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A Short History of Air Pollution William F. Hunt, Jr. Introduction Air Pollution has been around a long time.

Roman philosopher, Seneca, wrote of the heavy air of Rome in 61 AD. Edward I of England banned the burning of sea coal in craftsmans furnaces be prohibited because of foul smelling fumes, 1306. Elizabeth I of England banned the burning of coal while Parliament was in session.

Air Pollution Episodes Meuse Valley (Belgium) - 1930 Donora, PA - 1948 Poza Rica (Mexico) - 1950 London - 1952 New York - 1953 to 1966 Bhopal (India) - 1984 Some Systems of the Human Body Effected Respiratory Cardiovascular Skin and eyes Other Examples of Health Effects on Respiratory System Bronchitis (acute and chronic) Pulmonary emphysema Lung cancer pneumoconiosis cough chest pain Examples of Health Effects from Air Toxics Cancer Respiratory irritation. Reproductive toxicity Developmental effects Pulmonary toxicity Liver toxicity Changes in Society and the Economy Population growth Industrialization Growth and distribution of wealth Changing social attitudes Environmental activism Local Control Initiatives 1661 - London, smoke control

1880s - Chicago and Cincinnati, municipal regulation of smoke emissions 1940s - Pittsburgh, public protest against smoke; changes in fuels, combustion practices 1980s - Denver, Metropolitan Air Quality Council State Control Initiatives 1940s - California and LA County study causes and effects of smog 1952 - Oregon: first state air pollution control agency 1980s - growth of state air toxic programs 1990s Regional Approaches NOx SIP Call Federal Research and studies Need for National perspective - pollution respects no State borders USEPA established in 1970 Major Legislative Landmarks Air Pollution Control Act - 1955 Clean Air Act - 1963 Air Quality Act -1967 Clean Air Act - 1970 Amendments to CAA - 1977 Amendments to CAA - 1990 Clean Air Act of 1970 USEPA Air Quality Management NAAQS SIPs NESHAP/NSPS Citizen Lawsuits Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 Nonattainment PSD Strengthened mobile source provisions Visibility/Stratospheric Ozone Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Major change in approach to attainment/nonattainment Overhaul of hazardous air pollutants Market based incentives Enhanced ozone monitoring - PAMS Criteria Pollutants Regulated under NAAQS Ubiquitous Health-based standards Standards apply to all States equally

SIPs Criteria Pollutants Particulate Matter Lead Sulfur Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Nitrogen Dioxide Ozone (ground level) Hazardous Air Pollutants Any of 189 chemicals and compound groups listed in CAAA of 1990 as hazardous air pollutants List can be revised as new substances are found Some Hazardous Air Pollutants Asbestos Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Chlordane Chloroform Formaldehyde Environmental Effects of Air Pollution Ecosystem effects Property damage Quality-of-life effects Global climate change

Ecosystem Effects Acidification of lakes and stream Wildlife Aquatic life Population of endangered species Vegetation Damage (forests, crops, ornamental plants) Other natural resource damage Property Damage Acid rain: damaged buildings, ornamental plants, etc. Ozone: causes cracking of rubber, nylon, polymer plastics, etc. Particulate matter: causes soiling Sulfur dioxide: causes deterioration of metal and stone

Quality-of-Life Effects Reduced visibility - acid rain and smog Reduced enjoyment of outdoors Added work - cleaning of soiled property Detrimental economic effects - damaged cash crops Visibility Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments Network (IMPROVE) Visibility Trends Global Climate Change Global Temperature Changes, 1880-2000 Global mean surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century. UN Reports from theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Temperature Reconstruction Historical Records Tree Rings (yr/season) Lake Sediments (yr) Corals (yr) Ice Cores (yr) Pollen (20 yrs) Others (100-500 yrs) UN Reports from theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2001 UN Report from the IPCC(Wegman Review for U.S. House Committee on Energy & Commerce) Mann et al. misused statistical methods. Problem with Peer Review Process. Researchers not interacting with statistical community. Authors of policy-related science assessments should not assess their own work. Should involve interdisciplinary teams.

Air Emissions Trends - Continued Progress Through 2005 Modeling Uncertainty Modeling Uncertainty - Fay - 8-18-08 Modeling Uncertainty - GUSTAV 8/26/08