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ABSTRACT

Power system fault analysis is the process of determining the bus voltages and line currents during the occurrence of various types of faults. Faults on power systems can be divided into three-phase balanced faults and unbalanced faults. Three types of unbalanced fault occurrence on power system transmission lines are single line to ground faults, line to line faults, and double line to ground faults. Fault studies are used to select and set the proper protective devices and switchgears. The determination of the bus voltages and line currents is very important in the fault analysis of power system. The process consists of various methods of mathematical calculation which is difficult to perform by hand. The calculation can be easily done by computer which is generated by a program developed using MATLAB. GUI (Graphical User Interface) will be provided with the programs as they are the components of the toolbox. This user friendly toolbox will assist user which among electrical engineering student or trainee engineer to perform the fault analysis of power system.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

This project is focusing on the development of a toolbox for power system fault analysis using MATLAB. Power system fault analysis is the process of determining the magnitude of voltages and line currents during the occurrence of various types of faults. The magnitude of these currents depends on the internal impedance of the generators plus the impedance of the intervening circuit [2]. It can be of the order of tens of thousand of amperes [2]. Faults on power systems can be divided into three-phase balanced faults and unbalanced faults. Three types of unbalanced fault occurrence on power system transmission lines are single line-to-ground faults, line-to-line faults, and double line-to-ground faults. The magnitude of the fault current must be accurately calculated in order that mechanical and thermal stresses on equipment may be estimated [2]. Fault studies are used to select and set the proper protective devices and switchgears [4].

The determination of the bus voltages and line currents is very important in the fault analysis of power system. The process consists of various methods of mathematical calculation which includes loads of formula and matrix approach to determine the magnitude of the voltage and current. The calculation may form a large rows and columns of matrix depending on the number of busses. The calculation is possible when dealing with small number of busses. However it is difficult to perform

2 by hand when dealing with large number of busses. We will discuss the method of analysis in the methodology.

Hence, the development of this project will ease user to perform the calculations of fault analysis despite encountering large number of buses. The calculation can be easily done by computer which is generated by a program developed using MATLAB. The program will simulate the input data keyed in by the user. Graphical User Interface (GUI) will be provided with the programs. The program and the GUI will be packed in a software package performing the fault analysis study and simulation as they are the components of the toolbox which will be developed for the training and educational of power system fault analysis. The toolbox will be user-friendly and will assist the consumer whom does not have any programming background.

1.2

Objectives of Project

The objective of this project is to study the common fault types which are balance and unbalance fault of the transmission line in the power system. Secondly is to perform the analysis and obtain the results from simulation on those types of fault using MATLAB. Lastly is to develop a toolbox for power system fault analysis for educational and training purposes.

1.3

Scopes of Project

The scope of the project is to build a software package to assist user to perform the fault analysis calculations. The targeted user is among trainee engineer and power system students which have less experience in computer programming or C language. In order to achieve the objectives of the project, some command in MATLAB program

3 should be studied and understand so that the software package would operate as desired. Moreover, MATLAB GUIDE (GUI part in MATLAB) should be mastered so that user friendly software can be developed.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Fault Analysis

Short circuit currents flow when a fault occurs in power system. The magnitude of these current can be of the order of tens of thousands of amperes, and consequently, the magnitude of the fault current must be accurately calculated in order that mechanical and thermal stresses on equipment may be estimated [2]. The types of fault occur in power system are; balanced three-phase fault and unbalanced fault which are single line to ground, line-to-line fault, and double-line to ground fault.

2.2

Types of Faults

In the transmission line, the common types of fault occurrence are [9]: i. Balanced three-phase fault ii. Single line-to-ground fault iii. Line-to-line fault iv. Double line-to-ground fault Figure 2.1 shows a graphical view of fault respectively.

ii

iii

iv

In theory, solving transmission lines fault problems requires a circuit analysis approach and mathematical skills as shown in the next Sections. Terms like Thevenin theorem, mesh analysis, nodal analysis or any other method learnt in the basic circuit analysis should be considered while mathematical skills required for forming a Bus Impedance Matrix (Zbus) in order to put them in matrix pattern. In general, the analysis of any fault condition is performed in the following order [3]: i. Represent the given power system by its positive, negative and zero-sequence networks (the zero-sequence network is omitted for faults without earth, and both the negative and zero-sequence networks are omitted for the balanced three phase fault condition). This representation requires the calculation of per unit (p.u.) impedances for generators, transformers, lines, cables and other elements of the power system. ii. Reduce each of the sequence networks to its simplest form. The equivalent positive, negative and zero-sequence networks are represented as a series and series-parallel combinations of the p.u. impedances. These are replaced by the single equivalent impedance for each sequence network. It may also involve the use of the delta-star or star-delta transformations.

