INTRODUCTION

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Synopsis
The autobiography of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, subtitled The Story of My Experiments With Truth, focuses on Gandhi's struggles for non-violence and civil disobedience through the acts of Satyagraha, literally meaning "holding firmly to truth." In each of the chapters, he talks about instances in life in which he had struggled with Truth, considering Truth being the ultimate source of energy. The question many might ask is: how can one who is so skinny, one who had to live with a stick throughout his struggles, get such energy? It was because of his experiments and the trials that Gandhi developed dietetics, non-violence, hydropathy, naturopathy etc. After finishing his studies in England, he came to South Africa where he changed from a typical lawyer to one who was remarkable. It's more surprising that with the ideologies he produced from studying law, eastern and western philosophy, he kept them all by his side and followed them to the extreme. He was conservative to his thoughts in any situation and in following them perhaps, to some, inflexibly so. One reason I become overwhelmed by Gandhi is his simplicity, wearing a single dhoti (an Indian clothing) and living solely by vegetables. Even when he was or his son was on his deathbed, he insisted that eating anything other than vegetables was wrong. He considered that through those necessities — in line with his teachings — it is possible that one can live freely. This means one can live without food or drink, without anger or desire, if they are to follow a simple code of behavior. This book thus teaches one in practical life on how to live without any of the material needs.

BODY:
Gandhi’s View of Violence / Nonviolence Gandhi saw violence pejoratively and also identified two formsof violence; Passive and Physical, as we saw earlier. The practice of passive violence is a daily affair, consciously and unconsciously. It is again the fuel that ignites the fire of physical violence. Gandhi understands violence from its Sanskrit root, “himsa”, meaning injury. In the midst of hyper violence, Gandhi teaches that the one who possess nonviolence is blessed. Blessed is the man who can perceive the law of ahimsa (nonviolence) in the midst of the raging fire of himsa all around him. We bow in reverence to such a man by his example. The more adverse the circumstances around him, the intenser grows his longing for deliverance from the bondage of flesh which is a vehicle of himsa…3Gandhi objects to violence because it perpetuates hatred. When it appears to do „good‟, the good is only temporary and cannot do any good in the long run. A true nonviolence activist accepts violence on himself without inflicting it on another. This is heroism, and will be discussed in another section. When Gandhi says that in the course of fighting for human rights, one should accept violence and self-suffering, he does not applaud cowardice. Cowardice for him is “the greatest violence, certainly, far greater than bloodshed and the like that generally go under the name of violence.” 4For Gandhi, perpetrators of violence (whom he referred to as criminals), are products of social disintegration. Gandhi feels that violence is not a natural tendency of humans. It is a learned experience. There is need for a perfect weapon to combat violence and this is nonviolence.Gandhi understood nonviolence from its Sanskrit root “Ahimsa”. Ahimsa is just translated to mean

nonviolence in English, but it implies more than just avoidance of physical violence. Ahimsa implies total nonviolence, no physical violence, and no passive violence. Gandhi translates Ahimsa as love. This is explained by Arun Gandhi in an interview thus; “He (Gandhi) said ahimsa means love. Because if you have love towards somebody, and you respect that person, then you are not going to do any harm to that person.” 5 For Gandhi, nonviolence is the greatest force at the disposal of mankind. It is mightier than any weapon of mass destruction. It is superior to brute force. It is a living force of power and no one has been or will ever be able to measure its limits or it‟s extend.Gandhi‟s nonviolence is the search for truth. Truth is the most fundamental aspect in Gandhi‟s Philosophy of nonviolence. His whole life has been “experiments of truth”. It was in this course of his pursuit of truth that Gandhi discovered nonviolence, which he further explained in his Autobiography thus “Ahimsa is the basis of the search for truth. I am realizing that this search is vain, unless it is founded on ahimsa as the basis.” 6 Truth and nonviolence are as old as the hills.For nonviolence to be strong and effective, it must begin with the mind, without which it will be nonviolence of the weak and cowardly. A coward is a person who lacks courage when facing a dangerous and unpleasant situation and tries to avoid it. A man cannot practice ahimsa and at the same time be a coward. True nonviolence is dissociated from fear. Gandhi feels that possession of arms is not only cowardice but also lack of fearlessness or courage. Gandhi stressed this when he says; “I can imagine a fully armed man to be at heart a coward. Possession of arms implies an element of fear, if not cowardice but true nonviolence is impossibility without the possession of unadulterated fearlessness.” 7 In the face of violence and injustice, Gandhi considers violent resistance preferable to cowardly submission. There is hope that a violent man may someday be nonviolent, but there is no room for a coward to develop fearlessness. As the world‟s pioneer in nonviolent theory and practice, Gandhi unequivocally stated that nonviolence contained a universal applicability. In his letter to Daniel Oliver in Hammana Lebanon on the 11th of 1937 Gandhi used these words: “ I have no message to give except this that there is no deliverance for any people on this earth or for all the people of this earth except through truth and nonviolence in every walk of life without any exceptions.”8 In this passage, Gandhi promises “deliverance” through nonviolence for oppressed peoples without exception. Speaking primarily with regards to nonviolence as a libratory philosophy in this passage, Gandhi emphasizes the power of nonviolence to emancipate spiritually and physically. It is a science and of its own can lead one to pure democracy.

Gandhi's Principles of Satyagraha
1. Love your enemy

I do not believe you need to love your enemy for satyagraha to succeed. However, you do need to act kindly and courteously towards your opponent, and you probably need to care about your opponent. Also, love would be a great way of naturally implementing the techniques of satyagraha (as long as your love for truth and morality is stronger). So loving your enemy is a good technique. Lacking that, you should try to understand your opponent well enough that you can be sympathatic to your opponent.
2. Always be truthful

The truth should be one of your strongest weapons. So if people find out you have not been truthful, your satyagraha is lost. You will not be believed. You will not be trusted. You will not win the hearts of your opponent or the spectators. And you cannot pretend to be working for an overarching goal of truth and morality. Even if your duplicity is never exposed, you will lose your own heart. For the same reasons, you should always be moral.
3. Never use violence

By a strict criterion of violence, this is not true. In Vietnam, the monks burned themselves to death. This is violence on one's self. Gandhi made the British people feel badly about themselves. Does that count as violence? Of course, gratuitous violence and unnecessary harm to the opponent are completely inappropriate. They undermine the basic principles of satyagraha. You win the hearts of spectators when you suffer and your opponent does not.
4. Try to win your enemy over to your side

This should be common to any battle. But you don't just argue your point of view, you also act virtuously, so as to make your opponent sympathetic to your efforts.
5. Don't be angry; suffer the anger of your opponent

Anger leads to the desire to hurt your opponent, which is against the goals of winning hearts. So you don't want to respond to your opponents anger with your own anger. Actually suffering the anger of your opponent draws attention to your cause, shows the strength of your commitment, builds sympathy from the spectators, and weakens your opponent's heart.
6. Wean your opponents from error with patience and sympathy

You do not put your opponents in a position where they have to defend their wrong view. That would be like saying you want to avoid a battle and then not giving your enemy a chance to retreat.
7. Establish the truth, not by infliction of suffering on your opponent, but by your own suffering.

Making your opponent suffer causes destruction, not awareness of the truth. Your own suffering signals your commitment to what you think is right, and it makes people think about what is right.
8. It appears to work slowly. In reality, there is no force in the world that is so direct or so swift in working.

The 10 years between Rosa Parks and the voting rights act probably went slowly for Martin Luther King. However, 10 years now seems remarkably quick.

Nonviolance:
In his trial speech made at Ahmadabad Sessions court in March 1922, Mahatma Gandhi put forward his philosophy with great eloquence, when he stated non-violence to be the 'first article of (his) faith' and the 'last article of (his) creed'. Non-violence had always been the founding principle of Gandhian spirituality, and his bedrock of his political philosophy. Gandhi's distrust of violence as a mode to assume political power and as a tool of revolution was ingrained in his world-view from the very early days of his political career. It is impossible to look at Gandhi's political activism in isolation. Springing deeply from his belief in truth, Gandhi's political goals were ultimately specific correlatives of higher commitments to humanity and world peace. Non- violence preaches world peace and brotherhood, whereas political movements naturally revel in polemics of difference and anatagonism. Gandhi's greatness lies in bringing together these two apparently combative and incongruous ideas and putting them on a common platform, where they do not subtract, but support each other. Gandhi's significance in the world political scenario is two-fold. First, he retrieved non-violence as a powerful political tool, and secondly, he was the one of the chief promulgators of the theory that political goal is ultimately a manifestation of a higher spiritual and humanitarian goal, culminating in world peace. For Gandhi, the means were as important as the end, and there could be only one means - that of non-violence.

Life
Mahatma Gandhi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Gandhi" redirects here. For other uses, see Gandhi (disambiguation).

Mahatma Gandhi

2483°E Nationality Indian Other names Mahatma Gandhi. Samaldas College. Bapu. University College. Gandhiji Ethnicity Indo-Aryan (Gujarati) Alma mater Alfred High School.Born Mohandas K. Delhi. pacifism . Rajkot. London (UCL) Known for Prominent figure of Indian independence movement. propounding the philosophy ofSatyagraha and Ahimsa advocating non-violence.6415°N 77. Gandhi 2 October 1869 Porbandar. 28. Kathiawar Agency.British Indian Empire[1] Died 30 January 1948 (aged 78) New Delhi. Dominion of India Cause of death Assassination by shooting Resting place Cremated at Rajghat. Bhavnagar.

with Jain influences Spouse(s) Kasturba Gandhi Children Harilal Manilal Ramdas Devdas Parents Putlibai Gandhi (Mother) Karamchand Gandhi (Father) Signature Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (pronounced mo nd s k r mt nd nd i] ( listen). and later in demanding the British to immediately Quit India in 1942. Gandhi sought to practice nonviolence and truth in all situations. civil rights and freedom across the world. Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence. and trained in law in London. His chief political . and advocated that others do the same. was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. A lifelong opponent of "communalism" (i. He was imprisoned for that and for numerous other political offenses over the years. increasing economic self-reliance. during World War II. and above all for achieving Swaraj—the independence of India from British domination. building religious and ethnic amity. Gandhi became famous by fighting for the civil rights of Muslim and Hindu Indians in South Africa. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921. expanding women's rights. using new techniques of non-violent civil disobedience that he developed. woven with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha. Gandhi led Indians in protesting the national salt tax with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930. He became a leader of Muslims protesting the declining status of the Caliphate. ending untouchability. he set about organising peasants to protest excessive land-taxes. 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948). He saw the villages as the core of the true India and promoted self-sufficiency. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl. basing politics on religion) he reached out widely to all religious groups. commonly known asMahatma Gandhi. Returning to India in 1915. Employing non-violent civil disobedience.[2][3] The son of a senior government official.e. Gandhi was born and raised in a Hindu Bania[4] community in coastal Gujarat. Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty. he did not support the industrialization programs of his disciple Jawaharlal Nehru.Religion Hinduism.

