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Ayman F. Naguib, Vahid Tarokh, Tarokh, Nambi Seshadri, Seshadri, and A. R. Calderbank

AT&T Labs - Research 180 Park Avenue Florham Park, NJ 07932 naguib@research.att.com

AT&T Labs-Research

Tutorial Overview

AT&T Labs

! ! ! !

PART 1: : Preliminaries. PART 2: : SpaceSpace-Time Coding. PART 3: : Applications of SpaceSpace-Time Coding. Summary.

PART 1: Preliminaries

AT&T Labs

! !

Wireless channels. Outage capacity of fading channels. Diversity Options: time, frequency, and space.

Wireless Channels

AT&T Labs

Remote Dominant Reflector

Base Station

Remote Dominant Reflector

AT&T Labs

Short Term Fading Signal Level (dB) Mean Path Loss

Distance (dB)

! ! !

Slow fading (shadowing) is caused by large obstructions between transmitter and receiver. Fast fading is due to scattering of the signal by object near transmitter. Path loss is proportional to 1/r, is between 2.5 and 5.

AT&T Labs

h(t, , z) = i (t ) e j i ( t , i ,z ) (t i )

i

!

i z

Channel Spread

Delay Spread Doppler Spread Angle Spread

Channel Selectivity

Frequency Selective Time Selective Space Selective

Measure of Selectivity

Coherence Bandwidth Coherence Time Coherence Distance

Space-Time Fading

AT&T Labs

10log10 h(t,z)

Di sta nc

e(

in w

av ele

ng

th

s em Tim

Space-Time Fading .

AT&T Labs

10log10 h(t,z)

Di sta

nc

e(

in w

av ele

ng

th

s em Tim

PART 1: Preliminaries

AT&T Labs

! !

Wireless channels. Outage capacity of fading channels. Diversity Options: time, frequency, and space.

AT&T Labs

Tx 1

Rx 1

Tx 2

Rx 2

LM H =M MM " N

11 21

12 ! 1 N 22 ! 2 N " # " M 2 ! MN

M1

OP PP PQ

Tx N

Rx M

! ! !

Multiple input multiple output (MIMO MIMO) channel: N transmitters, M receiver ij is the complex channel gain from i-th transmit antenna to j-th receive antenna. H is the NM channel matrix.

AT&T Labs

C = lo g 2 (1 + )

C = log2 det I + HH* bits/sec/use n H is the n m channel matrix

LM N

OP Q

Outage capacity C x :

Pr C > Cx

q=

H :C ( ) = C x

C ( H ) fH ( H ) d H = x

AT&T Labs

Achievable Data Rate (kbits/sec) per 30 kHz Channel

225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50

IS-136+

We can be here

1 Tx 1 Rx Antennas 1 Tx 2 Rx Antennas 2 Tx 1 Rx Antennas 2 Tx 2 Rx Antennas

25

0

0 5 10 15

IS-136

20

Guglielmo Marconi (1932)

PART 1: Preliminaries

AT&T Labs

! !

Wireless channels. Outage capacity of fading channels. Diversity Options: time, frequency, and space.

AT&T Labs

! !

Receive the signal via independently fading channels. Improves the performance in a fading environment.

Space diversity: Multiple antennas are used to receive the signal. Antenna spacing must be such that the fading at each antenna is independent (coherence coherence distance). distance Frequency diversity: Signal is transmitted in several frequency bands (coherence coherence BW). BW Not effective on flat (non-frequency selective) channels. Techniques that exploit frequency diversity include: RAKE Receivers, OFDM, equalization. Time diversity: Signal is transmitted in different time slots (coherence coherence time). time Channel coding plus interleaving is used to provide time diversity. Not effective over slow fading channels. Polarization diversity: use two antennas with different polarization for reception and/or transmission.

Receive Diversity

AT&T Labs

Make use of a number of receive antennas that are well separated (> > coherence distance) distance to generate independent receptions of the transmitted signal.

Selection diversity: choose received signal with largest received power, S/N, etc. Switched diversity: choose alternate antenna if signal falls below a certain threshold. Linear combining: linearly combine a weighted replica of all received signals.