6 iii. Use the appropriate symmetrical-component equations to find the phase sequence components of the current in fault under the particular short-circuit condition. iv. Determine the required p.u. phase-current values at the point of fault. v. Finally, calculate the actual values of the phase-currents by multiplying obtained p.u. values by the base current at the point of fault. The procedure outlined above provides a complete analysis of the given power system for the specified fault condition and can be easily implemented in computer aided tutorials [3].

2.2.1

This type of fault is defined as the simultaneous short circuit across all three phases. It is the most infrequent fault but the most severe type of fault encountered because the network is balanced, it is solved on per-phase basis. The two phases carry identical currents except for the phase shift [4]. Balanced three phase fault is also called as symmetric fault [6]. The fault network can be solved by the Thevenins method. The procedure is shown in the example below [4]. Figure 2.2 shows one line diagram of a simple three-bus power system and a balanced three phase fault with fault impedance Zf occurs at bus 3.

XG1

XG2

XT1

X12

XT2

X13

X23

The fault is simulated by switching on the impedance Zf at bus 3 as shown in Figure 2.2(a). Thevenins theorem stated that the changes in the network caused by the added branch (the fault impedance) shown in Figure 2.2(b) is equivalent to those caused to the added voltage V3 (0) with all other sources short-circuited as shown in Figure 2.2(c) [4].

X01

X12

X02

X01

X12

X02

X13

X23

X13

X23

Figure 2.2: (b) Impedance Network for Fault at Bus 3. (c) Thevenins Equivalent Network

Z33

zf

Figure 2.2(d): Thevenins Equivalent Network Simplified

From Figure 2.2(d), the fault current at bus 3 is [4]: (1) Another method of determining fault current is using the Zbus method [4][9]. Analyze the basic n-bus network to obtain the Bus Admittance Matrix (Ybus), from the line impedance. Consider impedance network from Figure 2.2 and fault at bus 3:

(2) (3) Thus, the fault current [4], (4) The bus voltage during fault [4], (5)

In the analysis, we need to represent the given power system by its positive, negative and zero-sequence networks as shown in Figure 2.2 (the zero-sequence network is omitted for faults without earth). This representation requires the calculation of per unit (p.u.) impedances for generators, transformers, lines, cables and other elements of the power system [3].

10 Suppose a line-to-ground fault occurs on phase a through Zf as shown in Figure 2.4. Assuming the generator is initially on no-load, the boundary conditions at the fault point are: (6) (7) Substituting for (6) and (7) are: , the symmetrical components of currents from equation

(8)

From (8) we find that: (9) Phase a voltage in terms of symmetrical components is: (10)

Substituting for

, we get:

(11)

Where get:

. Substituting for

, we

(12) Thus, the fault current: (13) Equation (13) can be expressed in the sequence in series as shown in Figure 2.5.

11

Figure 2.6: Three Phase Generators with Fault between Phase b and c

Figure 2.6 shows a three phase generator with fault through impedance Zf between phase b and c. By assuming the generator is initially on no-load, the boundary conditions at the fault point are:

12 (14) (15) (16) Substituting for are: , and , the symmetrical components of currents

(17)

From the equation (17), we find that: (18) (19) (20) From (19) and (20), we note that: (21) We know that,

(22)

(23)

Substituting for

and

, we get: (24)

Substituting for

Since

, solving for

results in:

13

(27)

(28) Equation (21) and (27) can be represented by connecting the positive and negativesequence networks as shown in Figure 2.7.

14

Figure 2.8: Three Phase Generators with Fault on Phase B and C through Impedance Zf to Ground

Figure 2.8 shows a three-phase generator with a fault on phase b and c through impedance

(29) (30)

and

Since

15

(34) Substituting for from (34) and for from (33) into (31), we get:

(35) Substituting for the symmetrical components of voltage from (23) into (35) and solving for , we get: (36) Also, substituting for the symmetrical components of voltage in (33), we obtain: (37) Substituting for and into (30) and solving for , we get: (38)

Finally, the fault current: (39) Equation (36) and (38) can be represented by connecting the positive sequence impedance in series with the parallel combination of the negative sequence and zero sequence networks as shown in Figure 2.9

16

2.3

A graphical user interface (GUI) is a pictorial interface to a program. A good GUI can make programs easier to use by providing them with a consistent appearance and with intuitive controls like pushbuttons, list boxes, sliders, menus, and so forth. The GUI should behave in an understandable and predictable manner, so that a user knows what to expect when he or she performs an action. For example, when a mouse click occurs on a pushbutton, the GUI should initiate the action described on the label of the button. This chapter introduces the basic elements of the MATLAB GUIs. The chapter does not contain a complete description of components or GUI features, but it does provide the basics required to create functional GUIs for your programs [7].

