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5.111 Extra Problems for Exam I
Here are some extra problems that you can work as preparation for the first exam on Friday October 7th, 2011. Be sure that you have already studied the material before you attempt these problems. Approach each problem as an exam problem. Many of these problems are former exam problems. Remember that rephrasing the problem in your own words or drawing a sketch of the problem often helps crystallize the physical concept behind the problem. Once you understand the physical principle behind the problem, the equations necessary to work the problem will come to you easily. Remember, there are a limited number of physical principles being tested here. Don’t rely on a fixed, memorized procedure or memorized equation to solve a problem. You can’t always make a problem fit into the procedure or equation that you have memorized. You have to modify the procedure or the equation to fit the problem. Don’t modify the problem to fit the equations! Don’t deny yourself the opportunity to intellectually engage and mentally wrestle with these problems by looking at the solutions first. You won’t have this opportunity on the exam. Remember, you can’t learn to work a crossword problem by looking at the solutions! Also remember that looking at a map is a very different experience than actually driving the roads! 1. Photons of wavelength 315 nm or less are needed to eject electrons from a surface of electrically neutral cadmium. (a) What is the energy barrier that electrons must overcome to leave an uncharged piece of cadmium? (b) What is the maximum kinetic energy of electrons ejected from a piece of cadmium by photons of wavelength 2.00 × 102 nm? (c) Suppose the electrons described in (b) were used in a diffraction experiment. What would be their wavelength? 2. Calculate the energy (in J) of a photon whose period is 5 x 10-15 s. 3. Calculate the probability of an electron in the 2p state of an H atom being at a distance between r = 4.0000ao and r = 4.0000ao + 0.0001ao. 4. The sodium D-line is actually a pair of closely spaced spectroscopic lines seen in the emission spectrum of sodium atoms. The wavelengths are centered at 589.3 nm. The intensity of this emission makes it the major source of light (and causes the yellow color) in the sodium arc light. If a sodium arc light is to produce 1.000 kilowatt (1000. J/s) of radiant energy at this wavelength, how many moles of sodium atoms must emit photons per second? 5. Potassium has a work function equal to 3.69 × 10-19 J. How many photoelectrons will be produced under each of the following illuminations? (a) Light with a wavelength of 538 nm delivers a total energy of 3.69 × 10-16 J. (b) Light with a wavelength of 500. nm delivers a total energy of 3.97 × 10-16 J. (c) Light with a wavelength of 600. nm delivers a total energy of 3.31 × 10-14 J. 6. Excited by electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of 827 Å, an electron is stripped from a ground state H atom. (a) How much kinetic energy does the liberated electron possess after ionization? (b) Calculate its velocity. (c) Calculate its wavelength.
f. and 8. respectively. In addition. name all of the wavefunctions that are consistent with these probability densities. and He are 3. The ionization energy of a certain one-electron atom is 3. H. Does the wavelength of the light increase. 9+ (a) Calculate the energy released in kJ/mole when an electron initially far from a F ion combines 8+ with it to make an F ion with the electron in the lowest orbital.00 × 102 kJ/mol. Without attempting a detailed calculation. What is the wavelength of the radiation emitted when an atom of X undergoes a transition from the lowest excited state to the ground state? 9. a 2p electron in oxygen or a 2p electron in neon? 20. and.111 Page 2 of 9 7. estimate the highest value and the lowest value for the first ionization energy for a ground state He atom. What is the change in its energy? 11. An atom of sodium has the electron configuration [Ne]6s1. 18. Calculate the ratio of the probabilities of finding the 1s electron of a H atom in a spherical shell of thickness dr at r=ao to that at r=1x10-4ao. a letter such as x. Calculate the shortest and the longest wavelength of light emitted when the H atom makes a transition from the n=6 state. the probability density associated with this wavefunction is zero for at least one non-zero value of r. What is the wavelength of the photon emitted when the electron goes from the 6p orbital to the 2s orbital? 12. 19. if appropriate. Consider Ne+9. only 1. Give reasons for the relative values of these ionization energies in terms of the expression for the binding energies of one electron atoms and electron-electron repulsion. F . the PROBABILITY DENSITY of a H atom wavefunction has a non-zero value. if atom X is in its lowest excited state. + 15. d. 2. p. Of the possible wavefunctions from n = 1 through n = 4 and from = 0 through = 1. 13. Explain how this is possible. Eventually.00x106 m/s before being captured by a hydrogen nucleus. 16. The name of the wavefunction should consist of the principal quantum number. Li . y or z. However. Which should experience the greater effective nuclear charge. The ionization energies of He.28 x 104 kJ/mol. An electron is hit by an x-ray photon and it consequently moves faster. + (c) How any different states (i. 2+ (b) Calculate the frequency in Hz for the n=6 to n=2 transition in Li . Consider the following ions: He .179 × 10-18. sets of quantum numbers) are possible for He with n=6? Specify the l and m values. The energy needed to ionize an atom of element X when it is in its most stable state is 5.719 × 10-18 J. 2 .Extra Problems for Exam 1 for 5. Give the number of radial and angular nodes for the following hydrogen orbitals: (a) 7f (b) 7s (c) 7p 17. a letter such as s.989 × 10-18 J. At r=0. 10. decrease or remain the same? What happens to the wavelength of the photon? 8.20 × 102 kJ/mol is needed to ionize it. it lands in the 1s orbital.e. How many protons are contained in the nucleus? + 2+ 8+ 14. A free electron moves with a velocity v = 1.