There is a dramatic improvement even with two branch selection diversity. The outage with MRC improves linearly with the number of diversity branches M, but complexity becomes prohibitive. prohibitive

AT&T Labs

Front End 1

Selection Diversity

Front End 2

Selector

Data Detector 2

Front End 1

Switched Diversity

Front End 2

AT&T Labs

1

r1 Front End

1

r1 = A1e j1 d + n1 r2 = A2e j2 d + n2

Data Detector Data

r2 Front End

2

d = S r + * 2r 2

1 , 2 * 1 1

AT&T Labs

Transmit Diversity

AT&T Labs

Provide diversity benefit to a mobile using base station antenna array for frequency division duplexing (FDD FDD) schemes. Cost is shared among different users. Order of diversity can be increased when used with other conventional forms of diversity. Two kinds of transmit diversity techniques:

Transmit diversity with feedback from receiver Transmit diversity without feedback from receiver:

AT&T Labs

w 2 (t ) S2 ( t )

Mod

Tx 1 Rx

r1 ( t )

Tx 2

r (t )

r (t ) w1 ( t ), w 2 ( t )

variations

r1 ( t ) r2 ( t )

Demod

r2 ( t ) S1 ( t ) w1 ( t )

w1 ( t ) + w 2 ( t )

2

=1

! !

w1(t) and w2(t) are varied such that |r(t)|2 is maximized. maximized w1(t) and w2(t) are adapted with feedback information from the receiver.

10

AT&T Labs

Tx 1 Rx Tx 2

r2 ( t ) r1 ( t )

(A) Constructive Interference

Channel Encoder

Channel Decoder

r1 ( t )

r2 ( t )

e j ( t )

( kT ) = 2 fm kT

! !

Use frequency weighting to mitigate the harm of scenario B. Simulate fast fading can use conventional channel coding and interleaving techniques.

AT&T Labs

Tx 1

Tx 2

Rx

Repetition Code

s1 s2 ! s N

T Tx N

ML Detection

! !

At time i, 1 i N , transmit s from antenna i. Achieves a diversity order of N using ML detection or MRC at the receiver. Bandwidth efficiency is 1/N.

11

AT&T Labs

Tx 1

Tx 2

Rx

Channel Code

c1c 2 ! c N

T Tx N

ML Decoding

! ! !

The channel code has a minimum Hamming distance dmin N. Transmit code symbol i from antenna i. After receiving the N symbols, the decoder performs ML decoding to decode the received codeword.

AT&T Labs

Tx 1

s(t )

Tx 2 Information Channel Encoder Delay

s(t T )

Tx N

( N 1) T

Delay

s ( t ( N 1) T )

! ! !

Provide diversity benefit by introducing intentional multipath. Receiver uses an equalizer or MLSE for detection. Provides a diversity order of N. No loss of BW efficiency.

12

AT&T Labs

p1 ( t )

a1 ( t ) e j 1 ( t )

Information bits

p2 ( t )

a 2 ( t ) e j6 2 ( t )

Channel Encoder

! ! ! !

pN (t )

a N ( t ) e j N ( t )

Waveform Shaping

AT&T Labs

SpaceSpace-Time coded modulation (STCM): Probability of error analysis and design criterion. SpaceSpace-time trellis codes examples. Decoding of spacespace-time trellis codes. Comparison with delaydelay-diversity. SpaceSpace-Time block codes (STBC): Basic idea and decoding of STBC. Incoherent detection of STBC. STBC for more than 2 transmit antennas. Interference suppression with STBC: Zero forcing IC and ML decoding of STBC. MMSE IC and ML decoding of STBC. Iterative IC and ML decoding of STBC.

13

AT&T Labs

For each input symbol, the space-time encoder chooses the constellation points to simultaneously transmit from each antenna so that coding and diversity gains are maximized. maximized Space-Time trellis codes: coding and diversity gain. Space-Time block codes: diversity gain + some coding gain (depending on the rate of the code).

AT&T Labs

! ! !

! !

N transmit and M receive antennas. The overall channel is made up of NM slowly varying subchannels. Each sub-channel is Rayleigh fading (same analysis applies to Rician fading too). At any time interval, N signals are transmitted simultaneously, simultaneously one from each transmit antenna. The sub-channels undergo independent fading. The fade coefficients are assumed to be fixed during a slot and independent from slot to another.

14

AT&T Labs

c l = [ c1 ( l ), c2 ( l ), ! , c N ( l ) ]T

!

Channel Matrix:

LM H =M MM " N

11 21

M1

12 ! 1 N 22 ! 2 N " # " M 2 ! MN

OP PP PQ

r (l ) = H c l + n (l )

AT&T Labs

! !

