TM
5381029420
C1
CHANGE
No.
1
"\
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, DC, 8 January 1982
/
Organizational Maintenance Manual
CRANESHOVEL, TRUCK MOUNTED; 3/4 CUBIC YARD; 20 TON; WITH CLAMSHELL, DRAGLINE, AND BACKHOE
ATTACHMENTS;
G.E.D.
(HARNISCHFEGER CORP MODEL NSN 3810001514431
M320T2)
I
TM 5381029420, 5 April 1974,
is
changed as follows:
Page Page
/v,
1
272.
following number 272 add the following: Air cleaner service 284.
Automotive
Warren,
Command,
48090.
ATTN:
DRSTAMBP,
MI
A
reply will be furnished to you.
v, following number 2105 add the following: 2105.1 Adjusting front and rear drum brakes. 2110. 21 10. 2105.2 Location of chains and chain shafts
. .
Page
(3)
23;
paragraph 24e(3). Following subparagraph
add.
CAUTION
When
reeving a three or more part line, position the cable outside the boom point cable
Page
4
11.
TM
Paragraph 14 74090 1".
line 1.
Change
t4
TM
7480901" to
Paragraph
15
is
superseded as follows.
guards. This will prevent the cable dragging on the inside rear of the guards.
15.
Reporting Errors and Recom
Page
225,
paragraph
210<z.
Warning
is
superseded as
follows.
mending Improvements
help improve this manual. If you find any if you know of a way to improve the proor mistakes 2028 cedures, please let us know. Mail your letter or
WARNING
DA
not transport crane with the clamshell bucket, the dragline attachments, or the
piledriver front end installed.
You can
Do
(Recommended Changes Forms) direct to: Commander,
to
Publications and
US Army
Blank Tank
Page
226, Section
V
is
superseded as follows.
CD
c
I
I
.2 "5
I
oo
\
Page
225. Table 21 is superseded as follows.
Table 2.1. Organizational Preventive Maintenance Checks
and Services (CRANE)
QQuarterly
SSemiannually
AAnnualhy
BBknnially
HHours MIMiks
Page
paragraph 278. Subparagraph b is superseded as follows. Removal. Refer to figure 272 and remove the air b.
284,
c.
Service. Refer to figure 272.1
and
service the air
cleaner.
d.
Replacement. Refer to figure 272 and replace
cleaner.
the air cleaner.
Subparagraphs c and d are added as follows.
PRINTED BY
0. J, CLAY, M.A. AND SONS, AT THE UNIVERSITY PBESS.
:
igures 2105.1
and 2105.2 are added
as follows.
JAM NUTS" AMD ADJUST SPPING '*DJ' v". $#5 UNTIL BRA^'E SANDS DO NC HIDE L  .'F&ONT DRUM AND KEAr :KM
"
"
f

(
Y
'
'.'
.
'
^tiCK Att.JUbTMNl BYMfTif.r,
'.rit
if\
i'^.:'
CSCOrJO. HOLD
'
Bi
L
i'
;
'fu
B'OftUM BRAKE
V
AND
SfcE
3PAf

C
.^MKtV*,^H^H
,
t
Figure 2105.
1.
Adjusting from and tear
drum
hrakes.
Man
Umfange zu
hat aber erst angefangen die Gesetze der Elasticitat in ihrem ganzen studiren ; bei jedem Schritte stosst man in diesen Untersuchungen auf
Verwickelung.
neue Eigenschaften der elastischen Kdrper; je welter man vorgeht desto mehr Bei solchen Umstanden ist wohl in diesem Augenblick keine v6Uig
Kupffer.
abgesohlossene Arbeit fiber irgend eine Eigenschaft der elastischen Korper moglich.
I cannot doubt but that these things, which now seem to us so mysterious, will be no mysteries at all that the scales will fall from our eyes ; that we shall learn to look on things in a different way when that which is now a difficulty will be the
;
only commonsense
and
intelligible
way
of looking at the subject.
Lord Kelvin.
Works
of
of this nature form, as
interest of
it
mankind, the
which we
were, the principal fund of the science property may turn to further profit. might
We
compare them to a capital invested in land. Like the soil, of which landed property consists, the knowledge stored up in these catalogues, lexicons, etc., may have but slender attractions for the vulgar, the man unacquainted with the subject can have no idea of the labour and cost at which the soil has been prepared the work of the
;
husbandman appears to him
terribly toilsome, tedious
and clumsy.
But although
the work of the lexicographer and physical science cataloguer calls for the same painful and persevering industry as the labour of the husbandman, we must not
assume that the work itself is of an inferior character, or that it is and mechanical as it at first appears when we have the catalogue or lexicon ready printed before us. For it is necessary in such compilations that all the isolated facts should be selected by careful observation, and afterwards tested and compared with one another, the essential sifted from the unessential, and all this it is plain, he only can efficiently accomplish who has clearly conceived the end and aim of his work, and the scope and method of the branch of science which it concerns but for such an one each minute detail will have its own peculiar interest from its position in relation to the whole science of which it is a part. Were it not so, such work would indeed be the worst kind of mental drudgery it were possible to
therefore hastily
as dry
;
conceive.
von Helmlioltz.
Page 2114,
figure 2107
is
superseded as follows.
STEP 1. STEP 2.
STEP 3. STEP 4.
LOOSEN LOCKNUTS (4) WHICH SECURE ADJUSTING BOLTS (4). TURN ADJUSTING BOLTS OUT OF CONTACT WITH CLUTCH BANDS. CLUTCH BANDS MUST BE CENTERED IN CLUTCH DRUM. USE ADJUSTING BOLTS (4) AND A FEELER GAGE TO CENTER CLUTCH. BANDS. TIGHTEN LOCKNUTS. LOOSEN LOCKNUT ON CYLINDER ROD. TURN CYLINDER ROD OUT UNTIL A PULL OF 15 TO 20 POUNDS ON A SPRING SCALE IS NEED TO ENGAGE THE CLUTCH. TIGHTEN LOCKNUT.
ADJUSTING BOLT
ADJUSTING OLTS{2)
LOCKNUT
CYLINDER
ROD
LOCKNUT
ADJUSTING BOLT
CLUTCH
BRAKE
DRUM
CLUTCH RANDS
NOTE:
ONLY STEPS 3 AND 4 ABOVE ARE NECESSARY TO ADJUST FOR LINING WEAR. USE COMPLETE PROCEDURE ONLY WHEN TA0723IO CLUTCH HAS BEEN REMOVED AND REPLACED.
Figure 2107. Adjusting front and rear
drum
clutch.
viii
PREFACE.
said that without a thorough study of their writings, it is
sible to
impos
be an accomplished elastician, or to follow without great Their memoirs research. difficulty the drift of modern elastical
and
treatises
form the frame, which the Editor had hoped he
fill
might be able to
to,
up by
briefer accounts of the discoveries
due
useful workers in perhaps, less distinguished but none the less the same field. This process of filling up is only completed for
the years 185060, but the Editor ventures to think that the
reader of his Chapter
be surprised at the wealth of material, theoretical, technical and physical, which was brought to
will
XL
light in that decade.
Many
facts
have been discovered, more,
till
perhaps, rediscovered since 1860, but
the last few years
it
may
be doubted whether any period has been more fruitful of genuine
progress in the science of elasticity than these ten years.
The number
of the
memoirs included in
this
volume by no
means measures the work of preparation it has involved. The study and analysis of many memoirs not included in its contents
had
to
be undertaken.
But the
chief task has been the verifica
tion of the analysis
memoirs.
of all the more important mathematical In some cases the whole of this analysis has been
wvo,
IJJJLCO
occasionally
with
different
results.
As
ot
3arth,
on the figure of may the whole of Winkler's work on the strained form of
cite Resal's researches
this I
and Lord Kelvin's analysis of the strains produced by the tides in an elastic earth. In all the work of
xinks of chains,
verification,
not only of others' analysis but of
selfsacrificing
my
own, I have
had the most
and devoted assistance from Mr. C.
Chree of King's College, Cambridge. Without his aid not only would this volume have been much longer but I delayed,
veritably
shudder to think of the blunders which would certainly have thanks are due to escaped my unaided revision. My him, not as
to
a mere friendly proofreader, but as to one whose cooperation in the task of editing has given the volume the major portion of any
freedom from error
it
may
possess.
I trust that
many
serious
Page 2124. Figure 2115
is
superseded as follows.
STEP 1. STEP 2.
STEP 3. STEP 4.
LOOSEN LOCKMUTS WHICH SECRUE ADJUSTING BOLTS. TURN ADJUSTING BOLTS OUT OF CONTACT WITH CLUTCH BAND. CLUTCH BAND MUST BE CENTERED IN CLUTCH DRUMS. USE ADJUSTING BOLTS AND A FEELER GAGE TO CENTER CLUTCH BAND. TIGHTEN LOCKNUTS. LOOSEN LOCKNUT ON CYLINDER ROD. TURN CYLINDER ROD OUT UNTIL A PULL OF 15 TO 20 POUNDS ON A SPRING SCALE IS NEEDED' TO ENGAGE THE CLUTCH. TIGHTEN LOCKNUT ON CYLINDER ROD.
NOTE:
ONLY STEPS 3 AND 4 ABOVE ARE NECESSARY TO ADJUST FOR LINING WEAR. USE COMPLETE PROCEDURE ONLY WHEN CLUTCH HAS BEEN REMOVED AND REPLACED.
CLUTCH BAND
ADJUSTING
ADJUSTING
BOLTS (2)
BOLTS (2)
CYLINDER
ROD
LOCKNU"
TA0723I3
doom
Figure 2115. Adjusting
hoist clutch.
PREFACE.
Clebsch's Treatise
arises chiefly
all
from two causes.
In the
first
place
Dr Todhunter omitted
or technical branches of our subject,
memoirs dealing with the physical and more than a third of the
present volume will be found to deal with physical or technical
problems.
falls
In the second place a
still
larger portion of the
work
beyond the period to which
Dr Todhunter had
carried his
researches.
to the
On this point I may, perhaps, be permitted to refer remarks I have made in the preface to The Mastical
:
Researches of Barrd de SaintVenant, and content myself here with citing from them the following words
...it
has seemed to
me
that the best memorial to the
first
Cambridge
historian of mathematics
would be that the
last history bearing his
name
usefulness will, I
should have the widest possible That sphere of usefulness. am firmly convinced, be best obtained by its com
prehensive character, by its attempt to be a Repertorium of elasticity rather than an Historique AbregZ of its purely mathematical side.
For the Index to the present volume I alone
In a work
of this
is
am
it
responsible.
comprehensive
a
first
character a complete
and
systematic index
necessity.
To prepare
fulfil
is
a duty
which experience has taught
as the writer of a book.
me
no one can
so efficiently
University patience with which they have submitted to the in the delay publication of this and the kindness with which History, they have permitted these
Lastly, I have to express the great sense of the indebtedness I feel to the Syndics of the Press for the
volumes
to
grow
so
much beyond my
original estimate.
all
Should
the reader complain that the work after
remains a fragment,
fall on the shoulders of the Editor, who much underestimated the extent of his material and overestimated his own powers, when he reported to the Syndics nine
then the blame must
years ago
on the original manuscript.
KARL PEARSON.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON,
June
7,
1893.
Table 41. Organizational Preventive Maintenance Checks
and Services (CARRIER)
HHours
MiMiles
QQuarterly
SSemiannually
AAnnually
BBiennially
Page
418.
Following paragraph 438&(2).
Add
the
Page B/J, group 3101, column (3)H. Change "F"
to
following: b.\. Refer to paragraph 278 for servicing of air cleaner.
"O".
Page
27.
Group 3201, column
maintenance
function
standard.
(3)A.
Add "O"
to
to indicate
Page A 1. Paragraph A5. Change 9261020020".
Paragraph A6.
and
"1.5"
indicate
time
"TM
918701" to
"TM
Change "TB 740932" to "TB 740972" and "TB 740931" to "TM 740901".
Group 3202. Column (3)A. Add "O"
function and "1.5"
to indicate maintenance
to indicate time standard.
Column
(3)H. Change
"F"
to
"O".
11
*TM 5381029420
TECHNICAL
MANUAL)
)
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.
ORGANIZATIONAL MAINTENANCE MANUAL
C.,
No. 5381029420
5 April 1974
CRANESHOVEL, TRUCK MOUNTED; 3/4 CUBIC YARDS;
20 TON; WITH CLAMSHELL, DRAGLINE AND BACKHOE
ATTACHMENTS;
GJ.D. (HARNISCHFEGR CORP MODEL
M320T2]
(HARN1SCHFEGER CORP MODB. M320T2)
FSN 38101514431
Paragraph
Pa*e
PART
ONE.
1.
I.
CRANE (REVOLVING FRAME)
INTRODUCTION
General
Description and data
CHAPTER
Section
II.
11 16
11
11
CHAPTER
Section
2.
ORGANIZATIONAL MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS
Service upon receipt of material
I.
21
.
IL
III.
Movement
to a
new
worksite
tools,
210
212 215 217  219 221 225 231 234 236 249
^
251
21 225
Repair parts, special
and equipment
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
Lubrication instructions Preventive maintenance checks and services
Troubleshooting
225 225 226 227
230 231
X.
XL
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
XV. XVI.
XVIL
XVIII.
XIX.
XX.
XXL
XXII.
XXIIL XXIV. XXV. XXVI.
XXVII.
k
1
XXVIII XXIX.
Radio interference suppression Maintenance of shovel front attachment Maintenance of backhoe attachment Maintenance of piledriver attachment Maintenance of crane, dragline, and clamshell attachments Maintenance of hull wiring harness Maintenance of lights, batteries, and miscellaneous items Maintenance of instrument control assembly' JL*Jli_fi Maintenance of horn, wiring, and tachometer gage Maintenance of exhaust muffler and pipes Maintenance of cab assembly Maintenance of gantry assembly Maintenance of accessory items Maintenance of hydraulic system Maintenance of engine cooling system Maintenance of engine transmission assembly and propeller shaft Maintenance of engine fuel system Maintenance of enqtfne coaling svstem accessaries Maintenance of engine electrical system Maintenance of engine assembly and mechanical acessories Maintenance of craneshovel and earth working equipment Maintenance of counterweight Maintenance of miscellaneous items
,
240
241
24
2
n
2
2D*
254
256 259 261 264 266 269 273 275 277 285 287 294 2102 2115 2117
255 255 256 259 260 262
269 282 284 292 294 2102 2109 2137 2138
"This manual supcrstcto
TM 5381029420, 12 May
1971 Including
oil
change.
ERRATA. 1. 125. 5524 were written at a very different date to Arts. p. . 7. 382 and 640. 2. p. and the footnote p. PABT p. Arts. 2. 113. a^du/dr read Uydufdr. p. 114. 3 and 4. 1. pp. from bottom dele reference to Hopkins. 79. for SojG read S O /AC. L 1. 2w for 2*. L 1. in first bodystress equation of sphere read p. however. L 19. 410. and the facts stated in the latter had escaped me. 13. Phillips's analysis for the case of a doubly builtin girder has : been shown by Bresse and SaintVenant to be in error see our Arts. must be modified in this sense. from top for w on lefthand side of equation read for 10. footnote for colatitude read latitude. 381. for neutral line read neutral axis. 5. : add to footnote see. I. 37981. for central axis read central line. p. 3. p. 11. p. 380. our Art. 381 and 540. 4 of footnote. 26. 68. from top for i=843462/mu 2 & 2/3 read 1T= 843462^rw26 2/3. p. 244.
. installation and removal Backhoe auxiliary gantry suspension reeving Backhoe digging cable reeving Backhoe hoist cable reeving z~ 1 Shovel drum lagging crowd sprocket lagging *>t>\ ~" <2 Installation Crowd chain tightener Cribbing shovel boom assembly Shovel boom installation _____________________________________________________________________ Crowd and retract cable reeving Digging hoist cable reeving 21 2 ~ 22 Boom hoist cable reeving 2" 25 Dipper trip cable reeving ___________________________________________________________________ Radio interference suppression resistor and capacitor removal and replacement 247 248 Adjusting saddle block Rake angle and retract cable adjustment Dipper trip cable adjustment _______________________________________________________________ Dipper latch bar adjustment _______________________________________________________________ Crowd chain idler sprocket ______________________________________ Crowd chain direction and travel viewed from above while entering drive sprocket in crowd out direction Chain repair and replacement ______________ _________________________________________________ Dipper trip wiring diagram _________________________________________________________________ Dipper trip magneto switch removal _________________________________________________________ Shovel dipper removal and installation _______________________________________________________ Dipper teeth removal and replacement ______________________________________________________ Cable roller and boom point sheaves service _________________________________________________ Cable guide rollers removal _________________________________________________________________ Hook block _________________________________________________________________________________ Bridle assembly.______ ~~ ____________ .2_$ Guy cables...2.2_ 12 Assembling piledriver lead sections Piledriver lead and adapter installation Piledriver reeving diagram Cribbing prepared for backhoe boom assembly.. 2~34 2. front threequarter Truckmounted crane.____ *. model M320T2. _____________ attachment^ rear threecfuarter view 13 14 21 22 23 24 25 Crane engine ________ 16 Crane (revolving frame) wiring diagram .U Dragline reeving diagram .IIIIII ________ 22 . installation (sheet 2 of 2) 24 25 Boom Boom ^ Boom Main hoist line reeving 2_7 Securing cable to drum  ^ hoist line reeving 2_9 Tagline winder installation . installation (sheet 1 of 2) . replace and repair _________________________________________________________ Jib and jib strut removal and replacement Boom hoist cable lower spreader connection removal and replacement ___ _____ .   ~~ ~~~ ~II_ ^ ^ 15 Connecting boom sections Installing boom foot pins ~ ~  26 26 27 28 28 29 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 backstop installation (sheet 1 of 2) .Separately packed components _ 23 Alternator and water pump belt tension adjustment installation Cribbing prepared for boom assembly and .boom angle indicator installation 2_5 Guy cables._______ _______ ..TM LIST Part 5381029420 OF ILLUSTRATIONS Crane (Revolving Frame! Paff* One 1_1 12 attachment. with crane._ 28 2 1Q Fairlead installation . with crane dimensions and shipping view. Truckmounted crane. model 320T2.of 2 2) installation (sheet backstop 2_5 Crane.35 2" 36 236 237 "238 239 2~40 241 242 24 3 243 244 246 _ __ 247 in .__ .
il constate. . il offre un nouvel pratique. actuellement connus de 1'analyse 1 mathmati<pe. and 71 same published candidate for the Institut. 19 et tifres scientifiques 31. This work together with one of the 80. termed in has been torsion Clebsch Das by particular problem j~ cu. [2. qui utiliser tous les precedes veulent s'appuyer sur cette the*orie. SaintVenant accordingly proposes the adoption of a mixed method (mdthode mixte ou semiinverse).Venant was again a in 1864.Venant himself will be found in Notice sur les The A : travaux pp. 74).^4 Venantsche Problem (Theorie der Elastioitdt. and gives an chapter occupies pp. But the to find the shifts when the stresses arc given has not been generally solved. Pimportance de la de la me*thode mixte. Paris. because we do not yet know how to integrate the differential equations which present themselves.] The memoir itself is principally occupied with the torsion This of prisms. me*rite des eloges et les re*sultats nouveaux qu'il oflre & plus d'un titre par les nombres : aux arts industriels. which consists in assuming a part of the shifts and a part of the stresses. dans ce genre de arriver & des re*sultats imme*diatement applicables a la la varied de ses points de vue. . et ses modeles en relief . de SaintVenant. gives an excellent r&umg of our shall refer to them author's researches previous to 1864. Problem. second report gives a succinct account by Saint. 988. unie a celle de exemple de ce que peat Hng&iieur. il la marclie qu'il faut ne"cessairement suivre. enfin.) account of the memoir. 233 of the the sketch memoir. S. They represent much better than the poor woodcuts of the original memoir the distortion of the various crosssections. and then determining by an exact analysis what the remaining 1 shifts and the remaining model cases Copies of these numerous models are at present deposited in the mathematical at University College. a great variety of crosssections being dealt with. and Notice II. If the values contents of introductory of the shifts of the several points of an elastic body arc given the 3. une theorie de Wquffibre d'elasticite" fois de plus.Le travail dont nous venous de rendre compte. The 236 . title de M. par faire la science du ggometre. We briefly as Notice I. (p. when Saint. : iu: ing him we shall term it SaintVenanfs consists of thirteen chapters. 1858. par donne recherches. il Temploi par indique comment peuvent les inge*nieurs. ses epures. pour ses tables. The first stresses inverse problem can be easily found by simple differentiation.
removal and replacement Intake and exhaust manifolds. and front drum safety pawl adjustment^ I 2135 Toggle linkage adjustment 2_{36 Adjusting front and rear drum brake pedal retunTsprTng "tension 2137 Counterweight removal and replacement IIIIIIIIIIII 2138 Boom Boom Boom Part 31 Two Carrier " 32 33 34 34 41 Carrier Carrier Carrier Carrier Carrier engine hydraulic steering system air brake system HIIIITIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 2) 2) olo o_ 4 I wiring diagram (sheet 1 of wiring diagram (sheet 2 of II IIII I. and replacement II 2>133 Boom hoist planetary pawls I 2134 Boom hoist drum.__ 425 . removal and replacement 2425 Swing brake adjustment __~_III I 2126 Reversing shift chain. removal and replacein^TIIir. removal. removal and replacement Engine clutch adjustment Not used Chain case Control identification (sheet 1 of 2) Control identification (sheet 2 of 2) Adjusting front and rear drum clutch . exploded view'IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIH Engine hood assembly removal and replacemenTI 12 ^ ~ 4 13 Windshield wiper motor removal and replacement (sheetTof 2) Windshield wiper motor removal and replacement (sheet 2 of 2) Radiator removal and replacement Thermostat housings. removal and Fuel tank removal and replacement Fuel lines and fittings replacement i ar U t0r adiustment removal and 'replacement ? JT *uel fiit *ervice and fuel pump removal and replacement IIH and throttle control. rear drum. removal and replacement Oil pressure sender removal and replacement Horn button removal and replacement Seat installation 37 IIIIIIII /j! _ """ A in 4 ~ 10 4 ~ 11 Carrier cab assembly. removal and replacement IIIIIIIIIIII~III. removal. 21*16 2117 2112 2113 2114 2115 2116 2117 2118 2119 2120 2121 2122 2123 2124 2125 2126 2127 2128 2129 removal or replacement 2118 hoist brake adjustment I 2119 hoist clutch removal and replacement 2120 hoist brake band removal and replacement _ 2122 Adjusting boom hoist clutch IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIITIIII 2424 Swing brake shoes. and repair and pipes muffler removal and replacement % . 2106 2407 2<108 2409 2410 I_ 2112 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 2113 2414 2115 HI Bear drumshaft brake band removal and replacement Rear drumshaft clutch band removal and replacement Adjusting reversing shaft clutch or horizontal swing shaft clutch ^Reversing shift clutch or horizontal swing shaft clutch.TM 538102*420 Title 2100 2101 2102 2103 2104 2105 2106 2106 2107 2108 2109 2110 2111 Full flow Oil cooler oil filter and external oil lines._I I_ 2427 Rear drum chain case removal and replacement _ 2128 Rear drum drive chain removal and replacement 2129 Horizontal swing shaft chain removal and replacement II IIIIIIIIIIIIIII"! 2130 Hook roller removal and replacement _ I 21S1 Hook roller adjustment II IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII.IIIIIIIIT IIIIIIII_IIIIIII I II ~~ 3 e 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 410 411 1 Jo 4i^ 413 414 415 416 417 Radio interference suppression resistor and capacitor. removal and replacement Engine control panel removal and replacement Trailer coupling removal and replacement Oil temperature sender removal and replacement Water temperature sender. .. ^ . ~ I 2432 Swing lock assembly adjustment. removal and I replacement Thermostat removal and replacement "Till 7 111? Engine Engine air cleaner. replacement.^ belt and pulley arrangement.
) or the full discussion of the generalised "Hooko's Law in his edition of Clelsch In fact the liucwirity of this (pp. yy . . zy cos rV\ ~ +^ zz \ wsyy coses/ areas. 254 a generalisation of the expression for is obtained. 2468). zx> xy. 3941). rarieonstant elastician as he has always been retains the multiconstant formulae remarking demathematiques : . easily obtained by the orthogonal projection of stress SaintVenant next proceeds to express the relations between strain (pp.) stressdefinition 6789* From will find it interesting to follow the evolution of the * by comparing this with Arts. 255262). la rfoultante de toutes les actions des molecules situJes de ce cdte* f les directions traversent dont et cette cdte du les mowcules swr face . Stress Nous appellerons done en corps separation petite face plane de deux corps. y. 257). 2: see Appeal made to Cauchy (Ewcicr* our Art. I H (^ { cos r'x' 7 f yx coscca? + cos rV ^ + yz yy o s r'z'\ cos/2/ \ cos^/y cos r'y' coso/ . A 257261) iv. (e) defined from the molecular standpoint as follows : We 248 254. intermodular t. Moigno's Statique dilatations et des glissements pressions taut qu'ih sont treats the fonctionx tresprf/ifx long footnote (pp. swr un des deux cdtes tfune ou a la limite de Pintdrieur d*un un mme point pour les composer ensemble. 253 prr is our Arts. stressstrain relations is obtained in the text by assumption Arhwtlon* done avec tout le monde que les nont /tumim d?ft . toutes ces forces dtant wiagMe a g&ie'ral Pression. p. 056*) for the reduction of the 36 coefficients to 15. 248. : rr1 ^ = cos <rx Ixx ^ cos r'x' + _. It cannot be said that this portion of his work is so satisfactory as the later treatment in and^ (see p. d be lines normal respectively to the Then in our notation planes yz. Saint. 616* and 1563* this definition Saint. In a footnote to p. 268 et seq. oppose*. 426*. * cos mJ . consistent.for small shifts in terms of the shiftFinally the strain is expressed There is reference in a footnote to the strainfluxions (pp. matter from the standpoint is action. and let x' 9 y'. z to be any three concurrent but non deduces Cauch/s theorems (see P rectangular lines. I + The proof () is cos rz cos2! f 7 (^ zx I cos COB rV ^ + xx . of central (p. 606* and 610*) and an expression for P.Venant On p. cos rV + x ^ f C(>s ' rV\ cos xx \ cos ry 1 7 ( cos xx 7 xy cos . Suppose x. however. The reader supposes transporters parall&lement a ellesmSmes sur (p. .Venant. 1618*).. is next pass to an analysis of stress on pp. erroneously printed for p^. values for large shifts (see our Art. 440 7 546*.
Destruction of 11. Identification a. Scope a. AND DATA Tabulated Data. c. Numbers in parentheses You can improve tion to errors directly to 12. A more deplates are in tailed description of specific components and assemblies is contained in the applicable sections A Crane Harnischfeger Corporation TM Manufacturer Model (2) M320T2 (fig. b. Section II. It provides information on the maintenance services allocated to Organizational Maintenance by the Mainte Army Material to Prevent Enemy Use 7502443 for procedures for deRefer to struction of equipment to prevent enemy use. Louis. St. 14. Horsepower Intake valve tappet clearance (hot) Exhaust valve tappet clearance (hot) hp at 1800 rpm full load 17.S.026 inch 450. Displacement 0. A reply will be furnished direct to you.9 cubic inches 11 I . TM nance Allocation Chart (MAC).5 net descriptions vided in the applicable maintenance paragraphs of this manual.026 inch Identification Plates. U. Maintenance forms and records that you are required to use are explained in TM 38750.024to0. using DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications) or by letter.7M 5381029420 PART ONE CRANE (REVOLVING FRAME) 1 CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Section I. Missouri. This manual contains instructions for the use of personnel to whom the Model M320T2 TruckMounted Crane is issued. This manual is divided into two parts. DESCRIPTION b. 63120. Refer to TM 15. Army Mobility Command. Maintenance personnel should read the instructions provided in both parts of this manual before operating or servicing the equipment. Detailed Company U450 Top dead center 6 92. ATTN: AMSMEMPP. 4300 Goodfellow Boulevard. Numbers preceding nomenclature callouts on illustrations indicate the preferred maintenance sequence.024to0. 11 and 12) and of its identification 5381029410. Crane engine 13) Manufacturer Model Ignition timing Number of cylinders International Harvester of the are the crane of truckmounted procomponents of this mahual. and Tabulated Data 0. Reporting of Errors this manual by calling attenand by recommending improvements. Part One primarily concerns maintenance of the crane (revolving frame) portion of the truckmounted crane. (1) . and mail on illustrations indicate quantity. Refer to TM 53810 29410. Administrative Storage 7480901 for information concerning administrative storage. GENERAL 13. Maintenance Forms and Records Equipment Commander. Description general description of the truckmounted crane (figs.
276 Saint. with six independent constants... On p.h sin 2/3) 4 0 ^TT si* 2/3 h cos 2/s) o Obviously.. and for the traction perpendicular to the planar system the expression IKX = asx + bs + csz + eo..Yenant refers to the experiments and remarks of Regnault. (v). 272 8 we have deductions of the body. Such is substantially Saint. 332*... It is obvious.. les fers ^tire's ou forge's... shiftfluxions. peuvent presenter des <51asticit^s diffe'rentes en divers sens..stress equations. that this result follows at once when a known problem as to where^ and ^ 2 a the invariants of a conic is applied to the workfunction. : On pp.. Nonseulement les corps grenus ou vitreux. equations to if we take tan 2j& = /" 6 orffl>'J 3 we reduce this last pair of ^=/iWl .. (/+ e) p.. 272 (t) bearing on the uniconstant controversy : A may be reproduced as 1'isotropie paralt rare.+ ~r~ + ~r~^i an d expressing tne strain in terms of the ..Yenant' s reduction..6 Substitute from in SAINTVENANT...KX +/cr y doyz + w iC?/ . (i) [4 (iii) and then the values so deduced in (ii).. mais de la surface au centre apres leur fusion.h = 0.. He takes for the shears the expressions found in Equation (v) above. refroidis bois. S> = 6 1 are roots of the quadratic //. he finds : .. (K) the bodyshift equations and the surface stress equations... 978* and 1227*. Substituting in the bodystress oquar d'xx dxz dUcy tion =.... We obtain sin 2/J + Acos 20 2 = tt^ cos 2/3 . however. tels ciue Saint...Yenant deduces the bodyshift equation for a planar distribution of elasticity such as he requires for his torsion problem. Savart and Poncelet already noted in our first volume see Arts. +fe .. remark as to isotropy on p.. mme les corps fibreux.
TM 5381029420 S M I a S * E e 3 13 .
He attributes to Mariotte the first recognition of this fact "que c'est 1 qui fait rompre les corps'' and remarks that degre although it is legitimate. to take a traction the stretchlimit given by T=Es where s is the stretchlimit and modulus. and occasionally convenient. sixieme et troisiome alin6a du second dixcunrn. at the te d' extension E point in question. mais qu'il ne reprdsente que qudquefois et non toujowrs FefFort int&ieur ou la pression supported normalement par sa section transversale pendant qu'il fait partie du corps. ordinates. Et cette sorte de notation est sans inconvenient si Pou n'oublie pay quo repr&ente svnvplewmt le produit J. dangerous Our author begins by noticing that the proper limit to be (c) taken for the stability of a material is a stretch and not a fraction limit.min. T need not be the stress across any plane. [5 It is to be so small that their squares may be neglected. ou la force capable de donner (aussi par unitd superficielle) & ce m&ne petit prisme suppos^ isole*. or Tmitt du nwwvement des eaux. in other words he takes where sat sy s& are three constants to be determined by experiment. : T The stretch in any direction being given by the equation (i) (d) above. before a set is reached.8 slides SAINTYENANT. then = 0. (p. this might not be allowable. we have next to ask what in an aeolotropic body is the distriSaint.. Clebsch and more recent elasticians Arts. possibly. and the axes of ellipsoidal distribution are chosen as those of co. 1016* footnotes and 1567*.SZ = V&K= y Vug In other words 1 if S is the limit of 6'. . The condition of s/s being = or ential Calculus < 1. By we obtain of safety now reduces to the maximum value the ordinary max. 280. 1013*. gives the slidelimit. Hence it follows that * = s . la dilatation limite s relative a sa situation dans le corps. Suppose the material is subject only to a sliding strain. processes of the Differfor s/s the equation : The roots of this equation are known to be real and wo must havo the greatest of them = or < 1. whatever. Let us represent then W*. conceivable that in some materials before rupture and.) This remark is all the more important as the distinction has been see our neglected by Lame. & it by <r //v is the limit of oy.Venant having regard to bution of limiting stretch 2 equation (i) asswmes it to be ellipsoidal in character.
TM 5381029420 15 .
SAINTVENANT. considering them only as plausible but not necessarily unique. 1011*) had treated the simple case of isotropy. and &m . 292 SaintVenant determines the value of the stretch modulus when the tractive load on the sides of the prism is zero.e. On p.] 288 99 it relates to the terminal faces and sides whose simple case of a prism on any base. in their memoir of 1828 (see our Art. Lam^ and Olapeyron are subjected to any uniform tractive loads. : integrals of the equations of elasticity u vol . ent form. We thus arrive at a system of simple linear partial differential equations. 293 we have a remark that some writers : have doubted the exactness of the above results. a part proportional to the corresponding coordinate and a general integral which is only the resolved part of the most general distion placement of the prism treated as a rigid body. 293 he considers the simple cases of (1) the axis of the prism being an axis of elastic symmetry. for it would at first sight apply to any elastic body. and (2) the material being isotropic see our Art. [6. [6 SaintVenant uses throughout his memoir a slightly differbe slidecoefficients and S19 #9 the shears capable />ta of producing the slides d^. the constant values of the tractions are in this case given stressstrain relations by the surface stressequations. 1066*. The then give in terms of the elastic constants and the loads the values of the shiftfluxions. It depends Take any particular essentially on the following line of reasoning asserts that case. He assumes that the tractions are constant and the shears zero throughout. then the condition of nonrupture of linear elasticity) is expressed by par glissem'ent (i. W Q) put the shifts equal . On p. of no failure Let /^ characteristics of rupture The chapter concludes with a few general remarks on the physical by torsion. which is undoubtedly true in this but I am not quite satisfied with the nature of his proof. the intersection x of one pair being parallel to the axis of the prism. and on p.10 semiaxes. SaintVenant as an example of the mixed or semiinverse method gives the solution for the case when The third chapter occupies pp. SaintVenant they are unique. This satisfies the body stressequations . : there are three planes of elastic symmetry. whose solu The complete solution gives for each shift is extremely easy.
22. and instruments for Inspect separately packaged components damage. headits. Inspect the crane and carrier for missing ts. Check the level of the lubricant in the ne gear and chain housing and add lubricant the type specified in the current LO. fine or settingup instructions. loose or broken hoses and lines. all tape and wrappings from the crankcase breathers. NOTE Make been i. below) for instructions to install the various working attachments available for use with the truck crane. Remove all interior protective materials. m. Replace any missing parts. The use of separately packaged components illustrated in figure 21 is covered in this manual where they would logically be installed or used. shipment. Installation a. Check the tension on the water pump and srnator drive belts and adjust. revolvingframe glass all panels. the preserve live oil may be used until the first required oil If the LO OE change. 1 Drain the engine crankcases and refill to the operating level with of the Refer to TM 5381029410 for installation >e specified in the current lubrication order :. Check the specific gravity of the electrolyte using a hydrometer. p. Inspecting and Servicing the Equipment L Remove ifae &. flood lights. certain that deprocessed the crane and carrier have completely before servicing. intake and exhaust snings. See figure 21. breather. attachments. tiage. tires. 1 NOTE 10 for operation under specifies prevailing temperature conditions. I. Inspect carrier brakes and be sure brake the batteries with the separately packed electrolyte. Remove . .ne and carrier to see that the required publiions. converted crane may be referred to as a crane. and rer parts are with the crane and carrier. c. and the faces of truments. looking for leaks. Make a final complete inspection of the entire machine. ary. Remove wrappings from all machined surfaces and dean the surfaces to remove preservative coatings. Equipment Conversion a. tail lights. or any other damage or unsafe condition. Inspect the ?. loose electrical connections. hi ding wrapping on the operator's seats. Refer to equipment conversion (para 23. Remove the seals filler caps. tools. Lubricate the entire crane in accordance minals. accessories. Lubricate the reversing shaft drive chain. if necessary.TM 5381029420 CHAPTER 2 MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS L SERVKE Section UPON RECEIPT OF MATERIAL tape or plugs from the air brake system safety valve and relay emergency vaJves. Make a complete visual inspection of the . '. o. fer to figure 22. '. ne and carrier engines. The basic crane can be converted to various uses by changing frontend attachments. >. 21 . The 23. Check to see that all electrical switches are in the OFF position and then connect the battery cables. crane engine transmission. from the crane and carRemove battery material rier battery the and clean preservative coating from the tern. Close air reservoir drain cocks* I . and clutches and brakes. or unloading. *rnator. r . oil filters oil with the current LO. or damage which may have occurred durloading. Remove all exterior material used to protect truckmounted crane during shipment. if nec5. 6. chinery. Fill es do not stick to brake drums.
These systems will produce certain small shifts in the end of the prism. the tractive load on a bar may be means of a nut carrying a weight. la prq/ondeur dans le premier cox et I'amplitudv dans la The reader Navier. The terminal is thus acted upon by two equivalent and opposite systems of force. The principle is importance. he supposes the influence to extend by paying attention to a footnote on p. L'auteur a fait deux experiences de ce genre sous les yeux de I'Acad&mie en lisant un de ses memoires. 1747. e. Tout le monde peut les r6peter et voir que rimpression ou 1'elargissement ne se fait point sentir a des distances mme e&cedant second. the other will be in statical equilibrium with the actual load distribution. We Suppose the terminal of a prism subjected to any system of load statically equivalent to that distribution which produces the system of strains theoretically calculated Impose upon the terminal two distribution. pp. Elles out consiste ^implement a pincer avec des tenailles un prisme de caoutchouc. itself being supported by the thread of a screw cut on the bar. will applied by [9. the nur. 22 of Notice I. cem oh agissent les forces (p. pp. 299). en tirant ses bords en deux sens opposes.12 tresproches SAINTVENANT. : . and these shifts measure the extent to which the prism is influenced by the difference between Saint. of firstclass 4041 matter still further treated of in the and the Olebsch. published were afterwards considered at greater length iu the wellknown memoir on flexure see our Art.Vcnant tells us the theoretical and practical distributions. in his footnote that the influence of forces in equilibrium acting on a small portion of a body extend very little beyond the parts upon which they act. equal and opposite loads having the theoretical One of these will produce the theoretical strains. et a dilater trausversalement une lani&re mince de matiere.g. as it is scarcely possible in a practical will find this structure to ensure any given theoretical distribution of load. The terminals will generally take a form which lies beyond theoretical investigation and only the statical equivalent of the load system be really ascertainable. de [9 can reach some conception of the field to which perhaps. 69 et setj.] flexure first Saint. however.Venant's fourth chapter deals with the problem of the semiinverse The important results here by process.
