Chapter 16 notes Running water(main), waves, glacial ice and wind are four fluid agents that

erode, transport and deposit mineral and organic matter. Denudation- total action of all processes that wear away exposed rock Fluvial landforms- shaped by running water, develop from fluvial processes of overland flow and stream flow. Overland flow- thin film of water or tiny rivulets that move across the ground. Precipitation reaches the ground either as through fall- drips from the vegetation, stem flow- that trickles along branches and down stems and trunks. Antecedent conditions- determine amount of water in soil prior to precipitation Water will be held in small depressions and behind obstructions such as twigs and leaves through surface retention and depression storage. Sheet erosion- because water is not concentrated in a well-defined channel as it entering small particles of mineral water Steep slope--- increases erosive power of water, allows more runoff to accumulate so increases the degree of scouring.

Well Structured soils with faster infiltration rates and higher levels of organic matter have a greater resistance to erosion. Properties that determine erodability such as soil aggregation and shear strength are affected by climatic factors Shear strength- maximum stress that can be sustained by a soil before the particles slide over each other along a failure surface. Changes considerably in short term period, especially due to soil moisture conditions. Determined by cohesive forces in fine textured soils Cohesion- intermolecular attractive force that acts between particles and binds them together. In moist solid water creates a negative pore water pressure, which increases cohesion, however in saturated soil positive pore water pressure develops which reduced cohesion and friction(by reducing the number and are of point of contact between grains Accelerated soil erosion- humans can do this, soil can be removed at a faster rate where vegetation cover has been disturbed or where there is a steep slope. Rain splash erosion- falling raindrops moves soil particles

distinct erosional features associated with abrasion Corrosion. changes as river depth changes. Colluvium.dragging and impact that can easily erode alluvial materials(gravel.if it reaches a stream and is transported downstream it will accumulate as this. Potholes. bouncing.when flowing water removes types of bedrock through chemical solution Stream load. or held in solution as ions. Stream transportation.movement of eroded particles dragged over the stream bed.) Alluvium.when land is steeply sloping.process by which transported fragments become chipped. and rounded and are reduced in size. Stream deposition.(sand. runoff from torrential rains can cut more pronounced channels .portion of cross sectional area of a river that is in contact with channel substrate. Gullies. Attrition. 3 ways of stream load 1)suspension-(finer particles)-turbulent motion of water holds these materails within the water column. broken.accumulation of transported particles on the stream bed and flood plain or on floor of a lake. Fraction of transported mateer is suspended load and is bulk of material coveyed by ricer 2) bed load. or dsliding along the channel floor.process of mechanical wear of channel materials. gravel and large particles). bedrock and regolith. sand and silt) Wetted perimeter. dissolved matter 386 .materails carried or transported by a stream. Stream erosion. Hydraulic action. suspended in body of stream. where it is temporarily held till carried to ocean.where all soil materials come to rest and accumulate(at base of slope.rolling.Vegetation helps avoid soil erosion. Rill erosion. Abrasion.if rills are not destroyed they join together into these large channels.progressive removal of mineral material from the floor and sides of the channel.

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