Transmitted code vector sequence: C = {c1,c2, , cL}. Probability of error: assuming perfect knowledge of CSI,

~ ~ Pr C C H exp d 2 (C, C )

M L 2 j =1 l =1

t

2

j =1 M

where

15

AT&T Labs

The matrix B is the error matrix between the transmitted ~ code vector sequence C and the decoded code vector C sequence .

1 1 2 2 N N

~ ( L) ! c1 ( L ) c 1 ~ ! c2 ( L ) c2 ( L ) # " ~ ( L) ! cN ( L ) c N

OP PP PQ

AT&T Labs

The matrix A=BB* is Hermitain A can be written as UU* , where = diag{l1,l2,,lN} and U is orthonormal, orthonormal U* U=I, and its columns are the eigenvectors of A. Let j = U*h*j , then we will have

M M N ~ d 2 (C, C ) = s - *j L - j = s i | ij |2 j =1 j =1 i =1 2 The random variables ij = | ij | are i.i.d. , each has a 2 distribution with 2 degrees of freedom, that is

16

AT&T Labs

~ Pr C C

!

t FGH 1 + 1 IJK

N i =1 i s r M

Let r be the rank of the matrix A and l1,l2,,lr be the nonzero eigenvalues of A. Then

~ Pr C C

!

i i =1 s

rM

AT&T Labs

Rank Criterion: In order to achieve the maximum diversity NM, the matrix B(C1,C2) has to be full rank for any two code vector sequences C1 and C2. If B(C1,C2) has a minimum rank r over the set of two tuples of distinct code vector sequences, then a diversity rM is achieved. Determinant Criterion: The minimum of the r-th roots of the sum of determinants of all rr principal cofactors of A(C1,C2) taken over all pairs of distinct code vector sequences C1 and C2 corresponds to coding gain, r being the rank of A(C1,C2) . The target of code design is making this sum as large as possible. If a code is designed to give a diversity gain of NM, for a better coding gain, the minimum of the determinant of A(C1,C2) taken over all pairs of distinct code vector sequences C1 and C2 must be maximized.

17

AT&T Labs

! !

Space-time trellis codes were designed using this criteria. The trade-off between diversity, rate, and trellis complexity has also been studied. It is proved that our designs are optimal in terms of the trade-off between complexity, constellation size, diversity, and rate. It is not known whether our codes provide the optimum coding gains at a given complexity, diversity, and rate.

AT&T Labs

00 01 02 03

10 11 12 13

2 Input: Tx 1: Tx 2: 0 1 2 3 2 2 0 0 1 2 3 2 0 1 2 3 2 2

20 21 22 23

30 31 32 33

18

AT&T Labs

2 3 Input: Tx 1: Tx 2: 0 1 5 7 6 4 0 0 5 1 3 6 0 1 5 7 6 4 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 00,01,02,03,04,05,06,07 50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27 70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77 40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47 10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17 60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67 30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37 8-PSK 8-State Space-Time Code with 2 Tx Antennas 7 1 0

AT&T Labs

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 00 51 22 73 44 15 66 37 37 00 51 22 73 44 15 66 22 73 44 15 66 37 00 51 51 22 73 44 15 66 37 00 01 52 23 74 45 16 67 30 30 01 52 23 74 45 16 67 23 74 45 16 67 30 01 52 52 23 74 45 16 67 30 01 02 53 24 75 46 17 60 31 31 02 53 24 75 46 17 60 24 75 46 17 60 31 02 53 53 24 75 46 17 60 31 02 03 54 25 76 47 10 61 32 32 03 54 25 76 47 10 61 25 76 47 10 61 32 03 54 54 25 76 47 10 61 32 03 04 55 26 77 40 11 62 33 33 04 55 26 77 40 11 62 26 77 40 11 62 33 04 55 55 26 77 40 11 62 33 04 05 56 27 70 41 12 63 34 34 05 56 27 70 41 12 63 27 70 41 12 63 34 05 56 56 27 70 41 12 63 34 05 06 57 20 71 42 13 64 35 35 06 57 20 71 42 13 64 20 71 42 13 64 35 06 57 57 20 71 42 13 64 35 06 07 50 21 72 43 14 65 36 36 07 50 21 72 43 14 65 21 72 43 14 65 36 07 50 50 21 72 43 14 65 36 07

Input: Tx 1: Tx 2:

0 1 5 7 6 4 0 0 5 4 6 3 0 1 6 3 4 3

2 3 4 5 6 7 1 0

19

AT&T Labs

0 1

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

Input: Tx 1: Tx 2:

0 1 A C 5 7 0 0 B A C F 0 1 A C 5 7

2 3 4 5 6

7

4 5 6 7

8 9

A B

C D E F

AT&T Labs

Given the received vector sequence R = {r1,r2, , rL}, the ~ receiver chooses the code vector sequence C as the one that was transmitted such that the a posteriori probability

~ Pr C R , H ( l ) , l = 1, ! , L

t

2

! !