Asked to give a message to the people.2 Gandhi as folk hero 4. 2 October.[5] who ridiculed him as a "half-naked fakir.2 Champaran and Kheda 4.1 Ashes 6 Principles. Gandhi's philosophy was not theoretical but one of pragmatism.9 Partition and independence.5 Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)    o o o o  4. In his last year.3 Khilafat movement 4.5. and undertook long fasts as means of both self-purification and political mobilization. He is known in India as the Father of the Nation.1 Women 4.5.4 Non-cooperation 4.7 Congress politics 4. unhappy at the partition of India. The honorific Mahatma ("Great Soul") was applied to him by 1914.8 World War II and Quit India 4. 30 January is observed as Martyrs' Day in India."[6] He was a dedicated vegetarian. Hindus and Sikhs that raged in the border area between India and Pakistan. he would respond.1 Role in World War I 4."[9] Contents [hide]    1 Early life and background 2 English barrister 3 Civil rights movement in South Africa (1893–1914) o  3. is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti. that is. practices and beliefs o o 6.[7] In India he was also called Bapu ("Father"). 1947 5 Assassination o  5. and world-wide as the International Day of Non-Violence.1 Influences 6.enemy in Britain was Winston Churchill. practicing his principles in real time.3 Negotiations 4.[8] his birthday. Gandhi worked to stop the carnage between Muslims. anational holiday. He was assassinated on 30 January 1948 by Nathuram Godse who thought Gandhi was too sympathetic to India's Muslims.1 Gandhi and the Africans 4 Struggle for Indian Independence (1915–47) o o o o o 4.2 Tolstoy . "My life is my message.5.6 Untouchables 4.

4.8 Nai Talim.10 Gandhian economics 7 Literary works 8 Legacy and depictions in popular culture o o o o o o    8.9 Swaraj.4.4 Journal articles 11.4 Nonviolence   o o o o o o   6.3 Truth and Satyagraha 6.1 Muslims 6.7 Celibacy 6.2 Jews 6.5 Vegetarianism and Food 6.2 Primary sources 11.1 Followers and international influence 8.3 Awards 8.1 Books 11. Basic Education 6.6 Current impact within India 9 See also 10 Citations 11 References o o o o o  11.3 Web sites 11.4 World Farm Animals' Day 8.6 Fasting 6.5 Film and literature 8.2 Global holidays 8.o o 6.5 News reports 12 External links Early life and background . Self-Rule 6.

eating sweets and playing with relatives. In his autobiography. the couple's first child was born. the adolescent bride was to spend much time at her parents' house. especially the stories of Shravana and king Harishchandra. 1876 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi[10] was born on 2 October 1869[1] in Porbandar. had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood. who came from the Pranami Vaishnava community. when Gandhi was 15. but survived only a few days. as was prevailing tradition.[19] In 1885.[15][16] In May 1883. c. had also died earlier that year." Gandhi's early self-identification with truth and love as supreme values is traceable to these epic characters.[11]He was born in his ancestral home.[14] The Indian classics. he once said. "As we didn't know much about marriage. Gandhi's father." However. he admits that they left an indelible impression on his mind. according to the custom of the region.[18] Recalling the day of their marriage. and affectionately to "Ba") in an arranged child marriage. Karamchand Gandhi (1822–1885). and away from her husband.[12] His father.Gandhi in his earliest known photo. Putlibai. the 13-year-old Mohandas was married to 14-year-old Kasturbai Makhanji (her first name was usually shortened to "Kasturba". for us it meant only wearing new clothes. now known as Kirti Mandir. aged 7. British India. a small princely salute state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India. was Karamchand's fourth wife. the first three wives having apparently died in childbirth.[12][13] His grandfather was Uttamchand Gandhi. Karamchand Gandhi. he lost a year at school. a coastal town which was then part of the Bombay Presidency. served as the diwan (chief minister) of Porbander state. He writes: "It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number. also called Utta Gandhi.[12] His mother. who belonged to the Hindu Modh community.[20] .[17] In the process.

but he was forced to close it when he ran afoul of a British officer. and which was devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature.[23] His attempts at establishing a law practice in Bombay failed because he was too shy to speak up in court. then part of the British Empire. He returned to Rajkot to make a modest living drafting petitions for litigants.[23] and started a local Bayswater chapter. fair in Arithmetic and weak in Geography. Ramdas.[23] Not having shown interest in religion before. conduct very good." He passed the matriculation exam at Samaldas College in Bhavnagar. bad handwriting. He shone neither in the classroom nor on the playing field. to study law at University College London. His time in London was influenced by a vow he had made to his mother upon leaving India. Gandhi travelled to London. to observe the precepts of abstinence from meat and alcohol as well as of promiscuity. Gandhi was called to the bar in June 1891 and then left London for India. Gandhi's family wanted him to be a barrister. an Indian firm. where he learned that his mother had died while he was in London and that his family had kept the news from him. born in 1892. born in 1897.. and Devdas. to a post in the Colony of Natal. Gandhi remained a mediocre student. One of the terminal reports rated him as "good at English. was elected to its executive committee.[22] Gandhi tried to adopt "English" customs. Gujarat. Influenced by Henry Salt's writing. However. he accepted a year-long contract from Dada Abdulla & Co. with some difficulty.Mohandas and Kasturba had four more children. in the presence of a Jain monk.[21] English barrister Gandhi and his wife Kasturba (1902) In 1888.[17] At his middle school in Porbandar and high school in Rajkot. he became interested in religious thought. including taking dancing lessons. he could not appreciate the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and was frequently hungry until he found one of London's few vegetarian restaurants. born in 1900. all sons: Harilal. as it would increase the prospects of succeeding to his father's post. which had been founded in 1875 to further universal brotherhood. South Africa. born in 1888. England. where he studied Indian law and jurisprudence and to train as a barrister at the Inner Temple. he joined the Vegetarian Society.[14] . Manilal.[14] Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical Society.[14][23] In 1893. They encouraged Gandhi to join them in reading the Bhagavad Gita both in translation as well as in the original.

including being barred from several hotels.[25] He spent 21 years in South Africa. he was beaten by a driver for refusing to move to make room for a European passenger. After witnessing racism. He helped found .[28] He suffered other hardships on the journey as well. He was thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to move from the first-class. He realised he was out of contact with the enormous complexities of religious and cultural life in India. especially regarding religion.[30] Gandhi extended his original period of stay in South Africa to assist Indians in opposing a bill to deny them the right to vote. In another incident.Civil rights movement in South Africa (1893–1914) Gandhi was 24 when he arrived in South Africa[24] to work as a legal representative for the Muslim Indian Traders based in the city of Pretoria. Gandhi began to question his place in society and his people's standing in the British Empire. British Colonial Secretary. and by impoverished Hindu indentured laborers with very limited rights.prejudice and injustice against Indians in South Africa. who employed Gandhi as a lawyer. his campaign was successful in drawing attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa. the magistrate of a Durban court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban.[26] In South Africa. ethics and political leadership skills. He believed he could bridge historic differences.[27] Travelling farther on by stagecoach. where he developed his political views.[25] Though unable to halt the bill's passage. Purported photograph of Gandhi in South Africa (1895) Indians in South Africa were led by wealthy Muslims. He protested and was allowed on first class the next day. asking him to reconsider his position on this bill. In regards to this bill Gandhi sent out a memorial to Joseph Chamberlain. taking a lifetime view that "Indianness" transcended religion and caste. Gandhi considered them all to be Indians. Gandhi faced the discrimination directed at all coloured people. which he refused to do. and he took that belief back to India where he tried to implement it. and believed he understood India by getting to know and leading Indians in South Africa. The South African experience exposed handicaps to Gandhi that he had not known about.[29] These events were a turning point in Gandhi's life and shaped his social activism and awakened him to social injustice.

a mob of white settlers attacked him[31] and he escaped only through the efforts of the wife of the police superintendent. . when Gandhi landed in Durban. Gandhi's ideas took shape. Gandhi and the Africans Gandhi in South Africa (1909) Gandhi focused his attention on Indians while in South Africa and opposed the idea that Indians should be treated at the same level as native Africans while in South Africa.[32] He urged Indians to defy the new law and to suffer the punishments for doing so. flogged. for burning their registration cards or engaging in other forms of non-violent resistance. he moulded the Indian community of South Africa into a unified political force. Gandhi began to change his thinking and apparently increased his interest in politics. or non-violent protest. refusing to register. stating it was one of his principles not to seek redress for a personal wrong in a court of law. but the public outcry over the harsh treatment of peaceful Indian protesters by the South African government forced South African leader Jan Christiaan Smuts.[14][27] and through this organisation.[14] In 1906. Bhana and Vahed argue that Gandhi.[33][34][35] He also stated that he believed "that the white race of South Africa should be the predominating race. the Transvaal government promulgated a new Act compelling registration of the colony's Indian population. to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi. shared racial notions prevalent of the times and that his experiences in jail sensitized him to the plight of blacks. himself a philosopher.the Natal Indian Congress in 1894. In January 1897. and the concept of Satyagraha matured during this struggle.[37] White rule enforced strict segregation among all races and generated conflict between these communities. or shot for striking."[36] After several treatments he received from Whites in South Africa. and during the ensuing seven-year struggle. thousands of Indians were jailed. refused to press charges against any member of the mob. The community adopted this plan. Gandhi adopted his still evolving methodology of Satyagraha (devotion to the truth). The government successfully repressed the Indian protesters. for the first time. however. At a mass protest meeting held in Johannesburg on 11 September that year. He. at first.