NOTE When wrapping new cable on Boom Installation. hoist line. or in The various conversions are described anticipated. block.TM 5381029420 5* Figure &&.lamsheU. boom boom foot pins. General. Alternator and water pump belt tension adjustment. and tocknuts so that the boom base section. shovel. NOTE Longer guy cables are necessary when the length of the boom is tions in 6. 6. Refer to cable specifica5381029440. wrap the cable slowly and make certain that the cable wraps evenly on the drum the first time. and hook The basic crane boom may be extended by installing boom inserts between the boom base section and the boom point section. Before reeving any line. paragraphs 24 through 29. To the boom. dragline. for the specific boom installed so that the con necting joints of the boom and insert match. Refer to TM 5381029410 for information on handling and maintenance of cables. and mainte boom backstops. boom guy cables. The following components are necessary for the equipment conversion: one 15foot boom base section. tools. (1) Lift boom sections into place on crib bdng. backhoe. lockwashers. TM increased. lay out the line so that there is no possibility of kinking during the reeving process. a cribbing will be necessary 2*4. one 15foot point section. piledriver. When a conversion is certain make that all required clocking. The must be high enough to bring the boom into position with the boom foot lugs on the revolving frame as shown in figure 23. insert (2) Refer 23 . boom hoist to figure 24 and install the connection capscrews. The boom inserts are in 10foot lengths and must be cable. The crane may be converted to crane operation by installing the crane frontend assembly. NOTE install * drum. to support the cribbing a. . attachments. c. a suitable lifting device. nance personnel are available. Crane Conversion boom in a horizontal position.
hence he deduces the transverse shifts and the terminal loading. en donnant les pressions et de*placements est compltement tractions sur tons les points de la surface.) He then proceeds as on p. After remarking that the shifts satisfy of the problem. [1011 between any two practical cases of flexure.shearing load. SaintVenant makes two generalisations of his problem. The first (p.Venant's flexure results. however. particular solutions found plus additional these latter he argues must be zero as unknown parts they are shifts due to a zero system of loading as appears by the vanishing of the load terms from the equations on substitution. . need of applying the proof with some caution see Art. is It is necessary.] the longitudinal shifts and the lateral loading.14 SAINTVENANT. With regard to the uniqueness of the solution obtained [10. 307. 307 which it is well to consider. This sketch of a proof of the uniqueness of solution of the equations of elasticity has been adopted and expanded by Clebsch see Kap. he continues : all the conditions and equations sont les seuls qui y satisfassent. but in this by the Bernoulli chapter they appear to arise very naturally from the consideration of the simpler case of uniform flexure. 306) to the case when besides terminal . there is also terminal tractive load. 21 of his I have suggested above that there is Theorie der Elastidtdt. (p.] method supposing the theoretical shearing semiinverse the by and tractive loads were applied to the terminals SaintVenant has some remarks on p. It is just as reasonable or unreasonable to quarrel with Coulomb's torsion solution as with Saint. I. on suppose fixes Tun des les directions d'un element line"aire et points du prisme (le point 0). to remark that when such load negative. or the bendings of each longitudinal 'fibre' into a circular arc see pp. car le probleme des determine" si. The values of the longitudinal shifts were doubtless suggested Eulerian solution of the problem. w'). 6. 292 304. et d'un Element plan qui y passent (un el&nent sur 1'axe des z et un Et ils element sur le plan yz) en sorte qu'il ne puisse y avoir ni translation ni rotation ge"ne*rale a aj outer aux defacements provenant de la flexion. 294 to put the shifts equal to the (u' 9 v'. : : In treating the problem of flexure SaintVenant assumes [11. arid the prism of con .
LOCKWASHER NUT ME 381029470 '27 U** STEP INSTALL B^CKSTCP PINS AT GANTRY. Figure 27.&OCM COTTER mimtov Figure 26. Boom backstop installation. BACKSTOP PIN (2) Figure 2fi. Boom backstop installation. 1 of 2) (Sheet BOLT. Crane boom angle indicator installation. installation (Sheet 1 of >. (Sheet 2 of &) Figure 2S. 24 . INSTAM COTTER PINS. KTEP5. 4. Guy cable*.
(] M E M = or < the minimum of cos K. 1581*) and which followed up the suggestion Saint.Venant namely finds the of Persy: see our Art. On p. and dF/dk = Q that h and k denote very small the origin being denoted by UQ the 9 fdu\ o o  (~. SnintVenant deduces that if s Q = T jE be the limit of safe stretch then .  1 = M a /cos 6 . they which were partially published in the memoir of our Art. [1314 P and this leads . : tan K^ . the bending moment and the longitudinal ! stretchmoduln s Assuming that only longitudinal stretch produces danger. of to the value Then K foot. and the angles which the load and flexure planes make respectively <f>. 3 (b cos 1 <f> + c sin ' <j>) The first dicular to the diameter of the of loading see our Art. value at a point very near the origin would be quantities . 316 element near the origin. 311 SaintVenant and z = 0.] give results 1843 (see 318 are deserving of close attention. plane of one set of principal axes the centroid of any crossLet Oz. so that if we zero as well as then the value of u vanishes all over \B/o Pp. Venant easily shews that . \j/ Tlion Saintwith the plane through Qz and the axis of the prism. Suppose when*2/ = then the value of u at 13. \dy) have f am) j is zero since u % is an even function of y.Venant assumes that JX da) see case: this in uses he which p. [14.. 171. <f> sin ' < 3 K. 811*. let K& KV be the swingradii about these axes. does not coincide with the the when flexure of loadplane plane of the crosssections. says that ^=0. Oy be the principal axes at section of area <o . where 1/p is the curvature. + sin  a d> ." For the rectangle (26 x 2c) we have. : equation expresses geometrically that the planet of lloxurc IB perpenmomental ellipse (neutral axis) conjugate to the plane 1 . 312 line 3 from the =Saint. tan*.16 SATNTVENANT.
Clamshell Conversion a. Tagline Winder. (para 24). backand boom hoist cable as described in para graph 24. (3) Lower boom rest cribbing and continue to slack off on boom hoist cable until (2) Reeve the closing line on clamshell around left boom point sheave and to rear hoist drum. Removing the Crane Boom. line 27 . is Swing revolving frame so that the boom over rear of carrier. until the second layer begins on rear (closing line) drum. Raise using both lines. 5381029410. (7) Lay cable out straight on ground. 25. cribbing to (1) Swing crane boom over clamshell buckLower boom to approximately six feet above tal position. At(4) Unreeve boom hoist cable from gantry spreader and upper spreader sheaves. point sheave and lay it out straight on ground. d. (4) Unspool boom hoist cable from drum. and tagline. Unreering the (1) Boom Hoist Cable. 210) and wrap sufficient line on drum to close clamshell bucket.TM 53*1029420 (2) weight of Use wedges or hydraulic jack to relieve boom on boom foot pins and remove CABLE WEDGE DRUM Refer to figure 25. level ground beside clamshell bucket. Remove guy cables by removing cotter from both ends of cables. lift tagwinder into position between chords of boom base section. Pull cable free of cable drum and boom Installation. Se Disconnect cable deadend and free cable. longer holding and closing lines must be installed. The second layer should begin on the front drum at the same time. Refer a^stiitable lifting (10) Using device. (1) Unreeve hoist line and boom hoist line. Lower boom to horizonwith carrier. (5) (6) at gantry cure line to drum and wrap line on drum until same number of turns are on both drums. (3) Disconnect boom backstops from ganand lay backstops on top of boom. lift (5) Cut both lines and secure them to upper spreader from crane boom. Refer to cable specifications in hoist cable The crane holding line. If it does not. (9) tach holding line loosely to clamshell bucket. pins. Install the crane boom. Label the cable for future use. (8) Roll cable into coil and secure with wire. (3) boom Reeve the holding line around right point sheave and to front hoist drum. upper spreader comes to rest on boom. bucket. bucket. pins and pins to figure 28. Securing cable (5) to drum. Secure line to drum (fig. bucket holding and closing tagline winder. adjust the point of attachment of holding line to bucket. but if Figure 2W. b. Raise boom clamshell bucket. TM stops. near upper end of section. under on (2) Build up boom as shown in figure 23. crane boom components NOTE ME 3 81 029420/210 may be used for the bucket additional depth below ground level is desired. g. c. Remove wedge from cable drum socket and free cable. The following components are necessary for equipment con version: clamshell lines. General. et. Reeving. Aframe try Refer to figure 26. h. (4) Drive carrier away from boom. (1) Using a suitable lifting device. (6) Roll cable into a coil and secure with wire. to working angle. The crane may be converted to clamshell operation by installing the crane boom (para 24) and a clamshell bucket. Label the cable for future use. Support boom on cribbing as shown in figure 23. Refer to figure 29.
and in (ii) above.sections : fid' 2f ii/ftx(/z ' . we find for body and surface shiftequations du/dx is cross. then the second radiusvector makes with a parallel to the first an angle of which the circular measure is T This language this angle is measured from the axis of y to that of z. these being the sectional moments of inertia. since M= the^ e l r I J dw^ + ^onlywherie^^iinddu/dzdu/dy. 4 (6) we easily obtain Whence if M be the moment of cc. but the meaning of r. The axis of torsion will be taken as axis of #. and remarks that the total torsion between the terminal sections may be considerable provided each short element into which we may divide the prism by two crosssections receives only a small distortion relative to itself. o. will be assigned in the same infinitesimally provided we consider The above definition of torsion leads us at once to the results . when it is not implies that the torsion manner as before at any point. that is. as in our Art. Referring to the equations in our Art. the length of the prism being great as compared with the linear dimensions of the section. is constant. shall write we and denoted be will WK/ =r jy^co. or the old theory that remain plane and perpendicular to the axis. M = e all (du/dz + ry) (iii).1 The area of a of torsion will be from the axis of y towards that of 3. the stresses on a crosssection l about the axis of M= du [e^ (dufdz I ry) J y f l (du/dy  TZ) z] (iv). I S =/j (dujdy . and also that of the homologous point in a section at distance from the first.. 4 (/c). as small. e l (du/dz + ry)dy J\ (<Ju\dy . amounts to u = 0. assumed constant. The torsion O)K/ referred to unit of length will be r . Substituting in the equation of our Art. The total shifts can then be obtained by summation from the solutions of the On p.T ) ch  .(v). if we draw the radiusvector of a displaced point in one section. constant.K .18 We will now sketch the method by which our author reaches the general equations of torsion. by crosssection = [zadu. above equations for each short element. It will be seen that this agrees with the old theory which gave This. : The consideration that there is no lateral load gives for every point of a sectional contour the equation 329 SaintVenant fixes a point. line and elementary plane 10. the direction [17.rz).
26. Dragline Conversion a. REMOVE MOUNTING STEP 2. Tagline winder installation. Refer to cable specifications in 3381029410. and NOTE The crane hoist cable if (3) Reeve the hoist cable over center boom point sheave and secure it to the rear drum. REMOVE UBOLT. 214). b. 29 . crane General. boom hoist cable as described in Install the fairlead and paragraph 24. (2) (fig. dragline The crane may be converted to operation by installing the crane boom boom. backstops. Installation (1) Install and Reeving. BOLTS AND NUTS. do not let it protrude on the opposite side additional reach and depth are desired. 213).TM 5381029420 STEP 1 . but When TM more than one inch. drag bucket. hoist line. may be used for the bucket NOTE inserting the cable end back into the cable socket. bucket hoist and drag fairlead. a longer cable must be installed. lines. UNREEVE TAGLINE (PARAGRAPH 25e). TAGLINE BOOM r UBOLT TAGLINE WINDER WOOD FILLER MOUNTING BOLTS (4) (4) V BLOCKS NUTS ME 381029420/212 Figure 212. Secure remaining free end to cable socket on dump sheave chain (fig. (para 24) and a dragline bucket. STEPS. The following components are necessary for equipment conversion: crane boom components (para 24).
[19 accompanying figure the marked... ' figures The general appearance of the prism under torsion is given in the on the next page. 17 by a series ascending in of and z ono term powers y .... he makes use of others later. 339341 that his results agree with the theory of Coulomb only in the case of a circular section.... contour lines of these surfaces of distortion are z The principal slide cr is given by (iv).. .. be Secondly points out pp. 2 . v R\  .. is the point nearest to the axis of torsion. 2 2 cl(b ( + c s ) .. [19. (v).. the elliptic crosssection. .] There are one or two important points to be noticed in this chapter. the torsion being diagram matically exaggerated. i. The point dangereux or failpoint is obtained by making 5V + c*y* a maximum.. In the first place Saint.... it follows that 11 L J.. 5 (/)...e.. M = or < 7M TTbC 2 SQ ^ (= \ or 20)K ? <. 2 c J ( ^ vi).....20 SAINTVENANT. broken lines denoting depressions.. thus it is at the extremity of the minor axis. if Si = &2 = S : () r2b whence L J. (a'j/z) suffices for .Venant solves equation (vi) of Art. From (iv) we obtain by means of our Art...
Carefully back carrier up to cribbed up boom so that the bores in boom foot lugs on revolving frame are alined with bores . lower boom to the (3) wood blocks.TM 5381029420 CENTER BOOM POINT SHEAVE DUMP SHEAVE REAR (HOIST) DRUM DRAG CHAIN FRONT (DRAG) DRUM BUCKET DUMP CABLE (2) HOIST CABLE SOCKET DRAG CABLE PAIP IPAH FAIRLEAD . The following components are necessary for equipment converbackhoe sion: in Removing the Piledriver. (4) Lower leads to ground and slowly drive carrier forward. a cribbing will be necessary to support the bocm in a horizontal position. boom. boom hoist cable. hoist padlock sheave. NOTE install the backhoe boom. drag padlock sheave. a. hammer and lower cable and nuts securing the Raise boom enough to clear sion cable. swing revolving frame to face the rear of carrier. (1) With base of backhoe boom assembly cribbed up to height of boom foot lugs on revolving frame. boom and the leads. (6) Remove boom cable and boom (para 24). adjust catwalk so the leads are vertical. I THREEWAY SOCKET \ \ DRAGLINE BUCKET BUCKET TOOTH ME 381029420/214 Figure 214. pull cable. hammer to ground. dipper handle. at same time. and ma&t suspenInstallation. (1) Lower hammer enough to allow slack cable sling. Secure lead hoist lead adapters to leads. Remove To from hammer. backhoe Remove bolts catwalk sections. (11) Refer to figure 216 to foot of and install catwalk 28. boom foot pins. Dragline reeving diagram. Remove sling and move piledriv(2) er clear of cap. pitch brace. (5) leads as pile Remove shown in piledriver adapters and figures 215 and 216. backhoe bucket. and bolt catwalk sections together. The cribbing must be high enough to bring the boom into position with the boom foot lugs on the revolving frame as shown in figure 218. Remove bolts securing catwalk to leads and boom and lower catwalk to ground. The crane may be converted to frontend attachment. gantry mast. 6. c. Backhoe Conversion General.
342 torsion d'un prisme elliptique NOB re"sultats relatifs par des couples quelconques peuvent tre adopte"s au mine titre et avec la m6me confiance qu'on adopte les formules.Venant remarks that the p. which could hardly be attained in any practical case. 345 a very concise and admirable consideration of the point referred to in our Art.z (1 . values V = TXZ and w = rxy of our Art. Hence generally we sec how possible for the slide to be greater at the latter than the former it is point.Venant would explain why the failpoints are those nearest and not farthest from the axis of torsion as in tho old He theory (la tMorie ordinaire. 18. 9 . namely. no longer hold. the C0pius of lhe m(imoir "maiiiiiiK in Saint . The second treats of tho case of large torsional shifts. at least in the case of a circular crosssection and an axis of elasticity coinciding with the axis of figure a shearing This is a supposition load at each element of lateral surface.Venant shews that this transversally see our Art. et la formule plus analogue du cas de torsion des cylindres circulaires (p.] Fourthly we have on pp. 345). [2023 343 we have. 684*.) y sin TX .] On pp. a footnote on the torsion r should be made to vary that Cauchy's suggestions Saint. thirdly. [22. 341 : would require. S*V. Saint. & la In all these cases there is equivalence of the shifts produced actual equipollent load systems. 347) we find the new values torsion for the shifts 1 : ' : w= v = zsinrxy(l cos TO. 181 (d). [20. 349 the general argument by which Saint.22 SAINTVENANT. soit de la flexion par des forces Iat6rales. equation (i). operating together. Jo [ 3467) may / be noted. 18.cos rx) ' points extremity of the major axis the slide produced by the distortion of the plane section is zero and so we have only the slide produced by the 'fibres becoming helical/ while at the extremity of the minor axis the two components of the slide both exist and com [ZS.).] the same assumption as to the by the theoretical and by the Fifthly 59 and 60 (pp.] Lastly we may note on p. 17. the practical equivalence of statically equipollent systems of terminal loading at very short distances from the terminals. The first deduces from the equations wd<*= ^do> = that the axis of J assumed must coincide with tho line of sectional centroids see our Art. soit de Textension simple. [21. see our Art. but by an easy process of summation (p. out that at the pound.
guide 213 . (3) Remove wedge from deadend and boom. Remove drum socket and pull cable free of drum and cable guide sheave on boom. socket on boom sheave.TM 5381029420 CATWALK OUTERSECTION v^ CATWALK INNER SECTION TELE SCOPING MEMBER CATWALK OUTER SECTION ME 381029420/216 iMtaUation. Piledriver lead and adapter and (2) Release front cable drum brake from cable wedge spool cable off drum. Figure t16. and pull cable free of padlock.
'MH. equation 159). n =<a ("I) ^G 1)' v(2l)~" ' 26 16 It will be noted that Saint.24 SAINTYBNANT. : (2nl)*y smh^ . . . [27.] SaintVenant obtains the following general results . . These equations can be solved by the assumption u' = [2728 mz S4 mv (e e~ my) sin and the usual determination of the constants by Fourier's Theorem.Vcnant obtains in each case [28.] double values for his quantities which arc unsymmotrical in b 1 SaintVenant puts sinh for cosh in the denominator horc by a mismint (p. ' '* u=rbc y% lf4:\*C.
Backhoe auxiliary gantry suspension reeving. and nuts (fig. around front of left groove in shipper shaft roller. around dipper stick rope thimble. 215 . and over the chain tightener. Adjust chain (TM 53810294 Reeving Crowd Cable. 10). in position and install foot pin through drum and right boom boom foot pin retaining plates. Install boom Connect AUXILIARY electrical line to dipper trip motor. installation and removal. (2) Reeve one end of crowd cable under and around the bottom foot drum to right cable socket on drum and secure cable to drum as shown in figure 210. under and around boom foot drum to left cable socket on drum and secure cable to drum (fig. 227). 226). BOOM HOIST DRUM ME 3810294. boom foot drum sprocket. Cribbing prepared for backhoe boom assembly. boom foot pin through left Using a suitable support boom foot drum lifting device. foot lug. capscrews. c. (6) Install crowd chain around front drum GANTRY DEAD END sprocket. boom (5) Install foot lug. (3) Reeve other end of crowd cable around front of right groove in shipper shaft roller. foot pin holes in boom with those in revolvin GANTRY SHEAVE frame.20/219 Figure 219. lockwashers.TM 5381029420 BOOM FOOTPIN HOLE (2) MAST BACKHOE BOOM WOOD BLOCK CRIBBING DIPPER DIPPER HANDLE PITCH BRACE ME 381029420/218 Figure 218. (1) ON GANTRY SPREADER Unroll and stretch crowd cable out on ground on right side of boom.
] of //.'''r \ \ ( v i \ /''/// /// :' \ ! i For numerical values we have. M = 843462 jxnfb*/ 3 = 0*= or < 1 66532 S^ 8 . [31 The values of u are calculated and given in a table on p. . 334*. 382387 SaintVenant refers to tho experiDuleau 1 and Savart 2 as confirming his results. 229*. 1*350630 &T is ments On pp. but from his experiments on [31.230. the maximum slide and occurs at the middle points of the sides of the crosssection. Depressed.26 SAINTVENANT. which are thus tho failpoints. 2 Soe our Art. 1 See our Art.659. The accompanying figures give the contour lines of the distorted crosssection lateral faces and the boundaries of the crosssection as cutting the of the distorted prism in elevation (diagrammatically exaggerated). 377. These values are all less than those obtained from tho old theory. From Duleau's experiments on circular bars the mean value of obtained was 6.000 kilogs.
(2) To unreeve boom it hoist cable. 381029420/221 g. Refer to TM 5381029410. round. Unspool cable from drum. Pull cable free of drum and boom point sheaves and lay it out straight on ground. and back to deadnd on dipper stick (fig. tick. NOTE Each adjustment must be made or checked before a machine converted to shovel operation is placed in service. 217 . (1) Raise dipper off ground and crowd it i. Roll cable into coil and secure with wire. h. Lower boom onto blocking (fig. Unreeving Shovel Cables. round dipper trip motor eccentric. BackKoe hoist cable reeving. out beyond boom point sheaves. Reeving Shovel Dipper Trip Cable. Remove cable wedge from cable drum socket and free cable.TM 5381029420 BOOM MOUNTED SHEAVES HOIST PADLOCK SHEAVE DEAD END ON BOOM //NN \\J ^^ \ ME Figure &&1. Label cable for per up and crowd future use. around outide sheave on shipper shaft. 230). then lower it to the To unreeve shovel dipper trip cable. Coil cable neatly and secure with wire. Reeve cable from trip lever on dipper over small sheaves on shipper shaft. 225). Label cable for future use. (1) it ut as far as will go. (3) cable remove cable clamp at dipper trip lever and dead end on dipper stick. hoist dip Adjustments. (2) Unroll and stretch dipper trip ut on ground on right side of boom. Pull cable from drum and sheaves.
Venant deduces on pp. now come to the general case [33. crosssections are tabulated 386. particulars . accounts for the greater part of the inferior resistance to torsion of ments circular bars of equal sectional square as compared with moment of inertia. is however very questionable. brique crue and pldtre the moment of the forces required to break a prism of square crosssection and length at least twice the diameter was less than in the case of an infinitely short prism.636.000 and 4. [3233 bars it was only 5.625. This result of Vicat is of great interest and would be well worth further experimental investigation. 387 numerical factor which occurs in algebraic expansion for Fourier (Thdorie de la chaleur. especially when we remember the nonisotropic character which was inevitable in the iron bars of Duleau's experi At any rate SaintVenant's theory (see table p. art. a case where the latter can throw little light A Eng. from Vicat's experiments on rupture. seem a very At the same time it is the plane section cannot be distorted. .e. of square and circular Here the mean for the the old and the new circular crosssection is p = 4. Trans.180. however. for his theory may even be derived.] quelconque des deux dimensions de la base (pp. 397 as to the difference advantageous process. It does not p.825.000 /* theory give of the The latter.750. ill. on the mathematical theory of elasticity. 30) by an (see u and a calculation after the manner of M remark on p. between resistance d la rupture tloignee and rupture immediate is Saint. indeterminate coefficients. Some support. [32.121. regrettable that he should have retained the word rupture in reference even to the first limit. which may be considered in fair agreement with the result obtained from bars of circular section. 398 of the memoir.Venant remarks namely that experiments on to the point. For Vicat found that for pierre calcaire. 731* and p. chap.174. he thinks. i. see our Art. 208. . the to isotropy of these wires advantage again Some experiments on copper wires on p.000 on the old theory.000.012.] Saint. Venant has calculated all the numerically We : Gas d'un rapport Saintof the 398413).28 SAIKTVENANT.384.Venant's however brings it up to 6.000 values the for 3. 383). square sectioned Saint.682. 137) of the 391 the value of the our Art.
STEP 3. INSTALL CAPSCREWS (5) AND LOCKWASHERS ME Figure S8S. REFER REAR TO PARAGRAPH 24 AND JNREEVE THE CABLES FROM FRONT AND DRUMS. 381029420/2. (4).23 219 . REVERSING CHAIN. AND STEP 2. REMOVE CAPSCREWS (5) AND LOCKWASHERS BOLTS.TM 538102M20 STEP 1 . INSTALL REVERSING SPROCKET HALVES (3) ON CROWD SPROCKET LAGGING HALVES AND INSTALL THE CROWD SPROCKET LAGGING ON THE FRONT DRUM. REFER TO FIGURE 223 AND REMOVE COTTER PIN. REFER TO FIGURE 222 AND REMOVE LAGGING REMOVE ROPE LAGGING FROM THE FRONT DRUM. STEP 4. PIN (4). AND REMOVE REVERSING SPROCKET HALVES (3) FROM THE LAGGING HALVES BY REMOVING CAPSCREWS (1) AND LOCKWASHERS (2). Installing crowd sprocket lagging.
error with the above theoretical values.] ments of Duleau and Savart on the torsion of rectangular bars of iron. and the large variation in the values of the slidemoduli as obtained from SaintVenant's formula do not seem to me very satisfactory. after are thus able to determine which they become sensibly constant. On pp.30 and this SAINTTENANT. 403 6 we have a further discussion of experi[35. however. 414 454. He appears to have reached them by purely tentative methods. by a M and its limit M We Q . This table gives the values of {$ and of /J/y for magnitudes of the parameter 6/c varying from 1 to 100. gives in footnotes empirical formulae which agree with less than 4 per cent. entitled le The chapter opens with an enumeration of the various forms of contour for which it is Art. our r= 9. the paucity of the experiments. . They are {It should our $ =T be noted that our of the memoir. (iii) 410. [36. our /* = &.] We : now reach SaintVenant's ninth chapter which is Torsion de prismes ay ant dautres bases que V ellipse ou It occupies pp. [3536 maximum $0 slide takes place at (p. We easy to integrate the equations of will tabulate them on the next page. pldtre. oak. and verre d vitre. 17. SaintVenant. the centre of the longer side of the rectangular crosssection. hence These complex analytical results are rendered practically of service 60 of the memoir.) = or > /xyrc. the most serviceable portion of table on pp. torsion series of experiments directly intended to test the of rectangular bars for variations of the parameter c/b A would undoubtedly be of considerable value. 559 which we shall reproduce later. rectangle. but he holds that they satisfy all practical needs..} v g& our )8 = //.
20/225 boom a&sembly. 221 .TM 6381020420 ME Figure 25. Cribbing shovel 3810294.
Part n.r sin rQ __48 49 ' 16r^cos_4^ + 17 r ~ 12 ' !_6 36 ' 1C 1 49 ft 49 7 (Star with four rounded points). 5. 439. 1 [37. of the first curve is : = $ (Square with rounded angles). In the present chapter SaintVenant dismisses Nos. pp. Square Jf = 84346^0)^ = SS327/xTor/27r. The most practically valuable results are those obtained on p. 4 o = 2'0636r s 4 UK* = 7174r = l0586o> /27r j a . (c) The equation r 2 * to the third curve is. ?L ro . 2nd Ed. Circle : M= : 2 /xrco/c = p. On pp. 4 <o.r cos <^>. 2503. . M= 5873/Mr (6) = 8186/W= 8666 u.To> 2/27r. 4 has given rise to Solutions (3) and (5) are really identical. and one of the eighth as given by No. z .32 SAINTVENANT. o)K 2 = 2974r 4 = IWrt () M= We (d) (e) add to these the results for the circle and square.] and 2 on the ground that the resulting curves are very difficult to He contents himself with two closed curves of the fourth trace.l7628r a* 5259r = 1 06340)7277. We have there the following characteristic sections treated : (a) The equation _ro 4 y. 4 2 = = *5 (Square with acute angles). [37 No. : The equation to the second curve is ~T" r o ~ *5 ro 2 . <o = l2202r 2 .* 1*2*. 421434 degree he calculates and traces these curves at considerable length. the solutions in terms of conjugate functions : see Thomson and Tait's Natural Philosophy. if y .
TM LARGE BOOM POINT SHEAVES t DEAD END ON BOOM PADLOCK SHEAVE REAR DRUM ME 3810*29420/228 cable reeving. Figure t~t8. Dipper hoist I I .
The reasoning by which SaintVenant deduces the failpoints cannot be considered satisfactory. 444 are unsound. . ys=*&s/f points orbe. The reader will however find little difficulty in proving the accuracy of SaintVenant's results by casting the expressions on pp. 37.] out how the solutions of a number of other sections can be points Thus we can take solutions like (3) of Art. 441 3). 444 arid 447 into other forms or by the ordinary processes of the Differential In his edition of the Lefons de Namer. ' . 448. 441 distorted crosssections 9 discusses the contour lines of the of our Art.=.) 3401 31. the defective reasoning of these pages and replaced recognised them by more accurate arguments. Indeed the statement as to the side of the triangle p. 447.] SaintVenant on his pp. obtained. pp. Jf. = 8269 r SQ = '7094 ^. of that given by the old intermediate .fiQI Ool^ o fl 9 / p= OA. 181 In the concluding pages of this chapter SaintVenant [40.34 2 SAINTVENANT. our author lias Calculus. accomplishes by and slides failpoints of the same Then he considers the maximum the torsional couples. of values sections and finally the limiting numerical tables in These values are as follows For section (a) of Art. "*" Cf "v (c) ." de chaque gravite [39._si Ton considere que theory au centre de a = on pres trfcspeu aux est nul 0. This he a footnote (pp. his (e). [3940 or the torsion of such. pp. M. 308310 : see our Art. (6) \ / " M KJT a OKKt A '80514 7 Cf O = . (Of. where the maximum slide for the section (c) is shewn to be on the contour. 7285 ^*0 /Si = 5695 ^= # S^TT . Thus SaintVenant has not de monstrated his very general statement (237) on p. :U> involving terms of the 12th and 16th degrees and so obtain curves equally symmetrical with regard to the axes of y and z. and 37. a pair of cylinders round an . ' ' and the deduction of the maximum slide on The same judgment must be passed on the process of p. 37 /T\ : 2 S.axis is only one fiftyfourth 01857/moK t : y " Oela ne doit le glissement pas 6tonner..
General General lubrication instructions are listed in 5381029410. 'Special Tools and Equipment covering organizational maintenance for this No special tools or equipment are required for equipment (TM 5381029420P). Tools and Equipment organizational maintenance of the crane Tools. SPECIAL TOOLS. Section IV. 211. Movement is The crane can be transported readily as it mounted on its own carrier. (revolving frame). list. Refer to TM 5381029410 for installa tion or settingup instructions. Section II.30 Figure $30. Dismantling for a. refer to the appropriate instructions (para 24 through 29). LUBRICATION INSTRUCTIONS 216. Dipper trip cable reeving.TM 5381029420 DIPPER TRIP LEVER DEAD END ON DIPPER SUCK DIPPER TRIP MOTOR CHAIN (TO DIPPER DOOR LATCH BAR) SHEAVE SHEAVES (IN SADDLE BLOCKS) ME 381029420/2. When it is necessary to remove the front end equipment for movement to a new worksite. Refer to the appropriate instructions (par* 24 through 29) to install front end equipment. equipment. TM Refer to Lubrication Order 12). Re 214. (LO 53810294 225 . Maintenance Repair Parts parts and equipment are listed and illustrated in the repair parts and special tools list TM 21 3. 6. Instructions for transportation of crane with front end equipment attached are contained in TM 5381029410. Reinstallotion after Movement WARNING Do not transport crane with the piledriver frontend installed. MOVEMENT TO A NEW WORKSITE &. III. Section a. 210. and repair parts issued with or authorized for the crane are listed in the basic issue items troop installed or authorized fer to 5381029410. Detailed Lubrication Instructions 215. REPAIR PARTS. AMD EQUIPMENT level 212.
and to ensure safety we must have as before . positive . so that T Thus the greatest Zb S=0. [42 Thus the form of the surface into which the originally plane becomes changed by torsion is easily understood. . we have u on. 41 give The moment of torsion by equation I (iv) of Art. ^ these dw ^ du by (ii) of Art. In the part between Oy and the perpendicular OL. Saint. value of is when z = 0. Hence he tells us the boundary at the point which is nearest to Oj ^ tliat the failpoint Tlio is on tlio axis. ^42. we have u negative . and so We have as usual the equations crosssection .Venant considers the side to the axis of z\ then ho says that along this OIU 2 ~~~ ^ 1~ and 0. even in z. we have . 17 is All these integrations are easily effected function of y and z. Jf gives a value for M only G of that given by To is which side parallel 2/ + 6 = find the greatest slide. Thus we find that Then for the 2 moment of inertia round the axis we have OK = jyWco + J^Vo) = 36V 3 = Hence The new theory thus the old. in the next piece. for here if denote any where we integrate for % from z = to z = v" "/Q an(* ^or 2/ y =6 to y= 26. value of the glissement principal is then . which is vertically opposite to the piece between Oy and OL.36 SAINTVENANT. in the part between OL and OB we have u positive in the part between OB and yO produced through we have u negative .
TROUBLESHOOTING inspections and corrective actions in the order listed. worn sheaves. If lining is inch of rivet heads at point of most wear. You should perform the tests/ This manual cannot list all malfunctions that or occur. Repair or replace defective lamps or bulbs (para 251). 13 install new lining (para 2106).0 18 LIGHTS Inspect lights for loose cables. and proper operation. General a. 2.0 Replace severely worn rollers (para 2111). and improper lubrication (para 265). Maximum allowable clearance between hook rollers and lower side of roller path is 1/16inch.0 ENGINE CLUTCH Inspect. breaks. If a malfunction is not listed may is not corrected by listed corrective actions. M Work Time Procedure (1C/H) Q REAR DRUM CLUTCH Check operation adjust if necessary. mountings. If lining is of rivet heads at point of most wear. 2.5 of rivet heads at point of most wear.5 19 REAR DRUM DRIVE CHAIN. Each malfunction for an individual component. notify your supervisor. unit. AND HORIZONTAL SWING SHAFT CHAIN Inspect for wear. Replace chain if worn excessively (para 2110). 2*5 FRONT DRUM BRAKE Check operation adjust .5 11 BOOM HOIST CLUTCH Check operation: adjust if necessary. if necessary. 1. 15 2. If lining is worn to within l/164nch of rivet heads at point of most wear. Replace damaged bx/om or jib sections (para 237).0 20 GANTRY Inspect for cracks. 12 install worn to within 1/16inch new lining (para 2108). b. Preventive Maintenance Check* and Service* Continued K Total Monthly manhours required: 1. install worn to within 1/16new lining (para 2105). 220. or system is followed by a list of tests or inspections which will help you to determine probable causes of trouble and corrective actions to take. nor all tests or inspections and corrective actions. Troubleshooting Refer to table 22* 27 . SHOVEL CROWD CHAIN. 1.5 Total Q~ Quarterly manboon reqtdrcd: t&4 Interval and Item to be inspected Sequence No. 219. and adjust if necessary (para 2101). 2. If fining is worn to within 1/16inch 2. install new lining (para 21%). REVERSING CHAIN.0 Section VI.TM 5381029420 Table 1. adjust if necessary.5 BOOM AND/OR JIB Inspect visually for damage including cracks. . 3. 17 OPERATOR'S CAB Replace cracked glass or damaged door (para 262 and 261). 1. and general condition. This section contains troubleshooting information for locating and correcting trouble which may develop in the crane (revolving frame) that are within the scope of organizational maintenance. REAR DRUM BRAKE Check operation. 16 HOOK ROLLERS Inspect hook rollers for wear and proper adjustment. cracked lens.
. The results are the same as those of our Art. = semiaxes the of ratio the for whicji Jp. . but it is obvious that such are extremely unlikely to occur in practice. It must be noted that the 'faillimit' (condition de nonrupture. + . / /2 2 0/8 *' 4558 of memoir).. 22 = * of the ellipse (pp.^ P/ftf^/ .where place the ratios 7 and o c they occur iu our formulae by respectively. . the crosssection The elliptic prism of a circular cylinder will be distorted by torsion. 45. g/M. 458 460 to describing the which must be made in the general solutions of our Art.] 36 in order to adapt them to this case of unequal slidemoduli. changes [47. 462). namely that From this we find at once (6>.Yenant remarks that with this inequality.38 T46 L ' SAINTVENANT.. = 1 Thus we obtain " a. on the contour of the crosssection. and the exponentials 'a0ir . Saint... On pp.Venant devotes pp. 1 [4647 J Thus in the case for : must write the results ^2 F+ . 6/c Saintundistorted crosssections although under torsion (p. *"  Sumlaxly Saint. 27. provided we re. 5 (/).Jp89 will retain however. e 2 and e 2 6 by e * <' v ^ and e " / a "A V* respectively. 4567) now takes another form. + c'/^y = or > We have then to find the maximum value of the righthand side. 4 GO 8 he treats at some length the case of the prism with rectangular cmsKscction.. They follow easily from our Art. pp. 456). Yenant in the course of the chapter again refers to relations of this kind (p. we at once 1. of our Art. and at the extremities of the minor or major axis according as b/c is > or < SJSg In the first case we find that the limiting value of is given by It is easily seen to be M . .
Refer to paragraph 284 and test fuel pump. clean outside of Check for sediment in inside of coil. Twiibleshootxng Continued * AI * ?g? Si INSPECTION > CORRECTIVE ACTION oil filter. Check for defective or burned out lamps. HIGH OIL PRESSURE Step Step 1. 2. HEATER MOTOR INOPERATIVE Step Step 1. Check for stuck thermostat. Adjust hook rollers (para 2111). EXCESSIVE OIL CONSUMPTION Step 1. pitted. Step 8. Check oil lines 9. Refer to malfunction 14 above. Remove input and output hoses and flush solvent. Step Step 2. ENGINE LACKS POWER Step 1. Repair or replace hose. HEATER DELIVERS COLD AIR Step 1. 4. Check for defective switch. for leaks at connections. Check for defective oil pressure gage on engine control panel Replace oil pressure gage (para 254). Replace defective pump. or sticking ignition points. Replace faulty wiring (para 268). 14. 15. Step 13. 12. Check for poor quality or wrong grade of ofl. Fuel pump not operating properly. Replace plugs (para 291). 3. Check for air lock in water line to heater. Disconnect heater hose and drain line until air block bled from system. Repair or replace wiring (para 250). Check for oil too thin due to dilution or too light a grade used. coil. Drain crankcase and refill with proper oil (para 296). coil with suitable 16. Drain crankcase and refill with proper oil (para 2S6). Oil too heavy. Check for clogged Step 8. Clean ground terminals rollers for REVOLVING FRAME TEETERS Check hook improper adjustment. Check for inoperative heater motor. Check heater blower motor. Replace points (para 290). 2. Tighten loose connections (para 298). (para 288). HEATER DOES NOT DELIVER AIR Step 1. Step Step Step 11. 2. Check for burned. 2. 2. Adjust Vbelt tension or replace faulty alternator. 3. Check for faulty spark plugs. LIGHTS PAIL Step Step 1. Drain crankcase and refill with proper oil (para 296). Replace lamps (para 251) Check for defective wiring. Remove cover and 5. Clean or replace carburetor (para 283). Replace oil filter (para 298). Replace defective motor.TM Table tt. Step 10. Check wiring. Check for dirty or faulty carburetor. 8. 4. Step 2. Check for blocked heater hose. Replace switch (para 255) Check for faulty ground. . Replace defective thermostat. BATTERIES DISCHARGE WITH ENGINE RUNNING heck for loose alternator Vbelt or faulty alternator. 229 . Check for dirt on outside of coil. is Step Step 4.
c s Substituting in (i) wo have on integration y + 2 6V = constant. [4849 where M^p^rbc* is the value of the torsional gives the value of ft fourth columns give the maximum slides and third The couple.. 2 72 2 y ^ where /^2 M = () l be* ^ and Jf2  to the lesser of M l and M (.. when /^ differs from ^ 2 while on p. of M hy means of the tabulated values of /S/% and & c#. If then we form a family of surfaces satisfying this Cation and give to the arbitrary constant which appeal's on the rightjand side two different values we shall obtain the two boundaries of r a hollow prism satisfying all the required conditions.s (du/dz + ry] dy ^ (dufdy . = ...) sin where Am sech and . In this case we have to satisfy th6 surface shiftequation p. or the intersection of the lateral faces at such corners remains normal to the crosssection.40 SAINTVENANT. (i) two surfaces. ^ &) Jf is to be taken equal s [48.] SaintVenant's eleventh chapter deals with the torsion of hollow prisms (pp. [49....equation.^cr and where by means of the coefficients % and % The fifth and sixth columns give the maximum value ^ cr M ..TIJZ + %A m sinh (my/^/x. simple proof that in this case at corners and angles which project there is no slide.] Pages 468 9 of this chapter suggest the modifications which must be made in the results obtained for prisms of other crosssections... 2 = y &T a . 470 we have a . For example : satisfies the body shift.. Thus we find for a hollow elliptic cylinder formed by the ellipses (26 x 2c) and (26' x 2c') 7T&V TT&'Y 8 (6) In the rectangular section u = .*rz) dz = . 471 6). Giving the constant different values we obtain a system of similar and similarly placed ellipses.