What is the maximum wavelength you could use? 31. c) Which has the largest EA? Explain. The most probable value of r for the 3p state is smaller than that for the 3s state. 28. F. O. b) Na. F . Ti from lowest to highest second ionization energy.3. Br. b) Write equations for these ionization processes seen in the photoelectron spectrum of B. 25020 and 32820 kJ/mole. a) Write equations for these ionization processes giving the electron configuration before and after the ionization. Cl. a) Define ionization energy and discuss why that for He should be so high. Arrange the following in order of size from the smallest to the largest: I . Br–. Co . Consider the following ions: He . Cl. Sr2+ 29. (a) Write the ionization processes responsible for each of these kinetic energies. K. 32. K and S. Why is the energy of the 3s state lower than that of the 3p state in a multielectron atom? 22. 24. Ti from lowest to highest ionization energy. O in order of increasing electronegativity. Do you expect the binding energies in Al+ to be weaker or stronger than in Mg? Explain. Electrons are emitted from the Mg atoms with the following kinetic energies (in units of 10-18 J): 598. Sc. a) Order the elements S.8. Cl . Br . Mn4+ c) CO2+. Ca. – 3 . Arrange the following seven atoms or ions in order of size: K. Ne. The photoelectron spectrum of Mg is measured using X-ray photons of energy 600.0 x 10-18 J. K. Ar. Cl. a) Which atom has the greatest electron affinity? b) Which atom has the lowest electron affinity? 30. arrange the following substances in order and explain your choice of order: a) Mg2+.4. there are atoms with a negative electron affinity. 25. b) Which has the highest IE1? Explain. The first ionization energy of helium is 2370 kJ mol–1. 23. Na+. Mg2+. Sc. Predict the larger ion in each of the following pairs. Li . (b) Calculate the binding energies for the filled orbital of Mg (c) Al+ is isoelectronic with Mg. 591.0. a) Which has the smallest radius? Explain. The five successive ionization energies of B (i. Ne in order of increasing ionization energy. b) Order the elements S. In the second period of the periodic table. b) Which element would you expect to have the highest second ionization energy? Why? c) Suppose that you wished to ionize some helium by shining electromagnetic radiation on it. Without consulting any tables. Ca2+ in order of increasing radius. the highest for any element. a) O–. Ca. Ti2+ d) Ca2+. Ar. Consider the atoms As. 391. Rb . 26. giving the electronic configuration before and after the ionization. Al. F . S2– b) Mn2+. + 25+ + 2+ 8+ – – – 27.111 Page 3 of 9 21. Give reasons for your answers. F. Rb. Identify two of these atoms and explain why the electron affinity is negative. 2420. 3660.e IE1 through IE5) are 800. c) H. Cl. Ar. 585.Extra Problems for Exam 1 for 5.