L ~ C = arg m~in r ( l ) C l =1

Es H( l ) ~ cl

The STMLD is implemented as a vector Viterbi algorithm (v vVA) VA where the trellis path with the smallest accumulated metric is chosen.

20

AT&T Labs

100

10-1

10-2

4-State Code 8-State Code 16-State Code 32-State Code 64-State Code

10

12

14

16

18

20

AT&T Labs

100

10-1

10-2 10 12 14 16 18 20

21

AT&T Labs

100

16-State Code 64-State Code

10-1

10-2

10-3 10 12 14 16 18 20

Delay Diversity

AT&T Labs

Signal 2

Constellation Mapper

Information Source

Constellation Mapper

Signal 1

Delay Diversity

22

Delay-Diversity as a ST Code

AT&T Labs

2 3 Input: Tx 1: Tx 2: 0 1 5 7 6 4 0 0 1 5 7 6 0 1 5 7 6 4 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 00,01,02,03,04,05,06,07 10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27 30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37 40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47 50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57 60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67 70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77 8-PSK 8-State Delay Diversity Code with 2 Tx Antennas 7 1 0

ST Code as a Delay-Diversity

AT&T Labs

Signal 2 Constellation Mapper Best Block Code of Length 2

Information Source

Constellation Mapper

Signal 1

C = 0 0 ,1 5 ,2 2 , 3 7 , 4 4 , 5 1, 6 6 , 7 3

23

AT&T Labs

SpaceSpace-Time coded modulation (STCM): Probability of error analysis and design criterion. SpaceSpace-time trellis codes examples. Decoding of spacespace-time trellis codes. Comparison with delaydelay-diversity. SpaceSpace-Time block codes (STBC): Basic idea and decoding of STBC. Incoherent detection of STBC. STBC for more than 2 transmit antennas. Interference suppression with STBC: Zero forcing IC and ML decoding of STBC. MMSE IC and ML decoding of STBC. Iterative IC and ML decoding of STBC.

AT&T Labs

c1 c 2

c1 c2

* -c2 c* 1

Constellation Mapper

Signal 1

Idea:

c1 c2

!

Lc M Nc

c2 c1

OP Q

24

Decoding of STBC

AT&T Labs

Received Signal:

r1 = h1c1 + h2 c2 + n1

* * + h2 c1 + n2 r2 = h1c2 1 * 2

r=

!

LM r OP = LM h Nr Q N h

1 * 2

h2 c1 n1 + * = Hc + n h1* c2 n2

OPLM OP LM OP QN Q N Q

2

H is orthogonal:

H*H = h1 + h2 I = h I 2 ~ ~ r = H *r = h c + n

2 2

Decoding of STBC .

AT&T Labs

~ is still white c and c are detected The noise term n 1 2 independently lower complexity. complexity With M receive antennas:

~ r = H* i ri =

i =1

FG h IJ c + n ~ H K

M 2 i i =1

! !

With M receive antennas, a diversity order of 2M is achieved. Only simple linear processing at the receiver is required. Complete CSI is required at the receiver. In practice channel estimation is used to obtain CSI.

25

Decoding of STBC .

AT&T Labs

H1

r1

Linear Combiner

~ r1

c1

ML Decision

$1 c

r1 * ~ r = H1 H 2 r2

r2

LM OP NQ

~ r2

ML Decision c2

$2 c

H2

AT&T Labs

Received Signal:

r1 c1 c2 h1 n1 ~ = * + = Ch + n r= * r2 c2 c1 h2 n2

!

LM OP LM NQ N

OPLM OP LM OP QN Q N Q

~ h1 + 1 h1 1 ~ * h= ~ = 2 C r = 2 h2 + 2 c1 + c2 h2

* c1 n1 + c2 n2 1 = 2 2 c1 + c2

LM OP N Q

LM N

OP Q

and

* c2 n +cn 2 = 21 1 22 c1 + c2

26

AT&T Labs

If the channel is quasiquasi-static, static then the received signal for the next code symbol is:

r3 = h1c3 + h2 c4 + n3

* * r4 = h1c4 + h2c3 + n4

! !