Replace defective motor. Replace lamps (para 251). Tighten loose connections (para 298). (para 288). Replace plugs (para 291). HIGH OIL PRESSURE Step Step 1. Step 3. Replace faulty wiring (para 268). LIGHTS FAIL Step Step 1. HEATER DOES NOT DELIVER AIR Step 1. Clean or replace carburetor (para 2S3). 1. Check for blocked heater hose. Check for burned. Check for clogged oil filter. Replace switch (para 255) Check for faulty ground. EXCESSIVE OIL CONSUMPTION Step 1. Check heater blower motor. or sticking ignition points. Step 3. Replace points (para 290). 2. HEATER MOTOR INOPERATIVE Step Step . Check for defective wiring. Step . 229 . Oil too heavy. Check for air lock in water line to heater. ENGINE LACKS POWER Step 1. Check oil lines for leaks at connections. 2. Remove cover and clean outside of coil. 4. Step Step 4. Drain cranfccase and refill with proper oil (para 2S6). Check for poor quality or wrong grade of oiL Drain crankcase and refill with proper oil (para 296). Check for defective switch. Step i. Remove input and output hoses and flush coil with suitable solvent. Adjust Vbelt tension or replace faulty alternator. Check for dirty or faulty carburetor. 4. Tmtbleshootmff Continued ALFUNCTION TEST OB INSPECTION CORRECTIVE ACTION Step 2. Replace oil filter (para 208). Check wiring. . 5. Check for sediment in inside of coil. Check for dirt on outside of coil. Drain crankcase and refill with proper oil (para 206). 2. 3. Fuel pump not operating properly. Step Step Step . Replace defective pump. 8.TM 5W102W30 Tablet*. Check for faulty spark plugs. Check for stuck thermostat Replace defective thermostat. Refer to paragraph 284 and test fuel pump. Check for defective oil pressure gage on engine control panel Replace oil pressure gage (para 254). Repair or replace wiring (para 250). Check for oil too thin due to dilution or too light a grade used. Check for defective or burned out lamps. Check for inoperative heater motor. Clean ground terminals rollers for REVOLVING FRAME TEETERS Check hook improper adjustment. Adjust hook rollers (para 2111). Repair or replace hose. pitted. BATTERIES DISCHARGE WITH ENGINE RUNNING Check for loose alternator Vbelt or faulty alternator. HEATER DELIVERS COLD AIR Step 1. Step Step 2. Refer to malfunction 14 above. Disconnect heater hose and drain line until air block is bled from system. 2. 2.
Take rightcirculwr cylinder of radius a fibre at distance r from the axis and us consider the element PF of it betr  tween two planes at unit distance. 2 = a ??. find  We ^. PPN = 1 iy = l.Tenant finds absolute magnitude for a / a. SaintTenant takes for PP' the quantity (iijX/rr?? TV 17 + J.42 SAINTVENANT. siuco cos . 0. our analysis thus proves that 97 is of the second order inr. giving >7 = a result which agrees with 4 SaintTenant's . 240 1).+r V) nearly. PP = = 1 . The quantity be determined by the condition that the total traction is zero or [ [a I E 77 must /rV 3 2irrdrfl( 1 "" \ ^J Since sin an PTtf = . The traction in the fibre will now be given by _ He where is the longitudinal stretchmodulus. Suppose owing to torsion that the two planes approach each other by a quantity 77 and let P^be the perpendicular from the new position of I P P on the cross P N : section through P. rgj its By a let simple analysis Saint. has practically the same value in the Legons de Navier (pp. but I do not think he obtains the first expression very rigorously.2 2 may be put = 1 in the integral. .+ it T T  it 1 . Further axis we have for the totalmoment of theso tractions about the  C os 1 .
repair and replacement of the shovel front attachment and components.) Adjustments. Total midspan chain slack at top of chain must (2) the entire attachment should be placed inside a suitable dry building. When re moved from the machine. Refer to figure 234 and adjust the dipper trip cable tension. vice for removing and installing components. and when grading the area. Idler Sprocket Replacement Inspect sprockets for wear or other defects. Shovel Front Replacement. MAINTENANCE OF SHOVEL FRONT ATTACHMENT dipper stick. Adjust for crowd chain wear as illustrated in figure 224. In general. (3) Rake angle adjustment. Therefore. all exposed finished surfaces must also be lubricated as often as required to prevent damlage due to rust and corrosion. Each of the following adjustments must be checked after every 40 hours of corrosion. The shovel front should be cleaned with cleaning solvent. Crowd chain adjustment. shims beneath the wear plates until the clearance between the dapper stick and the wear plates is approximately 1 /64inch at the thickest point of tire dipper stick. The shovel front must be lubricated NOTE Shims are slotted so they may be tapped into place without removing wear plates. Shovel Front a. The declearances between wear plates and adjust retract cable tension. Refer to figure 236 and remove or replace the idler sprocket assembly by removing the attaching bolts. Adjust both top and side clearances in this manner. the to figure 234 cable should be inspected to determine that it is safe for further use before it is adjusted. pin the pitch brace in hole 1 for easy digging and low bank cuts. (4) Retract cable tension adjustment. 2^26. (c) wear c. The 241 . If possible. General This section contains instructions for servadjustment. a. high banks. Refer to figure 233 and adjust the dipper pitch braces in accordance with type of material being moved and working conditions. (g) Loosen 225. Use the following procedure for adjustment: (a) Support the dipper stick in horizontal position. Use a crane or other adequate lifting dea. at the periodic intervals listed in the current lubrication order (LO 381029412). 6. The crowd chain may be opened at any point for chain replacement. (1) Saddle block adjustment. is located in the saddle Measure the clearance between the wear plates on each side of the dipper stick and the dipper stick. The dipbar must be adjusted to move forward latch per into the opening in the dipper latch as. Refer shovel operation. the chalk or paint marks. (6) Dipper latch bar adjustment. Adjustment is mandatory when clearance reaches 1/16inch at any point illustrated. a. Paint the shovel boom as required to prevent rust and (Refer to TM 9213. 6. latch bar and saddle blocks are 1/64dnch at each location. Record the measured distance.r TM 5381029420 Section VIII. as measured by block. 227. using the hoist line. (d) Position the dipper stick so that the outer third of the dipper stick. Replace a badly worn or defective sprocket to prevent excessive chain wear. Pin the brace in hole 2 for medium or average soil conditions and bank heights. each time recording the measurements. occurs. using chalk marks or paint. and in hole 3 for hard digging. (6) Divide the dipper stick into three approximately equal lengths. Refer to figure 235 dipper latch bar. Attachment Service. and adjust the a few times to blocks Move the dipper make sure it in its stick is back and forth free in the saddle and normal operating condition. Shims and wear plates are used to adjust the clearance between the dipper stick and the saddle block wear plates as shown sired minimum in figure 232. Adjust only if necessary. Crowd Chain Replacement. be maintained at approximately 1/4inch. (/) Repeat steps (d) and (e) above for each of the other two marked sections of the 2*28. preferably on wooden blocking. 6. (e) Measure the clearance between the top of the dipper stick and the wear plate at each end of the saddle block and record the measured distance. Refer to paragraph 29 for removal or replacement of the shovel front attachment. wear plate bolts and insert ice. (5) Dipper trip cable adjustment This adjustment should not be necessary unless the dipper trip cable wears or stretches.
5 . 485 of the memoir is quite for c"^ satisfactory. <rx ~ we should the former 8 will be considered the greater (SaintVenant.' to rj s ~ OD ' une certaiue moyenne entre ces 2 + rj^/Sx) and (s/s Thus he replaces (s/s sy/sy) (s/s . 484). (2).44 longitudinal stretch. 275.  We by thus reach the equation and obtain (ii) for the safestretch condition 1 . and he then takes them equal deux rapports.szjs z without being equal to differ but to be zero . we namely. because if sx 1 have the alternative between and . most satisfactorily 1 / by the arithmetic mean ^'11 \ \Sy ^+~ S Q Q ^Si & Now if sy = . This is a case of approximation. transposing UK! or> 0.r)Sx and . .^ E ^ 1 E sx . + 97' ^ s ^ajs / ) v : see our Art. but y/sy slightly.. without supposing an two out of the three slide components vanish at a <r yg Case (3). I do not think tho vuluo given our 7. Case axis of failpoint. Thus we find as safestretch limit [53 1 n^taom of ^ / We take the positive sign of the radical. and appoa. = maximum of Here rj a is given. s& =/SgJ & .sz/sz) divides out all the terms by the same factor. (i) .c lm all It will be noted that in thrown into squaring a somewhat different find shape.. This result gives a constant value for 77. p. three cases tlio resulting quadratic is practically of the same form and the condition may for all thrc. A elasticity... SaintVenant supposes s and . if.rs to agrco with SaintVenant's note on Clebsch.. like equation is obtained. p.~* sy and . I think.j + ^i^f ^F \ s 1 / 4 y = 2 g (77 \ ^ajy . SAINTVENANT.2 ) on p.
Then support the chain on one side with a heavy hammer or steel plate while installing the connecting pin 6. top for bottom. 6.I 2. Refer to the dipper trip wiring diagram. However. If a single section of unworn chain should break. they must be replaced. PITCH BRAC. 6. 230. wrap the chain around the two sprockets as shown. and Dipper Teeth Replacement and a new cotter pin. Rake angle and retract cable adjustment. the dipper trip pushbutton switch is sprocket.Make sure the chain points in the direction shown in figure 237. To open the chain. 236) and drive out the chain connecting pin at the point shown. If closing the dipper trip pushbutton will not actuate the dipper trip mechanism. Wire Leads a. first check the batteries (para 253). Dipper a. refer to figure 238 and repair the chain by replacing the broken link. figure 239. Dipper Tooth Replacement Drive out the attaching pins and replace dipper teeth. when teeth are worn to about one third their original length. as they wear. 229. since the chain is accessible and sup mounted on a bracket on the front drum clutch leveor. Refer to figure 240 and replace the dipper trip motor megnetic switch and wire leads. When the shovel attachment is in 243 . ported by the sprocket. To reinstall the pin. Repair. easiest point will be at the boom foot drum stalled.E COTTER / NUT AND PN LINE UP PITCH BKAC HOLE RgTRACf CABLE PITCHC? COTTER JAM NUT ADJUSTING NUT PITCH COTTER P AND PIN ME 381029420 '233 Figure 288. Dipper Trip Motor Magnetic Switch and NOTE Dipper teeth can be kept sharp in service by regularly reversing them. Dipper Replacement Refer to figure 241 and remove or replace the shovel dipper. chisel off the cotter pin (fig.
S=^ ~ 4 T.g. [56. If the load P be in the direction of . 77 =j 1 > aix(^ ^nus ^e equation  (i) of our Art. . [56 of course are only true for these excepexpressions (v) tional sections. we have 3 P (i  ?L\ p =P = 9 <oc_ 3 so that. builtin ends). 73:2* 733') will find that the . be alittc and not flexure which produces the failure. zfc But this latter point lies on the neutral. or at that point where there is no slide. but after 2c/a = 4. Consider a rectangular prism (crosssection 26 x 2c) subaxis of a (or side 20).ax in.1. This is that of a prism (length 2<r. Let the a force to parallel to the jected only builtin terminal of the prism be so fixed that it can be distorted by Then if the length of the prism be a.46 SAINTVENANT.3Par3s 5CL83 + 5 8\/? /z + Te\ 7i 1 2 Yl (s)( ?JJ SaintVenant gives a table of the values of the quantity between to 1. 53 becomes "" a lsnu ^mrf . hand 2e/a> 3 '05 the maximum passes abruptly to the points for which = *2 about. section '2h x IV) termiHere the section of greatest nally supported and centrally loaded. . Case P than 25. SaintVenant gives of the above condition of safety. If then the ratio of depth to length be < 305. Similar conclusions SaintVenant tells us may be obtained for ti circular section (radius r). it is the slide alone which is of impoi tancr. Case (2). the prism's resistance is If on the other just that of flexure without consideration of slide. which can never occur in pure torsion as sections of cases of flexure combined with torsion danger. granting uniconstant isotropy. and for values of 2c/a square brackets for values of #/c From this table the following results (depth to length) from 3 to 6. or it must. and approaches more and more to those for which z . strain suffers no distortion. while in practical or slide they are frequently found to be specially strengthened The (e.] We will now enumerate the examples (1).ibo\r ' 1 remarks satisfactorily explain Vicat's experimental results. may be drawn. The reader who bears in mind Vicat's attack upon the injithi'iMJilical theory of elasticity (see our Arts. When 2c/tt 3 '"2 wo may calculate the resistance either from liexuro or transverse slide. So long as 2c/a < 3*05 the failpoint lies on the surface of the prism where s/c . in this case the failpoint passes abruptly \\hen LV/</ from z = r to z = '2r about.0. and 2<j be much greater flexure.
TM 5*381029420 ME 381029420 235 Figure 235. Dipper latch bar adjustment. 235 .
(p. axle. however. and M' the l . ( < + ~~ = (for y = Let us substitute these values in equation of our Art. Case (4). His final equation is Here P is the load acting on an arm k.] The next case treated it not infrequent occurrence. < He > slidemoduli. but takes the general case of two Lot the torsional = yuCT and v^y. gation of combined flexural and torsional strain in rectangular prisms x 2c). by SaintVenant is of greater com18 of the memoir. i. 1853 see our Chap. 53. and possesses considerable theoretical interest. XL : This case gives the calculation of the solid of equal resistance for a bar builtin at one end and acted upon at the other by a noncentral load perpendicular to its axis. whose moments about the axle are equal and whose directions are perpendicular to the We have thus another case of combined flexure and torsion. is the sectional radius at distance 504. Tl *) J a + /y v (J. cj 'jj. combined flexure and SamtVenant supposes uniconstant isotropy and neglects the torsion. . two heavy wheels (w and n:') upon which act forces. In practice (25 also the noncentral loading of beams of rectangular section must be a [57. Case icity SaintVenant in his treatment does not suppose the elas(6). 507 It is the investioccupies pp. i b . which is dealt with as before. *~~ _ 3 we ' M easily obtain for the stretch s the value /z cos y sin <\ .48 SAINTVENANT. plexity. and r x from the loaded terminal.) An axle terminally supported has weight II and carries Case (5).e. * ' flexural slides.lr for s/e = l and slidecomponents be given by <r = 1 respectively. round the prismatic axis to be isotropic. r must be eliminated by "means of the relation y/b " 3 Jf = /S/^T&c If be the angle the plane of the flexural load makes with the plane through the prismatic axis and the axis of //. l flexural moment at section x. that bJ]T s neglects also the flexural slidecomponents. supposing. [57 I shall have something to say of these experiments when dealing with Morin's Resistance des materiaux. (ii) these expressions alternately for the widew 26 and *2c we obtain 1 / Taking : = maximum ^ v/ri LW" ^ + ife3A/'/ ( C cos *+ y sm .
HIT IT HARD. DO NOT FILE DOWN PINS TO AID IN INSTALLING. ME Figure t38. AND MUST BE LONG ENOUGH TO ALLOW PIN TO MOVE. 381029420/238 237 . THIS WILL DRIVE THE PIN FROM THE CHAIN. Chain. PLACE THE CHAIN STEP 2. BUSHING MUST HAVE HOLE LARGER THAN PIN. STRIKE THE PIN VERY SHARPLY. WHILE CUTTING OFF COTTER PIN. STEP 3. INSTALL NEW PIN AND DRIVE COTTER PIN IN PLACE.CHAIN STEEL PLATE STEP 1. PRESS FITS ARE NEEDED FOR CHAIN LIFE. repair and replacement. ON STEEL PLATE WITH BUSHING BENEATH PIN.
however. when tan< = 0. Prism on square base. is a non failpoints pp. "4sum. the failpoint leaves the end of the major axis (through tfhich the flexural loadplane passes ) and traverses the quadrant of the it reaches the end of the minor axis (p. =2. (4) = 0. Bardin shewing the gauchistement of the crosssection to which we have previously referred. c so [5960 (2) much less jompared with (3) 1.hen subjecting it to torsion. 90. So again on best 546 the flexural slides of other crosssections. and = any thing whatever when there 514 518). In the first article there p. When the loadpiano in porpnn .e. 522). from the memoir on flexure for : see our Art. whatever 'pp. [59. as on p. SaintTenant out numerically for the case of uniconstant isotropy and 518 . We now turn to This consists of three parts SaintVenant's final chapter (pp. = 1. 536 (dj where the flexural the prism whose base is slides for the curve (4 W +W ) ( i =1 The are jited p.Variant's >reatment of combined strain. when tan< listorted section for that of least safety (pp. found that after a certain value of the ratio of torsional to lexural couple. The last section 1 37 contains some instructive numerical examples of Saint. A reference is 528 to the models of M. lot in In the general recapitulation of formulae we have some results the body of the memoir.] Dase subjected at the On mly works this edien tan<=o> It is 22 we have the treatment of a prism on elliptic same time to flexure and torsion. =00. a plat.50 SAINTVENANT.tan< may bo neglected as e the case of a plate' (pp. than b that c/J. ire also ^ =1. Prism on rectangular base for which b = 2c. 522 135 Resume g6n&ral\ 136 : Recapitulation des formules et regies pratiques I' and 137 Exemples is little to be noted. 1 SaintVenant terms this sollicite licular to this the prism is sollicite de champ.Vcnant's Lemons le Navier to which we shall refer later. The failpoints are also determined.] 558). and = anything when there is a nondistorted section for section of least safety 5124). SaintVenant also mentions the visible distortion of the crosssec applications numAriques. of formulae as well as numbers for both flexure md torsion is undoubtedly to be found in Saint. ellipse till 1 [60. J. i. nade on ions obtained by marking them on a prism of caoutchouc and . The determined. 511 2).
^ '. REMOVE CAPSCREWS AND LOCKWASHERS.TM 5381029420 a ! ^. v^w^T^ t"^**. ?m&t \. removal.% w'v'v\. LEADS t I ^H s J . ME 381029420/240 Figure 240. STEP 2. 239 . ^K. Dipper trip magnetic switch. DISCONNECT LEADS. STEP 3. REMOVE MAGNETIC SWITCH.
2201. tho second differential of the function which expresses the law of intermo lecular force must be positive: see our Arts. of the memoir on the Flexure of Prisms communi sated to the SocittJ Philomathique. 1581*. 20<S awl 278. Saint. . final paragraph to the paper points out that the resistance torsion varies more nearly inversely than directly as the : axial noment [66. 290. 24. Saint. Ho in order to explain heat by translational vibrations.he memoir on Torsion pp.] Diverses considerations sur I'&asticiti des corps. 14 and 171. Vol.Venant : On [67. 52 58 and our Arts.] esults of the Volume 23 of the same Journal. 24850. An account of a memoir October 1855.he A . is mother communication of SaintVenant's to the Sociitd PhiloThis deals with the formulae for the nathique (July 8. [6468 [64.] ire particulars In the same volume of the same Journal.o Legons de Navier. a of case the treats md rectangular crosssection: see specially . [68. ^J and not A/' this subject ^: sec L'lnstitwt. notably the case of : prism on an equalsided triangular base see our Arts 40 2. par la chaleur.] of inertia see our Art. 440 442. Ampere points out that and others on see our Art. &t sur leur dilatation should be p. 396 398. 428 31 of the same volume of th$ same Journal communicates to the Socttti Philomathique (July 8 md October 21. see our Arts. 441 h action. pp.Venant refers to the labours of : Newton. 215. pp. when the crosssection It gives the general equations loes not possess inertial isotropy. sur leurs mouvements vibratoires atomiques. sur lex actions vntre leurs moUcules. The same volume of the same Journal.52 SAINTVENANT. Further memoir on Torsion communicated to the SocUti Philomathique (April 12 and i May 12. pp. 1854). pp. to the Sori&A Philomathiqve contain20. 53 et seq. 1854) the results obtained from the stretchThese results were afterwards published in condition of strength. 102. 1855). presented on remarks the rariconstant theory of intormolccular ing general The expression for the velocity of sound on p. In the same volume of this Journal. pp.] lexure of prisms and for their strength. [65. .
Removal. dipper teeth. ) Inspect teeth and side cutters for wear mage. ADAPTER consists of The dipper assembly KEEPER pper.TM Hpper Assembly Pitch Adjustment. broken and missing parts. ) Inspect bracket assembly. removing and installing components. or missing parts. Inspect sheaves and bushings for wear and damage. (4) k assembly. block. and retent. DRIVE OUT ADAPTER KEEPER AND ADAPTER AND REPLACE. INSTALL NEW TEETH. Section X. c. or other damage to structural members. The dipper is attached to the and pitch brace assembly. STEP faulty sheaves or sheave bushings as in3d in paragraph 28. must be repaired or replaced. IF NECESSARY. . and attaching hardware eaning solvent. block. Refer to paragraph 27 for replacement of the piledriver rig. Keep the piledriver rig clean. 241 . Remove handle and )race pins and remove dipper and bracket )ly. block. Piledriver Rig ervice. or of any type. Inspection ) Clean parts and Repair. d. bent lacings. and sembly for worn or damaged links. Any damaged item which affects structural strength placed. inspection. block. Dipper teeth must be replaced when they are worn to about one third their original length. then drag cable from bracket assembly. removal and replacement. painted.) ADAPTER PIN KEEPER (4) 3 Lower dipper to rest on blocks. and link assembly.s of service.e Inspect all parts for wear. Inspect sheaves and sheave bushings. and repair or replace de DRIVE OUT PIN AND PIN KEEPER. and link assembly from handle. Dipper Teeth Replacement. and keep in accordance with 6. STEP 3. if they are dull or Refer to paragraph 2S for removal or anent of backhoe front attachment or coraI) Dipper Assembly eneral. STEP 2. se a crane or other adequate lifting dear Repair. Replace side cutters L. Refer to figure 242 and replace dipper teeth. and bracket assembly. ik assembly. Inspect the piledriver rig for faulty welds. It is actuated pull cables through the bracket assembly. J) . attaching nd bushings. defects. MAINTENANCE OF PILEDRIVER ATTACHMENT machined surfaces lubricated General Maintenance of the piledriver attachment . Refer agraph 28d and adjust the backhoe pitch Repair L) te 538102*420 and Replacement. (5) Repair or replace damaged. side cutters. leaning. ) Inspect parts and attaching hardware nage and wear. well Replacement. !) ME 381029420/242 Figure 48* Dipper pins. worn. LO 5381 029412. Remove cotter pins and washers from and pitch brace pins. 1 . repair. teeth.
i. when There is also consideration is paid to the influence of slide. 101 and (see our Art.Venant here indicates that he intends to use the semiinverse method : (see our Art. coefficient of s y in iru . ce sommaire de memoire.<? coordinate axes before strain. This rariconsfcancy SaintVenant holds to be without doubt true for bodies of 'confused crystallisation*' such as are used for the materials of construction (p. m" to have length r. he adopts falls ' multiconstant formulae. namely (i) in the memoir on Torsion [72. 75*. we reproduce proof of the equality of the crossstretch and directslide coefficients. 65*.] i We 033. a succinct account of the contents of Sections 4 32 of the memoir. 98 101) is entitled: Objet et Saint. three other such sketches. z on the . After strain x and z remain unchanged. 3) to test how far the BernoulliEulerian ( formulae Traction = Ezjp. 20*.e. \ ( Bending moment jzdv = 0.] : 13. = Eo)/c*/p y (see our Arts. .] Sections 4 12 (pp. his As a specimen of the mode of treatment. (iii) between (i) and (ii). The third section (pp.Venant wrote sketch of the general theory of elasticity. At the same time for the sake of the weaker brethren/ and as it does not increase the difficulty of solving the elastic equations. 9 [71.VENANT. 4). for Moigno's Statique (see our Arts. 116. 224 This sketch 9). 108).the coefficient of in and o^. eta) are correct. but y will be increased by ys u owing to the stretch and x<r to xl/ owing 1 See the footnote to our Art. have to shew that the #. (ii) in the Legons de Navier (see our Art.. and projections x. in our notation \xxyy\ = [73. 190). Suppose the central distance of two molecules w'. 120) contain an elementary Saint. It adopts rariconstancy and bases it upon intermolecular action being central and a function of central distance only.54 SAINT. [71 73 on Torsion had given the outlines of the true theory of flexure see our Arts. and these Suppose all the straincomponents zero except to be constant for all points of the body. y.
COTTER PIN STEP 1 . bushings. Installation. f ~ '"'**'r WASHER (4) \ SPACER (2) (2) Figure t45. Use a light layer of lubricant when reinstalling pins. Inspect sheaves for wear. PRESS ROLLER PIN OUT END COTTER PIN WAS A STEP 3. STEP 2. grooving. Replacement. REMOVE EXTERNAL WASHER AT END COTTER PIN WAS REMOVED. When teeth are worn to Removal. The bucket must be kept clean and wear points must be kept lubricated in accord rollers. Clean and inspect sheave bushings for signs of wear or damage and replace damaged bushings. and Repair 242. that passages are open and have been receiving the lubricant NOTE properly grooved sheave has smooth side walls and the groove is only slightly wider than tiie cable. (1) Clamshell bucket. FROM REMOVED. 3810294. Refer to figure 246. Inspect lubrication fittings and make sure cloth. and replace worn or damaged sheaves. and Repair The bridle assembly contains the sheaves for the boom hoist cable and provides the point of attachment for boom guy cables. (4) Dump cable. General. (2) Dragline bucket Refer to paragraph 2 spreader assembly. (5) Sheave bushings. Service and Repair. Be sure lubrication fittings are properly installed and line up with grease holes. removing all old lubricant. Assembly Service. Clean sheaves with solvent. Service.20/244 and Dragline Bucket Service.<*. Replace dump cable when frayed or worn. REMOVE SPACERS AND GUIDE ROLLERS. Inspect sheave pins for wear cr scoring and smooth small rough points with a fine file or emery it is Replace severely worn or scored pins.TM 5381029420 ROLLER PIN M " *< MJ  f * v * A . removal. move the about one third of their original length. Cable guide Refer to paragraph 24d and install the bridle assembly.. to equalize wear and keep them sharp during operation. 6. Replace sheave bushings and sheaves as described in paragraph 2 41* 243 . NOTE Dragline bucket teeth can be reversed. top for bottom. 242). ance with 241. or cracks. and other fitted parts. The bridle assembly is sometimes called the a. d. Hook block. (3) Bucket teeth. REMOVE COTTER PIN AT EITHER END. Replacement. bucket. Replacement. ME Figure 244. Clamshell a.. 6 for dragline bucket removal and installation. drive out the attaching pins and replace bucket teeth (fig. Refer to paragraph 25 for removal and installation of the clamshell 6. i ait _. Refer to paragraph 24 and re bridle assembly. Bridle LO 5381029412. c. .
12536) SaintVenant gives the general solution of the problem of flexure. the nature of shear. supposed to be no . where C and 0' are constants for the crosssection. namely. which can be chosen to as possible the I will suit a great variety of crosssections. matter of these sections. his later work.56 Section 13 SAINTVENANT. 7). 124) The assumption of the possibility a in of the expansion convergent series is a very dangerous one. : [76. researches (p. see our of torsion to very erroneous results the case in and leads 621 de footnote and 191 (or Legons Arts. then the above condition is analytically represented by sx =Cz + C f (1). or the right lino joining the centroids of the crosssections. This method SaintVenant admits had served for the departure of his own than he does in and he deals more gently with it here (p. 1626* Navier. stresses is assumed. pp.] (pp. carefully stating his assumptions and once integrating his equations. and let xz be the plane of flexure (or of the elastic line). [7577 with Poisson [75. 99). 121123) deals and Cauchy's method of treating the the stresses as positive ordinates of the point on the crosssection referred to axes in pipblem of flexure by expanding functions of the cointegral algebraic the crosssection: see our Arts. 466* and 618* (footnote). or that their mutual action is solely of Further. on the terminal crosssections there is tractive loading. and further the stretches of (elastic the longitudinal fibres vary in a uniform manner with their distances from each other measured parallel to the plane of the clastic line. the axis of the prism. it is supposed that the fibres exorcists no each other. c 7 the origin be Let x be the direction of the line of centroids before flexure and lot its fixed extremity (see (iii)).] In 1417 (pp. mutual traction upon The character of a certain portion of the (ii) namely. reproduce as briefly crosssections Taking a portion of a weightless prism between two SaintVenant proposes to determine its state of after it has been subjected to flexure on the equilibrium following [77.] : suppositions The character of a certain portion of the shifts and strains is (i) assumed. He reduces the solution to the determination of a single function F. is supposed to become a plane curve line here one with the neutral line).
as illustrated in figure 23. and pull fig NOTE The boom line desires. (8) Carefully and slowly spool the new cable on the selected drum. one man should tap the with a soft hammer. This may be at the boom point or the hook block.TM 243. a. Pulleys (Boom Point Sheaves) Service the end of the new cable over the boom point sheaves to the correct main drum. being careful that 245 . should tap the new As this is done. General. &. 245. Position the new cable reel close to the Replacement of Load Cables. (5) To install the new cable. General. place the drum brake for the cable to be removed in the brake released When this is done. Boom new cable wedge in the drum. (1) Provide adequate wooden blocking to support the boom. reeve the boom hoist cable back to the dead end on the lower spreader as shown in figure 248. . The boom jib mast is also called the jib strut and is used to support the jib when a jib is in use. (9) Starting at the center (equalizer) sheave of the upper spreader. or beneath the front drum. Service for the jib and jib strut is the same as for the crane with a soft hammer. refer to figure 210 and remove the cable wedge from the drum (4) Raise (11) Install hoist drum as new cable wedge in the boom shown in figure 210. anil remove fairlead. Replacement. place the cable reel beneath the boom point sheaves. Remove nuts. Service and Replacement a. (3) number of (fig. (2) Loosen the cable clamp at the cable dead end. the boom to any convenient so line hangs downward. One that the height man can then pull the cable off the drum. (12) Carefully and slowly spool the new cable on the boom hoist drum. sheaves lead in accordance with LQ 5Lubricate (2) drum clutch lever. (7) Refer to figure 210 and install the (6) Run and Replacement point sheaves are illustrated in figure 249. line boom. (4) Refer to figure 248 and disconnect the boom hoist cable from the lower spreader. (3) Pay off more cable until the upper spreader lies on the boom. one man cable into place on the drum The fairlead is on a bracket mounted the front of the on located rfevfclving frame. new cable into place lagging. 244. Refer to ure 247 and replace the jib and jib strut. hoist off the drum may be used to pay the drum under power if the operator a. Service a. 6. one man standing on the ground must pull the cable out of the cab. Refer to paragraph 237a and service the jib and jib strut. c. Service. (2) Lower boom until it is supported on blocking. and Ubolts. Use (1) a suitable Kfting device for removal aixd instal' lation* Refer to figure 243. Manually unreeve the hook block 211). shown in figure 29. When the cable end is reached. (7) Refer to figure 210 and remove the wedge to complete removal of the cable. Boom Jib Mast. boom it (5) Release the boom hoist pawl and the hoist brake (TM 5381029410). To replace edther the front or the rear drum load cable. new 2*46. b. c. Jib and Jib Strut Replacement. Jib and Jib Strut Service. Replacement of Boom Hoist Cable. As this is done. using the proper (1) Inspect for excessive grooving of fairor rollers. (10) A third man operates the proper drum dutch lever to wind the cable on the drum. (1) Lower the hook block to the ground upper spreader and near the boom. depending on the parts of line in use. lockwashers. Fairlead. (10) Pull the rest of the cable off the new cable reel and reeve the other half of the boom hoist cable back to the boom hoist drum. General. as or to suitable blocking. 381029412. (9) A second man should maintain some drag on tire new cable reel so the cable is under tension. 5381029420 and Replacement the cable goes over the top of the rear drum. Cable Replacement (6) Unreeve the boom hoist from the boom hoist drum. (8) cable position. They provide low friction pivot points for load cable movement. Replace fairlead as described in steps 1 and 2 of (2) ' figure 213.
.. = P(*x) 1 Provided the relation ejh" = #"// does not hold between the ehiHtic co .58 If SAINTVENANT. ax or. to the conditions two equations of (11) lead us by means of the 1 last two of *s.U...... The first equation of (11) shews that if is variable or [80.. Further differentiating the same equation with regard to #. we deduce by the second and third equations of (11) the result M or M must be of the linear form in cc..= doer 0.. or it involves the contradiction of the the slides cr^ o^ BernoulliEulerian assumptions.] in other words the curvature changes. that the crosssections remain plane and normal to the strained fibres).. d?w T. xs and therefore cannot be zero.. its value zM/l$wK we have. to ax ^ = 0. putting for du/dx = 8X supposed a function ofx only. s .. the second that the curvature (]//& \ = w dx a for small shifts J in direction of z is equal to We thus obtain M= the formulae of the BernoulliEulerian theory...... [80 to we now turn to the body stressequations we find they reduce r ax .... = 5  dx while the surface stressequations reduce to the single one wdy~wdz = The (7) last ...O. (12). d?u dsv A d?u Hence.e... here deduced without its invalid assumptions (i.. the stresses ^. smce AT ts The first equation tells us that there is no curvature in the direction of y after flexure.
Figure 248. (1) Refer to figure 249 paint sheaves. 6. Angle Indicator. 247. (1) Refer to figure 26(2). Service. Install boom backstop between the gantry and boom as shown in figure 26(1) and 26 (2). Backstop Assembly. 248. STEP 3. 6. STEP 5 fcNGAGE <?EMC\ E REMCA E BOOM HOIST PAV/L. (2) Refer to figure 26(1). 27. a. lockwashers. Clean the boom point sheaves and LO 5381029412. c. Replacement a. STEP 4. lubricate in accordance with e. COTTER PIN AND PIN. Remove cotter pins and backstop pans at gantry. and remove boom (2) Reverse sequence of steps in figure 249 to install sheaves. CABLE. and bolts and remove angle indicator. maximum STEP 1 LOWER BOOM TO SUPPORT. Boom backstops are pnmded raised strictly as a means of giving an operator a visual way of telling when the boom has been to the limit They must never be used to prevent fee boom from being raised too high. PLACE ON NEV. Remove nuts. Remove cotter pins and backstop pins and remove boom backstop from boom. removal and replacement. lower spreader Install angle indicator as shown in figure connection. CABLE SOCKET AND ME 381029420 248 Removal. SUIT AWE STEP 2. Replacement Refer to figure 27.TM 5331O29420 6. INSTALL P!N AND COTTER PIN. General. Replacement. Installation. 247 . Boom hoist cable.
60 SAINTVENANT. the values of the stresses : : * (20/) ' It follows that vKz that axis 1 *x I At2 > or = o for y z 0. is is the iuclinations of all the crosssections at their centres to the the same and equals o. = perpendicular to x. *. does not deal in his special examples [83. Q O have altered SaintVenant's notation to correspond with that of our History he puts for our . [83 84 These results follow by simple analytical work if we start with the u obtained from the equation sx = /p = P (a . W Further. however.h = k = n = h1 = k' = n' = 0. .x) %\E^ and then those of v and w given by the second and third equations of to proceed so found being made to satisfy (11). \ ^ ^ I . w=f<r<w> M= e<r<M) "ya = we take 1 (20). The last section of general treatment (pp.. . . etc.(19'). if /=/ = 0. values the (8).] with this general case of elastic distribution he assumes the material to have planes of elastic symmetry perpendicular to y and z. as well as . over the contour of the crosssection. 133 [84. value of SaintYenant. . .. The equations (18) and (19) now become. Thus we note First.] 6) gives formulae for various quantities used for the special cases afterwards dealt with. . We then have h" and clearly e = 0.
Refer to figure 252 and rereplace a faulty slave receptacle. both upper and carrier positions. ' y ' . ** ^^ REMOVE HEADLIGHT. and Cables they are not cut. . Slave Cable Receptacles a. STEP 3. 6. is illustrated in figure 251. Repair. REPLACE HEADLlCHTl INSTALL ^ ME 331C29420 2 Figure 50. Cables must be kept clean and must be inspected before each use to be sure Slave Cables. d. or damaged. worn.T TM 5381029420 ' STEP 1 . . to 249 . Refer to figure 251 and remove and replace power source. A faulty cable could lead to short circuits which could General./ REMOVE T\VO SCREWS WHICH ATTACH HEfcDUttttU&AND '. Refer to the schematic diagram of the upper wiring. STEP 4. any defective light component. move and c. figure 14. Slave cable receptacles are provided for recharging batteries from an external damage the crane and the power source which the cables are connected. Headlights. replacement. '.. 252. r . They are provided with covers to prevent dirt and moisture from entering. Replacement. kfcMOVESCREvVS." T'i ' StlR2. HW . lights furnished with this machine. REMOVfc HEADLIGHT GUARD : t . Refer to paragraph 250 for the method to be used for wiring harness repair. to isolate wiring problems.
] We may note the following cases : ellipse (2b x 2c) is obtained (not by putting m/(l m) = 2 which leads to a logarithmic curve owing to the appearance of indeterminate ml(l . Thus. = c2 we find. mj (I m) be =6 treated as even. he says Supposing m/(l m) to be treated as even. X being an extremely small positive quantity. bodies with triplanar elastic symmetry.Venant deals with and figures the . This ]eads him to the : condition that m must lie between and 1.m vanish. Thus we have forms. but for 3 = 0. for a similar cnrvo in we must take m2yjl. This discussion seems to me perhaps a little too brief. In putting y = 0. that z/c have a real value when y/b = 1 . also if Thus m y y. y = 46 always. and so capable of serving as a contour for a crosssection. 138 143) to discuss the various forms that can be taken by this system of curves. 3m 2 ^c 2 5 2 c 2 SaintYenant now proceeds (pp. and b the semiaxis in the direction = 0. or y. and symmetrical or not with regard to the axis of % or odd. is obtained by putting m/(l  m) 4 in the case of isotropic material for which uniconstancy holds.x. (7 = curves symmetrical with regard to have we to values various give the axis of y. 3 = c. [88. Equation (25) can be thrown according as m/(lm) is even into a somewhat different form by assuming c to be the semiaxis of the curve in the direction of #. Equation (25) / 1 "" now becomes a z : l2 yi m p b*\ AAi^ l2 yi 3m 2 V w )\l) .] On pp. but) by making the coefficient of y The ^ The circle (radius b) is obtained by putting b c or The y* false ellipse. = 5/2 and More generally = 1/10. [87. [8788 If be finite and we this represents a family of ellipses. 139 40 Saint. then it is sufficient and necessary in order that the curve may be closed. 4 o = + 2 c 1.62 If SAINTVENANT.