with India and Pakistan each achieving independence on terms Gandhi disapproved. with Congress taking a role in provincial government in the late 1930s. Gandhi encouraged the British to recruit Indians. theorist and organizer. In August 1947 the British partitioned the land. politics and the Indian people primarily by Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Gandhi was proclaimed a national hero with numerous monuments. against Gandhi's strong opposition.[40] The experience taught him it was hopeless to directly challenge the overwhelming military power of the British army—he decided it could only be resisted in non-violent fashion by the pure of heart. The British did not recognize that and more negotiations ensued. They were trained and medically certified to serve on the front lines. He wanted to disprove the British idea that Hindus were not fit for "manly" activities involving danger and exertion. He brought an international reputation as a leading Indian nationalist. Meanwhile the Muslim League did cooperate with Britain and moved. Tensions escalated until Gandhi demanded immediate independence in 1942 and the British responded by imprisoning him and tens of thousands of Congress leaders for the duration.[42] Struggle for Indian Independence (1915–47) See also: Indian independence movement In 1915.During the Boer War Gandhi volunteered in 1900 to form a group of ambulance drivers. This corps was commanded by Gandhi and operated for less than two months. General Redvers Buller mentioned the courage of the Indians in his dispatch. Gandhi and Congress withdrew their support of the Raj when the Viceroy declared war on Germany in September 1939 without consulting anyone.[39] He argued that Indians should support the war efforts in order to legitimise their claims to full citizenship. Gandhi and thirty seven other Indians received the War Medal. Gokhale was a key leader of the Congress Party best known for his restraint and moderation. to demands for a totally separate Muslim state of Pakistan.[38] In 1906. the British declared war against the Zulu Kingdom in Natal. Gandhi raised eleven hundred Indian volunteers.[39] The British accepted Gandhi's offer to let a detachment of 20 Indians volunteer as a stretcher-bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers. Gandhi was pleased when someone said that European ambulance corpsmen could not make the trip under the heat without food or water. Gandhi returned to India permanently. Gandhi took Gokhale's liberal approach based on British Whiggish traditions and transformed it to make it look wholly Indian. At Spion Kop Gandhi and his bearers had to carry wounded soldiers for miles to a field hospital because the terrain was too rough for the ambulances.[44] .[41] After the black majority came to power in South Africa. and his insistence on working inside the system. He joined the Indian National Congress and was introduced to Indian issues.[43] Gandhi took leadership of Congress in 1920 and began a steady escalation of demands (with intermittent compromises or pauses) until on 26 January 1930 the Indian National Congress declared the independence of India.

the ability to bear arms and to use them. [46] Gandhi agreed to actively recruit Indians for the war effort. In a June 1918 leaflet entitled "Appeal for Enlistment". at the time of the Kheda and Champaran Satyagrahas Gandhi's first major achievements came in 1918 with the Champaran and Kheda agitations of Bihar and Gujarat.. "Personally I have never been able to reconcile this with his own conduct in other respects. stipulate in a letter to the Viceroy's private secretary that he "personally will not kill or injure anybody. this time Gandhi attempted to recruit combatants.. during the latter part of World War I."[47] Champaran and Kheda Main article: Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha Gandhi in 1918."[49] Gandhi's war recruitment campaign brought into question his consistency on nonviolence as his friend Charlie Andrews confirms.Role in World War I See also: The role of India in World War I In April 1918. Gandhi wrote "To bring about such a state of things we should have the ability to defend ourselves. friend or foe."[50] Gandhi's private secretary also had acknowledged that "The question of the consistency between his creed of 'Ahimsa' (non-violence) and his recruiting campaign was raised not only then but has been discussed ever since. and it is one of the points where I have found myself in painful disagreement. The Champaran agitation pitted the local peasantry against their largely British landlords who were .[47] In contrast to the Zulu War of 1906 and the outbreak of World War I in 1914."[48] He did.[45] Perhaps to show his support for the Empire and help his case for India's independence. however. that is.If we want to learn the use of arms with the greatest possible despatch. it is our duty to enlist ourselves in the army. when he recruited volunteers for the Ambulance Corps. the Viceroy invited Gandhi to a War Conference in Delhi.

Unhappy with this. as Muslims feared for the safety of the holy places and the prestige of their religion. Pursuing a strategy of non-violent protest. A social boycott of mamlatdars and talatdars(revenue officials within the district) accompanied the agitation.[60] Gandhi always fought against "communalism". which had previously been unable to reach many Muslims. (Uttar Pradesh) alone. and were forced to sell their crops to the planters at a fixed price. For five months. Gandhi took the administration by surprise and won concessions from the authorities. a cash crop whose demand had been declining over two decades. but he could not reverse the rapid growth of communalism after 1922.[52] organising scores of supporters and fresh volunteers from the region. he soon became its most prominent spokesman and attracted a strong base of Muslim support with local chapters in all Muslim centers in India. the most notable being Vallabhbhai Patel. a worldwide protest by Muslims against the collapsing status of the Caliph. the peasantry appealed to Gandhi at his ashram in Ahmedabad. decided to broaden his base by increasing his appeal to Muslims.P. The Ottoman Empire had lost the World War and was dismembered.[54] Khilafat movement In 1919 Gandhi. the Government gave way on important provisions and relaxed the conditions of payment of revenue tax until the famine ended. Gandhi moved his headquarters to Nadiad. In Kheda. with his weak position in Congress. the administration refused but finally in end-May 1918. In 1920 Gandhi became a major leader in Congress.[61][62] At the leadership level. The opportunity came from the Khilafat movement. including 91 in U. the proportion of Muslims among delegates to Congress fell sharply. Vallabhbhai Patel represented the farmers in negotiations with the British. Deadly religious riots broke out in numerous cities. from 11% in 1921 to under 4% in 1923.[58][59] By the end of 1922 the Khilafat movement had collapsed.[53] Using non-cooperation as a technique.[57] His success made him India's first national leader with a multicultural base and facilitated his rise to power within Congress.[63] Non-cooperation Main article: Non-cooperation movement . Kheda was hit by floods and famine and the peasantry was demanding relief from taxes.[55] Although Gandhi did not originate the All-India Muslim Conference. which pitted Muslims against Hindus in politics. Gandhi initiated a signature campaign where peasants pledged non-payment of revenue even under the threat of confiscation of land. Gandhi worked hard to win public support for the agitation across the country.backed by the local administration. the leader of their religion.[56] which directed the movement in India. who suspended revenue collection and released all the prisoners. The peasantry was forced to grow Indigo.[51] In 1918.

non-violence and peaceful resistance as his "weapons" in the struggle against the British Raj. he even convinced the extreme faction of Muslims to support peaceful non-cooperation. "At this holy place. Gandhi began to focus on winning complete self-government and control of all Indian government institutions. His wide popularity among both Hindus and Muslims made his leadership possible. I declare. political independence. spiritual.[67] . after initial opposition in the party. maturing soon into Swaraj or complete individual. in the late 1920s With Congress now behind him in 1920. Many Britons celebrated the action as needed to prevent another violent uprising similar to the Rebellion of 1857.[65] After the massacre and subsequent violence. if you want to protect your 'Hindu Dharma'.Mahatma Gandhi spinning yarn. was accepted following Gandhi's emotional speech advocating his principle that all violence was evil and could not be justified. he spoke of the relevance of non-cooperation to Hindu Dharma.". Gandhi criticised both the actions of the British Raj and the retaliatory violence of Indians. Gandhi claimed to be a "highly orthodox Hindu" and in January 1921 during a speech at a temple in Vadtal.[64] The spark that ignited a national protest was overwhelming anger at the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (or Amritsar massacre) of hundreds of peaceful civilians by British troops in Punjab. non-cooperation is first as well as the last lesson you must learn up. Gandhi had the base to employ non-cooperation. an attitude that caused many Indian leaders to decide the Raj was controlled by their enemies.[66] During this period. He authored the resolution offering condolences to British civilian victims and condemning the riots which.

Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee. the Congress was reorganised with a new constitution. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women. was breaking down.[69] This was a strategy to inculcate discipline and dedication to weeding out the unwilling and ambitious and to include women in the movement at a time when many thought that such activities were not respectable activities for women. just as the movement reached its apex. Gandhi urged the people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts. in February 1922. Gandhi attempted to bridge these differences through many means. and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. and convinced that this would be the undoing of all his work. and to forsake British titles and honours. Under his leadership. increasing excitement and participation from all strata of Indian society. with the goal of Swaraj. to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement.[68] Gandhi even invented a small.[72] Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922. A hierarchy of committees was set up to improve discipline. tried for sedition. splitting into two factions. it ended abruptly as a result of a violent clash in the town of Chauri Chaura. opposing this move. Gandhi was persuaded to preside over the Congress session to be held in Belgaum. having served only 2 years. Fearing that the movement was about to take a turn towards violence. Gandhi's home in Gujarat In December 1921. He began his sentence on 18 March 1922. cooperation among Hindus and Muslims. but with limited success.[71] This was the third time that Gandhi had called off a major campaign. In his long political career. and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. portable spinning wheel that could be folded into the size of a small typewriter. especially British goods. transforming the party from an elite organisation to one of mass national appeal. to resign from government employment.[75] Salt Satyagraha (Salt March) Main article: Salt Satyagraha . Linked to this was his advocacy thatkhadi (homespun cloth) be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles. which had been strong at the height of the non-violence campaign. including a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924. Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National Congress. Furthermore. Uttar Pradesh.[73] Without Gandhi's unifying personality. He was released in February 1924 for an appendicitisoperation. rich or poor. Gandhi agreed to become president of the session on one condition: that Congressmen should take to wearing homespun khadi. this was the only time when he presided over a Congress session. the Indian National Congress began to splinter during his years in prison.[70] "Non-cooperation" enjoyed widespread appeal and success. Yet. Gandhi expanded his non-violence platform to include the swadeshi policy—the boycott of foreign-made goods.Sabarmati Ashram. In addition to boycotting British products. Gandhi called off the campaign of mass civil disobedience. one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures.[74] In this year.