~ Use the channel estimate h for detecting c3 and c4. Need to transmit two known symbols at the beginning of each time slot. If the channel variation is very slow, then at each time we average the channel estimate less noisy estimates. This scheme will perform within 3 dB of the case when ideal CSI is available at the receiver.

AT&T Labs

Is there a rate 1 STBC with simple linear processing for more than two antennas (N N >2) ? Answer: theory of generalized orthogonal designs.

! ! !

Rate 1 codes with simple linear processing for arbitrary number of transmit antennas and real constellation. Rate 1/2 codes with simple linear processing for arbitrary number of transmit antennas and complex constellation. Rate 3/4 codes with simple linear processing for N=3 3 and N=4 4 transmit antennas and complex constellation.

27

AT&T Labs

1 2 3 4

LM c MMc c MNc

2 3

c2 c3 c4 c1 c4 c3 c4 c1 c2 c3 c2 c1

* * * * c1 c2 c3 c4 * * * * c2 c1 c4 c3 * * * * c3 c1 c2 c4 * * * * c4 c3 c1 c2

OP PP PQ

AT&T Labs

LMc OP MMc PP Nc Q

1 2 3

LM c MM MM c MM c2 MM c N2

1 2 3 3

* * c3 c3 2 2 * * c c * 3 c1 3 2 2 * * * * + + + + c3 c c c2 c2 c2 c2 c1 c1 1 1 2 2 2 * * * * c3 c2 + c2 c1 + c1 c1 + c1 + c2 c2 2 2 2 * c2

OP PP PP PP PP Q

28

AT&T Labs

1 2 3 4

LM c MMc c MNc

2 3

c2 c3 c4 c1 c4 c3 c4 c1 c2 c3 c2

OP PP cP Q

1

AT&T Labs

SpaceSpace-Time coded modulation (STCM): Probability of error analysis and design criterion. SpaceSpace-time trellis codes examples. Decoding of spacespace-time trellis codes. Comparison with delaydelay-diversity. SpaceSpace-Time block codes (STBC): Basic idea and decoding of STBC. Incoherent detection of STBC. STBC for more than 2 transmit antennas. Interference suppression with STBC: Zero forcing IC and ML decoding of STBC. MMSE IC and ML decoding of STBC. Iterative IC and ML decoding of STBC.

29

AT&T Labs

Burst 2

Information Source

Space-Time Block Encoder Burst 1 Interference Cancellation and ML Decision c1 c2 Terminal 2 Information Terminal 1 Information

Terminal 1

Burst 2

Information Source

Terminal 2

K users, N transmit antennas per user. Classical IC techniques need N(K-1) +1 receive antennas to suppress interference from K-1 co-channel users. Exploit code structure to suppress interference only K receive antennas are required. Assumption: full synchronization between terminals. Can be implemented using adaptive LMS or RLS. Can be used for increasing system capacity or increasing data rate.

AT&T Labs

Received Signal:

r1 = H1 c + G1 s + n1 r2 = H 2 c + G 2 s + n2

!

LMr OP = LMH Nr Q NH

1 2

1 2

G1 c n1 + G2 s n2

OP LM OP LM OP QNQ N Q

r = H~ c+

Zero forcing solution:

LM H NH

1 2

G1 G2

$ O OP LM r OP = LM r$ OP = LMcOP + LM n $ P Q Nr Q Nr$ Q N s Q Nn Q

-1 1 2 1 2 1 2

30

AT&T Labs

LMH NH

2

1 2

G1 G2

~ ~ 1 1 H = H1 G1G 2 H 2 , G = G 2 H 2 H1 G1

~ OP = LMH Q N0

1

0 ~ 1 G

OP L I Q MNH H

2 1 2

1 G1G 2

1 1

OP Q

1 2

LM I N H H

&

1 1

1 G1G 2 I

~ ~O r O LH 0 O Lc O L n OP Lr O = L ~ =M ~ P M s P + M~ P M P M P ~ r r Q N Q N Q N 0 G Q N Q Nn Q

1 2

~ ~ H and G are orthogonal and have the same structure and n2 are still white can detect c and s as before. n1 and ~ noise ~ .

AT&T Labs

ZF Interference Cancellation:

( c, c ) = ZFIC r1 , r2 , H1 , H 2 , G1 , G 2 {

1 ~ r = r1 G1G 2 r2 ~ 1 H = H1 G1G 2 H2 ~ $ = arg min ~ c r Hc c C

~ $ r Hc c = ~ }

31

ZFIC Performance

AT&T Labs

FER Performance of 8-PSK with STBC and Zero Forcing Interference Cancellation

100

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4

10-5

STBC( 2 Tx, 2 Rx) + ZFIC, SIR = 0 dB STBC( 2 Tx, 1 Rx) STBC( 2 Tx, 2 Rx) , No Interference

10-6 10

15

20

25

30

AT&T Labs

Error Criteria:

D (w, - 1 , - 2 ) = w*r - 1 c1 - - 2 c2

!

