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Denduation- wears down all rock masses exposed at land surface Mass wasting- particles produced by weathering move downhill under force of gravity. Rate of removal fastest for sedimentary, then slower for metamorphic and igneous. Denduation rates related to rock hardness, but also other lithological facturs such as fracturing, joiting, and permaebilty. Dip- angle formed between rock and horizontal plane. Strike- compass direction relative to north of the line formed by intersection of a rock layer with an imaginary horizontal plane. Plateau- broad platform capped by hard rock layers due to erosion stripping away successive rock layers. Mesa- essentially a small plateau bordered on all sides by steep rock faces. Butte- retreated from surrounding cliffs reducing the area of mesa form this, but it retains flat top. Sedimentary dome- circular or oval stucutre in which starata have been forced upward at its centre. Hogbacks- sharp crested saw tooth ridges, form through eroded edges of dipping strata Anticlinal valley- forms when rock has weakened and is bent upward. Synclinal mountain- can form where rock has been strengthened by compression Plunging anticline and plunging synclines- axis of folds not parallel to surface, thus rise to a zigzag line of ridges. Fault scarp- active normal faulting that produces as sharp surface break. Fault-line scarp- formed by differential erosion f rocks weakened by faulting. Monadnocks or inselbergs- small bodies of granite projection form underlying batholiths that are often surrounded by ancient metamorphic rocks formed when the granite was intruded. Volcanic neck- extinct stratavolcano that reduced to this, formed of lava that solidified in the pipe of the volcano. Weathering- general term applied to combined action of all processes that cause rock to disintegrate physically and decompose chemically due to conditions at or near the Earth’s surface.

granite bolders.loosens resulting blocks when comparatively weak stresses are applied Granular disintegration.important physical weathering processes in cold climates. Frost action. pressure. Occurs in igneous or metamorphic rock.similar to wearhting by ice crystal growth.loose gragment due to frost action Salt crystal growth. rock peels away in layers several meters thick. caused by repeated growth and melting of ice crystals in a pore spaces and cracks in a rock. hydrolysis and solution) Weathering lead to regolith—a surface layer of rock particles that lie above solid unaltered rock. Chemical weathering: rock mineral are transformed from those that were stable when rocks were initially formed into those that are stable under temperature.water can freeze and exert forces strong enough to spate of fractures which develop when rock has been subjected to heat and pressure and subsequently cools and contarcts. . Joints are important because they let water penetrate rock. Heating(expansion) and cooling(contraction) can cause weathering.Physical weathering.mineral alteration( main processes soxidation. but even then roots can breakup rocks. Chemical weathering. which can exert force through freeze thaw activity and salt crystal growth. Exfoliation. occurs in dry climates.if a sheeting structure forms over the top of a single large mass of rock then it produce this. Plants have more biochemical role in weathering than biophysical. which crumbles into sand.thick curved layer or shells of rock break free form the parent mass below. end product in fine gravel or coarse sand.process that relieves the confining pressure on a rock mass. Physical weather(mechanical) produces regolith by action of forces strong enough o fracture the rock. Joints. Two ways of bedrock disintegration Block separation. Exfoliation dome. and moisture conditions found at Earth’s surface(include oxidation. Unloading. salts breakdown sandstone. Talus. hydrolysis and carbonation). Kopje.rock fractured and broken apart without chemical alteration through things such as frost action expansions and contraction caused by changes in temperature and pressure form roots.

usually occurs when water percolates deep into a mass of unconsolidated material. In situ.upward pointing masses Columns Drip curtains Sinkhole.residual regolith forms this. humid climates. Carbonation. Colluvium.clay rich sediment . Soil creep.beneath the valley floor are layers of regolith. Soil father from scarp moves more rapidly. Carbonation results form dissolving action of carbonic acid.acculamtion of regolith at the foot of a slope. Slump. Alluvium.derived directly from the rock beneath moves slowly down the slope.hanging rods Stalagaimtes. a mass of moist soil and fine regolith may move down a steep slope. occurs without action of lowing water wind or moving ice. causing minerals to be removed in solution.are interconnected subterranean cavities in bedrock formed by the corrosive action of circulating ground water on limestone.slow process by which soil and reloith move extremely slowly downhill.gravity induces the spontaneous downslope movement of rock fragments. Residual Regolith.when things such as nitrogen oxide and sulphur dissolve in rain water.surface depression in a region of cavernous limestone. Mass wasting.Oxidation and hydrolysis change chemical structure of primary mineral making them into softer secondary minerals. causing ground above to sink Limestone caverns. Encrustions of travertine many forms 1) 2) 3) 4) Stalactities. Acid rain.small step like ridges formed through soil creep on grassy slopes. Earth flow.carbonic acid slowly itneacts with feldspars and other types of mienrals to form carbonates. Quick clays. Karst.caused when caverns collapse. Chemical weathering through acid action is mainly associated with carbonic acid.

the more fluid type of mudflow. Landslides can be either 1) Rockslides.jumbled bedrock fragments 2) bedrock slumps-most of bedrock remains more or less intact. Landslide.Mudflow.rapid sliding of large masses of bedrock or regolith Unlike mudflows and earth flows are triggered by earth tremors or sudden rock failures versus heavy rains or flood.a form of mass wasting.when snow or rain turn freshly fallen volcanic ash into muddy slurry that flows down flanks of volcano. . Debris flow. when streams of muddly fluid poru down canyonys inmountainous regions. Lahar.

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