225.280 and 1. 251 . General. The difference in specific gravity between any two cells A must not exceed 0. Retest with a hydrometer test REMOVE SLAVE RECEPTACLE after charging. Slave receptacle.T i TM 5381029420 253. . after which the alternator REMOVE SCREW (4>.300. fully charged battery should between 1.025. c. (4) AND NUTS ' (4) If the specific gravity reads below 1. supplies required electrical power. b. Replace a battery that will not take or hold a charge. recharge the batteries. replacement. The batteries provide power for starting the engine. LOCKWASHER Test Test the batteries with a hydrometer. Table S. Remove battery filler caps and add distilled water to 3/8inch above plates before recharging. Refer to figure 263 and replace faulty batteries or battery box components. Refer to tables 23 and 24. Batteries a. Figure 2~5&. Battery Condition (Corrected to 80 F)> 8 ' * * Table 84* Electrolyte Freezing Points Replacement.
with a uniconstant isotropic material 2 . [9192 = material (ra= 4/5. He traces these surfaces by means of level or contour lines for different ratios of X/X Q [see equation (29')]. if namely : The ellipse. (i.] interesting work to trace the form of the distorted crossHcctioiiK. false ellipse for a uniconstant isotropic = 9/10 (or 18/20.64 . This represents the amount neglected we may safely neglect an error of 1/100 in the ordinary theory.Venant goes through some most [92. if we deal ) generally about 3 U 21 /c\ a . q = i^(f/p. considered as even).SAINTVENANT. for circle  (  ) for false 27 for rectangle with flattened angles /cV ( O J \o / . it follows that the ordinary theory will give sufficiently close practical results so is 8 or 9 times its diameter long as the length of the beam On pp. yj ya 10 ). If in practice in the deflection. Here.Jf. 148 156 Saint.). and of he proceeds to cases which have for by four curved lines. the contour out. that is by the trace of the surfaces on planes parallel to the tangent plane at thu origin. also for a uniof the curve constant isotropic material this curve approaches a rectangle of which w V the angles have been rounded off and the top and bottom hollowed is here a quadrilateral formed (=2/2). [91 We may owing to shear is note that the term to be added to the deflection 2 /c\ of that due to bending.e. 1 We have only to put b = c in the above results. we have : 4/> . for uniconstant isotropy 7l f if\ 2^1<> V cV 1 + (ii) TAe circ^. etc. Then w=l practical purposes more definite contours. .
Refer to the schematic wiring diagram of the upper wiring. CAUTION Disconnect battery cables before workfag on the control panel. 255. Note that the panel is removable as a unit by removing the row of attaching fasteners around the edge of the panel. 253 . and Wiring. figure 14. Figure 254 illustrates the various control gages and instruments located on the control panel. Refer to paragraph 250 for the method to be used for wiring replacement or repair. Switches General.TM 538102M20 Section XIV. Refer to TM 5381029410 for a description of the function of each. i MAINTENANCE OF INSTRUMENT CONTROL ASSEMBLY 254. Engine Control Panel Replacement a. to isolate wiring problems. ' a. &. Replacement and Repair Replacement Refer to figure 254 and replace any damaged or faulty component of the control panel. b.
. This occupies pp... of a beam of rectangular crosssection.0.66 It SAINTVENANT. The condition d^dy = for y= b will bo satisfied if n being any whole number.] By the assumption Saini>Yenant reduces the equations of condition (19') for n ri _4 w+r T? = dz fl F (y.(31). fl . we must have 4 7 = . shews us that a certain must hold among the coefficients A it will servo later to (I \ determine cr .. The sines must however disappear in virtue of the second equation. + 2L P f . Hence finally we may write   : X = Kz + 2 24 n sinh  .. and since x = when y = g = 0. [93 is may be remarked that the conception of these surfaces much assisted by plastermodels. SaintVenant now passes to the discussion of the flexure 168. z) to for all values of y and .0..<4 _ or. 156 [93. dy* = X (&*) X (& *) everywhere. y " 3 for z = c.. 0. 111). (32). and dx/dz = for y = z . vertical (flexure plane) sides The first equation of (31) is satisfied by taking ^y) j . which exist for the case of the and square crosssections (see circular below Art. 3 = 0. c and v between * ^ = dy for T/ u = * 6 and g between Here 25 and 2c are the horizontal and of the rectangle. relation The condition dxJdz^O for y . and obviously it will bo suilicient to deal For n only with positive whole numbers. wo must introduce a term A Q (e Q z ~ e~ Q s) which gives us a quantity Ki..
TACHOMETER DRIVE CABLE STEP 1 . &. DRIVE AND TACHOMETER 256. (4) Remove capscrews. and re 255 . ME . 381 029420/255 ME 381029420 256 Figure 255. nuts. MAINTENANCE OF HORN. Exhaust Muffler a. Figure 255. (3) 260. and replacement of defective muffler and pipes. WIRING. removal. Remove Inspection. General MAINTENANCE OF EXHAUST MUFFLER AND PIPES 6. nel The horn is used to warn personof machine movement which might endanger General. and exhaust the elbow from pipe. lockwashers. Maintenance consists of inspection. breaks. Tachometer drive cable. (1) Refer to figure 256 and disconnect the tachometer drive cable from the tachometer. Inspect the muffler and exhaust pipes for cracks. and muffler the muffler and exhaust remove clamps. Replacement Refer to figure 255 and replace a defective horn switch. or signs of deterioration. 257. Horn Wiring. 259. 256). REMOVE JAM NUTS REMOVE HORN SWITCH REMOVE WIRING. Hie tachometer mounted on the engine control panel (fig. their safety. Tachometer Removal and Replacement. and Pipes nuts. and Drive is General. It Is cable driven from the tachometer drive (fig. STEP 2. Horn switch and wiring. and (2) Refer to figure 257 and remove nuts bolts holding the guard to the supports. ers from the base of the exhaust move exhaust pipe and gasket and lockwashpipe. Reptocement end Repair Refer to paragraph 250 for the method of replacing or repairing the horn wiring. STEP 3. replacement. Refer to figure 14 for the upper machinery wiring diagram.T TM Section 5301029420 XV. connect drive cable. Tachometer a. Removal. Remove the tachometer from the control pandL (2) Install tachometer on control panel and 6. and allow muffler and pipes to cool. 258. Section XVI. Horn Replacement a. (1) Stop the engine The exhaust muffler and pipes are illustrated in figure 257. 254).
or we can write *J V 2 the sumterm in = Further the deflection 8 is 3P 7l & 2 ^ : then given by T 2 3^ since c _ b*\ For the case of isotropy : ^= J. equation Iszdylcydz^ boundary " The next two sections 28 and 29 (pp. = yi /^CDK 2 ' T& V/z ^ axe 2 .] with numerical. quantities which occur For <r SaintVenant obtains the following results when y l =^ 15 i It is shewn that equation (35) may for all values of c VAS > & be omitted. or . graphical and simpler algebraic expressions for the in the previous sections. ^//AJ  r>/2. 164 8) are occupied [96.SAINTVENAtfT. i (n7rc \b v //xA s.P. cosh SaintVenant verifies these results by shewing that they satisfy the and the loadconditions Jxs du = . [96 t.
Operators Seat (3) Moisten the weatherstrip with soapy Refer to figure 260 and remove and replace the operator's seat (Stand). (2) Install the glass in one corners of the new weatherstrip. masking tape on the piece of glass be broken out to prevent flying glass. (34) ^M^^  . NUT LOCKWASriE* MJI$W**i REMOVf DOC*.TM 5381029420 ~ BOLT (34) ..ouching each other."!' TO REMOVE THERE ARE Figure 258. in figure 259 and pull it around the complete weatherstrip to lock the Installation. Go all the way around the window and force the ends into place. Place to c.'1'V"^' ^r. at the to hutt Be sure avoid ex of the lower 263. .. (1) Start the rubber weatherstripping as shown in figure 259. injury.. Cab door assembly. * . cessive force. NOTE Do not begin the locking operation joint of the weatherstrip. (4) Insert a suitable locking tool similar to the one illustrated glass in place.. ! . removal. Remove the weatherstripping around the glass. 257 .
que nous devons nous borner a soumettre aux physicians et aux physiologistes. Vol. especially with regard to the existence of a third ray as obtained by him in his discussion of ( what is termed double refraction. result agreeing with Laplace modified the formula. even with the aid of the formulae of the theory of elasticity.Venant is not satisfied with any investigation which has been given. The article concludes thus : Quoi qu'il puisse tre de ces explications. pour ndre la theorie de la lumiere exempte d'inexactitude logiquc. et bien que Ton puisse continuer sans doute de regarder le mouvement de la lumi&re dans les cristaux comme represent^ approximatwement par la surface d'onde du quatrieme degre de Fresnel. Eulcsr. 101. Sur les consequences de la thdorie de V6lasticit6 en ce L'lnstitut. 212 Newton obtained a certain expression for the velocity of sound which gives a result much smaller tlian that found by 102. et ^jovoquer pour 1'avenir des recherches qui scront pcutetre suivies d'importantes decouvertes. Laplace. nous pensons qu'il convient de ne plus passer sous silence les composantes longitudinalea des vibrations nouv eluder quelques difficultes dont elles sont le sujet. 24. dans les milieux birefringents. il y a lieu de ne plus presenter less vibrations de Tether. Vol. Sur la vitesse du son. 216. conirne etant tout a fait paralleles aux divers plans tangents a la surface des ondes lumincuaes qui s'y propagent. 32 34 The article adopts the view that much remains to be done to render the theory of Physical Optics satisfactory. [100102 [100. pp. (jn'on n<i doit tl On . d fait eocactes les elastic This reiterates the principle of the practical equivalence in of load which are effect of two surface distributions : statically equivalent see our Arts. and thus obtained a experiment: see our Arts. He says voittoujours. par ce qui precede.] The et final section of entitled : Conclusion. qui regarde la thdorie de la lumi&re.. Poiason et Dulon^. 24. is Observation g6n6rale pour le cos o& le mode de distribution des forces ext&ieures vers les 1879) ecctrmitis est different de celui qui rend tout auxquelles conduit la mdthode mixte. Lagrange. d'application formules the memoir ( 32. 1856. qu'il msto tuicoro InVu <lrs chosen savoir sur la theorie du son. :}!()* and (><S. Saint. experiment. it supports the views of Oauchy. L'Institut.70 SAINTVENANT. et que. 185G. objet dos rcclitTclujs d'lioinincs t(^ls quo Newton. 8 and 9.
Removal. or other damage. REMOVE SEAT. paying careful attention to cracks or excessive grooving. Visually inspect the gantry for evidence of cracks. (1) Refer to applicable paragraph (24 through 29) and remove the front end attachment. 265. (4) Refer to figure 261 and remove the gantry assembly* (3) 259 . 264. Gantry a. Check the condition of gantry sheaves. Assembly Make sure that points which require lubrication have not been missed. Section XVIII. bends. Refer to figure 268 and remove sheet metal as required. Inspection. Operator'* seat.TM 5311029430 SEAT PIN STEP 1. (2) Remove boom backstops (para 247). 6. General MAINTENANCE OF GANTRY ASSEMBLY re quired to The gantry provides the anchor for items support the boom. removal. ME 381029420/260 Figure 60. REMOVE PIN. STEP 2.
poipondioulairp MU SCHH ou oll(^ calcul tant Du Cette surface est tresondu!6e a oaiiKo des osrillalions jn'ovciiant oscille. and in L'lnstitut. [105 This memoir was presented on August 10. or assume that its form will be that of the elastic line for a beam which centrally loaded has the same central deflection. : This is a special problem experimentally investigated by and theoretically by Cox see our Arts. This surface in plaster of Pari. case of the resilience The following result is given in the Oomptes rendus. Hodgkinson 999* and 1434 7*. Lam^. 22. It was referred to Poncelet. 613. the Soci&6 November 5. that of body striking the bar is the horizontal ?/ a displacement at distance x from one end and TJPF/(2yE<i>K ). / B N 5 3 Q where the S refers to all the real m (tan m and the following 27 is and positive roots tanh m) = 27>/<? J m of the equation the notation used : = length of bar. on pent deduire la suite dos form PS trosvaruVs prises par la barre heurtee. but Cox's memoir seems to have escaped him. does not like Cox neglect the vibrations of the bar. 939*.] SaintVenant makes the following remark : num6rique que e^raphiquo d'uno suitn de cos valours du dplacement ?/. P its weight. Some of the results of this memoir were communicated to Philomathiqiie. pp. 1854.s was actually prepared under SaintVenant's directions.seclr m + ST m / m m . des second et troisiemo tormes surtout do la scric S (p. 1857. under the partially published Solution du proU&me du choc transversal et de la resistance title : vive des larres flastiques appuyees auoc eoctrdmiUs. p. 204 8. [105. 1854. however. T. An extract by the author is given in the Gomptes rendus. SAINTVENANT. ce qui permet de modolor un rolicf on platre donnant la surface que docrirait cetto bairn Kiipposp<i oniporton transversalement d'un mouvement rapido. 206 : sin _. 1853 and January 21. y = FrS mx/l sinh mx/l cosh 4 cos 5? sec sm (m ^' ^ m . SaintVenant. at its Q horizontally with velocity F raidsection. In the Oomptes rendus. Bertrand and Hermite. 942*. . 200).72 1857. pp. SaintVenant gives some account of the history of both transverse and longitudinal impact problems. nnd T havo found a copy of it very useful for lecture purposes.
Heater. 261 .20 2^1 A Figure 61 A.TM 5381029420 \ _?=== ELECTRIC J MOTOR MOUNTING SCREWS ME 3810294. replacement.
see our Art IJ)O(d). found in the Journal de Liouville. pp. of same Journal. This gives an account of a paper of Saint. 245 250).Venant's models may still be obtained of M. Vol.] same Journal. .74 SAINT. (h di: dy dz dy which must be of the shifts. [110. These concases to dispense with the consideration A proof of these conditions by Boussinesq \vill be. 181 (d\ and 182 (a). 27. pp. pp. 182 (6). The to fairly me more elementary treatment of the Lemons de Namer seems advantageous (pp. 1<S7L. They relate to crosssections in the form of doubly symmetrical quartic curves and to torsion about an external axis see our Arts. ](>.Venant's read before the ftociett Philomathique (July 28. 2502) of the same 1789. The treatment of the is also present paper work. Further results to the Soci6ti communicated on Torsion Philomathique (April 24 and May 15. 1860. 2945. of elastic bodies.] L'Institut. /. 273 4). 212. good to the student. 1861. At the same meeting Saint. pp.] Vol. [110112 may do more harm than and general principles of the subject. 26. : [111. 28. satisfied ditions enable us in many by the straincomponents. or the six differential relations of the types 9 : d*$x dy dz d (duXK dx \ dy ~ dz* 2 d<rie y c&r. 1860). 305 6. \X*2 4. [112. Delagrave in Paris and are of considerable value for classlectures on the vibration of Vol. Saint Venant presents to the BociiU Philomathique the model de la surface dforite par une corde vibrante transport^ d'un mouvement Copies of this as rapide perpendiculaire a son plan de vibration.Vonant extended his results on torsion to: (1) prisms on any base with at each point only one plane of symmetry perpendicular to the sides. 1858. 49 (c). (2) prisms on an elliptic base with or without any plane of symmetry whatever. reproduced in 7 (pp. Vol. In this he deduces the conditions of compatibility. 1858) and afterwards incorporated in the Legons de Namer (pp.VENANT. well as some other of Saint.
specified in the lubrication chart. It also allows air trapped in the lines from the control (1) General. Service. It must be kept filled to the full mark at all Replacement. Clutch and brake hydraulic cylinders are identical. Hydraulic system. Use same procedure for each hydraulic brake and clutch cylinder. Refer to (2) 6. schematic diagram. The hydraulic fluid reservoir provides the storage space required for hydraulic fluid used in the crane control system. times. 6. Replacement. Start engine and position adjusting bolts in the desired position by intermittently engaging engine clutch.TM 53*1029430 HYDRAULIC FLUID RESERVOIR BRAKE HYDRAULIC CYLINDER PEDAL MANIFOLDVALVE FLUID MANIFOLD MASTER CYLINDER ME Figure 62. Close the hydraulic reservoir shutoff valve shown in figure 263. stand beneath the operator's levers to vent from the system. General. Service consists of keeping the hydraulic reservoir full of clean fluid of the type figure 267 and replace a hydraulic cylinder. Hydraulic Fluid Reservoir a. Refer to figure 263 and re move and replace the hydraulic fluid reservoir. . 272. 381029420/262 Hydraulic Cylinder (Brake or Clutch). c.
the Saint. est partout egale dans le sens des rayons. mais jwlairenuint. en dirigeant. Even granted that isotropy i. or cylindrical nnd spherical Physically it is obvious that the workuHj of such bodies c them varied distributions of elastic homogeneity. breadth and depth. les de sa longueur. ceux par oti se comptent lea latitudes et lea longitudes pour donne. 332* and 1357*). ou un corps de forme quelconque divisible en couches spheriques coucentriques. shall term this a cylindrical distribution of elastic homo The following describes a spherical distribution : Qu'on imagine maintenant une sphere solicle pleine ou creuse. II y aura egale cylindre elasticite" suivant les diverses tangentes aux cercles ayant leur centre sur pour : H n'y aura que les elasticity's 6gales suivant la longueur qui cet axe. mais I'egalitg d'elasticifce aux divers points n'aura pas lieu Qu'on enroule en tuyau cylindrique II y aura egale elasticity les directions paralleles entre elles. 1358*) have practically no existence (see our Arts.s biconstant.) We geneity. par exemple.76 [115. et partout egale aussi dans certains sens perpendiculaires entre eux et aux rayons. KKfts*) or his isotropie piezometers' (see our Art. (p. [115 crystallisation. Si la resistance ou la reaction elastique. The isotropic boilers' treated of by Lamd (see our Ait. suivant les rayons qui vont tous conper perpendiculairement Taxe du ce sera Telasticite dans le sens de I'epaisseur. rolled and forged bodies. following paragraphs describe the quadric distributions of elasticity with which Saint.] SAIOTVENANT. SaintVenant continues : laire cetfce plaque homog&ne rectangunon isotrope supposed mince. (p. pour mmes displacements de ses points. 298. which biconstant formulae only serve to mask. and true explanation of the anomalies which occur in experiments on a variety of cast. le mome pour tous. it is certainly not scientific to seek by moans of two constants to account for the divergency between uniconstant formulae awl bodies. After describing the amorphic body or body of confusedsuch as a rolled metal plate. 298. ou d'une exemple un eVjuateur man lore que nous pouvons appeler spliericonique vu le role qu'y jouent les cdnes de latitude ayant un axe determine. and all elasticians can adopt Saintreally produces in ' .) I hold Such distributions of elasticity him to be entirely right are. experimental results on wires. the elasticity of which The varies in length. auront conserve" des directions paralleles entre elles.Vonant assorts. Mile ne cessera pas tf$tre generatrices dans le sens homogene. plates.Venant proposes to deal. la matire est homogene.
TM 5M1049420 CM oo c*> LU 265 .
Venant obtains e< expressions for the strains and the bodystress [nations in terms . :U)(i J2) two methods of attacking this problem. this case the types of traction and shear are : In (a) MC TS = e'sx f <?a tf (See our Art.<?. . 313. sz corresponding to the elements of the three rectangular . In the case of rariconstant Thus for the elasticity. does not probably admit of much simplification. and compares them with " Lamp's method (in the Lepons. 31218) and in 9 (pp.">() 3 *.Venant indicates in I (pp. 78. we have also : (c) of directstretch coefficients (see If the material be aniorphic. : 1 1 In 5 (pp.) Before we can apply those formulae to any given [118. surface normals or intersectiontraces in coordinates. there is our Arts. tlio dashed and undashed amorphic body we have :] ~ = 3 */ w=A + 3^^ ^de $* _ *// y (See. un 77) which he terms en sorte The mixte" the of proceM^ quelque analysis problem (2) linear coordinates.78 SAINTVENANT. terms of the curvilinear To express the bodystress equations in terms of curviSaint. [118 three planes. 130 an ellipsoidal distribution and 142). and we have (d) letters are equal. however. 1S52. it is necessary to find : (1) <r .) If the normal to the distributionsurface be the axis of % and (b) the elasticity be isotropic in the tangent plane. yz 05535. and for practical the of results Lame's treatise on Curvilinear purposes general Coordinates may well be assumed see our Arts . our Art. or all the asymmetrical coefficients to vanish.] distribution of elasticity determined by curvilinear coordinates. Expressions for (Tyy) the above straincomponents (# r . 3339) Saint.
267 .TM 5^381029420 HYDRAULIC CYLINDER PLASTIC HOSE LASS JAR ME 381029420/265 Figure 265. Hydraulic cylinder. bleedvng procedure.
usy to determine Let r. and differ in they the case of isotropy. 1012* and 1358* (3) When there is is an i.e. 324 5.] constants d. c u = GT^ + G'<r . The results contain three independent elastic constants. 332) Saint. <.] (1) r^ Saint. as well as 7 e of G. If d' = e' the solution becomes that found by Lame and Clapeyron. These equations are equations 50 : From (p.80 SA1NTVENAOT. C and y (p.Venant might have deduced the. C' and y are to be determined r ri A/   The constants from the surface conditions and the for total terminal tractive stress. b = 3fd/e. 2. relation P ^r . e. ' . constant terms in y and powers of r of order C. .~ *'. t>0. K however be the three stretch moduli in directions r. and applied by Lame to Begnault's piezometers: see our Arts. 329). criterion for failure arising first by lateral or iirst by longitudinal stretch. so that r'  X. Here the solution changes its form. then we easily fiu<l that A E E^ E : . The [122.. ellipsoidal distribution of elasticity 3de/f. 331. as or better than form of the riridex from those found Hence we can explain by means of thorn for the as well by biconstant formulae the divergencies remarked by Regnault in his piezometer experiments. and In rari this 3 The values of the stresses are then easily determined. w = yz. i/r ^ p: we have (p. ~~ where r = r' g and r = r' + l  . The stresses and strains can be at once deduced =t they will contain 1. 326) : yr logr. [121122 Hence we find for the shifts Us= 0r^ a + G r^ a + a f / II d f r e' o yr. when a = 3ef/d./of the ellipsoidal distribution are not o. (pp. by direct experiment. constancy case assumed.) (2) a = b. which is worth citing. ' . result is given on p.Venant considers various special cases : r is  a small thickness e.p^r ^ = 2^ J n Iszrdr 2 I [121.dyr/{Zf(d/e + 1)}.
TM 5381029420 CYLINDER MOUNTIN . lines. The cap should retain 4 psi pressure. c. REMOVE COTTER PIN. replace the cap. (1) Refer to figure 268 and remove radiator shutters and sheet metal as required. and fittings required to conduct Coolant from the engine to the radiator and back ?he cooling suspected of leaking. Hydraulic cylinders. REMOVE CYLINDER MOUNTING BOLT. and the cap 6. Then refer to figure 269 and remove and replace the radiator as follows. Visually inspect the radiator and loses for leaks or 269 . REMOVE CYLINDER. Inspect. and Hoses damage. open both coolant drain valves and drain the radiator and engine block. . . WASHER. Radiator. Cap. 274. replacement. test the radiator cap. AND BOLT. Drain valves are located on the lower radiator lose connection and at the right rear of the mgine block to drain the radiator and block. o the engine to complete the cooling circuit. NUTS. . ME *? * "'^ r * /' 381029420 '267 Figure t67. STEP 4. Replacement. XXL MAINTENANCE OF COOLING SYSTEM Test If a cap tester is available. Before removing the radiator. STEP 3.Section 273. PLUG HOSE IMMEDIATELY. CLOSE HYDRAULIC SHUTOFF VALVE (FIGURE 263). is General system consists of the radiator and loses. If cap tester is not available. a. DISCONNECT HOSE AT SWIVEL FITTING./ SWIVEL FITTING STEP 1 STEP 2.
and is thus. We see that it involves tfArae elastic coefficients. better adapted to satisfy numerrieaXly Kegnault's formula obtained by experiments than Lame's bi. In Lnmo'tt notation d = \j 2/t and / X. r = r +c/2. The important point in the piezometer problem is [125 the dilatation of the spherical cavity. Hence _ ' of the 37^. On the other hand it is physically = putting d' e'. 122 and 121.sen our Ait.] This treats a que termine par deux calottes spheriques (pp. 1038*. 6 more plausible. The constants reduce to two. 117 (6) if there be tangential isotropy. 6 = if by 2 Art. 347 0). We have : where the subscript { refers to the spherical portions of the surfiire. problem similar to that dealt with by Lame in his Note of 1850: see our Art. . we easily find for the midsphere of 1 / 1 radius r'\ **** __ a (ft ~ P) 2 r' a(i + eP)2^* or in the case just mentioned But jfy^l 2 .Vennnt thus reaches a more general rule than that given by Lame as a result of biconstant isotropy. The mean lateral expansion of the spherical ends is made to take the same value as that of the cylindrical body by equating the expressions for s^ obtained in our Arts. In the case we have E=E 1 of the K =E two portions being or same iM/rnj>i<: niatei ijil. Hence finally : The final section of the memoir is entitled: Vase cylindri[125. If we take r = r'e/2. even as an empirical formula. This is equal to . Saint.constant isotropic = and w=3/2. if we suppose the body amorphic and of rariconstant elasticity ellipsoitlally distributed.82 SAINTVENANT.
74. Mounting bracket Capscrew (9) Figure t68(l) Continued 96. 15. Weather strip Backup strip Rubber seal strap Roundhead machine screw 61. Ball joint (2) (2) iiose Remove upper (fig. 5. washer (9) Lockwasher (9) Angle Capscrew (7) Lockwasher (35) 38. >2. connection hoses and clamps 269). (8) Remove radiator braces. Safety glass SA. 4. Flat 9. 0. 34. Mounting plate Capscrew (9) Lockwasher Bear panel Loader (6) Lockwasher Handle Latch Handle Nut (9) a. 78. One brace is on each side of the engine. Nut (14) 19. 65. 1. 54. 93. 47. Ixx&wasiieT (23) 3. 7. 5. 53. . ftl. Lockwasher (9) Capscrew (6) Flat washer (24) Lock washer (24) Rear side panel 82. performing (1) through 271 . 7. Capscrew (2) 85. (3) Remove all fan guard capscrews and lockwashers and remove fan guard. Lower bracket (6) 88. Lockwasher Capscrew (2) (2) Nut (11) Nut (2) 7. Lockwasher (11) Capscrew (14) Lockwasher (14) 90. 57. washer Lockwasher (8) (8) 72. Flat 46. 69. Capscrew (8) Backup strip Rubber seal strap Shim Machine screw (12) 66. 75. 51. Key 8. 79. 4. Hex capscrew Nut (30) Safety glass (9) Lockwasher (30) Weather Guide strip 37. 95. Nut (8) Nut washer Lockwasher Extension panel 77. Door 0. (4) (7) Remove one nut and three washers from the mounting studs on each side. Nnt (2) (2) 87. 76. 10. Nut Not (23) <18) 73. 56. 59. Flat 67. 9. 1. 41. Remove lower connection hoses and hose clamps. Positioning plate 84. Capscrew Lockwasher (8) 45. (10) Replace by (9) in reverse order. 70. 12. Control lever 88. .3. 89. 6. Panel assembly (30) 33.Til 5331029420 1. !6. . 94. 52. Lockwasher (17) Rain gutter Capscrew (8) Mounting plate Capscrew Capscrew (18) Capscrew (28) 42. Machine screw (2) Lockwasher (2) Capscrew Lock (4) 55. 8. 50. 35. Lockwasher Actuating arm 92. Nut (17) 40. 71. Nut (8) Capscrew (17) 39. Capscrew (23) 63. 2. Then remove the radiator through the rear of the cab where rain shutters and sheet metal have been removed. Nnt (7) Ball bearing (3) Washer (3) (4) 80. 81. Canopy 32A. fall (6) Support the radiator so it can not and attach a suitable lifting device. 86.4. 36. 68. 49. Bracket Nnt (28) (7) (7) 43. 3. Capscrew Operating rod (3) 64. 44. (9) Lift radiator until mounting studs clear the mounting brackets. (5) Remove drain line hose clamps. Side panel 62. Capscrew Shutter (16) (11) 60. Capscrew Cotter pin 48. 8. Nut 2. 58.
The proof attempted by Saint.Venant in this section proposes to deduce them from the principle of energy (by Green's method) in a manner which will satisfy multiconstant elasticians. O*^ is : tlie type of resulting bodyshift equation + 2 jgy ^+ p 2 l*a?Pl W^ + 2 \xxxy\ Uxy (Hi). for we want the work to the second power. 117. energy: see the obtain a proof of the elastic formulae due to Cauchy without of intermolecular action being central appealing to the principle and a function only of the distance. sums of stresses as the the interrnolecular actions on the calculating rariconstant hypothesis. As suming this term correct. l(jl!)*\ This mistake was pointed out by Brill and Boussinesq. w l denoting I ) /M + 7*i where """""" J^ while "'"""""" 1^2/^1 """""""" ' = 2/z#a? Sg + 1^2/2/1 5 y I yM 8K + (ii). This Snint Venant does not do. <r. u. [130.*W/*I W These results representing the most general equations of elasticity for small strains were originally given by Cauchy.Venant is not legitimate. 662*. + \xyyy\ vm 4. those ought to be ex pressed to the second power of the shiftfluxions as in our Art. Saint. . to the shifts Subscript letters attached are formulae the given by the types fluxions. [130 It is desirable to footnote to our Art. : v. TJ^. . and is acknow. a vfs . 615*.84 SAINTYENANT. but treats the strains s and or as if they were the quantities ex ey e. 17^. azx . as is He obtained them by implied in our Arts. .] because in the expression he takes for the work the linear term occurs where s xy sy SK . TJ XV of our Art. 616*. which it is not.. 666*. y arc stretches and slides. 1622*.
.
] Suppose symbolically m ^m = L i jk lm = i/&t/t w to represent . p.. or v. k... Journal...) ... in the form ' 4 " . s to represent sr) and finally 2<r7. Vol.. See our Arts. Art. 76. and e^ or e r Let c^ denote the cosine of the angle between the to represent cr^. 612* for axes for two are most readily obtained from the stretchquadric of x'y'z'. (v) : + i^y + t^a) (t^c^... v.... e.. (ix) Puty = have ct. ..... But we may obviously also exprosn 7P r? = nVy S + . Further 7 9 to xyz.. I... y'* + S& z'* f oy* y Substitute for x its equivalent ccc^ + yc^ + zc^j and similar quantities 2 #' and y'. directions r} r'. f 6' above.86 SAINTVENANT.. and Dublin 1853. p. are now able to reproduce in symbolic form the following wellwhere are [133....... (iv)... There is [133 a footnote referring to Sylvester's papers in Camb..... follows from (iv) that "*= (<vcrx + Further W ri/ f tsC r ) (i^a.(viii). (vii). namely 2 + cr^ + <raY ic'v/' A 1 8* x' + Sy. Math..er represent the stress r?. 543.. y. we have from whence we can take ^^^c^+e^c^ + e^^ . + t^ 4 i^J"'. 659* and 663*. VIL 1852. then the coefficients of # and ys will be x and o//y as given (The last : V V . in (viii). We known typical relations : P = xx Crx (Va + yy C^ <Vy + *xs Crz C r K < ^ + Cry C^) .) The symbolical forms are : S or S whence it = . + . any of the letters j. . x'y'z' etc.. and Phil Tram.. % successively and substitute for .. .. . x (t^ + x t //e// + 2 ts e..
Lockwasber (7) Capscrew (22) 73. Capscrew (20) Wing nut (4) 67. Bear Panel 77. (8) Nut (20) 5L Lockwasher (4) cover 52. Capscrew (9) 46. Nut (16) 58. Ball 65. 1 44. Machine 57. 63. Nut (22) Figwre t$8(4) Continued 277 . washer (2) Capscrew (8) (8) 81. 48. Nut Nut 84. 69. Flat washer (9) 82. 68. (3) 72. Capscrew (4) lx>ckwasher (48) Cotter pin 64. Nut (14) 79. 45. 50. 54. 90. Plat 66. Latch Lockwasher (14) bearing (2) 80. 56. Lockwfcsher (9) 83. 61. 49. Thumb screw 78. Flat 86. 70. washer (20) Capscrew (7) (7) 55. Nut (9) 47. 62. Bracket 74. Bottom engine 53. Lockwasher (2) 85. Lockwasher Plate (2) Lockwasher (16) Capscrew (14) Mounting plate Bottom panel 75. 89. Lockwasher (2) Machine screw (2) Spring lock Cover Nut 88. Gasket (2) Cover (2) 76. 87.TM j^fe 5381029420 ^^ Sliding door 4L Rubber strip j& Handle screw 43. (2) 60. 59. Backup strip Rubber seal Machine screw Angle 71.
in terms of the system of elastic coefficients for the axes xy y. + 4 *wl ofy + 4 its fifteen I This equation with first These 15 coefficients given by Haughton in his memoir of 1846. [136 the value 137 The relation (xiii) gives for rrrr or the direct stretch coefficient in direction r. to the sum of direct + \afjif sfsf\ /S'y and crossstretch coenicients for the . If we put and substitute. 2 \xyyz\] (xviii). stresses etc. Its be given in terms is of the coefficients fundamental property that the directstretch coefficient in any direction varies inversely as the fourth power of the corre sponding ray. 12 or 4. . (ii) 3567). c^. (c^.'. direction then . + +4 \VW*\ y*% 4J + 4 *ft5? 23y + '. cw). if That we take \xfaf of a? \ + k'rV'/l or Sj equal a. 6. 359 out lrmi : That there are sixteen directions real or imaginary for which maximum or minimum. so that the expressions for the work.] SAINTVENANT. These directions cut the tasinomic surface at rightangles.] pp. are the 15 coefficients of rariconstancy multiplied by the numbers 1. [137. homotatio coefficients was can on that hypothesis of this equation.. Paragraphs 10 and 11 together with the footnote 62 reproduce results of Rankine and Haughton with Thus it is pointed regard to the nature of the elastic coefficients. and possess the peculiarity that any stretch in their direction produces a traction only across a plane normal to their (i) is a ^ direction (pp.88 [136. we obtain the surface which expanded gives us Rankine's tasinomic quartic 1 : = 4 \asaex3B\ 05 + \yyyy\ y* + l*a**l S4 4 4 2 {yyl 2 tw*l} yV + 2 {*r*itf 4 2 ara*} zV + 2 {\xxyy\ y*zx .
44. 16.TM 5381029420 1 2. Nut (4) (2) Guard assembly Fastener (2) 34. Cover Capscrew Bracket Bracket Floor plate Machine screw 49. 25. 40. 14. 20. Plastic 12. washer 26. 33. 51. Plastic washer 3. 41. 42. 39. 22. 17. Nut (2) Figure t~&(5) Contintied 279 . Gasket set Dirt trough Capacrew (4) Lockwasher (4) 6. Cover Fastener Plastic Cab cover Machine screw (29) . 45. Fastener (4) 38. 31. 32. 23. Flat washer (6) 18. 7. 8. Selflocking 28. Plastic washer 36. (8) 11. 35. Cover Fastener (8) 27. Capscrew (2) Loop clamp (2) Bracket Bracket Bracket (2) Bracket (4) Flat washer Flat washer Boot clamp (8) 37. 50. Cable cover 4. (2) Capscrew (2) Lockwasher (2) 52. 10. 13. washer (4) (16) 21. Cover Fastener (16) Plastic 19. Capscrew (4) Lockwasher (4) Gantry boot (2) Gantry boot (2) Cover (2) Machine screw (16) Gasket (2) Cover 4* Gasket assembly 47. 48. washer 29.Machine screw (4) oat (4) 43. 9. Cover 30. 15. 24. (6) 53. 5.
(i. cient nrr can be represented by the : the directstretch coeffi In ray of an ellipsoid. he holds. y. Saint.] SAINTVENANT.. z. f ^ directslide I coefficients.] with an extension of Lame's solution of the equations of elastic . In the following section we have the statement of the for conditions ellipsoidal elasticity. when lie 2e 2d+d?\ + e' \ 2/+/J between \ c and a respectively . always directioncosines become imaginary.Vonant in the unnotatcd Clebsch our analysis of that work in Arts. the first case the directstretch coefficient varies as the inverse square of the ray of the ellipsoid and in the second case as the inverse fourth power of the ray of the ellipsoid : The practical application of this ellipsoidal distribution : has see been discussed by Saint. i.. for all the stretchslide coefficients and crossslide coefficients B/ankine's asymmetrical elasticities) must now vanish.. d'.Venant in the twelfth paragraph of this section of his 360 5) treats the case in which the elastic material has This reduces the 21 coefficients three rectangular planes of symmetry. (xxiii). [138140 memoir (pp. principal planes of elastic symmetry probably possessed by [139. 307 72) are occupied [140. xy. The next two paragraphs (pp.] all natural bodies. and in pairs of others The first three solutions are lying in each plane yz.. to nine. : that the first three quantities of (xxiii) be respectively equal (i) to the arithmetic. zx. will be since the ratio of their the second six real .e. imaginary. 307 to 313.90 [138. and b) ( > r&andc) SaintYenant remarks that the conditions (xxiii) are those for the gradual variation in one sense of the stretch coefficients in the three a physical characteristic..e. Let a } b3 c e. or (ii) to the geometric mean of the corresponding second three In either case quantities of (xxiii).e')f crossstretch J Then the tasinomic l surface (xviii) becomes : = afc4 + fo/4 + ^4 + 2(2cZ+<^^ The maximumminimum values lie found to of mr are now sought and are in the three axial directions x. or 9 in all. be the directstretch 55 d.
Nut (14) 8A. and hates. 16. Door gtop Strip 14. Floor plate 88. 15. 241 . Handle (2) 8. 23. Cotter pin (2) 7. 17. SO. \6. Figwre t6S(e) GontbuKd X. BOLTS '<4). 19. 3.TM 538102*420 1. 32. Lockwasher HL Sleeve Square $& Capserew (8)** ^ ^Lockwasher (8) tl. Strip 24. removal. 22. ' . RADlATORTi DRAIN I : jjp. Flat warier (6) Floor plate Support 29.. Cab door lock Door jam M. Hinge Door assembly Door jam Capscrew (12) Lockwasher (12) Door jam 18. 81. Panel Cable guard 27...%>. * ^8"** t **"!* " ** . 83. Radiator. Strip Covsr Capecrew (2) Lockwasher (2) Front floor plate Flat waste. Nut (8) i 2.(5) Machine screw <5) Flat w&sh&r (6) Machine screw (6) 87. guard. Cable guard 28. 4. 20. Cover 26. 5. Screw 9.. ME 381029420/2^69 (4) Figure t69. Washer Capscrew Capscrew (13) Lockwasher (14) 21. NWS (4). AND WASHERS Z^iH^. 25.