MMSE IC: find a linear combiner w, 1, and 2 such that E{(w, 1, 2)}is minimized. 1 or 2 should be set equal to 1 or else we will get a zero solution.

* - 1 = 1 D1 (w1 , - 2 ) = w1 r c1 - - 2c2 2

&

~* ~ = w 1 r c1

2 * ~* ~ - 2 = 1 D 2 (w2 , - 1 ) = w2 r c2 - - 1c1 = w 2 r c2

32

AT&T Labs

MMSE IC solution:

~ = M h2 w 1 h* 2 1

LM N

-1 -1 1 1 2 2 * 1 1 SNR

M = HH* +

AT&T Labs

MMSE solution:

w1 = M - h 2 h w2 = M - h h

!

( (

* -1 2

-1 h* 2 M h1 h1 , - = -1 1 - h* 2 M h1 * 2 * h1 M -1h 2 h2 , - = * 1 - h1 M -1h 2 * 1

* -1 1 1

Using the structure of M and the fact that h1 and h2 are orthogonal, orthogonal we can show that either 1=0 and 2 =1 or 1=1 and 2 =0. Two different combiners w1 and w2 for c1 and c2, respectively.

33

AT&T Labs

T

H1 G1 ~ H= H2 G2 M = HH* +

LM N

OP Q

T T , h 2 = h 12 hT 22 T

1 I

T h 1 = h 11 hT 21

MMSE IC Performance

AT&T Labs

100

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4 STBC( 2 Tx, 1 Rx) STBC( 2 Tx, 1 Rx) + MMSE IC, SIR = 0 dB STBC( 2 Tx, 1 Rx) + MMSE IC, SIR = 10 dB STBC( 2 Tx, 1 Rx) + MMSE IC, SIR = 20 dB STBC( 2 Tx, 2 Rx), No Interference

10-5

10-6 10

15

20

25

30

34

AT&T Labs

$, s $ ) = IT _ IC_ STDEC r1 , r2 , H1 , H 2 , G 1 , G 2 (c {

g g

2

s S

$o x 2 = r2 H 2 c

2

ex

G1 s + x 2 G 2 s

2

s ,o = x 1 G 1 s + x 2 G 2 s

2

c C 1

g

2

$1 $ 2 = r2 G 2 s y

2 1

e y H c

2

+ y2 H 2 c

2

c ,1 = y1 H 1 c + y 2 H 2 c

AT&T Labs

FER Performance of 8-PSK with STBC and MMSE Iterative Interference Cancellation

100

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4 STBC( 2 Tx, 1 Rx) STBC( 2 Tx, 2 Rx) + Iterative MMSE IC, SIR =0 dB STBC( 2 Tx, 2 Rx) , No Interference

10-5

10-6 10

15

20

25

30

35

AT&T Labs

FER Performance of 8-PSK with STBC and MMSE Iterative Interference Cancellation

100 STBC( 2 Tx, 2 Rx) + MMSE IC, SNR = 20 dB STBC( 2 Tx, 2 Rx) + ITMMSE IC, SNR = 20 dB

10-1

10-2

10-3 -30

-20

-10

10

20

30

SIR (dB)

AT&T Labs

! !

Narrowband TDMA Cellular. Broadband Wireless OFDM. Applications of STBC with Interference Suppression. Suppression

36

Base-Station Transmitter

AT&T Labs

Burst 2

ST Encoder Information Source Block Encoder (Reed Solomon) Interleaving Interleaving

Burst Building

Pulse Shaper

Burst Building

Pulse Shaper

Burst 1

! ! !

High rate outer block code will clean up burst errors of the ST code and will provide an error detection mechanism. Same interleaving for both bursts. Synchronization and pilot sequences are inserted in both bursts for timing and frequency synchronization as well as channel estimation at the receiver.

Slot Structure

AT&T Labs

Lb

Training Sequence Data Pilot Data Pilot Pilot Data

Burst 2

Training Sequence

S2 Lt

Training Sequence

P2

P2 Ls

Pilot

P2

S2

Lp

Pilot

S1

Data

P1

Data

Pilot

P1

P1

Data

Training Sequence

S1

Lb

!