A graphical user interface provides the user with a familiar environment in which to work. This environment contains pushbuttons, toggle buttons, lists, menus, text boxes, and so forth, all of which are already familiar to the user, so that he or she can concentrate on using the application rather than on the mechanics involved in doing things. However, GUIs are harder for the programmer because a GUI-based program must be prepared for mouse clicks (or possibly keyboard input) for any GUI element at

17 any time. Such inputs are known as events, and a program that responds to events is said to be event driven [7].

Graphics objects are the basic drawing elements used by MATLAB to display data. Each instance of an object is associated with a unique identifier called a handle. Using this handle, you can manipulate the characteristics (called object properties) of an existing graphics object. You can also specify values for properties when you create a graphics object. These objects are organized into a hierarchy, as shown in Figure 2.10.

The hierarchical nature of Handle Graphics is based on the interdependencies of the various graphics objects. For example, to draw a line object, MATLAB needs an axes object to orient and provide a frame of reference to the line. The axes, in turn, need a figure window to display the axes and its child objects [12].

2.4

MATLAB GUIDE

GUIDE, the MATLAB Graphical User Interface development environment, provides a set of tools for creating graphical user interfaces (GUIs). These tools greatly simplify the process of designing and building GUIs. GUIDE tools are used to Layout the GUI.

18 Using the GUIDE Layout Editor, a GUI can easily lay out by clicking and dragging GUI components -- such as panels, buttons, text fields, sliders, menus, and etc into the layout area.

GUIDE automatically generates an M-file that controls how the GUI operates. The M-file initializes the GUI and contains a framework for all the GUI callbacks - the commands that are executed when a user clicks a GUI component. Using the M-file editor, the callbacks to the code can be added to perform the desired functions of the particular GUI [11].

2.5

Power system fault analysis software package that has already been developed by engineers and programmers are discussed in this section.

A software package to perform power system fault analysis using the Ybus and Zbus method along with the symmetrical method. Provision is also provided for various types of connection of transformers and grounding of generators [5]. The author used MATLAB to build the software package to perform the fault analysis.

Another software package is developed by CYME group to perform the power system analysis. The package is a complete set of power system analysis performing the power flow analysis, optimal dispatch, transient stability, and fault analysis.

CYMFAULT [1] is the Power System Analysis Framework analysis module dedicated to simulating fault conditions in three-phase electric power systems. Userfriendly data entry, a multitude of reports and flexibility in applying all industryaccepted standards are features that makes CYMFAULT an Indispensable tool for these very common and important system studies [1]. The window overview of the software

19 package is shown in Figure 2.11 below. CYMFAULT is one of the components which perform the fault analysis developed by CYME group.

Leonardo [3] is a based tutoring system used to support the education of power engineering students [3]. It provides a functionally interacting set of theory and problems, and supports student progress through monitoring and assessment [3]. Figure 2.12 shows the Leonardo Expert System Shell where it divides between user and developer. Figure 2.13 shows introduction layout of the program and Figure 2.14a, 2.14b and 2.14c shows the fault analysis example and a step by step solution respectively.

20

21

22

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) [8] is a comprehensive multi-paradigm prototyping and development that can be used to solve complex problems [8]. It is an approach for predicting fault in a large interconnected transmission system [8]. The balanced and unbalanced data will be used as the inputs and outputs of ANN. Figure 2.15 show the design methodology of the software.

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1

Introductions

This Chapter presents the methodology of this project. The methodology is divided to two parts, which is the simulation and analysis of fault in MATLAB (Engineering Project 1) and the development of the Fault Analysis program using MATLAB GUIDE (Engineering Project 2). The work flow is shown in Figure 3.1.

24

START Case Study Building MATLAB Program Identify Appropriate Command NO Testing OK? YES Simulation & Analysis NO Analysis OK? YES Start Building GUI NO Testing OK? YES Propose to Supervisor Report Submission & Presentation Figure 3.1: Work Flow of the Project Study & Learn GUI Study & Learn MATLAB

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