child marriage. but also reduced his own call to a one year wait. as such. In the preceding year. The result was a boycott of the commission by Indian political parties. alcoholism.[79] Gandhi as folk hero .Original footage of Gandhi and his followers marching to Dandi in the Salt Satyagraha Gandhi stayed out of active politics and. He returned to the fore in 1928.[77] Women Gandhi strongly favoured the emancipation of women. the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon. and expanding initiatives against untouchability. and he went so far as to say that "the women have come to look upon me as one of themselves. Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea.[78] Sarma concludes that Gandhi's success in enlisting women in his campaigns. He focused instead on resolving the wedge between the Swaraj Party and the Indian National Congress. where he marched 388 kilometres (241 mi) from Ahmedabad to Dandi. Britain responded by imprisoning over 60.untouchability. instead of two. gave many women a new self-confidence and dignity in the mainstream of Indian public life. This was highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April.000 people. and the extreme oppression of Hindu widows. up to and including sati. Gandhi then launched a new Satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930. anti-untouchability campaign and the peasant movement. Gandhi had not only moderated the views of younger men like Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru. 26 January 1930 was celebrated as India's Independence Day by the Indian National Congress meeting in Lahore. On 31 December 1929. This campaign was one of his most successful at upsetting British hold on India. the limelight for most of the 1920s. including the salt tax campaign. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organisation.[76] The British did not respond. who sought a demand for immediate independence. He especially recruited women to participate in the salt tax campaigns and the boycott of foreign products. the flag of India was unfurled in Lahore." He opposed purdah. Gandhi pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-cooperation with complete independence for the country as its goal. ignorance and poverty. Gujarat to make salt himself. which did not include any Indian as its member.

Gandhi was again arrested. through the campaigning of the Dalit leader B. or even as a demigod. decided to negotiate with Gandhi. R. and in Congress-sponsored religious pageants and celebrations. because it focused on the Indian princes and Indian minorities rather than on a transfer of power. a strategy that succeeded in incorporating radical forces within the peasantry into the nonviolent resistance movement. known as the Communal Award. and the government tried and failed to negate his influence by completely isolating him from his followers. Bombay. in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement. The conference was a disappointment to Gandhi and the nationalists. Ambedkar. Also as a result of the pact.[82] The resulting public outcry successfully forced the government to adopt an equitable arrangement . Lord Irwin's successor. 7 April 1939 The government. taking a hard line against nationalism. represented by Lord Edward Irwin. Gandhi embarked on a six-day fast on 20 September 1932. Similar messianic imagery appeared in popular songs and poems. In thousands of villages plays were performed that presented Gandhi as the reincarnation of earlier Indian nationalist leaders. [80] Negotiations Mahadev Desai (left) reading out a letter to Gandhi from the viceroy at Birla House. In protest. began a new campaign of controlling and subduing the nationalist movement. Lord Willingdon. the government granted untouchables separate electorates under the new constitution.[81] Untouchables In 1932. The British Government agreed to free all political prisoners. while he was imprisoned at theYerwada Jail. The Gandhi–Irwin Pact was signed in March 1931. The result was that Gandhi became not only a folk hero but the Congress was widely seen in the villages as his sacred instrument. Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference in London as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. Pune. The plays built support among illiterate peasants steeped in traditional Hindu culture.Congress in the 1920s appealed to peasants by portraying Gandhi as a sort of messiah.

socialists. trade unionists. his popularity with Indians would cease to stifle the party's membership. and Gandhi often praised Ambedkar. Dr.(Poona Pact) through negotiations mediated by Palwankar Baloo. and those with pro-business convictions. with the Nehru presidency and the Lucknow session of the Congress. Ambedkar described him as "devious and untrustworthy". he did not restrain the Congress from adopting socialism as its goal.[72] Gandhi. [85] Gandhi and Ambedkar often clashed because Ambedkar sought to remove the Dalits out of the Hindu community. students. Ambedkar complained that Gandhi moved too slowly. Gandhi had a clash with Subhas Chandra Bose.[87][88] Congress politics In 1934 Gandhi resigned from Congress party membership. Gandhi had also refused to support the untouchables in 1924 –25 when they were campaigning for the right to pray in temples. while Gandhi tried to save Hinduism by exorcising untouchability. who had been elected president in 1938. and that privileged caste Indians played a paternalistic role. three attempts were made on Gandhi's life. including communists.[82] This was the start of a new campaign by Gandhi to improve the lives of the untouchables. whom he named Harijans. religious conservatives."[86] Guha adds that their work complemented each other.[93] World War II and Quit India Main article: Quit India Movement . but left the Congress when the All-India leaders resigned en masse in protest of his abandonment of the principles introduced by Gandhi. Guha noted in 2012 that. which actually varied. Pattabhi Sitaramayya.[89] Gandhi returned to active politics again in 1936. "Ideologues have carried these old rivalries into the present. with the demonization of Gandhi now common mong politici ns who presume to spe k in Ambedk r’s n me. Although Gandhi wanted a total focus on the task of winning independence and not speculation about India's future. He did not disagree with the party's position but felt that if he resigned. and that these various voices would get a chance to make themselves heard. and who had previously expressed a lack of faith in non-violence as a means of protest. Gandhi also wanted to avoid being a target for Raj propaganda by leading a party that had temporarily accepted political accommodation with the Raj. Because of Gandhi's actions. Gandhi began a 21-day fast of self-purification and launched a one-year campaign to help the Harijan movement.[83] On 8 May 1933. while Hindu traditionalists said Gandhi was a dangerous radical who rejected scripture.[84] This new campaign was not universally embraced within the Dalit community. Bose won a second term as Congress President. although born into the Vaishya caste. Ambedkar and his allies also felt Gandhi was undermining Dalit political rights. In the summer of 1934. as Ambedkar condemned Gandhi's use of the term Harijans as saying that Dalits were socially immature. against Gandhi's nominee.[91][92] Gandhi declared that Sitaramayya's defeat was his defeat. the children of God.[90] Despite Gandhi's opposition. despite the presence of Dalit activists such as Ambedkar. insisted that he was able to speak on behalf of Dalits.

saying that the "ordered anarchy" of "the present system of administration" was "worse than real anarchy.[95] Gandhi was criticised by some Congress party members and other Indian political groups. [94] After long deliberations. calling for the British to Quit India in a speech at Gowalia Tank Maidan. Some felt that not supporting Britain more in its struggle against Nazi Germany was unethical. All Congressmen resigned from office. although still committed in his efforts to "launch a non-violent movement". with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale."[97][98] He called on all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline via ahimsa.[99] . Gandhi clarified that the movement would not be stopped by individual acts of violence. Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. As the war progressed. but the Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war without consultation of the people's representatives. Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle. both pro-British and anti-British. Gandhi intensified his demand for independence. it continued to refuse to grant India Independence. This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive revolt aimed at securing the British exit from India.Gandhi and Nehru in 1942 Gandhi initially favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort when World War II broke out in 1939.[96] In 1942. Others felt that Gandhi's refusal for India to participate in the war was insufficient and more direct opposition should be taken. and Karo ya maro ("Do or die") in the cause of ultimate freedom. while Britain fought against Nazism.

He was released before the end of the war on 6 May 1944 because of his failing health and necessary surgery. but it had little control over events. [101][102] While the leaders of Congress languished in jail. and around 100. Britain's last Viceroy of India.[107] When Jinnah called for Direct . on the grounds that it fell short of a fully independent Pakistan. in 1943. 1947 As a rule. the Raj did not want him to die in prison and enrage the nation. Gandhi was opposed to the concept of partition as it contradicted his vision of religious unity.000 political prisoners were released.Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. six weeks later Gandhi suffered a severemalaria attack.[105] Concerning the partition of India to create Pakistan. At this point Gandhi called off the struggle. including the Congress's leadership. He came out of detention to an altered political scene—the Muslim League for example. His 50-year old secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack 6 days later and his wife Kasturba died after 18 months imprisonment on 22 February 1944. It was here that Gandhi suffered two terrible blows in his personal life.[103] At the end of the war. which a few years earlier had appeared marginal. the other parties supported the war and gained organizational strength. thereafter. while the Indian National Congress and Gandhi called for the British to quit India. Bombay.[104] Partition and independence.[106] Gandhi suggested an agreement which required the Congress and Muslim League to cooperate and attain independence under a provisional government. Underground publications flailed at the ruthless suppression of Congress. 1947 See also: Partition of India Gandhi with Louis Mountbatten. the British gave clear indications that power would be transferred to Indian hands. the question of partition could be resolved by a plebiscite in the districts with a Muslim majority. Gandhi met Jinnah in September 1944 in Bombay but Jinnah rejected. 1944 Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay by the British on 9 August 1942. the Muslim League passed a resolution for them to divide and quit. Gandhi was held for two years in theAga Khan Palace in Pune. his proposal of the right of Muslim provinces to opt out of substantial parts of the forthcoming political union. "now occupied the centre of the political stage"[100] and the topic of Jinnah's campaign for Pakistan was a major talking point.

be rs the epigr ph "Hē R m". and his own presence.[108] He made strong efforts to unite the Indian Hindus. Muslims. which may be translated as "Oh God". and that his own vision had long been clouded by the illusion that the struggle he led for India's freedom was a nonviolent one. is no more. Bapu as we called him. nevertheless. on 16 August 1946. These are widely believed to be Gandhi's last words after he was shot. Gandhi was infuriated and personally visited the most riot-prone areas to stop the massacres. the light has gone out of our lives.. and Sikhs against each other. was a Hindu nationalist with links to the extremist Hindu Mahasabha. Muslims.Action.[114] Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehruaddressed the nation through radio:[115] "Friends and comrades. On 30 January 1948. and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it. Our beloved leader. the father of the nation. there perhaps could have been much more bloodshed during the partition.[110] But for his teachings. and there is darkness everywhere. The assassin.Nathuram Godse. as we have . (Devanagari: ! or."[112] Assassination See also: Assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Raj Ghat. Jens Arup Seip.who realised too late that his closest comrades and disciples were more interested in power than principle.[111] Stanley Wolpert has argued.. though the veracity of this statement has been disputed. the efforts of his followers. Gandhi's memorial (or Samādhi) at Rāj Ghāt. In border areas some 10—12 million people moved from one side to another and upwards of a half million were killed in communal riots pitting Hindus. and Christians and struggled for the emancipation of the "untouchables" in Hindu society. Gandhi was shot while he was walking to a platform from which he was to address a prayer meeting. Perhaps I am wrong to say that.[109] On 14 and 15 August 1947 the Indian Independence Act was invoked. The "plan to carve up British India was never approved of or accepted by Gandhi. who held Gandhi guilty of favouring Pakistan and strongly opposed the doctrine of nonviolence. New Delhi. He Rām). we will not see him again. according to prominent Norwegian historian.[113] Godse and his co-conspirator were tried and executed in 1949. Delhi is a memorial to Mahatma Gandhi that marks the spot of his cremation.