Burst 1

Training sequences S1 and S2 as well as pilot sequences P1 and P2 are orthogonal sequences. In addition these sequences are constant energy sequences, i.e. from M-PSK constellation (this will give best MSE performance).

37

Mobile Receiver

AT&T Labs

Matched Filter Timing Synchronization

Deinterleaving

Matched Filter

Timing Synchronization

Channel Estimation and Interpolation

Deinterleaving

! ! !

Design assumes flat fading channel. Frequency offset is compensated for as part of the channel estimation. Channel estimates at the pilot and training symbol positions are interpolated to obtain CSI for the whole slot.

Channel Estimation

AT&T Labs

ij

Pilots and synch sequences should be positioned in the slot such that the channel sampling frequency fs satisfies 2(fd +fo) fs = LsTs. Channel Estimation:

~ (l ) + z (l ) Y j ( l ) = A P1 P2 ! P N a j j $ ij ( l ) = Pi* Y j ( l ) A Pi

2

j = 1, 2 , ! , M

i = 1, 2 , ! , N

38

Channel Interpolation

AT&T Labs

Channel estimates are interpolated to obtain complete CSI for the whole time slot. Wiener interpolation filter (WIF):

! !

Optimum interpolation filter needs the knowledge of fd , fo, and SNR. SNR A different filter for each symbol in the burst. Poor performance at low Doppler with worst case design. design Similar to WIF, except that we use same filter for all symbols in the burst. Poor CSI near the ends of the slot when only pilot symbols in that slot are used. Lower complexity than WIF, performance is, however, poorer. poorer

! ! !

AT&T Labs

Matched Filter

Channel Estimates

Interpolation Filters

Matched Filter

Channel Estimates

Quasi-adaptive interpolation

! !

Doppler range is divided into different regions and pre-designed WIF is used for each range. Receiver selects the filter use based on the quality of the interpolated CSI for the previous slot

39

Modem Simulation

AT&T Labs

! ! ! ! ! ! !

STCM with 16-QAM and 8-PSK. Timing and carrier frequency offset synchronization. fc = 1.9 GHz, IS-136 basic channelization and slot structure. /4-DQPSK modulation for synchronization and pilot symbols. Oversampling factor of 8. SR raised cosine pulse shaping with 0.35% excess BW. FER Performance:

! ! ! !

FER vs. SNR and Doppler Spread. Space-Time code vs. Delay-Diversity code. Effect of interpolation filter and transmit antenna correlation. Effect of delay spread.

Slot Structure

AT&T Labs

Burst 2

P2 2 P1 2 D2 P2 D2 21 2 21 D1 P1 D1 21 2 21 P2 D2 2 21 P1 D1 2 21 P2 D2 P2 D2 P2 2 21 2 21 2 P1 D1 P1 D1 P1 2 21 2 21 2 D2 O2 S2 12 5 14 D1 O1 S1 12 5 14

S2 14 S1 14

O2 D2 9 5 O1 D1 9 5

Burst 1

S1,S2 : Synchronization Sequence (S1 and S2 are orthogonal, S1 as in IS-136) P1,P2 : Pilot Symbols (P1 and P2 are orthogonal) D1,D2 : Data O1,O2 : Overhead Symbols

40

Error Distribution

AT&T Labs

Error Histogram for the 16-QAM 16-State ST Code with 2 Tx 2 Rx Antennas and Optimized WIF @ fd = 180 Hz

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

AT&T Labs

16-QAM 16-State ST Code with 2 Tx and 2 Rx Antennas @ fd = 180 Hz with Optimized WIF

100

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4 14 16 18 20 22 24

41

AT&T Labs

8-PSK 32-State ST Code with 2 Tx and 2 Rx Antennas @ fd = 180 Hz and Optimized WIF

100

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

AT&T Labs

17

ST Code + RS5, LPIF ST Code + RS5, Optimized WIF

16

15

14

13

42

AT&T Labs

20

ST code + RS5, LPIF ST code + RS5, Optimized WIF

19

18

17

AT&T Labs

13 ST code + RS5 and LPIF ST code + RS5 and Optimized WIF

12

11

10

43

AT&T Labs

30

DD Code + RS5, LPIF ST Code + RS5, LPIF DD Code + RS5, Optimized WIF ST Code + RS5, Optimized WIF

28

26

24

22

20

18

AT&T Labs

20 19

DD Code + RS5, LPIF ST Code + RS5, LPIF DD Code + RS5, Optimized WIF ST Code + RS5, Optimized WIF