92 if SAINTVENANT. 374). si les elasticite*s sont e"gales dans trois directions rectangulaires. let s" be the principal stretches of the permanent set r .Venant number which satisfies the relanow attempts to give it a far more important and special physical meaning. elasticity. . Hitherto the set of ellipsoidal conditions of the type [142. par suite du forgeage. two elements. oil les molecules affectent indistinctement toutes les orientations.JWMWh . x. he proceeds to show that these relations hold exactly or very closely for bodies which originally isotropic have afterwards received a permanent strain unequal in different directions.] has been seen as one only of the tions (xxiii). s'. and then we have. in FM v  ( I '*' 1 ' r ar { r } being the mass of a molecule . y.. du laminage. we have its projections Let/(r) be the law of intermolecular action. employ 6s dans les constructions. Then if p. Calculons les grandeurs nouvelles que doivent prendre les coefficients d'elasticite dans un corps primitive En etc. Let s. distances between . . and he now proceeds to show that within certain limits of aeolotropy.Venant terms amorphic solids. dans les corps a cristallisation confuse tels que les me"taux. : (xxx). z be the value of these quantities after aeolotropy is produced. 3724). cela ne peut tenir autres directions. qu'a des rapprochements rnolSculaires plus grands dans certains sens que dans d'autres. Saint. ment isotrope ainsi modifi6 (p.] given to the body.. o? y Z Q be the /o density. ou des circonstances de la solidification. car on ne voit aucune raison pour qu'elles soient plus grandes ou moindres dans les Si les elasticite*s y sont ine"gales. elles doivent 1'etre en tons sens. and on the directions of tlio principal stretches before the isotropy is altered. etc. * Bodies with confused crystallisation' Saint. [143. .. He describes the bodies in question in the following terms : effet. r. . de Tetirage. He they possess an ellipsoidal distribution of assumes that the bodies have rariconstant elasticity. [142 is 143 a solution in terms of direct and inverse potentials obtainable (pp. Namely.
AND LOCKWASHERS AT TRANSMISSION END. LOCKWASHERS (4) \ REMOVE BOLTS. removal. PtvpeUer shaft.TM 5381O49420 iV7*I . 2S3 . NUTS. J I STEPS. ME 3810.29420 271 7 Figwre f71. REMOVE CAPSCREWS AND LOCKWASHERS AT WORM SHAFT END. STEP 1. REMOVE PROPELLER SHAFT. t <X '? BOLTS. STEP 2.
..s*'.. calculation mentioned is made by Saint........ true in the 1 SaintVenant obtains those relations arnon^ the C'B by appualinK to a ^uncial principle given by Cauchy in his Nouvuaua. by equating the coefficients of the first /3 the first y on both sides. and by equating By / : C6=15c 2>2>2 ..] emarks that the terms neglected can only produce very small errors : Ton considere que Ics ecrouissages et la trempe. /?....... if indeed not absolutely. p..iu\u et en sorte qu'en supposant memo qu'elles tiltorent legerenient les valeurs absolues de ces trois coefficients.. LSlif).... s"...94 SAINTVENANT..y entre \xxxx\ et \yyyy\) donnee par les termes du premier ordre en s.. qui changcnt tressensiblement la tenacite et les coefficients d'elasticite.... s'... .. par un calcul..... 5 the second of relations ft we reach equating the coefficients of 2 2 a the new one of those /? (xxxi) . as well as the /3 <y .. (xxxiv).. peine la densite des corps. 4 2 In the second relation by equating the coefficients of a /3 a y 4 2 and /3V we obtain the third of relations (xxxi). With regard to the latter assumption Saint.Vcuant in a foot 37981. From first these relations two expressions of among the c's we have by multiplying out the (xxxii) and neglecting the products of s.. Pra^uu.. 1 = 9 2*")} = 9 This is the required type of relation on the hypotheses of rariconstcmcy and small permanent strain. The other assumption that rari constancy holds for isotropy seems very approximately.. (xxxvi).. 4 [144 relation Hence we may equate like powers of a..si que ment comprises \yyyy\.. elles n'altcToront J>JIH sensiblcment pour cela la relation de moyenne proportionnalite de 3k//. new one c c 5c4is . (xxxv).......... The note pp. 4 2 ............Vcnant [144... les portions ainsi negligees de 1'exprcssion de 3k/Mv/ soul constameritre les portions correspondantos dc cellos <ki . altorent a On pent d'ailleurs s'assurcr.......... 379)... s" (p. ttjcercwcx. H .2 2 ^In and again of a /3 we deduce of relations (xxxi) and also ' or C 4= 3c2 . .. amounts to replacing 4 or in (xxxiii) by the general index 2// and llnn e(iuatii)^ general terms. .jr>...... 2 .
governor linkage closed position (fig. Full movement of the throttle lever (fig. Pull throttle lever (fig. open position. ME 381029420/273 Figure t7$. DISCONNECT THE FITTINGS AT THE FUEL PUMP. Replacement. (4) obtained. 275) should result in full range movement of throttle lever (fig. 276). 2 285 . (5) Apply load to engine sufficient to re ward (4) (fig. 276) release. removal. slightly toward the linkage must return the carburetor lever to the wide and then Now (b) ly Move the throttle lever (fig. Speed Governor 277 and remove the c. The additional fuel prevents the engine from slowing down. which is represented by the throttle setting. Speed Governor ure 277 and install d. 276) is against the Push throttle lever for duce engine speed to normal governed speed and determine if carburetor throttle lever is wide open. and the governor has maintained the engine at the desired speed. Adjustment. 276) back to (1) Adjust the length of the linkage from ftie carburetor side of the crossshaft shown ir figure 276 as follows: obtain highidle speed (para 17).TM 53*1029430 FITTING CARBURETOR PUMP TO CARBURETOR FUEL LINE FITTING TANK TO PUMP FUEL LINE STEP 1 . AND FUEL SENDER FUEL TANK STEP 2. move low speed stop. CARBURETOR. Check linkage on opposite side of engine to be sure the carburetor throttle valve is closed. check to see that throttle valve is approximately full open. (6) Adjust highspeed stop screw (fig. 275) ful276) is back and see that throttle lever (fig. thus allowing more fuel to enter the engine. 275) so throttle lever (fig. Speed Governor With throttle lever against highspeed stop. TANK. Lines and fitting*. Run engine is until normal operating temperature (3) Refer to paragraph 2836 and adjust carburetor. If the throttle lever is wide open. REMOVE THE FUEL LINES. (2) Removal Refer to figure speed governor. against the highspeed stop. Refer to figthe speed governor. to open the carburetor throttle valve. 5.
brook well points out that if we give a stretch only we have the following system of stresses .<?.96 SAINTVENANT. That the third set of conditions of the type *VyV + 2 f \z'x x y'\ f = are also true for (v) any change of rectangular axes. On 384 : the tasinomic relation that the stretchcoefficient (i) the same for every direction or \afafafa/\ From is = \xxxxl stretch always produces the traction whatever its direction. if fulfilled for one set of rectangular axes they are fulfilled for all. *yz \yzxx\ .e. Thus an equal same element in the (ii) That the second set of Green's conditions are fulfilled for all axes. is (iii) That the conditions whose type \atafat at\ + \tftfafsf\ are true for (iv) any change of rectangular axes. i. to That the reciprocal theorems are true.e. [147 393 he shews that Green's conditions flow from He then proves the hypotheses with which he has started.. pp. It will thus be noted that Green's conditions are not based upon any conception of direction in the body. S = 0.e.Venant overstates when he identifies it with absolute elastic Glazeisotropy. Here we are 1 at liberty to take the stretch in the direction of the axis By choosing as our axes the orthotatic axes wo can reduce relations as given by Green the BlroHHtrain to the following types : where a <l \xxxx\ same 1 __ ~" for all directions = \uzuz\ values for orthofatic axes of directHilda < . i. or the peculiarity of the medium has no relation to direction in space. This seems to me the element of isotropy in Green's conditions which Glazebrook misses. \Mtfsf\ = laVsyi = 0. y 0. if any one of the rectangular axes. = 2 \lfa/tfaf\ etc. in (i) relations (iv) hold for all i. and which Saint. then Green's fourteen conditions follow. So far as these conditions are concerned the body possesses isotropy of direction. 1 : xx xy = \xxxx\ Sx . there is nothing of the nature of crystalline axes.<? = zz" = \xxyy\ Sxy \xxzz\ sx .
STEP 5. STEP 2.%JBf COUPLING NUTS (2) ST:CLAMP LINKAGE __ . STEP ..TM S38JO2M20 ROM AND LOW JpST IN THE ABOVE... Engine tpeed gawni&r.. 17. AND AS LISTED PARAGRAPH ME Figure 78.*" removal. REMOVE GOVERNOR BODY MOUNTING NUTS AND LOCKWASHERS. I STEP 4. V t DISCONNECT THROTTLE LINKAGE AT THROTTLE LEVER. *1L. ?  . REMOVE THROTTLE CABLE CLAMP. ' ^^.. Figure t77. STEP 3. 381 029420 '276 Engine speed governor adjustment.A. REMOVE COTTER PIN AND WASHER AND REMOVE THROTTLE LEVER FROM CROSSSHAFT. 287 . ^ ~*Er THROTTLE *. REMOVE TUBE BY REMOVING COUPLING NUTS. .
d) + (a /) (6 . however. even were there no other grounds for questioning his hypotheses. lw = S/ty.98 place. [148 149 de ne point convenir que PinSgal rapprochement molSculaire en divers sens doit influer sur la grandeur des Glasticitts bien certainement sur celle directes \xxxx\ = x comme elle influe des autres elasticites.. of great weight (see.Venant. 398 ditions to Green's. Cauchy's and in many respects his method is an improvement on Cauchy's. puisque sans divers sens. lorsqu'il y a une inSgalite de contexture qui (pp. ou tangentielles. XXX1X > f wavesurface. the structure of the ether being supposed to have three planes of symmetry and thus its elasticity to be represented by the nine constants of our Art. les inggalite*s au moins de cellesci en [xyxy\ etc.. 117 (a) : (a  0) (b /) (o .. and would me Green's conditions (especially when we remember that Green him self supposed the etherdensity to vary in refracting media). 406 411 Saint. les formules ne donneraient pas de double refraction. 406. 396 8.) This argument seems to 193 point raised in our Art. rend inegales les elasticity latfrales ou tangentielles. of he does not assume rariconstancy but memoir 1830. milieu ne peut tre elastique et vibrant si ses parties n'agissent pas les unes sur les autres. [149. et quelque soit le mode de leur action.] I On pp. If the relations (xxxix) are satisfied we shall have Fresnel's If we make a 6 c we shall reduce these con* which are thus only a particular case of those of Cauchy and Saint.d) (o .a) = = ' ( . a incline me to reject (1)). il est impossible /s SAIKTVENANT. now proceeds to deduce the exact waveon the supposition that the vibrations are not He does this on the lines of accurately in the wavefront. .) (pp.Venant demonstrates that the ' relations (xxxix) give practically the same results as the ellipsoidal distribution of (xxxvii). i and then solves the supposes d/d' He = first equation of both sets (xxxix) so obtained be respectively d x and (xxxvii) for d\ let the values and d2 Then by a numerical . il n'est pas directes parfaited'imaginer qu'elles engendrent des elasticite"s = xSl<r<w Un possible ment Sgales. dites lattrales. [148.Venant surface of Fresnel This leads him to the following interconstant conditions.] Saint.
Removal and Replacement Refer to figure 282 and remove and replace a faulty fuel pump. Fuel a. install new gasket and be sure the bowl seats firmly. Reconnect the line. If the strainer bowl still does not fill. (1) If the pump supplies too little fuel the engine will not run at all. NOTE ME 381029420/279 Before installing a new fuel pump. be may trapped in lines to the pump. The pump will create a feeling of suction and pressure as the lever is moved. it is in Figure 279. To do so. (8) When testing the fuel pump. 2W . c. The engine will be hard to start. too much bowl. Stop the engine when the maximum fuel pressure has been read on the gage. If the pressure is below 3 1/2 psi or above 5 psi. If it does. make sure good condition. The suction side of the pump is connected to the fuel tank and the discharge side to the carburetor. the pump cannot draw fuel into the bowl. (2) If the pump supplies too much fuel (which is rare). CARBURETOR LINKAGE (5) Connect a pressure gage in the input fuel line at tiie carburetor as shown in figure 281. 6. Carburetor linkage. follow steps (1) through (4) below. (6) Start the engine and run it at 500 rpm. NOTE The following if it is test will be used to determine necessary to replace the fuel pump. loosen bowl slightly so air can escape and blow into fueltank filler neck. fuel is available at the fuel pump and the line to the tank is in good condition.TM 5381029420 fuel will be caused by some factor other than the fuel pump. where the fuel accumulates in the carburetor float bowl for use as required by engine demand. (3) When installed. first see that there is adequate fuel in the tank. replace the fuel pump. fuel will drip from the carburetor or the engine will not idle smoothly. (4) Disconnect the line from Hie fuel tank to the fuel pump at the pump and see that fuel flows freely. 284. 282) up and down. Pump (1) Hold the fuel inlet and output open General The fuel pump is a mechanical type with offset filter. ings closed with the fingers of one hand. Now tighten the bowl (4) air down securely. To fix. Also tighten knurled nut beneath Test. Note that this fuel pump includes a sediment bowl. (2) Move the lever (fig. if it is in good condition. is as Be sure the length of the connecting hose shown and that all connections are leak proof. if there is an air leak between the sediment bowl and the bowl gasket. This will force fuel into fuel pump bowl. Usually. or will falter or misfire under load. To fix.
The memoir ends with the resume to which we have before error.] tiques 575. Les Mondes. M M M n. August 8. t . although proved for a different kind of medium (see our Arts. 1863.Yenant saw occasion to alter this opinion . [152. he treats this important material very fully in the Lemons de Navier (pp. 308 310. p be the . are all treated with somewhat special fuller detail in the annotated Clebsch.] them work see our Arts. pp. 1229*) and compares Hagen's empirical formula with that given by the ellipsoidal distribution He shews the theoretical impossibility of Hagen's formula. arising from the fact that if Em ~ E^ Er is not equal to them. and endeavours to shew by curves that (ft) and (a) coincide within the limits of experimental By graphical representation of tlie curves it is seen that only the ellipsoidal distribution gives anything like a satisfactory theoretical as well as practical figure. 1863. i. 817 25) and in the annotated Clebsch (pp.e. it may be practically of use in the case of fibrous material like wood. apply the ellipsoidal distribution of stretchmodulus. [153. pp. Later Saint. 142 and 144). [152153 case there will be a denominator of 720 terms in the constants. 568 to the Socidtt Philomathique. : referred. 1863. 98 Under the latter heading we 110). let 3245. with the case of three himself contents Venant Saintand wisely and a 9constant medium. was a contribution Tome 3. ellipsoidal distribution which leads to the to the case of wood. see also LInstitut. He appeals to Hagen's results (see our Art. 424 5) attempts to of elasticity. shall discuss his more complete treatment of the subject see our Arts. planes of symmetry The conclusions drawn as to the nature of the quartic and its reduction to an ellipsoid. and SaintYenant concludes that.100 SAINTVENANT. This note Swr a double la determination de I* fiat d'equilibre des tiges elas courbure. 308 to We may note that SaintTenant (pp. Consider a rod of double curvature. and in our analysis of that we have : accordingly discussed 310.
ANl> REMOVE BOWL WIPE OUT SEDIMENT STEPS. REMOVE FUEL PUMP WITH SEDIMENT BOWl AND GASKET FROM ENGINE.M. SS2. REMOVE SGLTS AND WASHERS. LOOSEN KNURLED NUT AT THE BOTTOM OF BOWL. STEP 4.P. RECONNECT FUEL LINES. INSTALL BOLTS AND LOCKWASHERS.^'. '*. iji*. PRESSURE TACHOMETER (ENGINE SPEED) 6 INCH GAUGE MAXIMUM _l jyir CARBURETOR FUEL PUMP ME 381029420/281 Figure 281.^S&*aS.*" StEP2. _^_:. 291 . STEP 3. FztJ pump aiid fuel sediment bowl. Checking fuel pump output pressure.TM 53810294^20 R. POSITION FUEL PUMP ON ENGINE WITH GASKET BETWEEN PUMP AND ENGINE.. SWING BAIL ASIDE. removal and replacement.
T. 1845. Binet. 1598* and . namely a curved wire turned upon itself so as to have the same curvature of the central axis. in . si c'est une roue). but so that the naturally longest at each point and shortest ' ' He interchange places. 4558. 5 d'autant moindre que le terrain elastique est plus roide ou moms compressible. pp.102 SAINTVENANT. : Saint.] a un mouvement obligatoire . 58. Wantzel and himself to the subject : for references.Venant remarks : Ces resultats sont d'accord avec un certain nombre d'experiences de . and is an attempt to apply the theory of elasticity to the phenomena of rolling friction. 4 proportionnel a la vitesse. dealing SaintVenant brings out the importance by a good example. so that other. _ : ______2 . 2 en raison inverse du ray on du cylindre. the stretch in a fibre distant z from the that out points : fibres central axis is zjl/p* 2//?/? cose + 1//> where p. the resumd in the Comptes rendus On en deduit que le frottement de roulement sur un pareil sol est 1 proportionnel a la pression. p are the new and the primitive radii of curvature and e the angle the new and old radii of curvature make with each In the example above referred to p = p and e = TT. [156 This memoir draws attention to the point considered by SaintYenant in his memoirs of 1843 and 1844 see our Arts. 1603* namely the importance of taking into consideration the ' ' between new and old osculating planes angle of torsion or angle with the elastic equilibrium of wires of doublecurvature. 3 independant de sa longueur (ou de la largeur de jante. Memoire sur les contractions d'une tige dont une extr&miU j6. This memoir was written in 1845. 1864. Generally when p = p 0) the stretch equals In conclusion Saint. The chief results were published in the Bulletin de la SocUtt PhilomaThe following conclusions are given in thique of June 21. the stretch becomes .Venant refers to the contributions of see son. et application au frottement de roulement sur un terrain uni et dlastique : Oomptes rendus.
Refer to paragraph 2 pump and fan 74 replacement. Replacebelts and belt adjustment are covered in paragraph 288. (6) Remove the mounting bolts from the water pump and remove the pump from the engine. and adjust belt tension. HOSE CLAMP ME Figure &S4* Water 3810.29420/284 lubricating the service consists of in accordshaft bearings pump ance with the current LO. <5) Install fte fan. 2*93 . Refer to figure 284 and water pump as follows: in WATER PUMP (1) Position the pump on the front of the crankcase and install the pump gasket and all mounting bolts.TM 5381029420 (4) Remove the fan belts from the water pump pulley. (2) Install radiator (para 2~74e). See figure 285 for belt adjust(4) WASHERS CAPSCREWS (4) HOSE ^ CLAMP ment procedure. At the same time. Guard. (6) Fasten the alternator bracket and adjust fan belt tension. Remove pump gasket <x stall tiie JwteBoiwm. FAN MOUNTING BOLTS (4) PUMP GASKET' \ V' (5) Loosen hose clamps and remove hoses from the water pump. See figure 284. Replacement. ment of Belt Adjustment and Replacement. (3) Remove the capscrews and washers securing the fan and remove the fan. fan guard. and remove and replace damaged water pump /. (3) Install fan belts on water pump pulley. Re Service Water pump place the fan if necessary. (4) Fasten radiator hose to water pump. e. inspect the fan for bent or damaged blades. Q\ (7) Fill the cooling system to the proper level with the correct coolant BELTS d.
calcul Le du potentiel de torsion a See our Arts. y> *) makes with the axes of y and z respectively . au reste. ainsi que je 1'ai montre en 1843. which must hold at every But SaintVenant does not explain why we must equate these terms separately to zero... and of the first parenthesis.. travaillent presque enticement par la torsion de leurs fils. Integrate this equation by and it becomes cos * (*)] /o\ ..] A remark of Saint. une valeur pratique. and <& is an element of the curve of intersection of the body by a plane at right angles to the axis of x. may be cited : en luim&ne. qn'on oppose souvent & divers chocs. 1220* 1382* and 15935*.. JIG Venant says: et la premiere parenth&se carr6e.. egale*es Ur la : deuxieme separement a zero. that is. The 1814 and the recemment (1864) mark the wide interval which too often . Binet des 1814.. and if we equate to zero the term in brackets in the single integral we obtain the equation point of the surface.. et re"cemment des ingenieurs des chemins de fer. here (ny) and (w) denote the angles which the normal to the surface at the point (a?. he means the terms contained within the square brackets The English translation has very strangely "Now the the second. (2).. M.. Moreover the whole process borrows so much from the memoir on Torsion that it has irit of being an independent investigation. each equated of squares by this in (2). et que I'ont ermarque. 809 aussi...." [158. to zero. he does not explain why lie breaks up equation (2) into two equations. Giulio en 1840. and we obtain [158 Substitute in the above equation (1) du du parts in the usual way. 175*.Tenant's on p.... If we equate to zero the term in brackets in the double integral we obtain the equation which must hold at every point of the interior ...104 SAINTVENANT.. car les ressorts en helice.
C (fig. If the contacts close. Check battery cables. It engages the flywheel ring gear. If not. and is used to crank the engine until starts. The reverse polarity relay concircuit 289. Full battery voltage must be indicated. Reverse Polarity Relay. check for full battery voltage from the ignition (IGN) lead of the alternator to ground. short use applications. Install a new alternator and secure with mounting bolts. (2) Removal Refer to figure 288. (2) Testing. Clean and tighten defective connections. and lockwashers. remove the adjusting lockscrew and remove the alternator mounting bolts. it starts. 6. replace the defective item. replace the relay. solenoid. the alternator. If this does not start the engine wait at least two minutes before trying again. Then touch the relay case to ground. If the trouble is not found. Refer to figure 286 and remove the solenoid Always if disconis mounting capscrews. (2) With the ignition switch OH. If none of the above has located the trouble. the relay is in good condition. (1) Motor and solenoid test. Remove alternator. using CAUTION Do not run the alternator with its out a voltmeter adjusted for dc operation. General. connect a jumper wire around any switch or solenoid suspected of being defective. Magnetic Switch Replacement. The magnetic switch shown tfn figure 288. sheet 2 is used to reduce the amount of current which must pass through the c. Starter a. Support engine start switch. When energized. Remove all electrical connections to the alternator. start spect pushbutton. When the starter motor automatically the engine disen gages. This will create extremely high voltages which will seriously damage the alternator. and reinstall alternatorwater remove electrical leads. It will be necessary to unplug the ignition (IGN) connector and check the male side with the voltmeter probe. If no voltage is indicated. If voltage is 22. 288). but the engine NOT started. Full battery voltage must be present at both alternator terminals in order for the machine to function properly. an open circuit between the battery and the alternator is indicated. 295 . The ignition switch must be turned ON during this test. connect a 24 volt source to connector wrong direction. Refer to figure 285 and loosen alternator drive belts. and lockwashers as shown in figure 285. it energizes the starter solenoid. the relay will be energized. ignition switch. nect all alternator leads to be done on this unit. Starting Motor Solenoid Replacement. Refer to the wiring diagram of the relav in figure 288 and the engine wiring diagram.TM 5381029420 ground connection. and battery. If the system functions property using this method. sheet 2. With the relay removed from the engine. nuts. sheet 2 and and lockwashers. Never attempt to polarize this alternator. check the starting motor battery terminal. (1) General. The polarities shown on the diagram must be observed. 86 and remove and replace the starting motor. nuts. Inspect all starting motor wiring for frayed insulation or other damage. install electrical magnetic switch screws leads. Inall connections to the starting motor. replace the starting motor. Connect all electrical connections. welding (1) e. Use an accurate voltmeter set on the 50volt dc scale for this check. pump pump belt drive belts. Full battery voltage of 24 volts should be shown. The tains a solidstate rectifier which prevents current starting motor is de from flowing through the engine starting in the signed for high torque. and lockwashers. two mounting screws. and attach d. including all ground connections. (3) Remove the magnetic Installation. Assembly Starting Motor. Before removmotor make the following tests. switch. CAUTION Never crank the engine for more than 30 consecutive seconds with the starter motor. Refer to figure 287 and remove the starting motor solenoid. thus starting the engine. and measure the battery voltage. Position natorwater above. ignition switch. When this is done. magnetic switches. (2) Motor replacement.to 24volts. Refer to figure 2 put circuit open and the ignition lead energized. and wiring. Check the ing the batteries (para 253) to make sure that the batteries are in good condition. Replace or repair damaged wiring. Adjust altertension as described in b as shown in figure 288. figure 14. and an audible "click" can be heard when the relay contacts close. Alternator Replacement.
xc cccxi. He finds + i (xx yy zz\* yz 2bc 2ca 2 2ab ' where for isotropy i^X/p and a = 2 6 2 = c = p. we hold it to be unsurpassed. cxcviii in the footnote SaintVenant gives the expres[163. Ixxxiv xc . to describe their purport and relationship. history for it It fulfils a different purpose to our own makes no attempt to replace the more inaccessible but as a model of how mathematical history should be written. pp. Marie's Histoire des sciences matMmatiques is a chronological biography. the This evolution is excellently interdependence of successive stages of discovery. summarised in SaintVenant's Historique.106 li li SAINTVENANT. pp. and can only regret that a recent French historian has not better profited by the example memoirs thus set 1 . M. Our own 'history' is only a bibliographical repertorium of the mathematical processes and physical phenomena which form the science of elasticity. 123*). liy : a bibliography of the works of Navier with copious remarks . [162163 . as a rule for the purpose of convenience chronologically grouped. 1 The essential feature of scientific history is the recognition of growth. The Historique abrdg6 is practically the only brief [162. pp. brought out in relation to Lamp's proof the rightsixface. Iv Ixxxiii the original prefaces to the editions of Navier s Lemons published in 1826 and 1833. clxxiii cxcii. On p. the funeral discourses on Navier by Emmery and Girard. but it remained for SaintVenant. 8 and well 9 is ^ 6.] account of the chief stages of our science extant. which treat of the relation of his own researches by means of the semiinverse method to the nV nf hi s The point we have referred to in our predecessors.] sion for the workfunction in terms of the stresses when there is an ellipsoidal distribution of elasticity 1 : see 2 i our Art. without completeness as bibliography or repertorium. without entering into the analysis of the more important memoirs. would especially recommend to the student of SaintVenant's memoirs pp. . j due to SaintVenant. pp. We W'e will note one or two farther points of the Historique in the following five articles. Girard had written what was for his day a fair sketch of the incunabula (see our Art. and finally SaintVenant's Historique alr6g6 des recherches sur la resistance et sur V&asticiU des corps solides. 144.
Recheck point gap Install rotor. but instead alines with the number six terminal. and rotate the shaft and rotor 180 degrees. Figure 287. Turn idjusting screw slightly until breaker point 'learance is 0. (1) Distributor Timing. Others require disconnecting the spark plug wire and connecting one of the timing light wires to the spark plug wire and the other wire to the spark plug terminal (series connection). CAUTION RIMOVESOt" REPLACE WITH the distributor cap is incorrectly positioned on the distributor housing. Each light flash should be and the timing marks should When the engine is thoroughly warmed (3) f OE lubricating Refer to figure 289 and place a drop oil on the felt lubricant wick. Connect a stroboscopic timing light to 1 eeler gage. be readily seen. (2) is Turn the engine crankshaft over to dace the number one piston on top dead center f the compression stroke as shown in figure 2(2) 0. direct the timing light to the timing location on the fan drive pulley. (3) Start the engine and notice if the timing flashing. spark plug. it will usually result in a broken rotor If 3. Inspect breaker paint alinement. (6) Trace the number one spark plug wire to its terminal in the cap. Starting motor solenoid removal and replacement. up and running at low 'idle speed (475525 rpm). (6) Turn distributor shaft so breaker points closed. (1) Wipe the cap and be sure all parts are lean and dry. 289) at this time. ind readjust if necessary. Some timing lights required connecting one lead to the spark plug terminal and the other to ground (parallel connection). from above (5) idjust (8) Disconnect the distributor vacuum advance line at the carburetor and close the fitting with a piece of tape. Do not secure the manual advance (fig. figure 290. Distributor Replacement and Adjustment. d. ire Tighten adjusting screw. Do not use degreasing com'Ounds. The light should . It will fit in only one position. (7) c. as measured by a round 153624.022 inch. Install new condenser and points. Send ilined point bracket so that points are for full face contact. Lower the distributor into the support again. raise the distributor. and spark plug cables must be assembled in the distributor cap in this order in clockwise rotation as viewed the distributor. fixed the No. gages the drive properly. Do not secure it with spring clips at this time. light fast and accurate. Use white chalk to highlight the timing mark. <5) Place the distributor cap on the distributor and turn it until it drops into place. Raise the cap and determine if the rotor alines with this same terminai If the rotor does not aline with this terminal. disengaging the shaft tang. (7) Be certain that the distributor cap is properly located on the distributor housing and that both mounting screws are tight. This time install the advance arm lockscrew and secure finger tight.ributor shaft so that breaker arm rubbing point s on the high point of the breaker cam.TM 5381029420 (4) Install the distributor in position on the Be sure the distributor shaft tang en engine. when attempting The firing order to is start the engine. and breaker points as follows: Turn the dis.
1276*). 1474*. A further consideration of the effect of impact on bars when the vibrations are taken into account occurs on pp.] On pp. (pp. ccxxxix xlix) an account of Stokes* problem f r\ t. ccxxxii viii. cclxxi cccxi) to on the experiments made by technologists and physicists previously 1864 on the elasticity and strength of materials. 1434*) seems to have escaped Saintp. on his own hypothesis of a see the footnotes to our stretch and not a traction limit. to and footnote there should have been a reference = 17/35. In the footnote ' p. His regard to the factor k memoir of 1849 (see our Art. After an excellent and succinct account of the course [167. and LXII.VP Saint. ccxlix ccliii SaintVenant refers to the rupture It seems to conditions given cylindrical by Lamd and Clapeyron and vessels.sin \/7 */ cos a cos iJ f * a letter to the The error was noted by SaintYenant himself in Editor of this History. August. there is an error in the integral of the It should he g cos a equation =J= (Mr j z there given. Good as these pages are. and then follows (pp.] Pages ccxiv xxiv deal with the problems of resilience and impact. 1885. [166. ccxxii On Homersham Cox with Venant's attention. 3=/cos ai y U . ccxvii.108 SAINTVENANT. they are insufficient today in the light of the innumerable experiments of firstclass importance made during the last . and spherical me again by Lam^ for that he has not noticed here that these conditions are. with regard to the vibrations of elastic plates (pp. Germain. erroneous : Arts. researches of Phillips and Renaudot.] of the investigations of Euler. 1013* and 1016*. but his account wants xi 6 iuig up to date by reference to more recent researches. Poisson. ccliii cclxxi) the Historique closes with two sections LXI. refers [165 167 He Amos on this point to the experiments of Easton and : see our Art. Kirchhoff &c.Venant refers of the travelling load (see our Art. [165.
c. (1) Check the continuity of the coil primary by connecting an ohmmeter across the primary terminals. To assure accurate timing. and should 291 a. If a distributor ignition coil thought to be defective. Then test as follows. timing ninrks shown Turn the the Rotate ignition switch to the OX position. refer to figure 292 and disconnect electrical connections to the 6. where they cause a magnetic field to develop. which will be the point where the light turns on. The low voltage (24 volt) pulses from the distributor go to the primary all electrical Refer to figure 292. Ignition Coil and Spark Plugs coil General The ignition has primary and be replaced. to ignite the fuel in the combustion chamber. make up a simple light circuit consisting of a 24 volt automotive light buib with solderedon leads or a socket with leads attached as shown in figure 291. This high voltage is conducted to the engine spark plugs. inducing a very high voltage in the secondary winding. . When the distributor points open. (Sheet 1 of ) spark depends on the breaking of electrical contact at the breaker points. this field collapses. Tighten the hold clown screws at the base of the distributor. to determine distributor body (fig. Turn the engine to TDC on the compression stroke for number one cylinder using (8) The timing of the winding. 299 . ther. via the high tension leads. The ohmmeter reading should (2) be very low. is coil. Remove the mounting connections. the coil is high. making sure the body does not turn furin Coil Testing. 289) slightly the point of breaker point opening. screws. Clip one lead to the lead to the movable breaker point and attach the other lead to ground. infinite reading is open or shorted. figure 290. Connect the distributor vacuum advance Check the continuity of the coil secondary by connecting an ohmmeter across one primary terminal and the secondary terminal. disconnect replace the ignition coil. (9) Reinstall distributor cap. Coil Replacement. and secondary windings.TM 5381029420 DISTRIBUTOR BH2I Figure 289* Distributor assembly removal* replacement and timing. The line to the carburetor. ohmmeter reading should be (3) If no reading or an obtained.
then (Vol. for they are > Hence any set of experiments 2. obvious why a longitudinal aeolotropic material it does not seem stretch should not produce a negative dilatation.Venant admits later give this a negative value.110 SAINTVENAtfT. question /\ is not isotropic and homogeneous. Saint. We thus have the formula put forward by Bresse. 1484* and references there. I. 2/A In the case of This proof holds only for an isotropic material. where stretched Sj. 952* (iii).wjLvx r^ uw E : Chapter XL : He also regards Hodgkinson's experiments as lead ing to a like conclusion notwithstanding a special experiment to the contrary see our Arts. however. The ratio of dilatation an to stretch and in the case of wood the values obtained for ^1} ^2 would seem to Saint. [169 cannot suppose the volume to diminish.Venant refers to the experiments on this point of ColletMeygret and Desplaces see our avioo. or 17 can only have values from to J. p. afin de representer le developpement moyen de la croute douee generalement de plus de roideur et de nerf que le reste X etant : . Saint. and (JE^d^/co is the o>. this possibility : see his pp.1. y =  . 9fi 2^ ft j s suggested that for some substances ^nsider the stretchmodulus as varying over the crosssection of a prism. at the matter thus : We may. Pa is in the direction of its axis the total traction in a prism a?. 821 which give values f or 77 > J may be taken to denote that the material in . mean value of the stretchmodulus over the crosssection is For metals couUs ou lamintfs. where on the lateral faces there or skin change of elasticity.Venant would take : a surface le perimetre de la section supposee diminuee d'un a deux millimetres tout autour. 885): Hence. since f (the mean Tjl is necessarily positive. we must have fl/p > 2 and <: 3 But of these gives the uniconstant hypothesis JZ/fji = 5/2). look Let f=fche ratio of the slidemodulus to the dilatation coefficient (=/VX).
Sending Units a. 6. Oil Sivitch. Oil Pressure Sender. disconnect electrical leads and unscrew and replace a faulty oil pressure sender. replace the lead. removal and replacement. 293. testing. 293. Hold the other end side of of this lead against the metal side of the light bulb. removed. If the light bulb illuminates. If the light does not come on. Water Temperature Sender. Drain engine oil below the level of the pressure sender. and replacement. the lead is d. "* f *"# *. then unscrew and replace a faulty oil temperature switch. 2101 . Refer to figure 295. the at least lead should test about 2. If an ohmmeter is available. c.TM 53S1O29430 ' .000 ohms per inch of ength. and may be fit for further use. The sending units and associated PERATURE DER lights and switches provide Temperature visual indications of developing trouble. Test Connect suppression lead to positive any battery. Refer to figure Drain oil below the level of the switch. Figure 98. not an open circuit. Place the tip of a light bulb on the negative terminal. Disconnect electrical lead. General. coil. disconnect electrical leads and unscrew and replace the water temperature sender. Open radiator drain cocks and drain coolant level below the level of the water temperature sender. Figure t93. Ignition b. Oil temperature sender. Then refer to figure 294.
SaintVenant refers to the 'fatigue' of a material due to repeated loading and to the question whether vibrations can change the molecular structure from fibrous to crystalline (see our Arts. For example the statement (11): Le dilatations calcul thdorique est toujours applicable pour limiter les et tftaUir les conditions de resistance A la rupture is one which requires dloignde in Vol. 891 that a material much reservation. et comme a . ce qui se sistants. see his pp. and puts P = or < Eas &> manifeste par la marche des allongements peras the safe tractive load where Q Q E is the stretchmodulus and the sectional area we find some In most difficulty in ascertaining what limit SQ really represents. linear elasticity will be long gone. p. cases before enervation begins. T' Q moins que y. limit can often point. G et c dSsignant deux constantes dependant comme nature de la matiere et de son mode de forgeage ou de fusion. but there are several points which could only be accepted nowadays with many reservations. expression for the case of 8. par E'. the reader will find some In (g) of the behaviour of a material under stress continued 2226) account even to rupture. 117 M 8 12 (pp. Hence when SaintVenant takes s to be the stretch at which material ceases de s'ecrouir et commence a s'dnerver. en TJE varie 1 Tordinaire par y la grandeur de Tordonnee de cette les valeurs correspondantes de E. and all the formula really can tell us is the stage at which linear elasticity fails. 1463* and 1464*). I. and in some materials very very far from the yieldindeed from the elastic limit. T M ~~~ * on bien.112 est telle SAINTVENANT. the wood prism referred to above. liquation sera. be raised without enervation almost up to the yieldwhere one exists. . These are points on which we know today a good deal more than was accessible in 1857. que le rapport [169 designant fibre. 1429*. this faillimit may be far point. This account was doubtless for the time succinct and good. We may be in a state of ease have seen and yet not possess linear elasticity for strains such as often occur in Further that even when there is linear elasticity its practice. E et e de la for a rectangular SaintVenant calculates the value of Q with a similar and also deals section. .
engine crankcase to bring the oil level to on the dipstick. NOTE Valve clearances must be correct or the valves will foil to rotate normally. and at a time. Use a new cover gasket if necessary to obtain an oil uired tern 6. is 153624. ME 3810. (8) Replace the valve housing cover. (5) Adjust to the clearances shown in figure 299 using a feeler gage. (4) Refer to figure 299 and loosen the adjusting screw locknut on both the number one intake and exhaust valve levers. Turn the crankshaft to place number one piston on top dead center. See that the ignition timing mark on the flange of the fan drive pulley is lined up with the timing pointer on the crankcase front cover as shown in figure 290. (6) Tighten both locknuts and recheck the clearances with the feeler gage. FULL mark (120) normal rotation. Always shut the for a few minutes before checking down ngine il level. 2103 . in the direcset the valve clear 97. which may cause premature exhaust valve failures. it arm adjustment re ances for each cylinder in firing order sequence. Remove the valve housing cover. the clearance between the valve is tight seal. (1) Disconnect the high tension cable beween the distributor cap and the coil. (7) Crank the engine one third of a crankshaft revolution tion of Figure 296. noise increases noticeably. (3) The piston must be on top dead center when adjusting valve stem to rocker arm clearance for that piston.29420/296 compression stroke. Adjustment. at the oil. General. when tappet iasically.TM 5331029420 fc Figure (2) 97. This will allow oil in the engine to eturn to the crankcase. Checking and servicing engine ie le oil pan. (9) Reinstall the high tension cable on the ignition coil. figure 298. Rocker Arm/Tappet Rocker is Inspection and is which adjustment a. Refer to figure 297 and rain the lubricating oil from the crankcase at ie intervals prescribed in the current LO. and the rocker arm which adjusted. Draining engine oil pan.