The engine of the vehicle was not used. not only for me. whose chassis was dismantled overnight to allow a high-floor to be installed so that people could catch a glimpse of his body. The goal was to assert the power of the government and legitimize the Congress Party's control. where he was assassinated. Gandhi's body was transported on a weapons carrier. and the Khaksars.seen him for these many years.[121] Ashes By Hindu tradition the ashes were to be spread on a river. Gandhi's death and funeral linked the distant state with the Indian people and made more understood the need to suppress religious parties during the transition to independence for the Indian people.[118] While India mourned and communal (inter-religious) violence escalated. with some 200. Gandhi's ashes were poured into urns which were sent across India for memorial services. there were calls for retaliation. instead four drag-ropes manned by 50 people each pulled the vehicle. Over two million people joined the five mile long funeral procession that took over five hours to reach Raj Ghat from Birla house. had been pulling in opposite directions. the Muslim National Guards.[122] Most were immersed at the Sangam at Allahabad on 12 . the two strongest figures in the government and in Congress. but for millions and millions in this country. and that is a terrible blow. Nehru and Patel. the assassination pushed them together.[120] They used the assassination to consolidate the authority of the new Indian state. The government made sure everyone knew the guilty party was not a Muslim. Congress tightly controlled the epic public displays of grief over a two-week period—the funeral.[117] All Indian owned establishments in London remained closed in mourning as thousands of people from all faiths and denominations and Indians from all over Britain converged at India House in London. mortuary rituals and distribution of the martyr's ashes—as millions participated and hundreds of millions watched. The government suppressed the RSS. They agreed the first objective must be to calm the hysteria. and even an invasion of Pakistan by the Indian army.000 arrests. we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him. This move built upon the massive outpouring of Hindu expressions of grief.[119] They called on Indians to honor Gandhi's memory and even more his ideals."—Jawaharlal Nehru's address to Gandhi[116] Funeral procession of Gandhi at New Delhi on 6 February 1948 Gandhi's death was mourned nationwide.

and British authorities would be forced to take notice of the people's demands. and popular resentment with the British over Indian soldiers dying in World War I while fighting as part of the British Army. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. picket liquor shops. Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (Congress Extremists) for home rulewere accompanied only by petitions and major public meetings. ruin of Indian artisans due to British factory-made goods replacing handmade goods. Chandra Shekhar Azad were supporters of this very movement but were really dissatisfied by the dismissing of movement by Gandhiji. . exemplified by the Rowlatt Act and Jallianwala Bagh massacre. They never resulted in disorder or obstruction of government services. at the Sangam at Allahabad. adopt the use of local handicrafts. Partly due to that. the British did not take them very seriously. (September 2011) The Non-Cooperation Movement was a significant phase of the Indian struggle for freedom from British rule. Tushar Gandhi immersed the contents of one urn. were first seen on a large scale in this movement.through the summer 1920. and try to uphold the Indian values of honour and integrity. It was led by Mahatma Gandhi and was supported by the Indian National Congress. found in a bank vault and reclaimed through the courts. Uganda. the contents of another urn were immersed at Girgaum Chowpatty.they feared that the movement might lead to popular violence.Here we should know that many revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh. The non-cooperation movement aimed to ensure that the colonial economic and power structure would be seriously challenged. economic hardships to the common man due to a large chunk of Indian wealth being exported to Britain. in battles that otherwise had nothing to do with India. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The calls of early political leaders like Mohammad Ali Jinnah (who later became communal and hardened his stand). Protestors would refuse to buy British goods. The Gandhian ideals of Ahimsa or non-violence. On 30 January 2008. but some were secretly taken away.After Jallianwala Bagh incident Gandhi started Non Cooperation movement. and his ability to rally hundreds of thousands of common citizens towards the cause of Indian independence.[123][124] Some of Gandhi's ashes were scattered at the source of the Nile River near Jinja. and a memorial plaque marks the event. Another urn is at the palace of the Aga Khan in Pune[123] (where Gandhi had been imprisoned from 1942 to 1944) and another in the Self-Realization Fellowship Lake Shrine in Los Angeles.[125] Non-cooperation movement From Wikipedia.February 1948. In 1997. It aimed to resist British occupation in India through non-violent means. Among the significant causes of this movement were colonial oppression. the free encyclopedia This article does not cite any references or sources.

oppression of women and untouchability. The Governments of the affected regions signed agreements suspending taxation in face of the famine. Gandhiji were assisted by a new generation of Indian revolutionaries like Rajendra Prasad and Jawaharlal Nehru. protests and more deaths at the hands of the police. The massacre resulted in the deaths of some 370 protestors while over 1000 were injured in the shooting. domestic violence. The people were fired upon by soldiers under the command of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer. they had to pay taxes despite a famine. Gandhi ji was horrified. releasing all political prisoners and returning all property and lands seized. Now in Champaran and Kheda in 1918 he led impoverished farmers. In addition. was boycotted. Bihar and Kheda. He also ordered the only exit to be blocked. It was the biggest victory against the British Empire since the American Revolution. Public transportation and Englishmanufactured goods. and for this they were virtually not compensated. who was to become Gandhi's right hand man. The outcry in Punjab led to thousands of unrests. In Kheda. On top of their miseries. tobacco and cotton instead of food. the entire revolt had been led by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Contents [hide]       1 Satyagraha 2 Success and suspension 3 Aftermath 4 Redemption 5 See also 6 References [edit]Satyagraha Main article: Satyagraha Gandhiji's call was for a nationwide protest against the Rowlatt Act. The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre became the most infamous event of British rule in India. and lawyers were asked to leave the Raj's courts.Gandhiji had shown a similar movement in South Africa and in 1917-18 in Champaran. . All offices and factories would be closed. mired in social evils like unhygienic conditions. Indians would be encouraged to withdraw from Raj-sponsored schools. allowing the farmers to grow their own crops. Gujarat that the only way to earn the respect and attention of British officials was to actively resist government activities through civil disobedience. especially clothing. discrimination. A meeting of unarmed civilians was being held at Jallianwala Bagh near the Golden temple in Amritsar. police services. the military and the civil service. these people were forced to grow cash crops like indigo. He lost all faith in the goodness of the British government and declared that it would be a "sin" to cooperate with the "satanic" government.

were discouraged.e. But the younger generation of Indian nationalists were thrilled. The All India Muslim League also criticized the idea. 1922. Gandhi felt that the revolt was veering off-course. Contemporary historians and critics suggest that the movement was successful enough to break the back of British rule. civil disobedience movement. rejecting Gandhiji's leadership. 1922. Mohammad Ali Jinnah. went on a fast lasting 3 weeks. and most nationalists. Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das formed theSwaraj Party. The Ali brothers would soon become fierce critics. Many nationalists had felt that the Non-Cooperation Movement should not have been stopped due to isolated incidents of violence. Bipin Chandra Pal. and he received extensive support from Muslim leaders like Maulana Azad.-chau key) (station) was set on fire by the mob. with police and angry mobs attacking each other back and forth. But many historians and Indian leaders of the time also defended Gandhiji's judgment. Hakim Ajmal Khan. Then on February 5. although a similar type of movement was introduced in 1930 i.Veterans like Bal Gangadhar Tilak. killing 22 of the police occupants. in the Chauri Chaura. he was imprisoned for six years for publishing seditious materials. 1922. while retaining confidence in Gandhiji. and called off the mass noncooperation movement. Maulana Mohammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali. Although most Congress leaders remained firmly behind Gandhiji. on March 10. the disillusioned broke away. and possibly even result in the independence most Indians strove for until 1947. Gandhiji was arrested. The main difference was the introduction of a policy of violating the law. Abbas Tyabji. The Congress Party adopted his plans. after violent clashes between the local police and the protesters in which three protesters were killed by police firing. On March 18. [edit]Aftermath The Non-Co-operation Movement was withdrawn because of the Chauri-Chaura incident. If he had not stopped the revolts. Gandhi appealed to the Indian public for all resistance to end. and was disappointed that the revolt had lost its nonviolent nature. victimizing civilians in between. India could have descended into a chaotic rebellion which would have alienated common Indians and impress only violent revolutionaries. . [edit]Success and suspension The success of the revolt was a total shock to British authorities and a massive encouragement to millions of Indians. Annie Besant opposed the idea outright. Although he had stopped the national revolt single-handedly. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari. the police chowki (pron. He did not want the movement to degenerate into a contest of violence. and backed Gandhiji.