18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

44

AT&T Labs

20

18

16

2 Tx 1 Rx, = 0 2 Tx 1 Rx, = 0.75 2 Tx 2 Rx, = 0 2 Tx 2 Rx, = 0.75

14

12

10

AT&T Labs

8-PSK 32-State ST Code with 2 Tx and 2 Rx Antennas and Optimized WIF @ fd = 180 Hz and 5 s delay spread (TU model)

100

10-1

10-2

10-3

ST code, 0 s delay spread ST code, 5 s delay spread ST code+RS5, 0 s delay spread ST code+RS5, 5 s delay spread

10-4 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

45

AT&T Labs

8-PSK 32-State Space-Time Code with Optimized WIF @ fd = 180 Hz and 5 s delay spread (TU model)

18

16

2 Tx 1 Rx, 0 s delay spread 2 Tx 1 Rx, 5 s delay spread 2 Tx 2 Rx, 0 s delay spread 2 Tx 2 Rx, 5 s delay spread

14

12

10

Performance Summary

AT&T Labs

DIVERSITY MODULATION & CODING 8PSK/CST 8PSK/CST 8PSK/CST 8PSK/CST DOPPLER SPREAD 10 Hz 10 Hz 180 Hz 180 Hz SNR FOR 55.8 KBPS (ST) 18.3 dB 11.2 dB 20.1 dB 11.8 dB SNR FOR 50.4 KBPS (ST+RS3) 17.3 dB 10.3 dB 17.6 dB 10.6 dB SNR FOR 46.8 KBPS (ST+RS5) 16.9 dB 10.1 dB 17.1 dB 10.2 dB

DIVERSITY

MODULATION DOPPLER & CODING SPREAD 16-QAM/CST 16-QAM/CST 16-QAM/CST 16-QAM/CST 10 Hz 10 Hz 180 Hz 180 Hz

46

AT&T Labs

! !

Narrowband TDMA Cellular. Broadband Wireless OFDM. Applications of STBC with Interference Suppression. Suppression

AT&T Labs

Burst 2

ST Encoder Information Source Block Encoder (Reed Solomon) IFFT IFFT

RF

RF

Burst 1

RF

IFFT

RF

IFFT

47

AT&T Labs

1 MHz bandwidth. 256 tones. ! QPSK 16-state ST code with 2 transmit antennas. ! 2-Ray fading channel model with equal strength. ! Ideal CSI. CSI 1.5 Mbps data rate (1.5 bits/sec/Hz) For 10% FER, FER an Eb/No between 2.72.7-4 dB is required (depending on delay spread). With 16-QAM, 4 Tx and 2 Rx antennas, 6 bits/sec /Hz is achievable. Can be used for downlink.

! !

Frame Error Probability for Concatenated Space-Time Coded OFDM with 4-PSK 16-State ST Code and 2 Tx and 2 Rx Antennas

100 0 s Delay Spread 5 s Delay Spread 40 s Delay Spread

10-1

10-2 5 6 7 8 9 10

AT&T Labs

! !

Narrowband TDMA Cellular. Broadband Wireless OFDM. Applications of STBC with Interference Suppression.

48

Increase Capacity

AT&T Labs

Channel Encoder

Modulator

Concatenated Encoder

Modulator

Channel Decoder

Concatenated Decoder

Outer FEC code provides immunity against channel errors. errors Inner STBC provides interference suppression and fading mitigation through transmit diversity.

Performance

AT&T Labs

FER Performance of 8-PSK with FEC + STBC and MMSE Interference Cancellation at 0 dB SIR

100

10-1

10-2

10-3

STBC Only STBC + RS(57,63) over GF(64) STBC + RS(53,63) over GF(64)

10-4 10

15

20

25

30

49

AT&T Labs

Modulator

Concatenated Encoder

Modulator

Channel Encoder R2

Modulator

Concatenated Encoder

Modulator

Throughput:

Performance

AT&T Labs

Throughput Performance of 8-PSK with STBC and Unequal Error Protection with RS(53,63)

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7

Throughput

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 R1= 1 and R2 =1 0.2 0.1 0.0 10 R1 = 53/63 and R2 = 1

15

20

25

50

Summary

AT&T Labs

! !

Space-Time coding: good idea with great potential. Current work in space-time coding:

Systematic design of space-time trellis codes. Multi-channel equalization for space-time coding. Applications of space-time coding to WCDMA.

51

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