In other words. and that no argument against the mathematical i. ' the expression /A can be occasionally increased by cutting away projecting portions of co. Saint.] SAINTVENANT. use neutral axis for the trace of the plane of unstrained fibres on the crosssection. 90. We have the cases of beams of square. It ' will only coincide with the elastic line or distorted central axis when there is no ' ' ' 1 We * ' ' thrust. which in some cases. for which o>/e /A retains the same value.e. Yet it seems to me that even the : extent to which he adopts the formula is not valid. [173 entitled : 174 86186) is Rupture par Flexion. as well as that of the croix d'fyuerre. This practically deals with the formula for the maximum moment * = h ' where h axis. while we retain neutral line for the succession of points in the plane of flexure through which pass real or imaginary elements of unstretched fibre.] ' paradox On pp. were it We the failure of linear elasticity (p. may indicate rupture [174. It only gives the faillimit. even must possible to define exactly this enervationpoint. . triangular and circular o>/c 2 crosssections fully treated. (pp. is neutral axis 1 the distance of the 'fibre' most stretched from the and COK* the sectionalmoment of inertia about that arises stress at The question then if that T Q be the what is TQ ? SaintVenant holds which enervation commences. 91). treat the results of this article as applying only to the faillimit. involves the enervationpoint being very dose to the limit of linear elasticity. ' ' various sections. theory of perfect elasticity can be drawn from experiments on He states clearly enough that for beams of absolute strength. In many materials this is certainly not the case. we have : This in reality a condition for the safety of a permanent structure. 91. the value obtained from pure traction experiments (this is the 2 T ticians) wellknown 'crux' which the technicists raise against the mathemasee his pp. varies with the form of the section and is greater than. perhaps.114 [173.Venant indeed fully recognises that the formula does not give any condition for immediate rupture. Article IV. 95 101 our author treats of 'Emerson's or the existence of useless fibres '. even to the double of.
oil from the of the oil filter hose from air cleaner to intake manifold.026 Replacement. (h) Run the engine for about ten minutes. (3) Disconnect the breather tube from the intake manifold.ME 38102942C Intake and exhaust manifolds 2102) provide fresh air for combustion and exhaust burned fuel. (g) Fill the crankcase to the correct level. The only repair possible for external oil lines is replacement of damaged lines or flange gaskets. warping. e. (g) Remove oil lower end of the move the cooler oil cooler. and other connections to the carburetor. fasten the upper cooler pipe to the oil cooler. 299. Refer to figure 280 and choke. Be sure clean before are replacing on enpassages gine. (4) Remove all capscrews fastening manifolds to cylinder heads and remove both the in (3) Oil cooler service. Inspection. (/) Remove the brackets at the upper end the capscrews securing the cooler to the crankcase. oil cooler (0) Install the ignition coil (para 291). or gas leaks. General.074  ? 0. fasten lower oil cooler pipe to the oil filter base. Stop engine. stop the engine. Replacement. Refer to figure 2101 and re place any unserviceable parts. and inspect for oil or water leaks. and Exhaust Manifolds HOT 0. signs of deterioration of gaskets. External Line Serrice and Repair. See figure 2102. Removal Remove (1) the exhaust manifold as follows: Figure 299. (fig.024  0. figure 2102. Intake a. and foreign matter with compressed all air. NOTE cool before removal. Remove the carburetor.076 . to rocker arm. r. and tightening loose connections. INTAKE iHOT 0. (d) Disconnect the upper cooler pipe cooler pipe (2) Refer to figure 272 and disconnect air from the oil cooler. 6. Adjusting valve stem clearance. Immerse the oil into a cleaning solvent to loosen sludge take and exhaust manifolds from the engine.TM 5381029420 (4) Oil cooler replacement Refer to figure install the oil cooler as follows: 2101 and (a) Fasten the oil cooler to the engine. (6) Using a new gasket. d. breaks. ReAllow manifolds to oil cooler. (e) Disconnect the lower base. Inspect manifolds for cracks. Bolt the bottom end to the crankcase and install the brackets at the top. d. (1) Refer to figure 2102 and assemble intake and exhaust manifolds together using a 2105 . water pumptooil (d) Connect pipe to oil cooler. {/) Fill the cooling system. NOTE Improper maintenance of the cooling system or oil system are the most probable reasons for poor oil cooler performance. Separate the exhaust manifold into three parts by removing two expansion clamps. Refer to figure 2101. (e) Using a new gasket. (5) Remove capscrews which connect the two manifolds at the center and separate them. remove oil all throttle.
1 T Js*  ^ 7 squeeze in longitudinal direction. thus = 19 In the case of isotropy and thus on the uniltt f = 1/rj = 4. 123 (a) The formula of our Art. [177. T /T by T^JT^ Q : we can legitimately a ratio easily found from rupture experi ments. with which we 5 we have the faillimit determined for cases of pp. he states that for different to take Q proportional T of Art. [177 when the t\ material sustains a tractive load in the Then the stretchsqueeze ratio. that for oak Q/TQ =l'21 or 108 . : ^ = stretch ** in transverse direction due to T 0it . 243*.. SAINTVENANT.116 rupture stresses transverse sense.. j^ 1 = safe limit to negative traction in longitudinal direction. and for wrought iron 2. 175. for castmetals he suggests 3. 14 loading in planes of inertial asymmetry. IE To t replace Now by what precedes. for stone 8 to 10. than to the stretchmodulus as some writers have done. varieties of the same material T of the formula more legitimate 115.. constant hypothesis we should have G /T Saint. On namely : M = minimum we find repeated. j? 2s *! %t : Thus we must have hence ir^*r Saint. and T T EE^ T T r discusses at some length Hodgkinson's experiments on the beam of : strongest section see our Art. of  < 0<l) z cos K V2 sin +y ""Ts <9 ' < . Finally to we may note that on it is p.Yenant finds from experiments of "wertheim and Ghevandier.Yenant holds that Q>t T'. He holds the value 6 as obtained by Hodgkinson for castiron much too large to be prudently adopted. 122 it known as the in reality 171 are occupied with what is generally comparative strength of beams of various sections is the failure of linear elasticity and not strength are dealing. i 7.] Pp.
YM 6381029420 IGNITION COIL UPPER OIL COOLER PIPE CAPSCREWS (2) LOWER OIL COOLER PIPE ME 381 0.29420/2101 Figure. 2101. Oil cooler and external oil lines removal and replacement. 2107 .
by preference the following for the positive and negative tractions a beam under flexure : Pz a* distances y19 y$ from the neutral axis of where 19 2 are the tractions at distances Pi. There is. [178 To begin it proximate for any the second place is with. d'autant plus que cet instant a 6t6 precede d'une enervation graduelle limite. In if 3 various values are 1. (pp.118 crosssections. The limiting value of the bending moment is then calculated. nor in clearly stated how far they represent stresswhose strain relations for bodies elasticity is nonlinear. . p. I. the initial stretch. and On p. This paragraph assumes that for the material dealt with the rupture stress is an absolute maximum. 177 traces of the curves for p in terms of 2 axe constants. il est Baturel de regarder la courbe des tensions comme ayant & 1'instant de la rupture sa tangente verticale ou parallele & 1'axe coordonne* des y. P P m m It will be observed that the difficulty of stating exactly the physical relation between stress. 891). in some materials it could only refer to the before stricture and not to the rupturestress. i. elasticstrain and set is avoided by an assumption of this kind. treated to be are elasticstrain and set takes PD SaintTenant after citing Hodgkinson's formulae (see our Art. and at any rate stress maximum On pp. w^. SaintYenant obtains general formulae on the supposition that the curves for negative and positive traction coincide at the origin. another assump tion of SaintVenant's He states it in the following which does not seem wholly words : satisfactory.and squeezemoduli for wry small strains are equal (mJP^j Yl . however. and they are compared with y are given for values of the curves obtained from Hodgkinson's formula.and squeeze w moduli unequal is to increase the resistance to rupture by flexure. 178 184 the case of a rectangle is treated at some length. but in several automatically drawn stressstrain relations which I have examined this does not appear to be the case (see Vol. it is m l = m. Observons d'abord que lorsque la dilatation d'une fibre a atteint sa comme une faible augmentation qu'on lui fait subir produit la rupture ou bien fait de*croitre tresrapidement sa force d tension. SAINTVENANT. P"2 from the axis. from 1 to 10.e.m^P2/ 7a ).2  assumed for mi and to shewn that make in particular 2. on the supposition that the stretch. or how far as coexistent. 1801). they can hardly be taken as apmaterial having a distinct yieldpoint .
TM
(2) Pull the adju3ting lock pin outward, ing a suitable tool, and turn the adjusting inward. (3) Periodically cfcecfc the poll required
t
53*102*410
engage the clutch at the operator's lever. Adjust 30 that 42to 44pounds pull is required to engage the clutch*
(4) Replace the clutch
hand hole
cover.
RING GEAR
FLYWHEEL
CLUTCH ASSEMBLY
,CLUJCH
HOUSING
ADJUSTING
LOCK PIN
I
DRIVE
ADJUSTING
HAND
HOLE
ME
381029420/2103
RING
YOKE
Figure S103. Engine clutch adjustment,
Section XXVII.
MAINTENANCE OF SHOVEL AND
on front or rear drum brakes or clutches. Secure the revolving frame from turning before working on the swing brake, swing brake lock, or antirotation device. Always lower attachments, including shovel fronts, backhoe fronts, clamshell
EARTH WORKING EQUIPMENT
2102. General
In every case where clutches or brake bands are removed or replaced, safety requires that the load being supported by that clutch or brake
to be
I
be lowered to the ground. Specifically, always lower the boom to the ground when the boom hoist clutch or brake are to be worked upon. Lower the loads to the ground before working
and dragline buckets, booms and jibs, and piledriver or magnets to the ground or to proper supports to prevent any possible injury to per
sonnel or
damage
to the machine.
5109
120
one.
SAINTVENANT.
[181
SaintTenant had only treated of this matter in the case of the elliptic section (59 of the memoir on Torsion see our Art. 22). A. general proof is here given in a footnote.
:
In 15, pp. 264 7, we have a fuller treatment than occurs in (d) the memoir on Torsion of eccentric torsion, or torsion about any axis sides. Taking the equations of torsion for an. parallel to the prismatic vi. of Art. 17) material (equations isotropic
:
(uz
for
r
+ ry) dy 
(u y
 rz) dz :
0,
which the
z
= % + we
origin lies
on the axis of torsion,
let
us put
find
^ and f being constants
These equations have for solution
where
shifts
u* is the
value of
u when
tfatt'T^lp/), = = 0, or 97
in other words the shift
when the
u
f
torsion operates round an axis through the new origin. and u giving the distortions in the two cases differ only by
The
T(&'y)==r(&~^),
two distorted surfaces are superposable by rotating the one  r round the axes of y and # respecthrough small angles rrj and
or the
tively.
TiW.W
J
z
^
rz
~~
*
^
T
I
J
=u#
or the slides determined for either axis
it
ame
points.
Thus
follows that the torsional couple
VM be the same.
v enant then shews how by placing two prisms of equal crosswwv.u with corresponding lines parallel, and fixing their terminal faces so as to remain parallel after torsion about a midaxis, we can obtain eccentric torsion. The torsional couple will be just double of that obtained from the simple torsion of either. Their axes it is true will be bent into helices, but the bending introduced is a small quantity of the second order in the torsion.
In 17 (pp. 268 71) we have an investigation of the (e) maximumslide and the failpoints. We cite the following passage
plus grand glissement principal] croissait toujours de I'interieur a I'ext6rieur de la section pour chaque direction, ce serait constamment sur son contour qu'il faudrait chercher les points dangereux. Mais nous savons qu'il y a souvent des points du contour ou le glissement est nul, et il peut y avoir, dans I'interieur, quelque point de maximum absolu de ov (quoique cela ne se soit prsente dans aucun des
<rx
2
:
Si
2
[03= le
exemples ciapres traites); et il n'est pas impossible que ce maximum excede toutes les valeurs de arx2 relatives aux points du contour (p. 269).
TM
2108.
S38!029420
tight
Boom
Hoist Broke
and Clutch
is
with
ened.
LO
5381029412. Keep locknuts
I
a.
General The boom hoist brake
spring
sethydraulically released. Always lower the boom to the ground before adjusting or work
ing on the brake or clutch.
6.
Refer to figure 2106 and place the in the released position. Refer brake lever swing to figure 2117 and adjust the swing brake.
d. Adjust.
Brake Band Removal.
and remove the
21 10. Drive Chains Replacement
a. General The removal and replacement procedures for each drive chain are given in the
(1) Refer to figure 2125 boom hoist planetary pawls.
NOTE
The boom
assembly.
hoist brake band
is
following paragraphs.
removed as an
6.
Reversing Shaft Chain. Refer to figure 211
(2) Refer to figures 2112 and 2113 for views showing the band assembled. To remove the assembly, remove items 1 through 7 of figure 2114. The entire assembly can then be removed to the bench for complete disassembly as shown. Unscrew the threaded end of the lower brake band from the adjusting rod to complete removal of the brake bands. Note that the phantomed pdn on figure 2114 is welded to the revolving frame side frame and can not be removed. c. Brake Adjustment. Refer to figure 2112
and remove the reversing shaft chain. c. Rear Drum Chain. Refer to figure 2119 and remove the rear drum chain case. Refer to figure 2120 anft remove the rear drum chain.
d. Horizontal Siving Shaft Chain. Refer to figure 2121 and remove the horizontal swing
shaft chains,
e. Shovel Crowd Chain. Refer to paragraph 228 for replacement of shovel crowd chain.
21 11.
Hook
Rollers
and adjust the boom hoist brake. Be careful to prevent grease or other lubricant from contacting brake linings at any time.
WARNING
Always lower the attachment to the ground before attempting to adjust the boom hoist brake. Serious damage to
the
equipment or death or injury
to
personnel
(J.
may
otherwise result.
Clutch Removal and Replacement. Refer to
figure 2113 and remove or replace the boom hoist shaft clutch. e. Clutch Adjustment. Refer to figure 2106 and place the boom hoist clutch lever in the
center (neutral) position. Refer to figure 2115
a. General. Hook rollers are provided to prevent the crane from tipping in relation to the truck. This prevents damage to the machine, while improving machine stability. b. Removal. Refer to figure 2122 and remove hook rollers. There is a single hook roller at the front of the revolving frame as shown in figure 2122. A double hook roller of identical design is used at the rear of the revolving frame. Removal and replacement procedures are the same. c. Adjustment. Refer to figure 2123 and adjust hook rollers if clearance between rollers and roller path exceeds 1 16 inch. Items shown in figure 2122 are also identified on figure 2123 for clear understanding.
2112. Swing Lock Assembly
a.
General.
The swing
lock assembly
mechan
and adjust the boom hoist
2109. Swing Brake
clutch.
prevents the revolving frame from moving in relation to the carrier.
ically
b. Adjustment. Remove deck plates as required to obtain access to the swing lock assembly. Refer to figure 268. Refer to figure 2124 and adjust the swing lock assembly. r. Removal. Refer to figure 2124 and remove the cotter pins and pins identified to remove the swing lock assembly.
The swing brake is used to hold the revolving frame from turning while the machine is being transported, or when it is desired to prevent the frame from turning. It is not used to stop the frame once it is in motion. 6. Replacement of Brake Shoes. Refer to figure 2116 and remove or replace swing brake shoes. Engage the swing brake mechanical lock (para. 2115) to prevent the frame from turna.
General.
2113. Pawls
a. General. Safety pawls are provided for the front drum, the rear drum, and the boom hoist drum. The purpose of the safety pawls is to prevent the load on the front or rear drum load
ing.
c. Service. Keep the mechanical components of the swing brake clean. Lubricate in accordance
2111
122
SAINTVENAKT.
[183
2
By
= taking az

l/s/2,
4
=
2 (^2

l)/
and the constant =
0,
we
obtain an isosceles triangle having for base a portion of the hyperbola
making with the bisector of the The length of the bisector base angles whose tangent ^^/BThe torsion takes place then is base from vertex to hyperbolic 5/2.
gr^fry^Ks/^
for sides lines
1.
 1) 2 s2 and
round an axis through the
vertex.
SaintVenant finds approximately,
2
Jf=. 56702
see our Art. 41.
jura)*
.
This value agrees very closely with that of the equilateral triangle
:
Pages 372 460 deal with the conditions for resistance to rupture doignde under simultaneous torsion and flexure. Most of this matter had already been given in Chapters xn. or xm. of the memoir on Torsion or in the memoir on Flexure: 60 and 90 8. One or two points may be see our Arts. 50
[183.]
noticed
:
In the memoir on Torsion SaintVenant when seeking for (a) the faillimit neglects as a rule the flexural slides (see our Art. 56, Case (iii) etc.). Here he commences with an investigation of the
values of these slides.
Bresse for obtaining the slide in a
jssections.
The approximate methods of Jouravski and beam of small breadth are con
Chapter XL), and are applied to the rectangle, footnote gives the value of the
A
wie Bauie approximate
manner
for
an
isosceles triangle.
see pp. 391 8. But the expressions thus obtained are not exact, and in a considerable number of cases differ sensibly from the real
values, especially when the section has a measurable pendicular to the load plane. The expressions found
breadth per
by Jouravski
and Bresse give the total shear upon a strip of unitbreadth taken on a section of the beam perpendicular to both the crosssection and the load plane, but they do not determine how such
maximum
still less the magnitude of the on the crosssection. SaintVenant then proceeds as in the memoir on Flexure to deduce exact expressions for the
is
shear
transversely distributed,
slide
flexural slides (pp.
399
414).
that in the original memoir.
tions placed side by side in in the Lefons de Navier is shorter
The notation used differs from The reader will find the two notathe footnote, p. 405. The treatment
and not nearly
so
complete as
TM
1.
53*1029420
Swing
clutch lever
10.
2.
8,
4.
5.
6.
Front drum clutch lever Rear drum clutch lever Boom hoist clutch and brake lever
11.
12.
13.
Boom hoist drum pawl control Front dram pawl control Rear drum pawl control
Engine clutch lever
Engine oil pressure warning light Engine temperature gage &1. Engine temperature warning light
19.
20,
Engine
throttle control
14.
15.
Horn button
(or dipper trip switch)
22. Starter button (engine) 23. Ignition switch
24.
26.
7.
Swing brake lever Rear drum brake pedal
Front drum brake pedal
8.
9.
L:ght switches Engme fuel tank level gage 17. Voltmeter
16.
Engine tachometer
Rain shutter lever
25. Chofce control
Swing brake
lock control
18.
Engine
oil
pressure gage
Figure t~106 (1)
Continued
been provided, as illustrated in figure 2125, to
pafl the friction shoes out of contact with the boom hoist drum when the engine clutch is disline to
engaged. This will allow a load on either load be lowered by gravity, without changing
boom angle.
b. Adjustment. Refer to figure 2126 and adjust safety pawls. Refer to figure 2125, and see that the friction shoes are out of contact with their friction surface when the engine clutch is
STEP
I
STEP 2.
PLACE LEVER IN TOP SLOT WHILE RUNNING. PLACE LEVBR IN BOTTOM SLOT WHEN RAIN MAY ENTER AND ENGINE ISSHUT DOWN.
%,
disengaged. Note that the length of the rod bolt can be changed. This adjustment is properly made at the time of manufacture and should not be changed. Do not disassemble or adjust the linkage shown in figure 2125 unless parts are damaged and must be replaced. If this is the
case, always see that the pawl friction shoes are disengaged from contact with thedr mating surface on the drum when the engine clutch is disengaged and that they make firm contact with the friction surface of the drum when the en
ME
381029420
2
Figure 106. Control identification. (Sheet 2 of t)
line
gine clutch
of
is
engaged.
from being
accidentally
dropped.
All
21 14. Machinery
a.
Mechanism Controls
these pawls should be kept engaged at all times that a load is being suspended aloft, and the boom hoist safety pawl should be engaged at all times, except when lowering the boom. The boom hoist planetary pawls, figure 2125, are
Control Levers and Pedals. (1) Service. Lubrication and cleaning is required for control levers and pedals. Refer to LO
5381029412.
(2) Adjust.
No
adjustments should be
re
both manually and automatically operated. These pawls are operated by manual linkage attached to the engine clutch control. When the engine clutch is engaged, the pawls are engaged by automatically operated friction shoes, which allow the operator to drive the boom downward, rather than lower it by gravity. However, this machine is designed so that a load on either the front or rear drum can be lowered by gravity, with the engine clutch disengaged, by allowing the weight of the load to pull the machinery backward. If the friction shoes were not disen
quired.
However, stopscrews (adjusting screws) are furnished to limit the fore and aft movement of all control levers and pedals, as illustrated in figure 2127. Adjust only the spring return tension on front and rear drum brake pedals and
this adjustment only after carefully checking front and rear drum brake adjustment. Refer to figure 2128. 6. Toggle Lever Linkage. The front drum clutch lever, the rear drum clutch lever, the boom hoist clutch lever, and the swing brake
make
gaged from their mating surface during this type of load lowering, the boom would be lifted as the load was lowered. Therefore, linkage has
lever are designed to "toggle in". Figure 2127 illustrates the principle of operation of toggle linkage which must be understood to adjust such
linkage.
When
the linkage moves from the neu
2113
124
SAINTVENANT.
[185
which b is much greater than c. Here the gular cross section (b x c) for slides before the linear limit is passed are the of values approximate
:
These results
may
by
be deduced from Art.
its
pared with V/fLj. See also Table L p. 39, He assumes that after the linear limit
elongated rectangle
inscribed ellipse
46 by replacing the and neglecting c 2//xa as comand Art. 47.
passed
:
is
and
Hence, since for small slides or small values of e and y,xjj = fi*frm , we must have
:
Q'm 
r
j
Q"n ^_=_.
2c*fr
These give,
tttt^J.
Further, since the failpoints are the midpoints of the much longer side b, the rupture points are taken there also. Thus it is necessary
that:
=
It follows that
direction of y.
h = c/2
= S' when = c/2. and Q' = S', the absolute shearing
0,
5J
strength in
<r
To proceed further SaintTenant assumes that the slide remains much less than the slide o^, so that for the former it to retain the linear strain form, we have thus
m
always
is sufficient
together with
9 =  S' [l  (l  yY*j
.
It easily follows that
Cases
(J)
and
(c)
confirm the law of the cube stated in
(a).
Such
formulae, although by no means satisfactory from the theoretical standpoint, are yet useful as suggesting lines for future
experiment.
[185.] Pages ( 62) contain a useful discussion of the various methods of determining the elastic and failpoint constants, especially in the case of prisms whose material is transversely aeoloSaint Venant (p. 471) tropic.adopts the result given in Art. 5. d.
46977
of our account of the
memoir on
Torsion,
VVK = 2,/p^
to obtain
a
TM 5181029420
CO
o
R
o
C
LU
O
UJ Cd
O UJ X
o Q Z
o
oo
LLJ
I
UJ
:*:
i
cd UJ
< oo z
S CO
c
LLJ
o Z 3 o C o
LLJ
o u i
O J
yj
OO
LLJ
X
I
s
LU
.
05 E: z <
z'o'S
Z z
i
2
!* ^o ii ^ ^
UJ
CO
Ct!
1 1 i
II aSi z 5^5 
UJ co cu aQ ^> UJ
SGLJLJ
^^55
on
S
^Z ^^ 0< ^Oo
****
^ ^ O 5 UJ
C&
M
uJ
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^2 Q is'S 21 Z <Q E O ^ i^^^ 0 D < Q og X II
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:
95Z Z ^
<
LU << c^ UJ
C UJ o^ zU< ^. =: 5 S
i<i
zS2 <go 5oi z ^
1
o < ^ s X ^> QSf O UJ^O O h O "J LU > D3 O^ ^ X 80 O ^ 8s LU
LLJ
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is
LLJ
UJ LJJ LLJ h h hto i/^ co
CM CO CL.CL.Cu
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126
SAINTVEtfANT.
[189
190
terminals (encastrements) may be noted. Poncelet remarks that for a cantilever we may suppose two forces, whose resultant is of the .load, to act at the builtin end. equal and opposite to that These forces whose points of application are very close, one on and one on the lower surface of the beam are very the
upper
of the builtin beam and the surgreat and alter the surfaces elastic line at this end is not the that rounding material, so inclination certain a varying as the terminal horizontal, but takes
moment directly and
inversely as the profondeur de I'encastrement. inclination Small as this is, it affects sensibly the experimental
based on the perfect horizonaccuracy of the theoretical results end. This was noted by builtin at the line elastic tality of the Saint Venant holds that careful exVicat: see our Art. 733*.
periments ought to be
[189.]
made
to determine its influence.
:
Appendix
II. is entitled
Sur
les
conditions de V exacti
tude mathtmatique des formules tant anciennes que nouvelles d'exD6monstratension, de torsion, de flection avec ou sans glissement.
tion syntMtique de ces
remplies.
formules quand on suppose ces conditions This appendix contains first an easy refutation of Lamp's illjudged sneer at the precedes hybrides, mianalytiques,
miempiriques ne servant
qu'd, masquer les abords de la veritable 1162* and 3. Saint Venant shews that his methods have precisely the same validity as those adopted in the cases of simple traction, of the old theories of flexure, and of torsion In the sequel he demonstrates afresh the for a circular cylinder. torsion and flexure equations. He starts from an axiom and
et
science: see our Arts.
definitions involving the hypothesis of central intermolecular action
as a function of the central distance only. pp.
The appendix occupies
520541.
[190.]
Appendix
III. contains
a complete theory of elasticity
for aeolotropic bodies so far as
the establishment of the general equations of elasticity and the usual formulae of stress and strain are concerned. It occupies pp. 541 617. Proceeding from central intermolecular action, Saint Venant on pp. 556 9 reduces the 36
constants of the stressstrain relations to 15.
or
We may
note one
two points of interest
:
23 (pp. 562 74) with its (a) long footnote is specially worthy of the reader's attention. Saint Venant obtains expressions for the
TM
I
ADJUSTING SCREWS. STEP 1 . LOOSEN LOCKNUTS 232 AND ENGAGE THE SWING CLUTCH LEVER. STEP 2. REFER TO FIGURE ALL ADJUSTING SCREWS UNTIL THERE IS A 0.020 STEP 3. BACK OFF
ON
ON
INCH GAP BETWEEN HEADS OF ADJUSTING SCREWS AND CLUTCH SHOES. TIGHTEN LOCKNUTS AND RECHECK GAP.
NOTE:
MAKE ABOVE ADJUSTMENT FOR HRST ONE CLUTCH SHOE AND
THEN THE OTHER. BE SURE CLUTCH SHOES
DO NOT DRAG.
CLUTCH SHOE
ADJUSTING
SCREWS
(4)
LOCKNUTS
(4)
ME
381029420/2110
Figure 2110. Adjusting reversing shaft clutch or horizontal swing shaft clutch.
in the forward position until the operator pulls it back, past the toggle point, to the neutral (center) position. It is important that only the four levers which are designed for toggle linkage action,
and which are
listed in this
lowed to "toggle
in".
paragraph, be alRefer to figure 2127 and
adjust toggle linkage.
2117
128
footnote before referred
SAIOTVEtfANT.
[191
He makes some remarks on the Navierto. Poisson controversy, and refers to a paper of his own published in 1844 on Boscovich's system see our Arts. 527* and 1613"*. On p. 587 the remark is made that the stressstrain relations, (b) the body stress equations and the body strainequations remain time whatever be the amount of the shifts in space provided the relative In this shifts of adjacent parts or the straincomponents are small. case, however, the values to be given to the strains in terms of the The ordinary shift equations of shifts are those of our Art. 1618*. elasticity hold only for small portions of an elastic body, when the Hence they cannot be directly applied to total shifts are not small. The whole treatment on pp. 587 92 shifts. or flexural torsional large is good, and better than that of the memoir of 1847: see our Art. 1618*.
:
(c)
Saint Venant points out that it is not sufficient to find values
of the stresscomponents which satisfy the body and surface stressThere are also certain conditions of compatibility between equations. the strain components deduced from these stresses which also must be
see our Art. 112. These equations hold for all values of the shifts, provided the strains remain small, i.e. if they take the forms given in our Art. 1618*.
satisfied
:
17 contain a direct investigation of SaintVenant's Pp. 603 and fiexure equations from the general equations of elasticity. In both cases the method adopted assumes a given distribution of stress and deduces the corresponding shiftequations. In dealing with torsion Saint Venant supposes a single plane of elastic symmetry perpendicular to the axis of torsion, and starts from formulae for the shears of the form
(d)
torsion
on Torsion.
He
are supposed unequal. See our Art. 4 (0) on the memoir deduces the general torsional equations, which now
contain four constants, and solves them for the case of the ellipse. The discussion does not seem to me of much value, as all elasticians, multior rariconstant, would agree that h = h', in which case by a change of axes we can take h  h' = see the same Article. In the case of an elliptic contour a direct analysis gives
: :
l/^) sin'a where a is the angle between the direction in which the slidemodulus is juj and the axis of the ellipse about which the swing radius is /q. The reader must note that and /*2 are not the same constants as in Art. 46 of our discussion of the memoir on Torsion, where we supposed the principal axes of elasticity to coincide with the principal axes of
(1/K,
2
+ I/A**1 +
2

I/O (l/^ 
_
'
^
'
'
the elliptic section.
45 and contains [191.] The fourth Appendix occupies pp. 617 a careful comparison of Saint Venant's theory of Torsion with the
TM
5381O29420
"^
v
v
I
;
y
y
STEP
1
.
STEP 2. STEP 3.
LOWER ATTACHMENT TO GROUND. PLACE SUITABLE ROD IN HOLE IN PUSHROD. TURN PUSHROD TO COMPRESS SPRING. TURN UNTIL SPRING
IS
REDUCED IN
LENGTH TO 45/8" AS SHOWN.
ME
Figure
Slllt.
38 1029420
'21
12
Boom
hoist brake adjiistment.
2119
130
SAINT YEN ANT.
[192
without
or any and our
the linearity o the stressstrain relation of physical fact to experiment or any statement any appeal axiom of intermolecular action : see SaintYenant's pp. 660 5 928* 1051* and 1164* footnote. Arts.
Lame have deduced
4
553*, 614*,
On pp. 665676 we have a long and careful numerical (5) examination of the experiments of Eegnault on piezometers of copper and brass. In general they accord with the uniconstant theory, or at This least better with that than with Wertheim's (see our Art. 1319*). is followed by some remarks on Wertheim's and Clapeyron's experiments
on caoutchouc.
see our Art.
The former found
=  J to f and
,
the latter
1322* and Chapter XL Results so discordant as these lead SaintYenant to remark that neither uni nor biconstant isotropy, nor
mSme des formules lin^aires quelconques, ne sont pas applicables au caoutchouc, liquide coagule" ou 6paissi plut&t que solidine", et d'une nature en et les solides (p. 678). quelque sorte intermediate entre les fluides
89 are occupied with a criticism of Wertheim's = and with the results of his experiments. Saintthat A,, 2/x, hypothesis, Yenant points out the great probability of a want both of homogeneity and of isotropy in the cylinders used by Wertheim (see our Art. 1343*) and he examines analytically the ratio of longitudinal to transverse
(c)
Pages 679
stretchmoduli, when such isotropy is not presupposed. to some of Saint Yenant's arguments when examining
We shall
?
return
Wertheim's later
memoirs.
(d)
On pp. 689
:
:
of 1851
see our Art. 681*, namely, that it is possible if a
705 we have a consideration of Cauchy s hypothesis body be
crystalline that
les
coefficients des
d'dquilibre intdrieur
d^placements et de leurs d&ive'es dans les Equations ne sont plus des quantity's constantes, mais deviennent
(p. 689).
des fonctions p^riodiques des coordonne'es
In other words we arrive at stressstrain relations in which the 36 constants aie not connected by 21 relations. SaintYenant conducts a new investigation (pp. 697 The 706) with fairly simple analysis. turning point of rari or multiconstancy for such regularly crystallised bodies is then seen to lie in the legitimacy of bringing stretches like /a outside certain summations of the form
X R cos
replace
tion.
s' x
3
(rx)
.
s'x
,
Sa,
R cos (rx) cos2 (r)
,
.
.
s'z
,
and replacing them by their mean values sx sz Here sx is the mean value of s'x for all the atoms under consideration, and we may
sx if the body is isotropic or possesses confused crystallisathe other hand in regularly crystallised bodies, there may be terms in s'x periodic in the coordinates and we cannot replace s' by sx and bring the mean stretch outside the summation. Hence we have not the 21 relations between the coefficients fulfilled. Saint Venant
by
On
<ti
i
i
i
132
that, in
SAINTVENANT.
[194195
whatever direction we take #', the same stretch S& will Such an equality of the same intensity. produce a traction seems opposed to our ideas on the nature of bodies endowed The arguments used to support the with double refraction.
identical with those of the improbability of this relation are memoir of 1863 and have been cited in our Art. 147.
[194.]
While
this
recognising
the
weight
of
SaintVenant's
reasoning in
Appendix and in the memoir of 1863, and
a doublerefracting medium admitting the difficulty of conceiving to obey such conditions as those given by Green, we have yet to notice a point with regard to the arguments Saint Venant advances.
A
body
distinction must be drawn between an isotropic body held by external pressures in an aeolotropic state of elastic strain, and a also primitively isotropic which has received set of different
In the former case the initial intensity in different directions. stresses may enter into the elastic constants (as in our Art. 129)
and so affect the elasticity in different directions. In the latter would appear as if the molecules must be brought in some directions nearer together and so the direct stretch coefficients be But is this experimentally the fact ? If a affected and varied. bar of metal be taken and stretched beyond the elastic limit, so that it receives set, it is found that its stretchmodulus, which is certainly a function of the direct stretchcoefficients remains nearly Now this set may be of two kinds, first a set occurring constant. far below the yieldpoint, which is often little more than a removal of an initial state of strain due to the working and secondly, a set which denotes a large change in the relative molecular positions and can occur after the yieldpoint has been reached. If it can be shewn that the stretchmodulus remains nearly constant notwithstanding one or both of these sets, it would be interesting to investigate experimentally whether such is also true for the slidemoduli and the crossstretch coefficients before we condemn Green
it
:
:
entirely.
and
Experiments on simple traction and torsion of large bars before after very sensible set would throw light on this matter.
[195.]
SaintVenant further remarks that Green's conditions
are not necessary in order that wavesurface. SaintVenant in
we may obtain
exactly Fresnel's a footnote gives a fairly easy
TM SM102t4Jt
!.
Brake
Pin,
c\
Under
8.
**
Capscrevv
15. 16.
c<ti<'r
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and I especially distrust the results cited for castiron. : (a) Morin In 78 (pp. we think. The Appendice complementaire is chiefly occupied with [198. It is only necessary to remark here that recent experiments would. notes and valuable historical references on the origin of the terms On 783 86 potential and potential function. . from wires reduced to a state of ease serve the purpose SaintVenant has in view of demonstrating the linearity and perfect elasticity of all materials for small strains. have already had occasion to remark on the caution with which this principle must be accepted: see our Arts. For elastic strains of such magnimaterial tude as occur in structures. [197198 to the base of our expediency. 764 7) SaintVenant cites experiments of to prove the linearity of the stressstrain relation. which SaintVenant tells us had not then been properly We note one or two points studied in France. memoir [197. 745). Clebsch and Kirchhoff. and viceversd. surface load I The arguments of this section do not seem to me very convincing. This is the state of no internal It is used as a means of deducing the stress. have removed Saint. These experiments are really not conclusive. 771 4) treats of what SaintVenant terms naturel on primitif. If there be no body force or Hfoat the internal stresses are all zero.Venant's doubt as to the existence of elastic afterThe appendix concludes with a r6sum strain in metals (p. Pages 742 46 are occupied with a review of Clausius' 1849: see our Art. but principles going as our proofs of the equation of such of matter. 1398*. the stressstrain relation for this Nor again can arguments drawn is certainly not linear. arguments brought forward in favour of rariconstancy 74662). uniqueness of the solution of the elastic equations. knowledge and the application of the laws of motion to intermole energy cular action.] an examination of the elastical researches of Rankine.134 technical SAINTVENANT.] of of all the (pp. 6 and 10. (&) 80 dit (pp. the reader will find some interesting (c) pp.
V f ~X . SHOES ^ 3810.20/2. ^ LOCKWASHERS SHIELD I' SPRING PIN HYDRAULIC CYLINDER ' AND .11* Figure S11S. 2125 .294.TM 5381029420 \ " " SHIELD AND BOLTS. Swing brake shoe* removal and replacement.
] vitesse de Demonstration dlementaire: (1) de V expression de la propagation du son dans une barre dlastique / (2) des formules nouvelles pour le donntfes. and T. 1866. 1865. verges ou I'impulsion transversale et la resistance poutres dastiques. 1866.136 SAINTVENANT. 130134. dans une communication precedente. pp. 73235.] Complements au Mdmoire lu le 10 aotit 1857 sur vive des barres. LXII. This point is well brought out in the concluding paragraphs of the Note. but as we have seen it is The discussion in this really due to Cox: see our Art. [200202 SECTION IV. extracts of additions to the memoir of 1857 (see our Arts. pp. 1865. 368. and why they agree. pp. This note suggests the application of the principle of virtual displacements and of the hypothesis that dynamical strain is of the same form as statical strain to the problem of impact. pp. T. SaintVenant apparently considers that in his papers of 1865 66 he had been the first to adopt this method. LXH. choc longitudinal de deux barres: Comptes rendus. 1195 99. et sur un moyen de calculer dlementairement l extension ou la flection dynamique de cellesci: } Comptes rendus.] des pieces eatensibles et flexibles. Comptes rendus. 342 et seq. LX. [200. Impulse Plasticity. pp. Note appears in a more consistent form in the annotated Clebsch see : our Art. T. These LXI. is almost the same as that given by taking the term involving the principal vibration only. Memoirs of 18641882. and pp. It is SaintVenant's great service to have shewn that the accurate and approximate methods agree fairly Cox's method gives a result which closely. Tome . 11989. f etc. 1434*. [202. T. 104 8) 4247 3337 are all more fully developed in the annotated Clebsch: see our Arts. Note sur les pertes apparentes deforce vive dans le choc [201.