Most spent the rest of the war in prison and out of contact with the masses.Quit India Movement From Wikipedia. The All-India Congress Committee proclaimed a mass protest demanding what Gandhi called "an orderly British withdrawal" from India.[1] The British refused to grant immediate independence. The Quit India campaign was effectively crushed. saying it could happen only after the war ended. In terms of immediate objectives Quit India failed because of heavy-handed suppression. The British had the support of the Viceroy's Council (which had a majority of Indians). the Indian Army. who was in exile and supporting the Axis. Almost the entire INC leadership. freedom of speech and freedom of the press. or the August Movement (August Kranti) was a civil disobedience movement launched in India in August 1942 in response to Mohandas Gandhi's call for 'Satyagraha' (independence). and the question for postwar became how to exit gracefully while protecting Britain's allies. but passive resistance appears in his call to Do or Die. Roosevelt pressured Prime Minister Winston Churchill to give in to Indian demands. Many Indian businessmen were profiting from heavy wartime spending and did not support Quit India. The only outside support came from the Americans. issued on 8 August at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Mumbai on year 1942. and the Indian Civil Service. The British were prepared to act. keeping them imprisoned until 1945. of the Muslims. The call for determined. and not just at the national level. and suppressed civil rights. Many students paid more attention to Subhas Chandra Bose. the Muslims and the princes.000 people. Contents . weak coordination and the lack of a clear-cut programme of action. However. the Communist Party. the free encyclopedia The Quit India Movement (Hindi: भारत छोडो आन्दोलन Bhār t Chodo Āndol n). as President Franklin D. Procession view at Bangalore Sporadic small-scale violence took place around the country but the British arrested tens of thousands of leaders. the Imperial and state police. the British government realized that India was ungovernable in the long run. the princely states. was imprisoned without trial within hours after Gandhi's speech—at least 60.

F. Lord Linlithgow.[hide]  1 World War II and Indian involvement o o  1. The Muslim League supported the war. Public lecture at Basavanagudi. However. the Congress Party had passed a resolution during the Wardha meeting of the working-committee in September 1939.1 Cripps' Mission 1. as he could not reconcile an endorsement for war (he was a committed believer in non-violent resistance to tyranny. Gandhi had stated his support for the fight . at the height of the Battle of Britain. Benito Mussolini. conditionally supporting the fight against fascism.1 Opposition to Quit India 3 Local activism 4 Suppression of the movement 5 Media 6 See also 7 References 8 External links 9 Further reading o  9. and Hideki Tojo). had without consultation with them brought India into the war.2 Factors Contributing to the Launch of Quit India Movement 2 Resolution for immediate independence o        2. Gandhi had not supported this initiative. used in the Indian Independence Movement and proposed even against Adolf Hitler.1 Primary sources 10 External links [edit]World War II and Indian involvement In 1939 Indian nationalists were angry that British Governor-General of India.Andrews* At the outbreak of war. [2] but were rebuffed when they asked for independence in return. but Congress was divided. Bangalore with Late C.

who assumed power in England. In the meanwhile. crucial political events took place in England. in what came to be known as the Cripps mission. However." According to the instructions issued by High Command. the Viceroy issued a statement on 17 October wherein he claimed that Britain is waging a war driven by the motif to strengthen peace in the world. The talks failed. in accordance to the desires of the Indians. with the outbreak of war between Germany and Britain.and among the civilian population in the sub-continent. Congress ministers from eight provinces resigned following the instructions. At the same time the resolution also stated that India could not associate herself with war as it was against Fascism. He also stated that after the war. only a group led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose took any decisive action. essentially making an offer of limited dominion-status that was wholly unacceptable to the Indian movement. soliciting help from the Axis Powers. the Congress ministers were directed to resign immediately. He called the day of 22 December 1939 'The Day of Deliverance'. the government would initiate modifications in the Act of 1935.against racism and of the British war effort. There was hardly any difference between British colonialism and Nazi totalitarianism. Following this declaration. After the onset of the war. Gandhi's reaction to this statement was. the Congress Working Committee at its meeting on 10 October 1939. At the Muslim League Lahore Session held in March 1940. stating he did not seek to raise a free India from the ashes of Britain. [edit]Cripps' Mission In March 1942. the British government sent a delegation to India under Stafford Cripps. Gandhi urged Jinnah against the celebration of this day. opinions remained divided. however. India was announced to be a party to the war for being a constituent component of the British Empire. it was futile. in return of progressive devolution and distribution of power from the crown and the Viceroy to an elected Indian legislature. faced with an increasingly dissatisfied sub-continent only reluctantly participating in the war and deterioration in the war situation inEurope and South East Asia and with growing dissatisfaction among Indian troops -especially in Europe. and. The resignation of the ministers was an occasion of great joy and rejoicing for leader of the Muslim League.[3] [edit]Factors Contributing to the Launch of Quit India Movement In 1939. Chamberlain was succeeded by Churchill as the Prime Minister and the Conservatives. did not have a sympathetic stance towards the claims made by the Indians. The purpose of the mission was to negotiate with the Indian National Congress a deal to obtain total co-operation during the war. passed a resolution condemning the aggressive activities of the Germans. Responding to this declaration. Mohammad Ali Jinnah. conducted a guerrilla war against the British authorities. In order to pacify the Indians in the circumstance of . Pakistan. "the old policy of divide and rule is to continue. Jinnah declared in his presidential address that the Muslims of the country wanted a separate homeland. as they did not address the key demand of a timetable of self-government and of definition of the powers to be relinquished. Bose organized the Indian National Army with the help of the Japanese. The Congress has asked for bread and it has got stone.

Gandhi at the meeting of the Congress Working Committee in Wardha revealed his plan to launch Individual Civil Disobedience. Anti war speeches ricocheted in all corners of the country. Once again. rule of terror in East Bengal and realization of the national leaders of the incapacity of the British to defend their India. The Cripps' Mission and its failure also played an important role in Gandhi's call for The Quit India Movement. On 3 December 1941. Subsequently. the Conservatives were forced to concede some of the demands made by the Indians. which included terms like establishment of Dominion. a follower of Gandhi. [edit]Resolution for immediate independence The Congress Working Committee meeting at Wardha (14 July 1942) passed a resolution demanding complete independence from the British government. It was widely used as a mark of protest against the unwavering stance assumed by the British. sent Sir Stafford Cripps to talk terms with the Indian political parties and secure their support in Britain's war efforts. granted after the cessation of the Second World War. with the satyagrahis earnestly appealing to the people of the nation not to support the Government in its war endeavors. However. Jawaharlal Nehru and Maulana Azad were apprehensive and critical of the call. Dr. but backed it and stuck with Gandhi's leadership until the end. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. it proved to be controversial within the party. In order to end the deadlock. and so did some local and regional level organizers. the Viceroy ordered the acquittal of all the satyagrahis. Commenting on this Gandhi said. however. A prominent Congress national leader Chakravarti Rajgopalachari quit the Congress over this decision. These would be.Rajendra Prasad and Dr Anugrah Narayan Sinha openly and enthusiastically supported such a disobedience movement. According to the Congress this Declaration only offered India a promise that was to be fulfilled in the future. establishment of a Constituent Assembly and right of the Provinces to make separate constitutions. The draft proposed massive civil disobedience if the British did not accede to the demands. Allama Mashriqi (head of the Khaksar Tehrik) was called[by whom?] to join the Quit India Movement. The consequence of this satyagrahi campaign was the arrest of almost fourteen thousand satyagrahis.worsening war situation. On . the weapon of satyagraha found popular acceptance as the best means to wage a crusade against the British. "It is a post dated cheque on a crashing bank. was selected by him to initiate the movement. In the context of widespread dissatisfaction that prevailed over the rejection of the demands made by the Congress. as did many veteran Gandhians and socialists like Asoka Mehta andJayaprakash Narayan. Vinoba Bhave. In Europe the war situation became more critical with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the Congress realized the necessity for appraising their program. the British government on 22 March 1942. However. the movement was withdrawn. On 8 August. the Viceroy issued a statement that has come to be referred as the "August Offer". Mashriqi was apprehensive of its outcome and did not agree with the Congress Working Committee's resolution. A Draft Declaration of the British Government was presented." Other factors that contributed were the threat of Japanese invasion of India. the Congress rejected the offer followed by the Muslim League.

and believed the U. The telegram was published in the press. However. enabling the League to take control in Sindh. Allama Mashriqi sent the following telegram to Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.[7] The Muslim Leaguegained large numbers of new members. quietly supported him while bombarding Indians with propaganda designed to strengthen public support of the war effort. broke . Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. They knew that the United States strongly supported Indian independence."[4] The resolution said"-The committee. My honest opinion is that Civil Disobedience Movement is a little pre-mature.[6] Muslim leaders opposed Quit India. Pattabhi Sitaramayya. Congress members resigned from provincial legislatures. as the princes were strongly opposed and funded the opposition.. after Churchill threatened to resign if pushed too hard. The Congress should first concede openheartedly and with handshake to Muslim League the theoretical Pakistan. the local populace were successful in establishing parallel governments.S. Muhammad Ali Jinnah's opposition to the call led to large numbers of Muslims cooperating with the British. and Midnapore. Rajendra Prasad and Dr.so that the country might utilise all the non-violent strength it has gathered during the last 22 years of peaceful struggle.. The poorly run American operation annoyed both the British and the Indians. [5] The movement had less support in the princely states. C.they(the people) must remember that non-violence is the basis of the movement.. was an ally. If the British refuse.the starting of a mass struggle on non-violent lines on the widest possible scale.resolves to sanction for the vindication of India's inalienable right to freedom and independence.. in principle.. The Communist Party of Indiastrongly opposed the Quit India movement and supported the war effort because of the need to assist the Soviet Union. and it stated: "I am in receipt of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru's letter of 8 July.therefore. Talcher.[10] [edit]Local activism Although at the national level the ability to galvanize rebellion was limited. and enlisting in the army." [edit]Opposition to Quit India The Congress had little success in rallying other political forces under a single flag and program. start total disobedience. despite support for Quit India by many industrial workers.[8][9] The nationalists had very little international support. Rajagopalachari..28 July 1942. the movement is notable for regional success especially at Satara. which continued to function. In response the British lifted the ban on the party. the U. Bengal and Northwest Frontier.[11] In Tamluk and Contaisubdivisions of Midnapore. He also sent a copy to Bulusu Sambamurti (former Speaker of the Madras Assembly). Smaller parties like the Hindu Mahasabha opposed the call. Mahatma Gandhi.S. and thereafter all parties unitedly make demand of Quit India. [11] A minor uprising took place in Ballia. People overthrew the district administration. Jawaharlal Nehru. now the easternmost district of Uttar Pradesh. until Gandhi personally requested the leaders to disband in 1944.

