Chapter 17 notes: Aeolian processes- work of wind in terrestrial environments, includes erosion, transport and deposition of Earth materials

Ability of wind to carry out geomorphological work is related to density of air, velocity of air and size and quantity of mineral particles being moved. Laminar sub layer- zone of little or now wind, thickness depends on roughness of surface. Laminar flow is replaced by turbulent flow in the lowest few meters of atmosphere. Threshold velocity- velocity required to entrain a particle of a given diameter, increases as square root of particle size Thus larger particles require more wind. Wind erosivity- the ability of wind to erode Terminal fall velocity- maximum rate at which a wind transported particle settles through the air Smallest and lightest particles are held in suspension Traction- how larger particles move(sand) Saltation- process by which sand particles follow curving paths determined by horizontal wind velocity and force of gravity, accounts for 75 to 80 percent of sediment transport by wind. Deflation- dust picked up by wind is removed form surface, it is fundamental process of Aeolian erosion. Induced deflation- occurs when short grass cover in a semi arid region is cultivated. Deflation hollow- typical landform produced by deflation is a this shallow depression. Desert payment- rock fragments are progressively concentrated on the surface eventually form this. Hammada- desert surface from which wind has removed most of the regolith, leaving only bedrock surfaces scattered with large rocks. Abrasion- particles moved by wind are effective at wearing away exposed rock surfaces(erosion) Ventifacts- rocks that have been shaped by abrasive action of wind. Dreikanters- stones with triangular appearance due to three curved facets. Sand dune- any mound of loose a sand modeled by wind, most commonly composed of quartz.

Star dunes.how water returns to sea.long shore drift and beach drift act together to move particles in same direction.occurs when sand is removed more rapidly than it is brought in .wher softer rock will acumalte. narrow form with parallel sides.dunes take form of wavelike ridges separated by trough like furrows. Progradation.develop where sand supply is more limited. results in narrowing of the beach. opposite curvature of barchans dunes.characterized by a curving dune crest that is bowed outward in downwind direction. with slip faces on three or more sides.pyramidal sand mounds. Fetch. Hairpin dune.deposits of wind transported silt that has settled out from dust storms. Cover beach grass and other sever environments. Retro gradation. 2)Backwash.widening of beach. Coastline. form as long narrow ridges parallel to drieciton of prevailing wind.shallow water zone in which waves perform their work. Longshore drift.drawing the dune into a long. as well as beaches and cliffs shaped by waves and costal dunes. Traverse dunes. Loess. Coastal foredunes.powerful surge that moves materials toward land.steep bank. 2 components of beach drift 1)Swash.a narrow belt of dunes in the form of irregularly shaped hills and depressions typically develops on the landward side of sand beaches. Marine scarp.shifting line of contact between water and land. like ocean waves creates are aligned at right angles to the direction of dominant wind. Pocket beach.common type of sand dune that develops perpendicular to the wind. generally has a uniform yellowish color and is deposited as a homogenous mass with no apparent stratification.long shore current carries sand along seabed at an angle set up parallel to the shore. . Parabolic dunes. They grow in height rather than move laterally. which radiate from high central point. Shoreline. littoral drift. Longitudinal dunes.distance of open water over which the wind acts.Bacchan dune.

occurs where steep walle dgalcial trough have beensubmerged to produce long. Semidiurnal lunar tide.two high tides and two low tides. Fjord coast. Lagoon. but tidal ranges are not equial. narrow inlets of sea. .Gravitational component of sun’s tide generating force is about 46% of that of the moon. Salt marsh.greatest at point on Earth directly beneath moon(sub solar point) Antipodal point.formed when down faulted zone is flooded.which have greatest range between high and low water.mud flats slowly build up to approximately the level of high tide. Geoid.point farthest from moon.are more or less circular coral reefs enclosing a lagoon.lie offshore and are separated from mainland by a lagoon. two high tides and two low tides each lunar tide. Spring tide.forms when sediment laden rivers enter the sea. Fault coast. Period of 12. but have no island inside. Emergence.42horus.refers to the shape of the earth that would assume if it were entirely covered with water and responding to the forces acting upon it. Submergence. Mixed tide.built as platforms attached to shore Barrier reefs.type of coastline formed when two valleys submerge.coast forms when underwater landforms are exposed by a drop in sea level or when earth’s crust is elevated. Delta. Neap tides. most built on foundation of volcanic rock. Lunar gravitational force.one high tide and one lwo tide. Fringing reefs. Atolls.broad expanse of shallow water that is filled in places with tidal deposits.tidal range between and high and low water is at lowest Diurnal tide. moon’s gravity weakest.

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