.~ . Reversing shaft chain removal and replacement. .TM <y?rsra CAPSCREWS (18) t OCKWASHRS (18) AND NUTS "*"k 08) ..29420/31 li Figure 118. 2127 . i WE 3810.
is of speed at a time superabundant. while losing all strain. He concluded that the impulse terminated whenever the two bars had not the same speed at their impellent terminals. is clearly excess zero squeeze at the impellent can never sustain a stretch. This result was stated in 1826. In this manner Saint. This. In fact condition of excess of impellent Cauchy's speed in the preceding bar is insufficient.138 rods of the SAINTVENANT. owing to their vibrations. when there which shew that the bars thus separated are separated for good.] investigate the vibrations of a bar.Venant shews that if two bars of the same section and material are in impact two of these parts is first instant at which a zero stretch at the section the shorter takes ultimately and uniformly. Vol. Poisson in the second edition of the Traite de Mdcanique (1833. only that the bar which precedes shall have a greater speed at the impelled terminal than that which of the same material and for separation. as we shall see. [205 same material and section. He used a double condition not namely. 331 crosssection. Saint. He had that can never sustain a stretch at the forgotten physically they terminals. and Poisson's additional one of true condition no squeeze terminals. This condition led Poisson to the singular conclusion that two unequal bars would never separate. and by speeds constant for each of the several parts into which the rod may be supposed divided. It will also be The is Saint.Venant's method of treatment is to [205. the analysis of which does not appear to have been published. and do not. The between any accompanied by an excess speed in the terminal of the preceding section marks a disunion if the parts are not those of a continuous rod. His notice had been drawn to this proof by an article in The Engineer (February 15. the initial speed of the longer.Venant by Cauchy elementary proof of it given by Thomson and Tait in 302304 of their Treatise on Natural Philosophy which in 1867 was in the press. of which the initial condition is given by zero stretch throughout. follows. 47) also attacked the problem supposing his rods pp. and the conclusion vitiated some of Cauchy's results. but that the squeeze in both at the impellent terminals shall be simultaneously zero. 1867) due to Raukinu refers to the . II. come again into necessary to contact. is not true.
.20 *2120 Figure 2120..^ AND HCE DRENCH ON ECCENTRIC T pcr^rM PICO L ^r fCfE^. AND VTP. 1 "I INK PINS * '. ..~294. pir. "< ^'L". Rear drum drive chain removal and replacement.TM 538102942O f V t ' '"} ' . ^IJCCNNECT THE T^O ENDS. ' FL//C\ i^Ty* h CHAIN . .'TPIC Sf'AH TO LCCSEN tJ . _ * . 2129 .ME 3810.
and 2 [207 Unequal speeds occur again when upper bar has a negative squeeze. Hence the solution no longer holds. Let us suppose : 2a l <a We have to enquire how a bar of which a .?* now the at the (7a  F )/2A CASE 2a1 A' <a z. The bar a x moves obviously without strain and with the speed which the bar a2 To deal with the bar a we have' initially had. cases. . A" CASE a1 A' **=<% <a 2 <: 2^. A impelled terminal.140 SAINTVENANT. 2ajk. and we have to treat each bar from this epoch as a distinct one. V a. to distinguish (1) two 2 .
STEP 3. REMOVE RETAINER PLATE CAPSCREWS.2C 2122 Figure S1SS.TM 5381029420 AND )SITE CARRIER AT END OF REVOL STEP 2. 2131 . VING FRAME. AND PIN. Hook rollers. ME 38IO294. removal and replacement. RETAINER PLATE. REMOVE HOOK ROLLER. COTTER PIN.
142 SAINTVENANT. points at which velocity and squeeze change It is hardly necessary to add that I'ebranlement. _^ squeeze of the rods are for diagrammatic purposes 3 loping lines of the previous msly exaggerated. [209.] stquences. [209 the dotted lines give the points at which the points of the rods. 27886) Force vive translatoire perdue dans entitled Gon choc des deux . The seventh paragraph (pp. ^ze of the rods changes abruptly. They corre A" f fc= Saintdiagrams. The separation of the two rods is discussed in SaintVenant's sixth paragraph. 262 269 is le of the memoir. the fifth having been devoted to a verification by means of the solution in trigonometrical series of the general results of the fourth paragraph : see pp. .
TM 5381029420 t 1 2135 .
] The general solution impact of two rods where applied to the special case of the initially the squeeze is zero throughout is . in particular the sloping lines become more numerous and change their slope abruptly at the horizontal line which of the memoir. He obtained in an earlier memoir see our Arts. LXVI.Venant had 1 in trigonometrical series. Hamburger finds that the duration is a function of the velocity of impact. These results do not agree with Hamburger's experiments (Untersuckungen uber die Zeitdauer des Stosses elastischer cylindrischer Stdbe: InaugwralDissertation. ce qui constitue un problme dont la solution see our directe. This solution is somewhat lengthy. on developpement de cette solution. nne longnenr fort petite on nne resistance An m&noire et qui tronvera le 1857 elastique considerable. see our Art. & laquelle iL eonvient de recourir quelquefois m&oie pour les barres prismatiques. 297 [212. suppositions qui pousse"es plus loin encore. [211. 33 : Arts. LXI. comme nous verrons plus loin. a e"te~ presente*e en 1865 (Comptes rendus. 107 and 200. complement de ceux que j'ai pr6sente*s depuis vont tre imprimes an Journal de VJEcole Polytechnique. notamment quand une des deux parties a une section relativement fort grande. It is of a more complex nature. T. pp. marks the contiguous terminals : see p. but is accompanied by diagrammatic representations of speed and squeeze of the same character as in the simpler case when the 2 in finite terms.. 200 and 221).144 SAINTVENANT. adds the solution for beams in the form of truncated cones as given in the Comptes rmdus. Breslau 1885. 223. 2327). permettent de reduire 1'une des deux parties on barres a une masse itrangere parfaitement dure.. paragraph ( 8. pouvant tre venue heurter Pautre barre supposed libre aussi. He remarks : of these solutions : cite*. [211212 of the impulse is proportional to the length of one of the rods and independent of the area of the crosssection. however. pp.] The second Choc de deux barres dont The first part of SaintVenant's memoir is entitled : les sections et lea matieres sont difffrentes. p. which contradicts SaintVenant's results. bars have equal crosssections and soundvelocities. 286 98) gives in a double form : the solution of the problem of the motion of two contiguous rods This result Saint.
hoist line to lift the counterweight. Adiust'iirj fiont a/rf rctr rfriii" brake pedal return spr/g tension. The locations of the pins are shown in figure 2129. Install two eyebolt? and a suitable liftingsling in the tapped holes provided in the top of the counterweight. 2116. It v. Counterweight Removal and installation deck of the carrier.ill normal!. tool box. ME 381029420 '2128 Figure 212^. c. Section XXVIII. of the revolving Swing the revolving frame so that the rear frame is positioned over the 2137 . Use the crane boom and CAUTION Proceed slowly and carefully when re main b.TM 5381O29420 ifPijf NOTE: CHECK ADJUSTMENT OF FRONT AND REAR DRUM BRAKES BEFORE ADJUSTING PEDAL SPRING TENSION. General The counterweight is mounted on the revolving frame assembly. and lift the counterweight into position on the two locating pins on the 2115. Remove the eyebolts and stow them in the moving or installing the counterweight. since severe damage can be caused by improper handling.he removed only if the mounting bolts are damaged. MAINTENANCE OF COUNTERWErGHT n.
In the twelfth paragraph (pp. so that we are unable to form any but the vaguest comparison of theory and experiment. He proposes a new an elastic couch of some indefinite This in a material (Zwischenschicht) between the terminals. or the elasticity perfect.] It will be observed that these formulae are again widely removed from those of the ordinary theory. and by Hamburger for the duration of the impact. however. made by experimenting in a vacuum and so removing a portion are in contact. and we ought to seek for results corresponding to those of the ordinary theory not when the coefficient of elastic impact is taken ' as unity. neither sufficiently specialised his hypotheses nor worked out his analytical results. The thirteenth paragraph p.' but when it has a value differing The problem ought not from unity and so allowing for a loss of energy by heat.] that the bars after separating at time t may be. hypothesis adopted discrepancy and considers that the rods cannot. His constants are unknown functions of material and of crosssection. represents by diagrams similar to the figure on our 142 the motion . to be impossible with the aid of Duhamel's thermo. Voigt attributes the the for to the contiguous terminals. 336342) it is shewn = 2r x or = 2r2 as the case . he has results of experiment. [215. Neither find 1 a really sufficient experimental accordance. do not again come into contact.146 SAJNTVE1UNT. In the general case. which introduces : more that I am inclined to think the discrepancy has of Voigt's couch. and there seems no means of determining their form see our discussion of A good test of SaintVenant's theory might be his memoir later. and the for JJ reduces ?7 to of the case those expressions l limiting 2 which in the same case with the agrees fairly ordinary theory. be replaced theory. while the contiguous terminals by a single rod. to do with thermal effect than with the couch of air. [214. They have been tested by Voigt for the velocities JJ and C7"2 of rebound. [214 215 where the value for U: on the right of the value for U% must be substituted from the first expression.elastic equations.
two seizings are to be used. cut cable over 7/8inch diameter. iteier to paragrapn z 33 lewcable replacement.0. or blade action tools or flame cutters. three seizings are recommended. 2139 . On nonpreformed Cutting Cable to Proper Length. ttepuicemenz. seizings must be placed on each side of the point where the cable will be cut On c. wire cutters. Use abrasive cutting tools. On nonpreformed cable less than 7/8inch diameter. preiormea caote. Refer to c below when it is necessary to shorten a cable. one seizing on eacn siae ox uie is enough. When cutting cable.
Princeps. [218. then represented by [218 Jfi 2 {2a.Venant's form. supposing for a it is necessary to take a= M "~ ^ = (1  + e). 361355). This gives us. Hence we are driven to conclude either that the amount of thermal energy generated is e how generally of importance or that the conditions at the surface of impact adopted by SaintVenant are not satisfactory. To make Newton's formula agree with the above.148 The energy lost is SAINTVENANT. the rods being of equal crosssection and the same material. it is necessary that SIC Saint. which Newton proved for the impact of spherical bodies. p. it would not in the be of equal value to the student who more complex cases approached in this manner . this does not suggest Saint. 213. The coefficient of dynamic elasticity e as investigated by Newton (Prinripia. Further in the case of equal rods of the same material e would always equal unity. This again is not true for most bodies. . it is difficult to could be independent of their masses.Venant shews from the values of a in the various cases referred to ID Art. example in Case (ii) of Art. not thermal. 213. and then endeavour to ascertain by varying their masses whether there was any change in e. 213 that this is always true (pp. Ed. It would be interesting to make experiments for a material for which e is nearly unity.] In his sixteenth paragraph (pp. but interesting as pointing out a want of constancy in this coefficient: see our Arts. 355373) SaintVenant an elementary proof of the formulae of Art. 22) has probably relation to the energy lost not only in vibrations. Since there must ahvays be a loss of energy. moment Newton's laws to hold for rods and that the energy lost is principally vibrational. Haughton's experiments seem to indicate that e is not constant but a function of the it is velocity of impact . but also in the form of heat. for c Thus see if the rods were of different materials. 1183*. 1523* and also 941*. but it seems to me that.) a }  (Fi F3 2 ) .(I + MJM. while luminous and suggestive to the reader proceeds to give of the previous analysis. This proof does not involve differential or integral processes.
Tabulated Data. DESCRIPTION AND DATA 201 net hp at 2800 full load Horsepower Displacement rpm A general description of the crane and informa tion pertaining to the identification plates are contained in 5381029410. 31). Refer to paragraph 11 for detailed instructions for the use of this manual.V6542 idle) _. 37.017 inch M320T2 (3) Fuel. and grease capacities. identified. Identification a. All identification plates for carrier are located. Electrical system TM (1) 24 volts. water. Destruction of Scope This part of the manual gives organizamaintenance instructions for proper care of the carrier portion of the machine. 34. trated in 5381029410.028to 0. and illus Engine equipped with hydraulic valve lifters.033inch Spark plug gap Manufacturer Model Hamischfeger Distributor point gap 0. a. oil. Reporting of Errors Maintenance forms and records that you are quired to use are explained in TM 38750. Administrative Storage Refer to TM 740901 for information concern ing administrative storage. Identification. 32. 6. A more de Gage compression Firing order Ignition timing 549 cubic inches 145 psi at 200 rpm TM lS7. Tappet clearance adjusts ments not required. Detailed descriptions of the components of the carrier are provided in the applicable maintenance paragraphs of this manual. tailed description of specific components and as semblies is contained in the applicable sections of this manual. (2) Carrier engine <see fig. negative ground 0. Maintenance personnel shall be thoroughly familiar with both crane and carrier maintenance procedures as described in this manual before attempting service or maintenance of this machine. Army Material to Prevent nemy Use Refer to tional level TM 7502443 for procedures for de struction of equipment to prevent enemy use. Carrier. Manufacturer Model International Harvester Company UV549 of cylinders Engine fuel tank . GENERAL 33. Dscription II. Governed speed (high Low idle speed Maximum oil pressure (above 1500 rpm) Top dead center 2800 10 rpm 450 50 rpm 50to 55pounds per square inch 15130 Minimum (idling) oil pressure 20po*unds per square inch and Tabulated Data Intake and exhaust valve tappet clearance the b. Maintenance Forms and Records re 35. Refer to paragraph 15 for instructions. Section 36.I PART TWO CRANE CARRIER CHAPTER 3 INTRODUCTION Section I. 75 gallons Cooling system Number 8 Crankcase 40 quarts 12 quarts including filter 41 . carrier.
Secondly from t = ajk^ to From oj = as previously From r a. . = 2&2 . to 2^2 . where.Fa) e"*"^ squeeze (2) For the impelled to bar. = n 7 squeeze . From t = (Fi to =F + = 0. < ^squeeze = = 0.Venant also shews in this memoir how : to obtain from the results of his previous memoir the velocity and squeeze Thus of each bar at each instant of the impact.kj the velocity and squeeze have the same values from x = to Jc^t. (i).150 SAINTVENANT. = F2 + ( V . From cc = fo to j. Now if the impelling bar is infinitely short or infinitely hard or ). r a = ^ MI as2 #2^1 f < n (=  1. [222.A.jqjli . (if a^ it the number : 7 J will be infinitely great. ~ F 2 ). hence follows that and the formulae (i) become : *72 = F2 4.2 to c&2 . . [222 in which a2/&2 or the time sound takes to traverse the second bar. First from t = to From . is an exact multiple n of the time ct^/J^ it takes to traverse the first bar : .F2 velocity = (squeeze (F^ l ) { e This gives the whole state of the bars up to the end of the impact or until t . ' C velocity J . (1  ***) (V.] Saint. = (F^ F>. (1) For the impelling velocity bar.
381029420/32 .TM $3ftio394ao STEERING WHEEL STEERING COLUMN RESERVOIR RESERVOIR LINE HOSE CLAMP STEERING GEAR PUMP LINE FITTING CONNECTION TO FRONT AXLE STEERING ARM PITMAN STEERING ARM DRAG LINK ME Figure 3t. Carrier hydraulic tteering tyttem.
4.Venant rejects like Lam^ that definition of stress across a plane. reproduced 603* 12*. are given on pp. in 1851. 1'Abbe Moigno. general theory in the memoir on Torsion. i. by Lamd [227. is the fourth such This Venant.] to his ellipsoids are : The wellknown theorems direction of stretch and slide. that is to say it starts from the molecular definition of stress (p. 617). and in respectively the Lemons de Navier: see our Arts. 1868.Venant remarks that these relations were first shifts are shifts. third and fourth years of Cauchy's Eocercices de mathd matiques. no p. he holds. [225. and 190. but that he assumes that the given small . the proof given by SaintVenant holds for any provided the relative shifts.e. are small. 1051* and 1164*.] On pp. 133. contain a general twentyfirst and twentysecond. and our Arts. Sainttheory of elasticity by former three being the his from we have that pen. 619). though they naturally contain no new one or two points. which considers stress as the force necessary to retain the plane in equilibrium if it were to becqme rigid (footnote This apparently simple definition conveys. the local strains.e. [224227 M. 5.] results. Saint.] SAINTVENAKT.Venant's treatment is in the main a modified and improved form of that of the second. pp.152 [224. moleculardefinition of stress the of the upon importance see Lamp's Legons sur I'elasticite. such as those of our Art. The proof appeals to the rariconstant hypothesis. 616 723. 928*. 72. the Paris. par two last The Lemons of this work. Statique. Relations for change of [226. unjustifiable assumption often The reader will remember that there is an made in the proof of the generalised Hooke's law by Green's method: see our Art. the generalised Hooke's Law. We may refer to Saint. After a very full analysis of stress and strain we reach the general elastic equations. 1368*. We may note . The hundred odd pages form one of the best introductions to the subject of elasticity. Saint. in that on Flexure. 652 3 SaintVenant states as a Lemma and proves the principle of linearity of the stressstrain relations. 644 5. We may note also on p. exact notion and insists he : of Cauchy and the equations with short proofs see our Arts. In other words its simplicity is a pure delusion. i. Legons de mfoanique analytique. 630 a demonstration of Hopkins* theorem: see our Art.
TM 5381029420 .
149). Poisson's objection to the application of the Calculus integrals. but obtaining without approximation Fresnel's wavesurface. but amorphic bodies. etc. are their be so small that these two 6) squares may neglected. would replace Green's relations the CauchySaint. 209241 of the same volume) has deduced the OauchySaintVenant conditions for double refraction on the basis of the ellipsoidal distribution without any appeal to . but this distribution SaintVenant has only discussed on the basis of rariconstant equations. 147 and 193. . without applied explain adopting exact transversality of vibration. which immediately pre: cedes the present memoir (pp. refraction (pp.e. pp. and in doublyrefracting media: see our Arts. whose primitive isotropy has been altered by a permanent strain. 142 The conditions by which SaintVenant 7. 266* and 446*. Tome xnr.Venant conditions as we have termed them amount to an ellipsoidal distribution of elasticity (see our Art. 1868. The ellipsoidal conditions are of two kinds (i) : a group of the type 2cZ or.154 SAINTVENANT. Finally there is ground (p. [230 is memoir of 1859: XL It pointed out that if Navier's error of taking (rx r)f (r) instead of f(r) + (rx r)f (r) if the summations be not replaced by and for /(rt ) be avoided. see our Chap. bodies such as the metals. (ii) + d' = Jbc 2d + <Z' = i(*+ a If the differences of the directstretch coefficients (6 c. hypothesis that the ellipsoidal distribution of elasticity holds for aeolotropic.] Formules de I'tflasticite compressions perma/nentes Journal des maihtmatiques. 719) an account of Green's of double : process and an unfavourable criticism of his theory see our Arts. 71923) : [230. groups of conditions are identical this is probably the case in the metals used for construction. 242 254. then of Variations to molecular problems falls to the see our Arts. ondes dans les Mtfmoire sur les Boussinesq in a memoir entitled milieux isotropes d6form6s. which has not converted their elements into crystals. such a permanent strain for instance as would be produced by the proThis ellipsoidal distribution he has cesses of rolling. i. c a. forging. In his memoir of 1863 SaintVenant has shewn on the rariconstant et des corps amorphes que des indgales ont rendus heterotropes. the to phenomena of double refraction.
TM 538102*420 I 37 .
1311 24. They cannot be considered to fall in any way under tbe title of the elasticity or even the strength of It deals with materials. and does not take into consideration the stresses which produce those motions. 203211. 1868. 278282 and LXVIII. . pp.W . these to his memoir of 1863. pendant qu'il s'faoule sous une forte pression par un orifice circulaire . the type of ellipsoidal condition for the second group. = 2 (28+ ') + 2 (e' + ") (2* +?) + : l 2 (2r + or . 130511). 221237. The memoir concludes by noting that to the stressstrain [232. de forme cylindrique. it belongs as Tresca's own theory. and criticises Tresca's pure kinematic theory. identical with the r (lmf . pp. c. Memoirs by SaintVenant treating of the flow of a ductile solid or of a liquid out of a vessel will be found in the Gomptes rendus. if yy< there be an initial stress xx ^ Calcul du mouvement de$ divers points dun bloc [233. or quantities like (e e') Hence the ellipsoidal conditions have been deduced on a hypothesis very probable in character and not opposed to multiconstancy. 1868. LXVI. b.] ductile. Its methods thus those of I' rdsultats de cense de Academy immediately precedes the above memoir (pp. to which it refers. 290301. to the pure kinematics of deformation. 1869. 1317. to JS. as an identity true for all values of further results and the Whence we easily find generally b + c = 2a + (e' ") (I + m) + 2we. 129).156 SAINT.Venant on Tresca's communications to the experience: Gomptes rendus. symmetrical with regard to the SaintTenant appeals for planes of symmetry of the primitive strain.VENA&T. to XX. A report drawn up by Saint. but as we have seen he has really only proved them there for rariconstancy (see our Art. It will be = when we of d + Jbc.] relations (ii) subject to the interconstant relations we must add (i). LXVII. terms of the type : V. This memoir deals only with the motion of the parts of a ductile mass. group type (%d may neglect ) 2 the squares of the differences of a. [232 233 e' 9 This involves. vues sur les moyens d'en les rapprocher approach hydrodynamics rather than of elasticity. pp.
Maintenance Repair Parts Refer to paragraph 212 for tools and equipment. All deficiencies may and shortcomings will be recorded tothe corrective action taken on DA with gether Form 2404 at the earliest possible opportunity. Stop so that defects operation immediately if a deficiency is noted during operation which would damage the equipment if operation were continued. MOVEMENT TO A NEW WORKSITE 44. and Equipment Special tools required to maintain the carrier are listed in Section III of Appendix B. it must be inspected systematically be discovered and corrected before they result in serious damage or failure. Detailed Lubrication Instructions 48. Section 43. Section V. The necessary preventive maintenance checks and services to be performed are listed and described in paragraph 411. Defects discovered during operation of the unit will be noted for future correction. 41 1 . SPECIAL TOOLS. Dismantling for II. REPAIR PARTS. Tools III. General Refer to TM 5381029410 for general lubri Refer to Lubrication Order. Inspecting and Servicing the Equipment Refer to paragraph 21 for instructions* Eefer to TM 5381029410 for installation in structions. 46. The item numbers indicate the sequence of minimum inspection requirements. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS AND SERVICES 410. Installation . Reinstallation after Movement Movement in Refer to paragraph 210 for dismantling instructions* Refer to paragraph 211 for reinstallation structions. 41 . General To insure that the carrier is ready for operation at all times. Special Tools Refer to TM 5381029420P. LUBRICATION INSTRUCTIONS 49. Section IV. AND EQUIPMENT and Equipment 47. to be made as soon as operation has ceased.CHAPTER 4 MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS Section L SERVICE UPON RECEIPT OF MATERIAL 42. Section 45. LO 5881029412. cation information. Preventive Maintenance Checks and I Services See table 41 for a tabulated listing of preventive maintenance checks and services.
Let us take the right sixface abc and divide it up into others of the : same breadth 6. Mathieu's discussion of the potential of the second kind A by means 2 which the equation V 2 V = can be solved. Saint. equals K'cr per unit of volume.158 SAINTVENANT. 6. passed. where resistance to both stretch and squeeze. 1869 and its below on that [236. In order to produce setstretch it is necessary to apply to the faces bo a traction given by Kbc' and to the faces ba a is the coefficient of negative traction given by Kba!. 309 resistance 11. The coefficient of resistance to slide object of this note is to prove the equality between the and the coefficient of resistance to stretch or squeeze. This equation SaintYenant notices the occurs in the treatment of an isotropic solid. 1570*. we require work equal to K . in expended producing this set is If K'ab x or.] Preuve theorique de VigaMU des deux coefficients de au cisaillement et a V extension ou d la compression dans le mouvement continu de deformation des solides ductiles au deld des limites de leur 6lastitit6: Comptes rendus. SaintVenant speaks highly of Cornu's memoir of bearing on the constantcontroversy : see our Articles physicist's work. LXX. it cr x c. Hence to produce a stretch of <r/2 and a squeeze of <r/2 parallel to a' and c' respectively. and supposes the two faces a x b to be subjected to shearing forces in direction of a which produce a elasticity is the work plastic slideset a x c.Venant takes a right sixface of edges a. Now this same slideset could have been produced by diagonal stretch and squeeze of magnitude <j/2 see our Art. 1870. so that the limit of K' be the force necessary per unit of area. form of < A which solves the equations of : elasticity when there is an ellipsoidal distribution of elasticity see our Arts. 1401. pp. c. [236 This note merely refers to E. when both slide and stretch are plastic. but of length a' and height c' making angles of 45 with a and c and having their endfaces a' x c' in the faces axe.
Check for clogged or leaky radiator. ENGINE MISFIRES Step Step Step 1. Replace defective unit (para 424 or 420). Replace hoses (para 436). Check fuel pump. Test batteries. 2. Check carburetor adjustment. Step Step 4. Check spark plugs for fouled plug or cracked porcelain. replace cable (para 453). Check carburetor adjustment. ENGINE IDLES ROUGH Step Step 1. Replace radiator (para 435). If distributor cap is cracked. Adjust points (para 451). Adjust carburetor (para 440). Adjust points (para 451). Check for grounded primary ignition circuit. Repair open ignition switch circuit (para 451). 8. Check ignition point gap for gap too narrow or much too wide. Check water pump.MALFUN 1. Step Step 4. replace cap (para 451). Check for burned or pitted ignition points. 3. ENGINE OVERHEATS Step 1. 3. Clean dirty spark plugs. Replace defective batteries (para 426). Check for loose water pump Vbelt. Check intake manifold for leaks. replace defective plugs (para 453). Clean or replace plugs (para 453). Check for faulty secondary ignition circuit. Check for defective temperature sending unit or engine control panel gage. 5. Adjust Vbelt (para 447). 451) . Step 2. 5. vehicle. . Replace points (fig. Check for incorrect ignition point gap. 2. 6. Repair or replace defective manifold (para 458). Replace defective capacitor (para 451). ENGINE FAILS TO REACH OPERATING TEMPERATURE Step 1. Check for thermostat stuck open or removed from Replace defective thermostat (para 436). Step 3. Replace defective relay (para 450). If insulator on primary lead is cracked. If rotor is cracked or rotor contact arm broken. Adlust carburetor (para 440). 2. Check starter relay. Check for open primary ignition circuit Tighten primary lead at distributor (para 451). replace rotor. 2. Check for collapsed or clogged hoses. replace lead (para 454). Adjust ignition points (para 451). 4. ENGINE CRANKS BUT WILL NOT START Step 1. 5. replace defective points (para 451). Replace defective water pump (para 446). Replace thermostat (para 436). Step Step 2. Step 8. Step 2. Clean dirty ignition points. If cable insulation is broken or cracked. Replace faulty fuel pump (para 441). TEST OE INSPECTION CORRECTIVE ACTIOK ENGINE WILL NOT CRANK Step Step 1. Clean spark plug cable terminals. Check for defective thermostat.
+ ..Venant's memoir. namely strains.. 1621*. Z) t]yZ) y^. .. in linear and quadratic terms of the straincomhypothesis expand of our Art...... 1619*.. (ii) [239. and not <r' = < + XXQ Sx + . is The full value of the potential energy + Q (*a.. 2989)... See Saint...... 1 ff' differs from the cyt of our Art. it being the cosine and not the ya cotangent of the slideangle..yz yz f .160 [238... 4.... 4. 1619*). < (Collected Papers. 1564*.. error in question the volume (see Art. + + .. + 2 H  .. we should had but the hope of arriving at (ii) on the simple of a assumption generalised Hooke's Law.... ^ This apparently requires us also to make some molecular assumption.. '' This was first noticed by Brill: see p. pp. [238239 our first The . Accordingly SaintVenant's attempt to deduce Cauchy's equations from a multiconstant hypothesis is erroneous.. 130). arrive at the equations of Cauchy (as SaintVenant done in his memoir of 1863 by a double selfcorrecting error). sion (ii) has been deduced only from molecular considerations on the rariThe fact is that we can on the multiconstant constant hypothesis. 1622* and 130.Venant's definition of slide in Art...] SAINTVENANT... as Grreen in fact did ponents GB. ...... sx e^ and the shiftfluxions are in their most general 1 form of the types : really indicated in that the true relations was between but that these are not the values taken by SaintVenant in his memoirs of 1847 and 1863: see our Arts. 279 of Saint.] Starting with expression for the potential energy. y.... f as Boussinesq < had pointed out... 4 But the expresas assumed in the memoir of 1863 (see our Art. but we cannot determine to what extent the resulting coefficients are functions of the initial stresscomponents.. ) + 1^oV( 1+ ^)( 1+s*) + .. may note one or two further points in the first part of the memoir we must renounce We : (a) To the second order of small quantities...
suppression is obtained by providing a low resistance path to ground for stray currents.475 ohm resistoi ignition coil and the illustrated in figure 41. 41 5. Check for faulty ground.CORRECTIVE ACTION 16. Replace faulty alternator (para 449) . grounding with bonding straps. Check for worn brake linings.0. Refe] to figure 432 and replace secondary radio sup pression components. LIGHTS FAIL Step 1. Adjust or replace belt (para 447) Check for worn tires Replace badly worn tire . HARD STEERING (VEHICLE MOVING) Check for clogged Clean filter. RADIO INTERFERENCE SUPPRESSION ference suppression 414. INCORRECT ALTERNATOR VOLTAGE Check alternator. Adjust governor (para 490) . Check for defective switch. 17. Repair or replace wiring (para 255) . 20. Replace brake shoes (para 480). POWER STEERING Step 1. Replace faulty pump (para 470) 21. Check for low fluid Add Step 2 fluid (para 470) Check power steering pump. Check compressor. Check for defective wiring. Check governor pressure range setting. Replace switch (para 255) . filter or replace reservoir (para 470). Step Step Step 2. Clean ground terminals IS (f oldout 34) . 18. Interference Suppression Components The primary suppression components are those whose primary function is to suppress radio interference. Replacement of Suppression Components and using capacitors and Refer to figure 41 and replace the radio inter ference suppression resistor and capacitor. INCORRECT AIR BRAKE SYSTEM PRESSURE Step Step 1. HARD STEERING (VEHICLE STANDING Step 1. 22. Replace defective compressor (para 490) . Check for improper brake adjustment. BR 4. 4.KES GRAB OR VEHICLE TENDS TO TURN WHEN BRAKES ARE APPLIED Step 1. On this machine. Check for defective or burned out lamps. The methods used include resistors. 2. Step 2. 3. STILL) Step 2 Check for loose or glazed pump belt. 19. "SPONGY" AND MAKES "GROANING" SOUND level. General Methods Used to Obtain Proper Suppression Essentially. Replace lamps (para 251). (para 487) Section VII. 416. the primary inter . Adjust brakes (para 480). 02 components are the microfarad capacitor mounted on the side of th< 450 . which are spark plug leads and the lead from the distributor to the ignitioi coil. shielding the ignition wires.
... Let us take as a special case that of a bar of [241. + . The following pages 297 304 are concerned with other modes of looking at these results or expressing the stresses in terms of them.etc...162 SAINTVENANT.... functions of denote du /dxQ ...] primitively there being an initial isotropic material subjected to a traction traction r have ... Substituting in Equation (vii) and I*l remembering that 4 {cc or 2 l2/ ^l or W or^ = ^ Sm z : 7.. and the initial stresses. express w^ S ^ in terms of the old !^I . J Further. These results are obviously only a more general case of the formulae of our Art..... \= s* = %/4. y and since the stresses are given . if *VI = A = /A.. 616*. 1S we can the new coefficients . )' Po + * l + o oQ ^ y if we suppress squares and products. We ^ S XQ = ^o/^o. [241 .3 ^ v yo 1? y() o ^ + o) +4 2 1^ +  + W^) + ) W^ + 2 f? yo 3 Here % .. then l^l ft =3A and E r  .% ..^^ r cw" j r J[ 1 (.. or 2/Vo or we l**l obtain the typical results = I^ (1 .... #*.
and miscellaneous items. Refer to figure 42 place a damaged or faulty component control panel. until the cause o ference is found and corrected. Capacitor. sending units. The electrical carrier has a 24volt.29420 '41 Figure 41 Radio interference suppression resistor and capacitor. 419. lights. 6. gages and lamps. b. MAINTENANCE OF CARRIER CAB ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 41 8. Go a This section contains instructions for main tenance of the carrier cab wiring harness. If test equipmen available and interference is indicated. Figure 42 illustrates the control gages and instruments availabh 5381029410 f< operator. ME 3&10. Refer to figure 34 for the schematic wiring diagram. 421 Slave Cable Receptacles and Cabl< Refer to paragraph 252 for slave recepte slave cable replacement and repair. Test the capacitor for le: shorts on a capacitor tester. isc cause of interference by the trialanderrc od of replacing the capacitor or interfere] pression lead. Isolation of Fault. ohmmeter i The approximate ance of ignition leads should be in the area of 2000 ohms per inch of length. If an able. Replacement. c. WARNING Always disconnect battery cables be CAUTION Always disconnect battery cables fore working on the control panel. b. horn. Section VIII.TM 5381029420 417. batteries. test for continuity. engine control panel switches. negativeground. removal and replacement. 46 . Ignition Leads. system. General AND MISCELLANEOUS and Lamps a. Engine Control Panel Switches. General. fore working on electrical components. Wiring Harness Refer to paragraph 250 for wiring harness repair. ITEMS 420. . any lead which tests substantially differe other leads. Replace defec pacitor. Refer to TM scription and function of each. Testing of Radio Interference Supp Components a. in turn.
pp. 250 63 of Tome This xvin. but they it well to treat as lying outside our field.) and hopes some mathematician will proceed further. T. see our bodystress equations of plasticity in three dimensions Art. I'dquilibre des et ses applications au calcul de la stabiliU des murs de soutenement de Liouville T. Ldvy had started from Cauchy's stresstheorems (see our Arts. . 7514 and 8947. which occupies the following pp. xvm. 71724. In a footnote he moir. SaintVenant for report. LXX. The Rapport speaks well of Levy's memoir as : advancing the new branch of mechanics. 1873. pp. SaintVenant then reconsidered the whole matter in a second me 80. pp. XV. sans le prdconiser comme le meilleur. [244. le terme <FhydTostfr4odynamiyue" This branch of research has been called later plasticodynamics. The history of the of loose earth. 1870. 237 to 28. Lxxm. LXX. approximation Levy's equation (pp. of the Journal. 1870. 267 70 of Tome xv. T. who proceeded to a second approximation to a first in a memoir occupying pp. 1857.] Sur la mecanique des corps ductiles : Comptes rendus. masses of the stability namely memoirs in question may be briefly referred to. Maurice L^vy in to the Academy a memoir entitled Essai sur 1867 had which I have thought presented : une tMorie rationnelle de terres frafchement remudes. of the Journal. Venant and Boussinesq appear also in the Gomptes rendus. 606* and 610*). a better word. 927) which had contained most of Levy's results. was done by Boussinesq. pp.] 21728. Rapport sur un mtfmoire de Maurice Lfoy: Gomptes 1871. T. 271 The memoirs of Saintrecognises Kankine's priority of research. and arrived at SaintVenant in his first note solves certain general equations. of the Journal de Liouwlle.SAINTTENANT. [243. 217 49. there refer are two articles hy SaintVenant. 8691. and we shall refer to it simply as plasticity. This is a report by SaintVenant and others on Levy's memoir establishing the general rendus. In [242244 to a matter [242. pp. pp. 241 (published in the Journal This memoir had been referred to a committee including 300). 250. report appeared in the Gomptes and was reprinted in Vol. The rendus. Trans.1 Tome xv. 1870. "pour laquelle Fun de nous a hasardd. Lvy as well as the committee of Bankine's memoir: On the have been ignorant appear Stability of Loose Earth (Phil.
TM 53 8 10294! .
Again. v ' The change of sign is due to change from pressure to To this we must add the equation of continuity : traction.] Now Tresca has demonstrated that.] the history of the theory of plasticity. ^ ' The four equations given by (i) and (ii) represent the relation between the flow (velocitycomponents u. is problem essentially It is pointed out that the mechanical as well as kinematical and involves a consideration of stress as well as of mere continuity.166 SAINTVENANT. [246 247 The first paper begins with an interesting account of [246.. w) of the material and the stresscomTlie material in the plastic state is treated as incompressible. [247.Venant himself to obtain solutions by means of pure kinematics. (iii) and (iv) should give . It refers to Tresca's memoirs and to the attempts of Tresca and Saint.. Hence to obtain the plasticodynamic equations we must express the fact that the maximum shear across any face =K (iii). ponents. if a material is in the plastic stage.+=p r (X5WJ0 dt dx dz \ j dy dy du\ W~jdzj } (l). This forms then our last condition : maximum shear and maximum slide ) . which he has ascertained experimentally for a This constant resistance to maximum slide variety of materials. dw A du dv =Q + r+r dx dy ~T dz .. Tresca has demonstrated that the direction of the maximum shear is also that of the maximum velocity of slide. replaced by others involving inequality Thus the wellknown type of hydrodynamic equation : du du du du dp = f /. the maximum shear across any face must have a constant value K.. (n).Ujvr~w at dx dx \ dy becomes the plasticodynamic type : dw 7 dx du du dw dw = fV du +T. with conditions the complete plasticodynamic equations. v.. In the first place the ordinary equations of fluidmotion must be of pressure in different directions. we shall term in future the plastic modulus. ^ '' velocity are codirectional j Equations (i) and (ii).r P(j.
operator's seat. 8. body sheet metal. Operators Seat a. WHEEL NUT WHEEL TURN SIGNAL HOUSING 4. Window Glass 430. 429. 6. METAL TAPPING SCREW BASE PLATE ASSEMBLY 10. Installation. removal and replacement. and fenders. HORN CONTACT ROLLER ASSEMBLY ME 381029420/47 Figure 47. General This section contains instructions for removal and replacement of the window glass. EMBLEM PLATE HORN BUTTON CONTACT CUP SPRING 7. 2. ft. 5. Refer to figure 49 and remove or instal Removal. Refer to figure. Horn button. Cab Sheet Metal and Fenders Refer to paragraph 262 for glass removal and installation instructions. 427. 41 . Refer to figure 49 and remove and replao any damaged cab sheet metal. Section IX. MAINTENANCE OF CAB AND ACCESSORY ITEMS the capscrews. a. 6. 3. lockwashers. 9. Refer to figure 48 and instal the seat as shown. 4#8. and nuts and re move the seat. 48 and remove the fenders. .TM 548102*44 8 1.