000 arrests were made.open the jail. a young and till then relatively unknown Aruna Asaf Alipresided over the AICC session on 9 August and hoisted the flag. at some places bombs exploded. released the arrested Congress leaders and established their own independent rule. responded by imprisoning Gandhi. large protests and demonstrations were held all over the country.e. Many national leaders went underground and continued their struggle by broadcasting messages over clandestine radio stations. later the Congress party was banned. already alarmed by the advance of the Japanese army to the IndiaBurma border. going outside the law) which abetted the sabotage activities of the movement there. government buildings were set on fire. Over 100. distributing pamphlets and establishing parallel governments. Not all demonstrations were peaceful. It took weeks before the British could reestablish their writ in the district.[12] In rural west Bengal. All the members of the Party's Working Committee (national leadership) were imprisoned as well. Despite lack of direct leadership. Workers remained absent en masse and strikes were called. Of special importance in Saurashtra (in western Gujarat) was the role of the region's 'baharvatiya' tradition (i. The British sense of crisis was strong enough that a battleship was specifically set .[14] Hundreds of resisters and innocent people were killed in police and army shootings. These actions only created sympathy for the cause among the population. mass fines were levied and demonstrators were subjected to public flogging. The British. The British swiftly responded with mass detentions. the Quit India Movement was fueled by peasants' resentment against the new war taxes and the forced rice exports. There was open resistance to the point of rebellion in 1942 until the great famine of 1943 suspended the movement. Due to the arrest of major leaders.[13] [edit]Suppression of the movement Picketing in front of Medical School at Bangalore One of the achievements of the movement was to keep the Congress party united through all the trials and tribulations that followed. electricity was cut and transport and communication lines were severed.

Although the British released Gandhi on account of his health in 1944. as well as Congress opponents like the Communists sought to gain political mileage. Despite lack of direct leadership.. Gandhi kept up the resistance. India was mostly peaceful again. mass fines were levied and demonstrators were subjected to public flogging. later the Congress party was banned. Not all demonstrations were peaceful. The British. a young and till then relatively unknown Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the AICC session on 9 August and hoisted the flag. [edit]Media Video footage of the days during Quit India Movement One of the achievements of the movement was to keep the Congress party united through all the trials and tribulations that followed. Over 100. government buildings were set on fire. Workers remained absent en masse and strikes were called.[15] The Congress leadership was cut off from the rest of the world for over three years. The British sense of crisis was strong enough . By early 1944. while Jinnah and the Muslim League. criticizing Gandhi and the Congress Party. large protests and demonstrations were held all over the country.[14] Hundreds of resisters and innocent people were killed in police and army shootings. already alarmed by the advance of the Japanese army to the IndiaBurma border. These actions only created sympathy for the cause among the population. The British swiftly responded with mass detentions. responded by imprisoning Gandhi. Gandhi's wife Kasturbai Gandhi and his personal secretary Mahadev Desai died in months and Gandhi's health was failing.aside to take Gandhi and the Congress leaders out of India. electricity was cut and transport and communication lines were severed. All the members of the Party's Working Committee (national leadership) were imprisoned as well. at some places bombs exploded. demanding the release of the Congress leadership. Due to the arrest of major leaders. despite this Gandhi went on a 21-day fast and maintained his resolve to continuous resistance. Many national leaders went underground and continued their struggle by broadcasting messages over clandestine radio stations. while the Congress leadership was still incarcerated.000 arrests were made. possibly toSouth Africa or Yemen but ultimately did not take that step out of fear of intensifying the revolt. distributing pamphlets and establishing parallel governments. A sense that the movement had failed depressed many nationalists.

But the Congress opponents like the Communists sought to gain political mileage. but in spirit. despite this Gandhi went on a 21-day fast and maintained his resolve to continuous resistance. while the Congress leadership was still incarcerated. On the other hand. possibly to South Africa or Yemen but ultimately did not take that step out of fear of intensifying the revolt. by the time of the advance of the Japanese in World War II.[15] The Congress leadership was cut off from the rest of the world for over three years. Although the British released Gandhi on account of his health in 1944. Gandhism does not demand that its adherents agree to Gandhi's own principles to the letter. according to Gandhi. it is truthful to believe in it. he said he would have supported the British in the war. (July 2007) The pivotal and defining element of Gandhism is satya. India was mostly peaceful again. and not contribute to its defence. a Sanskrit word usually translated into English as truth. Gandhi's commitments to non-violence. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.org/pha/policy/1942/420427a. as well as Congress opponents like the Communists were happy to have succeed in the struggle & were the top contenders of the post of the first Prime Minister of India as they rightfully deserved it they believed.html Satyagraha Main article: Satyagraha Satyagraha is formed by two Sanskrit words Satya (truth) and Agraha (holding firmly to). The term was popularised during the Indian Independence Movement. human freedom. criticizing Gandhi and the Congress Party. . and is used in many Indian languages including Hindi. e the pure. while Jinnah and the Muslim League. to demand equal rights for Indians in the Empire. Gandhi was a proponent of Ahimsa. Gandhi had given up notions of fighting alongside the British and argued for nonviolence instead. whose literal meaning is 'what actually is' (deriving from the root verb as meaning 'to be'). equality and justice arose from his personal examination. A sense that the movement had failed depressed many nationalists. The principle of Satya as espoused by Gandhi needed that Truth must pervade all considerations of politics. Article 1 http://www. Gandhi's wife Kasturbai Gandhi and his personal secretary Mahadev Desai died in months and Gandhi's health was failing.ibiblio. By early 1944. It would have been wrong. Gandhi kept up the resistance.that a battleship was specifically set aside to take Gandhi and the Congress leaders out of India. demanding the release of the Congress leadership. When Gandhi returned to India in the middle of World War I. If one honestly believes that violence is sometimes necessary. [edit]Satya This article needs additional citations for verification. existing facts of life to make his decisions. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Truth is interpreted subjectively.

" In this article. Ahimsa. obsession and destructive impulses. Homer Jack notes in his reprint of this article. or non-violence. Gandhi adopted the vow of brahmacharya. He was quoted saying: "What difference does it make to the dead. I appeal to every Briton. which his experimenting later prompted him to change to "Truth is God". This was particularly notable when Gandhi stopped all nationwide civil resistance in 1922 after the Chauri Chaura incident. It is the foundation of Gandhi's teachings. and not take anybody or any ideology for granted. He committed himself to the control of the senses. The Story of My Experiments with Truth. He held that total nonviolence would rid a person of anger. all war was wrong.Gandhi developed a way of life by his constant "experimenting with truth" — a phrase that formed the subtitle to his autobiography. as it has in the past with the Greek philosophers. He would forsake political independence for truth – believing that Indians should not become murderers and commit the very evils they were accusing the British of perpetrating in India. Henry David Thoreau.. [edit]Brahmacharya and ahimsa See also: Brahmacharya. thoughts and actions. for the adjustment of relations between nations and other matters [. as the mistake could be made that Gandhi was using truth as a description of God. G ndhi s id: ―The Truth is f r more powerful th n ny we pon of m ss destruction.‖ [3] G ndhi’s philosophy encomp ssed ontology and its association with truth. whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy?" "An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind". While his vegetarianism was inspired by his rearing in the Hindu-Jain culture of Gujarat. The first statement seemed insufficient to Gandhi. He was prepared to learn through trial and error. and is believed by Gandhians to live within each person as their conscience while at the same time guiding the universe. and the homeless. nor do I want her to be victorious in a trial of brute strength [. Buddhist. Gandhi explains his philosophy and way of life in his autobiography. to accept the method of non-violence instead of that of war. it was also an extension of ahimsa. It shares all the characteristics of the Hindu concept of God. Leo Tolstoy The concept of nonviolence (ahimsa) and nonresistance has a long history in Indian religious thought and has had many revivals in Hindu. "to be" did not mean to exist within the realm of time. Gandhism is more about the spirit of Gandhi's journey to discover the truth. or Brahman. Gandhi published an article in Harijan which applied these philosophies to the question of British involvement in World War II. the orphans.. Ahimsa. Gandhi stated. satya. and the spirit of his whole life to examine and understand for oneself. Satya (truth) in Gandhi's philosophy is God. or celibacy. [5] [6] [7] [4] "It has always been easier to destroy than to create". than what he finally considered to be the truth. Celibacy was important to Gandhi for not only purifying himself of any lust and sexual urges. But rather. wherever he may be now. "to exist" meant to exist within the realm of truth. Gandhi summarised his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth".] I do not want Britain to be defeated. For Gandhi. or to use the term Gandhi did. and suddenly it [8] 'came to him like a flash' to appeal to the British to adopt the method of non-violence. but also to purify his love for his wife as genuine and not an outlet for any turmoil or aggression within his mind. often admitting to mistakes and changing his behaviour accordingly.. as opposed to God as an aspect of satya. "to Gandhi. Muslim and Christian contexts. At the age of 36. On 6 July 1940..] I venture to present you with a . Jain. "To Every Briton" (The Gandhi Reader) that. was another key tenet of Gandhi's beliefs. "There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for".