(1W = 1 J/s) a) Calculate the work function of Cs if the 1.03 13. Consider two photoelectric effect experiments on Cs metal.00 × 102 W blue lamp with a wavelength of 460.20 × 1013 randomly spaced quantum dots in this total surface area.) 36.6 nm for 1.00 × 102 W green lamp with a wavelength of 530.111 Page 4 of 9 33.3147.90 11. calculate the diameter of the quantum dots. There are 1.07 22.00 × 102 W green lamp with a wavelength of 530.6 nm produces electrons with an energy of 7. Suppose an atom has electrons with 9 different values of Zeff.66 a) Identify the atom. c) Calculate how many photons per s are being emitted by the 5. d) If the Cs metal is exposed to the 1.5 nm.00 × 102 W blue lamp with a wavelength of 460. One experiment uses a 1. but they do pass through the space between the dots. The α particles impinge on a total surface area of 5.73 6.19 22. 35. b) Calculate the wavelength of the electrons emitted in part (a).) 34. That is.01 × 10-20 J. Through the wonders of nanotechnology.93 22. as listed below. 37.Extra Problems for Exam 1 for 5. (No equations given. b) The value of m for one of the electrons with Zeff = 22. If the probability of backscattering of the α particles is 0.17 34. these quantum dots are held so that they do not abut against each other. What is its probability density at r=0? 4 .44 27.00 × 102 W green lamp with a wavelength of 530.00 × 102 W blue lamp with a wavelength of 460.17 is 2. (No equations given. and the distance between the dots is random.048 m directly in front of one of the speakers.5 nm to eject the same number of electrons. Calculate the lowest frequency sound wave that will result in a maximum intensity of the sound that you hear. Suppose that you carry out a Rutherford backscattering experiment on one monolayer of quantum dots of uniform diameter.6 nm and the other uses a 5. The α particles are impervious to the quantum dots.829 m from each other. (You can use the periodic table without electron configurations).0 min.0 × 10-3 m2.5 nm. calculate how long must the Cs metal be exposed to the 5. Recall that the speed of sound is 343 m/s. Show your work for full credit. You are positioned 3. they do not pass through the quantum dots. Two loudspeakers (shown below as ) broadcasting in phase at the same frequency are 1.
111 Page 5 of 9 c) How many angular nodes does the wavefunction for the electrons with Zeff = 22.Extra Problems for Exam 1 for 5. 37.92. Label your axes.17 have? d) Draw the radial probability distribution for the electron with Zeff = 11. The relative magnitudes of the extrema and nodes must be correct.) 5 .92. Indicate the origin on both the y and x axes. a) Write the ground state electron configuration of Ta+. You can use a periodic table (without electron configurations) for part (a). 2s. a smaller momentum or a larger momentum as the transition in C+5? (You may ⎞ Z2 R H ⎛ ⎜ 1 − 1 ⎟ ). You can use the inert gas configuration as a means to abbreviate the configuration.13. Does this transition in O+7 require a photon with the same momentum. d or f orbitals. refer to ν = 2 2⎟ h ⎜ ⎝ n i nf ⎠ c) The numerical values of a wavefunction for a one-electron atom at three values of r are Ψ(r = ao) = 0. 3s. Ψ(r = 2ao) = -0. Short answer. You do not have to list the electrons in the individual m states of the p. which of these wavefunctions are not consistent with this description? (No equations given. 4s and 5s wavefunctions. b) Consider the ni = 2 to nf = 3 transition in C+5 and in O+7. if there are multiple extrema and nodes. Of the 1s.25 and Ψ(r = 6ao) = 0.
ℓ = 2 n = 1. you should try to complete the following 5 problems in 50 minutes. n=4 n = 5. if it were correct you would write 6p but not 6px.Extra Problems for Exam 1 for 5. 1-electron atoms and wavefunctions Question 1: Radial probability distribution (RPD) functions. c.111 Page 6 of 9 After you have studied for the exam and worked on the above extra problems. RP D r b. and RPD3 are the same qualitatively as the RPD above. RPD1 r H atom Li2+ ion RPD2 r RPD3 r Assume the RPDs describe an electron in the same orbital (i. 6py. RPD2. Question 2: What is the maximum number of electrons in an atom that can have the following quantum numbers? a.g. RPD2. You don’t need to indicate all the orbitals with different m values. m = 1 n = 3. but they are compressed to smaller values or expanded to larger values of r. Based on its qualitative features.e. what H atom wavefunctions with n up to 6 could have the RPD function sketched below? If there are multiple wavefunctions. or RPD3 next to each of the above atomic species. You may use a periodic table without electron configurations. d. Na (neutral) atom in its normal (lowest-energy) electron configuration Match the RPD with the atomic species. RPD1. ms = 1/2 6 . indicate them all. a. e. 6pz. A. Indicate your answers by writing RPD1. without aid of notes or the text. with the same quantum numbers) for the following three species. b.
