00 mode corresponds to exactly the same fundamental mode as in the cylindrical geometry. though often it is desirable to operate only on the fundamental mode. Mode volume. [edit]Modes in an optical fiber See also: Equilibrium mode distribution. respectively. The phase of each lobe of a TEMmn is offset by π radians with respect to its horizontal or vertical neighbours. and and are the refractive indices of the core and cladding. with in general (m + 1)(n + 1) lobes present in the pattern. Mode scrambler. This is equivalent to the polarization of each lobe being flipped in direction. and Cladding mode The number of modes in an optical fiber distinguishes multi-mode optical fiber from single-mode optical fiber. As before.

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