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Elizabeth Jimnez, CEO GEMAS Consulting and Advocacy

Introduction
Participants will complete a graphic organizer of the differences and commonalities between ELD/ESL and SDAIE/sheltered instruction. Elizabeth Jimenez demonstrates scaffolding techniques such as:
Activating students prior knowledge Modifying language without simplication Using the primary language to facilitate learning Contextualizing language Using media, technology resources, and other visual supports Using formative and summative assessment and reteaching

Terminology to Know
Venn diagram Prior knowledge L-1, L-2 Scaffolding CALLA

Before We Begin
ACTIVITY Rather then jumping right into the instruction, we will start by tapping your existing knowledge. Think about what you know about ELD/ESL and SDAIE/ Sheltered Instruction. Complete the 3column chart on the following slide.

What is the Difference?


ELD/ESL Both SDAIE/Sheltered Instruction

Possible Answers
ELD/ESL Both SDAIE/Sheltered Instruction

is a subject in which the content Techniques such as the use of is English listening, speaking, visuals, gestures, repetition, reading, writing graphic organizers and leveled questions for checking for understanding are used in both focuses on ELD/ESL standards ELD/ESL standards may be consulted by content teachers, is designed for English learners and some content standards may of all English proficiency levels be consulted by ELD/ESL teachers

Is a set of techniques used to make instruction more comprehensible for English learners focus is on content standards such as math, science, and social studies was designed for English learners who are intermediate proficiency and above

The Great Instructional Challenge


English speakers in US schools have the challenge of meeting grade level standards as well as showing their content knowledge on standardized tests. English learners in US schools have two enormous challenges: they too must meet the grade level content standards but must do so in a language they dont yet understand.

The Great Instructional Challenge


It is no wonder that there is a gap between English speakers and English learners. The great challenge for teachers in the US is to provide instruction that will help all students meet grade level content standards even though some students may have only a beginning level of English prociency and may not have the benet of working in a bilingual setting.

Cummins Quadrant Task Difficulty


If we know what makes language learning easier, we can apply those principles to instruction to make challenging concepts more easily understood. Comprehensible Input Dr. Stephen Krashen Acquisition vs. Learning Hypothesis
Dr. Stephen Krashen, 1981

What Makes Learning Easy?

What Makes a New Language Easy? BICS


CONTEXT EMBEDDED Face-to-face conversation CONTEXT REDUCED Telephone conversation

Learning a new song in class

Singing along to the radio

Running soccer drills

Explaining soccer drills

What Makes a New Language Easy? CALP


CONTEXT EMBEDDED Science experiment demonstration CONTEXT REDUCED Lecture

History simulation

Textbook (few or no graphics)

Viewing soccer game films/discussing strategy Lecturing on soccer strategy

CALLA Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach


Anna Uhl Chamot developed the CALLA instructional model 5 Principles of CALLA Recognize and build on students prior knowledge Provide meaningful learning tasks Engage in interactive teaching and learning Focus on learning processes and strategies Help students evaluate their own learning

What is a Good Strategy?


Is it appropriate for the task? Do students perceive it as useful? Can students use it fairly easily? Does it help long-term retention? Can the teacher model it?

Source: Ana Uhl Chamot

Scaffolding Theory
Jerome Bruner, a cognitive psychologist, late 1950s Scaffolding has been compared to learning to ride a bike by putting training wheels on the bike The learner begins with modeling, supports, and coaching to aid learning. The scaffolding becomes less important and the learning is gradually released to the autonomous learner.

Scaffolding Strategies
Providing English learners with support to enable them to successfully complete tasks that require academic language prociency: Modeling Bridging Contextualization Schema building Metacognitive development Text representation Primary language support
Source: San Diego County Ofce of Education

Scaffolding Strategies - Modeling


THINK ALOUDS
One way to build support for student learning is for the teacher to model aloud the thinking process or working skills needed to complete a classroom task or project.

METACOGNITION is another related scaffolding technique for


problem solving. This involves acknowledging what you know in a problem, as well as what you don't yet understand.

START SMALL Both of these strategies attempt to make explicit to

students how experts think through problems. Perkins & Solomon (1989) point out that an expert's behavior appears to be strongly driven by prior knowledge, and that they will often construct a similar, simpler problem to work through before tackling bigger problems.

Scaffolding Strategies - Language Contextualization


Language is constructed through a blend of purpose, situation, and social needs. American
English Institute Univ of Oregon, 2008

Thematic instruction (by topic such as school vocabulary) Thematic instruction (by purpose such as making a phone call to request info) is more powerful than memorizing lists of vocabulary

Scaffolding Strategies L-1 Use


Preview the new concept in L-1 Provide audio summaries in L-1 Pair students with others of the same L-1 for some group work where they can discuss Utilize L-1 resources such as dual language programs and technology programs that teach the subject matter rst in the pupils L-1 EXAMPLE The Plaza Comunitaria

Scaffolding Strategies - Schema Building


Schema refers to the background knowledge a reader brings to a reading task. It is believe that background knowledge facilitates reading comprehension for language learners.

EXAMPLE My English learners come from a desert region in Mexico. We are going to read a story about ice shing in Canada. None of them (nor I) have ever been ice shing and know little about it. However, a few have been shing. I draw out from them what they know about shing to share with the class. I ask about and ll in a graphic organizer with the names of equipment, the steps in the process, and the places one might go to go shing.

What do You Think?


ACTIVITY Each of these strategies can and should be used with all students. Whats so different in teaching content to English learners? Isnt this just good teaching? Write down your comments.

EL Scaffolding Strategies Checklist


Modifying language without simplication
Use repetition with careful enunciation Use a slow rate of speech Use gestures and body language Explain idioms or multiple meaning words

Activating students prior knowledge


Tap prior knowledge Use culturally familiar examples to build the concept background needed for the new task Use realia, visuals, shared experience Use primary language to preview the lesson and discover need Elicit knowledge students may already have

EL Scaffolding Strategies Checklist


Contextualizing Language
Plan around a topic or theme Plan around a purpose

Using media, tech resources, and other visual supports


Write key information on the board Use posters, pictures, video, bilingual dictionary

Using formative and summative assessment and reteaching


Check for understanding taking into consideration the English prociency level of students Use alternate ways for students to show what they know

View Mr. Alvarados Class


ACTIVITY Use the EL scaffolding strategies checklist to take notes on the strategies he uses to engage English learners and to make the lesson as comprehensible as possible.

References
Walqui, A. 2000, Strategies for Success, Engaging Immigrant Students in Secondary Schools, WestEd Chamot, A. U., & OMalley, J. M. (1994). The CALLA Handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Online English Language Center, video transcript: Module 01, Contextualizing Language http:// oelp.uoregon.edu/shaping_trans_01.html Perkins, D. N., & Solomon, G. (1989, JanuaryFebruary). Are cognitive skills context-bound? Educational Researcher, 18(1), 16-25. Uhl Chamot, Ana. Integrating Language, Content, and Learning Strategies in English Language Teaching