10 nm wavelength is directed at the same silicon crystal.800 keV are incident on a sample of H atoms.2 nm. (i) How many different values of the kinetic energy are measured? (ii) What are the values? (c) A beam of x-ray photons with wavelength 0. Write your answers next to or just below the wavefunctions (a). etc). θ.111 Page 7 of 9 Question 3:The relationship between spherical polar coordinates (r. A beam of electrons with the same 0. You can get partial credit by indicating the steps and the expressions you will use. in units of keV? (b) Visible photons of energy 10. You might consider saving the calculation until you finish the rest of the exam. θ. (i) How many different values of the kinetic energy are measured? (ii) What are the values. and spectroscopy Question 4: Calculate the final state (n quantum number) of a hydrogen atom that starts in the ground state. and (iii) for each H atom wavefunction (a).z) is shown here: Using this information. some in the 2s orbital. & (c).0 eV are incident on copper metal whose work function is 4. waves.Extra Problems for Exam 1 for 5. absorbs a photon of wavelength 97. and (c) below. and then subsequently emits a photon of wavelength 486. 3/ 2 1/ 2 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ r ⎞ − r 2a o ⎛ 1 ⎞ a. Electrons emerge from the different atoms in the sample with kinetic energies that are measured. 3pz. In each case. φ) and Cartesian (x. answer (i).1 nm. and some in the 2p orbital. (ii). ) Question 5: (a) X-ray photons of energy 0. (ii) For what values of r. (b). (b). B. (Note: This calculation involves several steps. ψ= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜2 − a ⎟e ⎝ 4π ⎠ 2 2 ⎝ ao ⎠ ⎝ o⎠ b. and φ are these nodes present? (iii) Label each wavefunction (for example. part of 7 .10 nm is directed at a very thin silicon crystal. Electrons emerge with kinetic energies that are measured. 2s. (i) Give the number of radial and angular nodes in each wavefunction. Light. You must show your work on this problem to get any credit.y. Some of the atoms have their electron in the 1s orbital.7 eV. 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ψ= ⎜ ⎟ 2 6 ⎝ ao ⎠ ψ= 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2 6 ⎝ ao ⎠ 3/ 2 r − r 2a o ⎛ 3 ⎞ e ⎜ ⎟ ao ⎝ 4π ⎠ r − r 2a o ⎛ 3 ⎞ e ⎜ ⎟ ao ⎝ 4π ⎠ 1/ 2 cos θ sin θ sin ϕ 3/ 2 1/ 2 c.
Br-. and part of the incident beam is diffracted to a first-order diffraction spot. Na Mg S Cl Ar Rb Sr Te I Xe 8 . Ge d. Many-electron atoms and periodic trends Question 6: (a) Arrange the following in terms of increasing atomic radius: i. electron configuration # unpaired spins a. indicate the number of unpaired electron spins. O2ii. Ag (d) Circle the one atom out of the ten below that has the lowest second ionization energy. and electrons emerge with kinetic energies that are measured. Mg2+. In addition to the electron configuration.111 Page 8 of 9 the incident beam is transmitted straight through the thin crystal without any deflection. Be b. Ti2+ c. You may follow the convention of indicating the noble gas shell preceding the valence electrons.800 keV are incident on a sample of carbon atoms in their normal (lowest energy) electron configuration. The atoms are displayed to show their relative positions in the periodic table. Ca2+ (b) X-ray photons of energy 0. O. The angle between the undeflected beam and the diffracted beam is (circle one): greater for the x-rays greater for the electrons the same for both C.Extra Problems for Exam 1 for 5. Ar. O-. that is. How many different values of the kinetic energy are found? (c) Write the electron configurations for the following atoms. the net number of spins in one direction that are not offset by spins in the opposite direction.
1799 x 10-18 J Z2R H En = − 2 n Z 2R E nl = − eff 2 H n 1W = 1 J s-1 for s wavefunction: RPD = 4πr2Ψ2dr d2-d1 = nλ nλ = a sinθ for emission…… Z2R H ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ v= .9979 x 108 m/s h = 6.66 x 10-27 kg p2 E= 2m h λ= p RH = 2.022 x 1023 me = 9.111 Equation sheet and periodic table for 5.2⎟ h ⎜ nf ⎠ ⎝ n2 i 9 .Extra Problems for Exam 1 for 5.6261 x 10-34 J s NA = 6.111: Page 9 of 9 c = 2.1094 x 10-31 kg ao = 5.2⎟ h ⎜ ni ⎠ ⎝ n2 f for absorption….. Z2R H ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ v= .292 x 10-11 m 1 amu = 1.
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