You will give all these but neither your souls. It is that love which has prompted my appeal to you. Let them take possession of your beautiful island. but you will refuse to owe allegiance to them [. If they do not give you free passage out." Gandhi described it as follows: [2] . in connection with it. But the movement was then known as passive resistance. In September 1935. Non-violence was always an integral part [6] of our struggle. and child. so much so th t even in English writing we often voided it nd used inste d the word ―s ty gr h ‖ itself or some other equiv lent English [5] phrase. Servants of India Society. woman. I beg n the use of his phr se to explain our struggle to the English readers. The resistance to authority in South Africa was well advanced before I got the essay of Thoreau on civil disobedience. to be slaughtered. with your many beautiful buildings. a letter to P. the Force which is born of Truth and Love or nonviolence. You will invite our great leader and Signor Mussolini to take what they want of the countries you call your possessions. I want you to fight Nazism without arms. I thus began to call the Indian movement Satyagraha.] my non-violence demands universal love.K. with non-violent arms. nor your minds. The statement that I had derived my idea of civil disobedience from the writings of Thoreau is wrong. I would like you to lay down the arms you have as being useless for saving you or humanity.. But I found that even civil disobedience failed to convey the full meaning of the struggle. [9] Origin and meaning of name Gandhi leading Salt Satyagraha. As it was incomplete. For Gandhi. I therefore adopted the phrase civil resistance. man. I had coined the word satyagraha for the Gujarati readers. Rao. When I saw the title of Thore u’s gre t ess y. In his words: Truth (satya) implies love. or "holding firmly to"). If these gentlemen choose to occupy your homes. It was an adaptation by Gandhi of one of the entries in that competition.. Gandhi disputed the proposition that his idea of Civil Disobedience was adapted from the writings of Thoreau. nd g ve up the use of the phr se ―p ssive resist nce‖. that is to say. and you are not a small part of it.nobler and braver way worthier of the bravest soldier. satyagraha went far beyond mere "passive resistance" and became strength in practising non-violent methods. "Satyagraha" is a T tpuruṣ compound of the Sanskrit words satya (meaning "truth") and Agraha ("insistence". you will vacate them. or. and firmness (agraha) engenders and therefore serves as a synonym for force. you will allow yourself. if I am to maintain military terminology. a notable example of Satyagraha The term originated in a competition in the news-sheet Indian Opinion in South Africa in 1906.

coercive. In s ty gr h . [11] fter ll. I shall have to plead for it. I shall certainly have to fight for it. I often used ―p ssive resist nce‖ nd ―s ty gr h ‖ s synonymous terms: but s the doctrine of s ty gr h developed. unjust means. at least as far as to stop obstructing the just end." [edit]Satyagraha [edit]Defining theory success Assessing the extent to which Gandhi's ideas of satyagraha were or were not successful in the Indian independence struggle is a complex task. everything'. for its outcomes.. and it ever insists upon truth." The view taken by Gandhi differs from the ide th t the go l in ny conflict is necess rily to defe t the opponent or frustr te the opponent’s objectives. but on oneself. in a cowardly manner. means'. depends of historical specificities.. 'means are.. As G ndhi wrote: ―They s ay.. and if I want a gift. where there is only a choice between cowardice and violence.. forgiveness is [13] more manly than punishment. if I want to buy your watch. as opposed to violent resistance. Therefore it is different from satyagraha in three essentials: Satyagraha is a weapon of the strong. ―The S ty gr hi’s object is to convert. and. the expression ―p ssive resist nce‖ ce ses even to be synonymous. be fought g inst ―by ny me ns necess ry‖ — if you use violent. whatever ends you produce will necessarily embed that injustice. not to coerce. Judith Brown has suggested that "this is a political strategy and [9] technique which..‖ [edit]Satyagraha versus Duragraha The essence of Satyagraha is that it seeks to eliminate antagonisms without harming the antagonists themselves. for this cooperation to take place. or even could. or to meet one’s own objectives despite the efforts of the opponent to obstruct these. my own property. passive resistance does not necessarily involve complete adherence to truth under every circumstance. not by infliction of suffering [7] on the opponent.‖ Success is defined as cooperating with the opponent to meet a just end that the opponent is unwittingly obstructing. it admits of no violence under any circumstance whatsoever. by contr st. Moreover. To those who pre ched violence nd c lled nonviolent ctionists cow rds. As the me ns so the end. The opponent must be converted. the watch is [12] stolen property. And patience means self-suffering. In the application of satyagraha. he replied: ―I do believe th t. after all. it is contradictory to try to use unjust means to obtain justice or to try to use violence to obt in pe ce.‖ Gandhi used an example to explain this: If I want to deprive you of your watch. as passive resistance has admitted of violence as in the case of suffragettes and has been universally acknowledged to be a weapon of the weak. become or remain a helpless witness to her own dishonour. I shall have to pay for it. I discovered in the earliest stages th t pursuit of truth did not dmit of violence being inflicted on one’s opponent but th t he must be we ned from error by patience and compassion. For what appears to be truth to the one may appear to be error to the other. [edit]Means and ends The theory of satyagraha sees means and ends as inseparable.But I believe that nonviolence is infinitely superior to violence. 'means are.. So the doctrine came to mean vindication of truth. I would advise violence. the wrong -doer.I would rather have India resort to arms in order to defend her honour than that she should. but instead seeks to transform or . according to the means I employ. Therefore. [edit]Contrast to “Passive resistance” Gandhi distinguished between satyagraha and Nonviolent resistance in the following letter: I have drawn the distinction between passive resistance as understood and practised in the West and satyagraha before I h d evolved the doctrine of the l tter to its full logic l nd spiritu l extent. these [10] re not the go ls. I would say. G ndhi rejected the ide th t injustice should. The means used to obtain an end are wrapped up in and attached to that end. or a donation. A Satyagrahi therefore does not seek to end or destroy the relationship with the antagonist. I think I have now made the distinction perfectly [8] clear.I have also called it love-force or soul-force. which is meant to cause harm to the antagonist..

[edit]Principles for satyagrahis Gandhi envisioned satyagraha as not only a tactic to be used in acute political struggle. but as a universal solvent for injustice and harm. [edit]Satyagraha [16] in large-scale conflict Main articles: Bardoli Satyagraha. loss of property. as in protest meant more to h r ss th n enlighten opponents. Chastity (brahmacharya) — this includes sexual chastity. young and old.―purify‖ it to higher level. S ty gr h is lso termed ―univers l force. we cannot afford to be intolerant. no b rb rity. Quit India Movement.… But he would observe ny oblig tory rule of this kind. non-cooperation in Satyagraha is in fact a means to secure the cooperation of the opponent consistently with truth and justice. It rms the individu l with mor l power r ther th n physic l power. Dharasana Satyagraha.‖ s it essenti lly ―m kes no distinction between kinsmen and strangers. but this very man will not feel any remorse for failure to observe the rule about carrying headlights on bicycles after d rk. Non-stealing 4. Non-possession (not the same as poverty) . the willing and spontaneous obedience [18] that is required of a Satyagrahi. This end usually implies a moral upliftment or progress of an individual or society. even when they are inconvenient 3. Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha.‖ Civil disobedience and non-cooper tion s pr ctised under S ty gr h re b sed on the ―l w of suffering‖. but goes beyond it to mean living fully in accord with and in devotion to that which is true 3. however. if only to esc pe the inconvenience of f cing prosecution for a breach of the rule. Gandhi believed that the s ty gr his must undergo tr ining to ensure discipline. Nonviolence (ahimsa) 2. be willing to undergo suffering. Salt Satyagraha.‖ G ndhi contr sted s ty gr h (holding on to truth) with ―dur gr h ‖ (holding on by for ce). He wrote: ―There must be no imp tience. tolerate these laws. but also the subordination of other sensual desires to the primary devotion to truth 5. Non-cooperation movement. no undue pressure. respect ble m n will not suddenly t ke to ste ling whether there is l w g inst ste ling or n ot. He wrote th t it is ―only when people h ve proved their [17] active loyalty by obeying the many laws of the State th t they cquire the right of Civil Disobedience. a doctrine that the endurance of suffering is a means to an end. Flag Satyagraha. man and woman. and Vaikom Satyagraha When using satyagraha in a large-scale political conflict involving civil disobedience. during his f mous ―I Have a Dream‖ speech). He felt that it was equally applicable to large-scale political struggle and to one-on-one [19] interpersonal conflicts and that it should be taught to everyone. He asked satyagrahis to follow the following principles [20] (Yamas described in Yoga Sutra): 1. friend and [14] foe. [15] Intolerance betr ys w nt of f ith in one's c use. but extraordinary: … n honest. He founded the Sabarmati Ashram to teach satyagraha.‖ He therefore made part of the discipline that satyagrahis: 1. If we want to cultivate a true spirit of democracy. and to endure the suffering that might be inflicted on [17] family and friends This obedience has to be not merely grudging. Guruvayur Satyagraha. no insolence. appreciate the other laws of the State and obey them voluntarily 2. Such compliance is not. Truth — this includes honesty. Therefore. A euphemism sometimes used for S ty gr h is th t it is ―silent force‖ or ―soul force‖ ( term lso used by M rtin Luther King Jr.

Fearlessness 9. if you find the action as a whole improper or immoral. to an order given in anger 4. as a prisoner. must obey the jail rules unless they are specially devised to hurt his self-respect [edit]Rules [21] for satyagraha campaigns [14] Gandhi proposed a series of rules for satyagrahis to follow in a resistance campaign: 1. suffer the anger of the opponent 3. do not become a cause of communal quarrels 17. joyfully obey the orders of the leaders of the civil disobedience action 14. do not make your participation conditional on your comrades taking care of your dependents while you are engaging in the campaign or are in prison. do not curse or swear 7. give your life to protect (non-violently) those in danger on either side 18. never retaliate to assaults or punishment. must abstain from alcohol and other intoxicants 6. out of fear of punishment or assault. do not fast in an attempt to gain conveniences whose deprivation does not involve any injury to your self-respect 13. do not ask for special favourable treatment 12. do not take part in processions that would wound the religious sensibilities of any community . Control of the palate 8. Economic strategy such as boycotts (swadeshi) 11. defend that property (non-violently) from confiscation with your life 6. must have a living faith in God 2. if anyone attempts to insult or assault your opponent. Equal respect for all religions 10. as a prisoner. must willingly carry out all the rules of discipline that are issued 7. Freedom from untouchability On nother occ sion. defend your opponent (non-violently) with your life 10. and be willing to die or lose all his possessions 4. do not expect them to provide such support 16. if you are a trustee of property. do not pick and choose amongst the orders you obey. must be leading a chaste life. voluntarily submit to arrest or confiscation of your own property 5. avoid occasions that may give rise to communal quarrels 19. as a prisoner. sever your connection with the action entirely 15. do not take sides in such quarrels. must believe in truth and non-violence and have faith in the inherent goodness of human nature which he expects to evoke by suffering in the satyagraha effort 3. must be a habitual khadi wearer and spinner 5. do not insult the opponent 8. harbour no anger 2. behave courteously and obey prison regulations (except any that are contrary to selfrespect) 11. but do not submit. in the case of inter-religious conflict. he listed seven rules s ―essenti l for every S ty gr hi in Indi ‖: 1.6. Body-labor or bread-labor 7. but assist only that party which is demonstrably in the right. neither s lute nor insult the fl g of your opponent or your opponent’s le ders 9.

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