Maurice In the second paper to which we have referred in our L^vy establishes two sets of results. les unes variables avec les vitesses u. In a final : paragraph (p. The condition (ix). In the first place he obtains the general equations of plasticity . la viscosity dont representerait alors le coefficient specifique. [249250 cases.. w.168 [249. : c'est que si. (vz + y).. would not be however. ainsi complies. s'etendront au cas oii les vitesses avec lesquelles leur deformation s'opere. et pourraient enrite". 3.. et mesure"es par les produits de c et de leurs d&ivees... (ii).] SAINT. e (uy + vx )..VENANT.] Art. w. gendrer ces resistances parfciculilres. v. a exprimer les mouvements rgguliers (c'est^dire pas assez prompts pour devenir tournoyants et tumultueux) des fluides visqueux.Venant remarks that even these equations will be difficult to solve for any except the simplest He suggests. Les m&mes Equations. ou les m&nes quelle que soit la lenteur du mouvement. aussi. 316) to the first paper Saint.. comme on sait..Venant remarks Je ferai settlement une derniere remarque 9 ... and (x) are the requisite equations. xx . where q and ^ The condition vz (iv) becomes ~~ +w ~ y wx + uz (ix) uy + _ ~ vx 2 (vv  wz _ = ) 2(wa" Thus (i). We them. . avec tous ces termes. aux six composantes de pressions cidessus.. Saint. sans tre considerables. ordinairement ngligeables. 245. that those for a cylindrical plastic flow difficult to obtain. ne seraient plus excessivement petites.. becomes : 4 (K* + q) (4^ + ^ + 27^ = . but refer to our later memoir for remarks on his method of obtaining The general equations (iii) (i) and (ii) hold for this case. seraient propres. repr&entant. oii il doit y avoir des composantes tangentielles de deux sortes.. les autres ind^pendantes de ces grandeurs des vitesses. cite discussion of Levy's the general equations here... 2W w les Equations des solides plastiques.. ce qui vient du frottement dynamique dft aux vitesses de glissement relatif dans les fluides non visqueux se mouvant avec r^gula: . 1'on ajoute respectivement 2ew a 2Vy les termes g (wx + u^)... K [250... .. in the next he considers the special case of a cylindrical plastic flow. et attribuables d.. dont oa a parie au "No.
12. rear Cab Weatherstripping 13. 9. 22. Carrier edb assembly. Battery 29. 19. 35. 32. 3. 14. 27. Headlamp door Mirror stand 28. 6. 18. Window Capscrew 23. 3 81 02 9520 '49 Window. Reflector 24. Access cover 33. 17. 21. Nut Capscrew Capacrew box Cover Capserew Lockwasher mounting bracket Capscrew Rear fender 26. 11. Seat 34. 4. 36. Window Capscrew Dooi assembly Vent door Weatherstripping 16. 5. 2. 15. 10. 7. . 20. Window Vent door Capscrew Running and blackout Mirror mounting base Gapscrew Platform Platform skirt lights 31. 30.TM 538102942 35 19 ME 1. Ladder bracket Park and directional lamp Headlight 25. Capacrew Figure 49. exploded view. 8.
(xviii).. d'activitf).] of radius r subjected to torsion till plasticity right circular cylinder be the commences in the outer zone from rQ to r. %..g..**.. where n traction '2nd. merely referring to their elastic condition will be e The type of surface cos (rae) + we cos (rvy) + ^ cos (n*) =T e cos (fe) . . material changes from plasticity to elasticity. On pp. (xix).) cos (we) + (we *?p) cos (ny) + (?  p) cos (ns) = 0.. or ~.. < M TlVr jur' 2 5. at which the Equations which must hold at the surface These are of the type : (St . /x the slidemodulus and r the torsional angle : M while at the surface of elasticity and plasticity fJLTTQ we must have = K.... the exposed to a traction suffix e character. He easily finds if torsional couple...SAINTVENANT. 378 380. A The conditions break up into three classes : Those which relate to the surface of the material at points 1st. Let such a surface be Te and let the elastic stresses be wce .. is the direction of the surfacenormal and I that of the applied T& The material is in a plastic stage at the bounding surface.... Tp the type of equation. other portions may a to return condition jet of metal (e.K.. if ff . + #Jp cos (ny) + Sp cos (nz) = Tp cos (to) .. Tresca the zdne is alone by matter plastic (called the block of after passing or remain elastic. SaintTenant treats the special case of a [255. rr we have : .. In the equations (xvii) (xix) the elastic stresses and plastic stresses must be obtained from the general equations of elasticity and of plasticity respectively. which have retained or resumed their elasticity.. elasticity through a plastic an after passing orifice). is : a*p cos (nx) 3rd. There will be no plasticity then so long as r< If T be greater than this jK . (xvii). p denote the plastic traction: the being S w stresses.. . [255 certain portion of These conditions are of various kinds.
415 . removal (sheet 1 of 2) aaid replacement. Windshield wiper motor.TM 53810~294~2< I Figure 411.
.. then these tractions will be the principal tractions at any point of the material... (ii)....... . SaintVenant treats two special cases...... [260. and a third by approximation.. [259261 tells The general principle... : Of this SamtVenant remarks ^ soit et C'est dans ce sens qu'il faut entendre... is accompanied by an equal increment of transverse traction... that is to say the transverse or radial tractions which we will denote by rr are all equal and the longitudinal tractions are greater than them. and its faces be subjected to uniform tractions ##..... gale & sa resistance au cisaillement (p.] The first is that of a right sixface of ductile metal. This is Tresca's principle that in plastic solids pressure transmits itself as in fluids..172 [259. or.. If the axes of coordinates be taken parallel to its edges.... **.] SAINTVENANT............ for which yy'zz without being equal to K.... est constante.. & 1'allongement.. yy=zz=K.. although he proves principle of work.... gives us vox (iil)....... yy... 1010).... If the radial tractions are greater than the longitudinal 'rr we have : = 2J5T + SMC .. que la resistance. It follows by Hopkins' theorem that at each point the greatest difference between the tractions across different faces ought to equal 2J5T: see our Art... avec M... and it will be ~ zz be the greatest difference that necessary if Se : S~S=2JT. have then for the condition of ^ M We plasticity: . of plastic deformation is that the greatest shear at each in Tresca's point shall be equal to a specific constant (denoted by K memoir of 1869)... Either equation (ii) or (iii) by variation = Srr.. Tresca.. any increment of longitudinal... (i). will devote the following three articles to their We discussion... soit & Paccourcissement du solide plastique... This condition is fulfilled if ^= Or if xx=z Jy = "zz= K..... it by the The second case dealt with by SaintVenant is that of [261.] a hollow right circular cylinder placed between two rigid fixed .. An extension of this case is that of a cylinder on any base. 1368*.... SaintVenant us in Ms first memoir.
inspection. loosen the hose HOUSING :lamps and remove the three radiator hoses. lood sheet metal. (1) Refer to figure 412 using a suitable iftmg device. 'efer to figure 412 and remove mounting nuts. and the lower shock mount material. install the radiator. (3) Install the windshield washer fluid con(2) >ainer and hoses. Replace faulty hoses or gaskets. and install the (6) Refill the cooling system. 436. Connect the radiator hoses. Radiator removal and replacement. Inspect the connections to the radiator and thermostat housings for leaks. Radiator Installation.TM 53810294*20 (5) Refer to figure 451 alcohol evaporator. 417 . There are two thermostats and two housings furnished on this engine. Refer to figure 410 and install (4) the Figure 41S. and remove the radiator. Thermostat housings. and the thermostat housing gasket for leaks. When the engine has been run for a period of tame long enough to insure that it is warmed up to normal operating temperature. as shown on the gages on the operator's control panel. (5) With the radiator adequately braced. b. check oil and water temperatures. and one is located in each cylinder bank. one of the possible causes of the trouble may be the thermostats. Thermostat and Housing a. the two radiitor braces. . as shown in figure 413. If water or oil temperatures show too high or too low. General. Removal.ake out all slack. d. shock mounts. test. Refer to figure 412 for the location of the drain cock. c. and jtud spacers. THERMOSTAT Refer to figure 412. Drain the coolant below the level of the thermostat housings. and replacement procedures apply equally to each thermostat. Then remove the thermostats and housings as follows: ME 381029420/412 Figure 41 (4) . Inspection. ockwashers. The thermostats are of the bypass type. Removal. Attach a suitable lifting device. removal and replacement. plain washers.
Sur un complement d donner a une des equations presentees par M. but as the fibres there will not be rupture. 263 we make r = JR. . elastic. to determine the pressure which will produce this Tresca had obtained a solution of this problem on effect. RJ is supposed to rest on right a rigid envelope. SaintVenant's results are not in accordance with Tresca's. Lvy pour les mouvements plastiques qui sont sym&riques autour dun mdme axe: Comptes rendus. remain ' SaintVenant refers to the wellknown experiment of Easton and Amos see our Art.174 If or. the annular fibres' near to the inside face can very well acquire stretches exceeding the limit of elasticity and even that of cohesion for isolated straight in the neighbourhood of the external face fibres. :  plastic In a footnote pp. 1015 1017. to 311 * < or > jR 2 . T. [262. SaintVenant deals the following case: the outer surface of a approximately with hollow circular cylinder (radii jR. pp. and that lines parallel to the axis preserve their parallelism. 1474*. SaintVenant gives a solution involving only the acceptance of Tresca's second hypothat the upper base of the cylinder and all the thesis namely : planesections parallel to it remain plane and perpendicular to the axis of the block. This breaks up the solution into two parts corresponding to z and the case itself into two subcases corresponding 3r* < or > R . 1083 7. The general equations of plasticity are indeed too complex to offer much hope of an exact solution for this case. we have rr = If the pressure applied p l has a less value than this. which cannot be considered as entirely satisfactory. but increases pressure which diminishes the height (K). It is obvious that this hypothesis is but SaintVenant's investigation is an interesting one. [263.] two hypotheses. [262 p. given by the same pair for all values of the radial distance. SAINTVEffANT. the internal surface is then subjected to great the thickness (JS JRJ. as it deals with one of those cases.] 1872. In the last Section 5 of the Note SaintVenant refers to Tresca's somewhat unsatisfactory proof of the formula (ix). LXXIV. nor sensible deformation. in which the maximum difference of the principal tractions is not only approximately true .
see that ignition timing is correct and that breaker Figure 415. throttle plate. (3) Set engine idle speed at approximately 850to 400rpm using throttle stop screw. (3) Refer to figure 418 and connect choke and throttle linkage and the governor air and vacuum lines. vacuum operated. See paragraph sure spark properly plugs are gapped 'as instructed in paragraph 472. It also A ias a power enrichment system which automatic Jly 'f comes into effect whenever an added amount needed for full power operation. countthe turns. ilies drop. It differs from ther carburetors in that is has two additional to drop. figure 418. c. (1) Refer to figure 418. Before returning engine to service. (5) Turn the same idle adjusting screw in the opposite (counterclockwise) direction. (4) Connect air cleaner tubing to carburetor. idle adjusting screw to the midway throttle operated accelerator pump supadded fuel for engine acceleration. Removal. The arburetor is similar to the dualconcentric type arburetor in that it has two primary barrels each f which contain a venturi. (2) Replacement. Each adjusting screw should be turned the same amount. removal and replacement. and lockwashers (4) Remove the nuts which secure the carburetor to the Intake manifold and remove the carburetor as an assembly. (1) Place the carburetor on the intake mani fold and secure with nuts and lockwashers. (4) Turn one of the two idle adjusting screws in (clockwise) until engine speed begins General. a vacuum gauge may be used to obtain the highest possible steady vacuum uretor 'and b. See that all carburetor flange bolts are secure and that there are no leaks at gaskets. If available. Therefore. Throttle plates in he secondary barrel are vacuum operated. Installation. (2) Run the engine until it reaches normal point gap 464 . Adjustment. it may be necessary to repeat the above procedure to ohtain best results. Carburetor operating temperature. governor lines to the carburetor.TM 5381029420 and (2) Disconnect the choke. until engine speed again begins to ing T secondary barrels which operate only during periods of heavy engine loads. The carburetor is a fourbarrel oncentric downdraft type unit. and choke date. and properly adjusted. ine ine. (8) Refer to figure 418 and place the accelerating pump link in the hole most distant from the throttle shaft for cold weather oper ation. ad just carburetor as described below. (2) Remove fuel line plug installed when carburetor was removed and connect fuel line to carburetor. 419 . fig ure 418. idle passages. a. remove the fuel to the carburetor and immediately plug the reading. throttle. (1) Before is adjusting the carburetor. Be i40. Use the hole nearest the throttle shaft for warm weather operation. (6) Return the point. (5) d. Refer to figure 417 eplace any damaged items. (3) Disconnect and remove air intake tubing to the carburetor. main fuel discharge lozz'le. Engine air cleaner. The overnor assembly used is Integra] with the carfuel is is also (7) Repeat the process with the second idle adjusting screw.
LXXXI. however. 335 separately Sur les diverses ondes Ivmineuses. in the same year. 380 as 1). 1108*. considers that his theory : 7 and d unite". It speaks favourably of the memoir. me*rite d'etre enseigne*e de preference (pp. [265266 manures de presenter la tkforie des e Awnales de Ohimie et de Physique. was also This memoir 381.176 [265. Lefort prdsent le 2 This report is by Tresca. 341. (Footnote. of light. it cannot be held as sufficient till we understand the reasons why and how the molecular shifts are and their space and time fluxions. 1863 (see our Art. 4 s&ie. 1875. Resal and SaintVenant (rapporteur) and will be found in the Comptes rendus. Briot. 146 7) SaintVenant holds that the by Green for conditions presented exact parallelism and those suggested by isotropy. 146 and 193. that convenient Boussinesq's hypotheses may be as a grouping together of analytical results under one primitive formula. sur les errements des deux illustres auteurs de tant d'autres travaux plus dignes d'eux. de probability et je qui oflre & la fois plus de simplicity crois aussi. xxv. and are able to deduce the form of these functions from some more definite physical hypothesis. which deals pp. and Sarrau in this field and points out the defects in the various theories which they have propounded. de rigueur que les autres (quel que soit le remarquable talent avec lequel ont e"te pre"sente"s ces autres essais. 920*. T. 1872.) Rapport sur un Memoire de M. pp. See our Arts. method of obtaining from a Finally he deals with Boussinesq's differential equations which the of special equation general type fulfil the conditions necessary for explaining the various phenomena SaintVenant praises highly Boussinesq's hypothesis. 459 [266. qui ont toujours avance les questions). homines de talent ne s'egarent plus. T. en pareille matiere. I must remark.] aotit 1875. functions of the ethershifts 1 memoir of As in the 2 treat of the early history of elasticity. Lamd for double refraction are only consistent with Aussi Lame* et Green ne sont pas compris dans 1'analyse que je fais II importe que des des recherches de divers auteurs sur la lumiere. with the problem of finding the bending moment at the several .] SAINTVENANT. SaintVenant researches of Cauchy. p. 464. published by GauthierVillars The contents belong essentially to the history of the undulatory considers at considerable length the theory of light.
(5) Kinked or clogged lines fuel flow. fittings. electrical The pump must be provided with a good ground. which restrict Figure 418. 6. thus permitting fuel to enter the bore of the cylinder for the next cycle. turns the plunger to the top of the cylinder at a fixed rate to provide the required fuel pres pump During the upward movement of the plunger. A pulsation dampener in the top of the provides steady operation and even pressure in the output line. Service filter must be limited to the fuel element area since the electrical portion is 421 . and replacement. Test If the carburetor floods at engine idling speed or if flooding occurs with the ignition switch turned on and the engine running. which starts when the plunger reaches a predetermined point in the tube. While the ignition is on. the check valve in the plunger is held closed by pressure above the valve. and fuel is forced into the fuel system. removal. electrical (3) Loose connections anywhere in the circuit. c. The fallowing could also adversely affect pump operation: (1) Poor ground connection. Carburetor adjustment. even after the carbu retor float needle valve closes. (2) Poor batterytoground connection. Fuel Knee and replacement and repair. Service. However. (4) Air leaks in lines or at fittings. the pump continues to operate in order to maintain constant pressure. examine the engine carburetor float NOT needle valve and seat for wear or foreign matter on the valve or seat. The pump mounting bracket serves as the ground connection. The pump also incorporates a pressure relief system to assure an immediate return to zero fuel pressure when the (3) ignition is turned off. tained in the lower portion of the pump and consists of a filter element and a magnet. The pump contains a special radio suppression capacitor to prevent radio fre quency interference. the check sure. The filter system is con valve in the bottom of the cylinder bore is open.TM 5381Q2942C SENDER LINE ME 3810.29420/417 Figure 417.
Let us find the mean value vm of v from * = to 2w/a . character. and any force greater than this. we have where/' : as a first approximation . for v and tf = 0. SaintVenant states that these conclusions will still hold. Op. The thermal effect would thus depend on the derivatives of the second order of the function f(r\ If there should be a point of inflexion in the curve which the law of intermolecular action out to distance. will produce It corresponds to a distance rupture. if the two molecules be replaced by a system. we should have a Venant suggests the form of the figure below for the curve y=f( r)'> OD being the distance and Oy the force axis. and will be positive if /" (r ) is positive. (l v _ Co S *). which is generally regarded as a measure of the absolute temperature.178 SAINTTENANT. (rQ)/m = .a2 For a second approximation =1 as sin at + Ba4 }. as occurs in certain Saintexceptional substances. Great thermal vibrations which impose such a velocity . p marks the maximum attractive force between the M molecules. [268 If dv/dt = v . v = sin at. OD we have the infinitely great force and are asymptotic in infinitely small infinitely small and infinitely great distances respectively well marked. we have : Hence the stretch due to the thermal vibration r ~ 2 t 2r {/(*o)} 2 ' Thus we see that the stretch is proportional to the kinetic energy mv */2. force at if the axes Oy.. represents plotted case in which increase of temperature reduced the volume. if maintained. which defines that of rupture. Here Ok = rQ marks the point at which the action changes from repulsion to attraction. where ! ' ' m .
11 Pin 12. Nut Lockwasrher 17. and repair. Capscrew Lockwasher 8. Throttle cable 24. Rod Rod Bracket Spring Spring clip Trunnion 22. Removal. Throttle Figure 4tO. 18. 13. 3. 16. General and Pipes Replacement This section contains maintenance instructions for the exhaust pipes and muffler (fig. Washer Nut Nut knob Washer 23. 9. 2. Accelerator and throttle control. accelerator 10. Crank arm 19. Refer to figure 421 and remov exhaust pipes and muffler. 6. 20. 21. MAINTENANCE OF EXHAUST SYSTEM 444. 42 . Section XII. Installation. 25.TM 538102942 ME 381029420/420 1. 443. 5. 4. Muffler a. 421) as allocated by the maintenance allocation chart. removal. Nut Clamp 26. b. Rod Nut with lockwasher Washer Pedal. replacement. Refer to figure 421 and in stall exhaust pipes and muffler. 14. Cotter pin 7 Ball joint 15.
8992. Sur la plus grande des composantes tangentielles de [270. de la Me"canique Or cette loi blame"e. Navier.T ) cos /3 cos% 4. mais dans le Scholie general de sa aon moins immortelle Optique. [270 de Boscovich. pp. n'est point une erreur . et sur la direction des Comptes rendus. oeuvre aussi par Laplace. Et ils attribuent ainsi au celebre rSciproquement les unes Verreur grave ou sont tombed. y with the directions of the principle tractions T^ 2 T T z> B : = (2. sont conforrnes aux resultats bien discute*s et interpreted d'expgriences faites sur ces metaux (Appendice v. . mais la loi mime.Venant notices that given by Kleitz in 1866. but that Newton treated intermolecular force as central. /3. des Lemons de Wavier: see our Art.(T8 . rcemment dues a M. SaintVenant finally considers need the results of some then recent experiments.180 SAINTYENANT. tels que le fer et le cuivre. T. Cornu (p. 1225). n'est autre que celle de Newton luim&oie.. s 2 9 s value of ^ =  (difference of greatest and least principal He had then of rupture. which point rather to rupture in the direction of maximum stretch. comme on le voit non seulement dans son grand et principal ouvrage. et prise par Coriolis et Poncelet pour base de la M6canique physique. by L<3vy in 1870. determines.T2 ) cos maximum tractions). cette loi qui a e*te" mise en molSculaire ou interne. experiences au nombre desquelles il y en a de fort concluantes. . etc. proceeded to apply these formulae to the conditions these results had been Saint. faces de ses ruptures. face Potier had given the following formulae for the shear across a whose normal r makes angles a. The note then points out that rupture in the direction of maximum shear is hardly confirmed by experiments. and by himself in 1864 He might also have added by Hopkins in 1847. suivant eux. Poisson et religieux nos autres savants. il y a un demisiecle. 1878. pour mieux dire. but remarks on the for further research in this direction. is recalled to a point which deserves to be mind : see our Art. 2 a cos /3 + (T .TJ cosV cos a. la loi physique ge"ne*rale des actions fonctions des distances mutuelles des particules qui les exercent sur les autres. et les formules I/usage fait de cette grande loi d'elasticitS & coefficients re"duits ou. ou elle conduit pour les corps re*ellement solides. LXXXVII. 26*.] tension inttfrieure en chaque point d'un solide. createurs. non pas son ide*e capitale de reduction des atomes & des centres d'action de forces. 195). That Boscovich deprived an atom of its extension.
in are removed. the radiator must belts pump idler. and and require no ings are lubricated at assembly 447. they must be adjusted as shown General. Fan. and install the (7) Refer to paragraph 435 from the crankshaft pulley. pulley.29420/422 Figure 4*. is gine The belt arrangement for this enshown in figure 422. water two install the fan (6) Refer to figure 422 and on the water pump hub. belts over the (5) Install the water pump adfan pulley and water pump idler pulley and in figure 424. removal and replacement. a. idler bear6. The water pump. removed as described in paragraph 435. Pulley. Engine belt and pulley arrangement. Refer just belt tension as shown to figure 424 and install and adjust alternator belts.TM 5381029420 BELT TENSION ADJUSTING SCREW ALTERNATOR DRIVE PULLEY COMPRESSOR DRIVE PULLEY FAN FAN PULLEY WATER PUMP IDLER PULLEY LOCKWASHER CAPSCREW (6) (6) STEERING PUMP PULLEY / CRANKSHAFT DRIVEN PULLEY WATER PUMP AND FAN BELT (2) ME 3810. Therefore. to remove the water pump pulley be which the fan is mounted. Two addithe altertional belts from the fan pulley drive for nator and air compressor. Service. If any belts c. Belt Removal and Replacement. All pump. service consists of belts and periodic inspection and replacement belt tension adjustments as required. on any reason. 425 . and fan pulleys are driven by radiator. qnd Belts of further lubrication. If it is necessary.
. 281 of his memoir in the Journal de Liouville. According to his theory then thermal effect is entirely due to the second derivatives of the intermolecular action expressed as a we annul in fact The point is obviously imon the rariconstant Do the bearing hypothesis.182 SAINTVENANT.. the pressure upon the envelope of the vibrating elementary mass. dans la vue de rendre compte math6matiquement des pressions exercees sur ces parois. portant in its . pp. f" (r). because it is easy to see that the new terms of the second degree due to the first derivatives /' (r) will add to the second derivatives in p. etc. all dilatation and all all stress due to increase of temperature thermodynamics. we calculate the stresses by means of the linear terms only for the shifts. que des savants distingue"s de nos jours ont invented ou revivifies. there is no question here of To find the reaction on either molecule we have to substitute this value of v in/ (r + v) and we obtain As /(r + *)=/(r ) + ^* sW* + ^f 2sinV* + . 127). 305 this point On he refers to a footnote on SaintVenant concludes therefore that when on the rariconstant hypothesis. n'estelle pas propre ici. and to one by 61.] whether we can extend the results here found for two or three molecules to a multitude of molecules. 717. 1863 (see our Art. yes.. (iii).? (p..wa' /2).) SaintTenant in his fourth paragraph (p. 717) asks [274. the other two molecules are fixed. 1873. vary with as would be the case if the "strength of the the temperature " intermolecular reaction were to vary with the oriorgy of pulsafunction of intermolecular distance.. would be SaintVenant remarks that as/ (r ) is obviously negative (= . avec mise en compte. ces chocs brusques des molecules des gaz contre les parois de leurs recipients.. avec avantage. comme il est fait des d&rivtes du second ordre/" (r) des actions. we have only to suppose /" (r ) negative in order that this may connote an increase of pressure due to the vibration. a remplacer. He replies. we destroy . Boussinesq in the same Journal... Eeferring to the value of the pressure as given by Eqn. [274 dilatation. the law of intermolecular reaction. constants of /(r). Thus the mean value of p. (iv) he suggests in a footnote 2 : Cette sorte de consideration. avec reflexions multiples et repe~te"es.
Motor and sole noid testing is identical to the test described in paragraph 289. b. Alternator testing is show correct location. The distributor contains a centrifugal advance feature. Refer to paragraph 288. Starting Assembly a. wait for at least one minute before engine front cover and secured with a holddown bolt and washer. The system consists of two 12volt batteries. the starting motor. c. Remove all electrical leads to the alternator as shown. It engages the engine flywheel ring gear and is used to crank the engine until it starts. identical to the procedure for the crane alternator. If this does not start the engine. MAINTENANCE OF CARRIER ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 448. 449. The starting motor is designed for high torque. Tag all leads to the alternator. The primary function of the distributor is to open and close the 427 . negative ground elecRefer to figure 84 for the schematic diagram. Starting Motor Solenoid Replacement Re Alternator Removal and Replacement. and remove the alternator mounting bolts. CAUTION Never crank the engine for more than 30 consecutive seconds with the starting motor. d. 451. WARNING Always disconnect battery cables before working on electrical components. and other trical system. Starting Motor Replacement. which consists of a spinner valve positioned by the distributor shaft. nuts. Refer to figure 425 and loosen alternator drive belts by loosening adjusting lockscrew. Figure 4tS. The carrier engine reverse polarity relay is mounted on the cab side is 450. Refer to paragraph 289 and test and repanel. the starting motor automatically disen The methods of testing and replacing the relay are identical to the crane reverse polarity relay. General. Note that the alternator belts also drive the air compressor and that the air compressor belt tension is being adjusted at the c. When the engine starts. Refer to figure 426 and remove and replace the starting motor. plus a governor. short use applications. Alternator Testing. e. Refer to figure 425 and replace the alternator. Motor and Solenoid Test.TM 538102P420 Section XIV. The spinner valve governor mechair to a anism supplies diaphragm unit attached to the carburetor throttle body. removal and replacement. Alternator. and lockwashers. an alternator with an internal voltage regulator. thus controlling trying again. Belt Adjustment. Alternator a. b. The alternator is the same as is used on the crane. Refer to figure 287 and replace the starting motor solenoid. Reverse Polarity Relay. engine speed. The centrifugal advance mechanism consists of two identical weights. which are opposed by spring force. same time. placement of the carrier starting motor solenoid the same as replacement of the crane starting motor solenoid. General. Refer to figure 424 and adjust the alternator belt tension. Remove alternator. General 24volt. The carrier has a components as shown in the schematic diagram. d. place the carrier reverse polarity relay. The distributor is mounted on the engages. General. Distributor a. Support remove the adjusting lockscrew. Refer to paragraph 288 and test the alternator.
In this case it changes its sign. 814). There see our L. the mean distance between two contiguous molef a centimetre while cules of a solid is less than the irnnriinRni hypothesis. If multiconstancy be experimentally demonstrated. [276 what results must flow from applying the principles of dynamics to atoms and throwing back the origin of those principles on some There is much that would induce us still more simple entity. then If the law of intermolecular action is we should expect to find that inter commensurable with molecular dimensions. Part II. not impossible to understand how one could begin and the other cease to be of importance at such small Resistance alike to positive and relative distances as 5 to 1. further the capacity of the molecule itself to . but these. (Hypothesis of Modified Action : most deserve the as probable. (see It is difficult to understand under these circumstances how aspect could be of influence. A at least early investigation.. for it is difficult. according to Babinet. the more recent researches of Sir the diameter of a gaseous molecule is greater than goooUooo ^ a Thus intercentimetre (Natural Philosophy. although. then we must suppose either (i) the law of intermolecular action is a function of aspect. less than five times molecular would seem probable that the law of action between pa. it would be sufficient to treat each molecule molecular distance is : as a mere point or centre of to action.184 SAINTVENANT. perhaps. According to Ampere and Becquerel the former is immensely are in the greater than the latter. which is practically Boscovich's According William Thomson.rts of two molecules must be the same as the law of action between parts of the same molecule. spectrum of elementary gas at small that an atom has an indetoo not and temperature) high pressure that we should try pendent motion of its parts. material body. who deals with a molecule as an extended. or (ii) the action of the element upon another of B is not independent of the configuration surrounding elements Vol.g. p. and this suggests the effect of applying the principles of dynamics not only to the action of one atom upon another. bright line an atom's parts. 502). may be other possibilities. p. they of SaintTenant's 1 13 of 1800 ratio at least memoir). the that mean intermolecular distance shews traction negative cannot differ much from that at which intermolecular action molecular distance would be dimensions. a function of aspect. but also to the mutual action of to believe (e.
turn or one cam lobe in the opposite direction may mark previously placed on the distributor housing to locate the of distributor rotation past the rotor. (3) While holding the distributor cap in approximately the correct position. but 'the rotor should line up with the no. rotate the distributor rotor so that the rotor tip will point in the direction of the No. 8. Figure 48. If the distributor cap (7) Start the engine and set the timing as instructed in e below. 6. holddown alines with the slot in the distributor cap. 1 terminal on the distributor cap indicated by a dab of paint on the cap. 5. bolt and lockwasher. NOTE Do not tighten at this time. 4 and spark plug cables must be assembled ir the distributor cap in this order in a counter clockwise rotation. bolt. it will usually result in a broken rotor when attempting to start the engine. the same location as when it was removed. Make certain that the distributor cap is properly located on the distributor housing an<i that both spring clips are in place. then rotate the engine and hold thumb or forefinger over tiie spark plug hole until you feel pressure. NOTE be necessary to move the rotor slightly to start the gear mto mewh with the camshaft gear. and lockwasher. 1 spark plug. making sure the tang when the distributor is down in place the distributor (4) Install clamp. 7. (7) Install the spark plug and high tension wires to the cap if removed. Installation and Timing (Crankshaft Posi tion Unknown). Connect a stroboscopic timing light t< 1 spark plug. Marking rotor position. making sure the tang alines with the slot in the distributor cap. (1) Remove No. Slowly continue cranking the engine until the timing mark on the crankshaft pulley lines up with the proper mark on the quadrant (2) Place a new distributor mounting gasket in the counterbore in the engine. but the rotor should line up with the mark It may (6) Connect the primary lead to the coil. It NOTE be necessary to move the rotor slightly to start the gear into mesh with the camshaft gear. NOTE is incorrectly pisit'oned on the distributor housing. 2. 3. 1 terminal post when the distributor is down in place. Some timing lights ar< intended to connect one lead to the spark pluj terminal and the other to ground (parallel con nection). (1) (5) Connect the primary lead to the coil. 1 or No. (2) The firing order is 1. Then turn the rotor 1/8 turn or one cam lobe in the opposite direction of distributor rotation past the No. Others require disconnecting the spar] plug wire and connecting one of the timmj light wires to the spark plug wire and othe wire to the spark plug terminal (series connec (3) the No tion). e. (4) Slide the distributor in position in the mounting hole on the engine. then install the cap to distributor housing. (5) Install the distributor holddown Slide the distributor in position in the mounting hole on the engine in approximately (3) clamp. (8) Start the engine and set the timing as described under e below. 8 terminal post. then install the cap to the distributor housing. NOTE Do not tighten at this time. (6) Install the spark plug and high tension wires to the cap if removed. Ignition Timing. 43 .TM 5381029420 d.
52. density.] 3 21 deal with more purely scientific arguments In 3 we have arguments properties of atoms. (i) arguments from the known physical properties [277. If there stress. He proves with great clearness in a footnote pp. 527* based on known : Saint. [277278 as he remarks. We some points with regard to these in the following three articles. which are really involved in the result of Poisson's memoirs of 1828 and 1829 and Cauchy's memoir of 1827 (see especially Journal de VEcole poly technique. 443*. The traction at any point varies as the square of the 3. et ces dernieres et eiiergiques actions se soustrairaient a la r&gle fotatique dont nous parlons. troversy between Navier and Poisson see our Arts. 321. 1828. the memoir. we reach impossible physical results or it follows that matter cannot be continuous. the following propositions. 548* and 616*) : 1.186 is SAINTVENANT. no state of strain would produce Thus on the rariconstant hypothesis.Venant points out how the continuity of matter is related to the possibility of replacing atomic summations by definite integrals. This applies also to the ether which could not propagate slide distances. 1831. p. toujours ne"gligeable visavis des actions a des distances irnperceptibles qui produisent 1'elasticitd. were no initial stresses. 2.] : (ii) (iii) metaphysical arguments theological arguments. 18. It forms indeed the see essential difference between this memoir and that of 1844 : his 7. SamtVenant's arguments in favour of the ultimate atom being without extension are of a threefold character of atoms. p. 12 15. [278. les chocs. presupposed by SaintTenant throughout he does not agree with it. . on the hypothesis of continuity. and the Eocercices de matMmatiques. will briefly refer to . from the theory of elasticity with special reference to the con534*. la capillarite". The stress across like that of a liquid at rest an elementary plane in a solid body will have no shearing component. les pressions et les vibrations. although. p. est celle de la pesanteur universelle. comparing our Arts.
Distributor point and conden* replacement and adjustment (sh*et\* of S). (1) (2) Remove Remove and remove distributor cap. Screws should be loosened only enough to permit the bracket to move when a small screwdriver is inserted bein tween the platebracket notches. (5) Install new condenser and points and adjust breaker points as follows: (a) Loosen two screws which hold contact bracket to the upper plate. ME 381029420/4 Figure 430. (c) Insert screwdriver as shown in figure (between mating notches in upper plate and contact bracket) and turn the screwdriver i 430 Figure 480. Ignition timing quadrant and ball. (6) Install rotor and distributor cap. (3) Refer to figure 480 and remove point lockscrew and adjusting screw. as shown figure 480. screws loosened i: (A) Tighten above and recheck gap. as measure round feeler gage. Remove points. until point gap is 0. figure 429. Note that points and condensers can be replace4 before reinstalling distributor. Point and Concfynser Replacement Refer to figure 430. rotor as shown in figure 430 dust cover. 430 . (b) Rotate the cam (using starter motor) until the rubbing block is on the highest point of the cam lobe.29420/429 Figure 4t9. TIMING BALL GOVERN PLUG TIMING QUADRANT ALLEN WRENCh ME 3810.017 inch. which is 400to500 rpm.TM 5381029420 NOTE Follow the manufacturer's instruction on use of the timing light. The engine mast be running at low idle speed. Distributor point and condenser re ment and adjustment (sheet 1 of S). /. Readjust if nee Recheck again after first 100 hours of s (4) See that timing is 7 degrees before top dead center firing stroke as checked against the ignition timing quadrant and ball. (4) Remove condenser by removing attach ing screw.
} Complete elastic isotropy. if it agrees best with the facts if of they accept and comprehend them from the thoroughly the system of Boscovich it will preserve by the assertion that temps deux principales et plus f unestes aberrations philosophiques de notre et des temps anciens. pp. (4) bilite de ces formules stratifies. 74). e =f'. Que si. d e. 1878. but d is known in terms of (3) b and d or we reduce them to five. c number.] coefficients are now nine in The Art. This is body posof the and of elastic three experimental symmetry. planes sessing methods of finding their values. SaintVenant has forgotten to state the relations d = e =/. namely d' = \ the and d = p the slide modulus. a. d. the three direct slided'. e'.Venant states the conditions erroneously and says they f reduce the nine constants to six. T. questions it raises with regard to the physics [281.] method mination expfrimentale. and d = e=f. observation. e. le panthelsme et le materialism e (p. LXXXVI. [281 282 Those who are anxious to determine the real source of cohesion will not be hindered from adopting the principle of extended material atoms. & = c = 2d+d'. iree direct stretchcoefficients. sans vouloir (ce qui n'a aucune utilite) etendre 1'applicaaux deformations perceptibles de corps spongieux cornme est le Iiege ou de melanges celluleux de solides et de 3 . Saint. dilatation coefficient. Des parambtres d'&asticiU des solides et de leur dfaerComptes rendus. the whole should certainly be read for the interesting of elasticity. SAINTVENANT. . namely. be those of our 6. or as SaintVenant puts isotropy in two of the axial planes a = & = c = 2d + d' = 2e + e' = 2/+/. e. various elastic coefficients and moduli in the case of a The stressstrain relations will (1) [282. : it.188 journal. a good r6sum of the relations holding between the 7815.icients d. Notwithstanding that to approve either the many readers will find themselves unable or conclusions of the latter portion of the memoir. f and the three crossstretchcoefficients : have the following special cases (2) f Elastic isotropy in planes perpendicular to the axis of x : e=f. /'. 117 (a). b. This reduces the nine coefficients to two. a. f .
clockwise direction. .TM c. If new replacemen pressed air to remove this debris and prevent its falling into the cylinder combustion chamber when the spark plug is removed. (1) Regardless of the condition of tl gaskets. condition. they should be removed from the plug before cleaning. Pro! use of the abrasive blast will wear away t sulator. the old ones should b carded. If the gaskets are not flattened it is an indication that the spark plugs have not been properly tight ened to prevent flowby between the spark plug and cylinder head. . Installation. (4) spark plugs. (2) Before abrasive cleaning. even surface. being careful not to lose the metal gaskets beneath. Replace a (8) If the gasket Is properly oomp (appro*. Failure to do this wi fouled spark plugs will result in packing 1 Remove Inspect spark plugff cracks. Use a blast x>f com The d. (3) loosening each spark plug two turns will also loosenany accumulation of dirt which may be embedded around the base of the spark plug. Refer to paragraph 291 for coil teat procedures. al. the spark p not fit for further efficient engine service if cleaned. "wobble" the top i NOTE Inspection. c ground electrode has become so badly era ter the sparking area that resetting of the either difficult or impossible. as well as the (4) Remove loose abrasive or other f< material from the spark plug threads ^ brass wire brush. clean. All spark plugs loosen in a countera. 432 . each plug. it is an d. When th 1 electrode has become worn away. (1) Detach the ignition wires from each spark plug. Hoi spark plug at the terminal end and while ing the abrasive blast. all kets are available. it is an indication that the spark plugs have been! tightened to the extent that damage may have oeen inflicted on However. for obvious Discard any spark plug not in good apparent in a spark plug tester and check for adequate performance. Visual inspection will indicate whe spark plug has been properly cleaned. cleaning. 453. and adjusting of spark plugs is recommended at 125 hour intervals. pass a thin point file or na between the sparking areas of the eente blowby between the component parts of the spark plug. any plugs which have oily deposits on the firir or the outside of the spark plug should greased by brushing with a suitable a which will dry quickly by wiping with a or by air blast. Three seconds should be sufficient to clean most spark (1) Inspect the spark plug gaskets. or accumulations of foreign materi b. spark plug in a circle. The condition of a plug and the color of any deposits found (or type of deposit) can be used to analyze engine performance. Test. (8) Place the spark plug in the i cleaner adapter of the correct size. Excessive torque often causes strains on the steel shell of the spark plug which results in cracked insulators. If available. By this method the sive will be able to properly clean the ins top and the electrodes. discoloration. Spark Plugs Removal. Refer to figure 481 and in the ignition coil. the extent of cleaning time shoi limited to that which is necessary to clei the deposits on the insulator nose. (2) If the gaskets are flattened or compressed to the point where they have become distorted (outofround) or torn. This condition results in excessive burning of the electrodes and overheats the insulator tip which may cause preignition. faulty stall coil. v (5) Before setting the gap of a cl spark plug. pitting. install the plugs cleaner abrasive inside the firing end c spark plug. action of Cleaning and Adjusting. Loose sive remaining inside the firing end shoi removed by the "air blast" jet on the cl< Do not posits inside the firing use picks or screwdriver to remo^ end of the spark spark plug itself. 5381029420 Test. the spark plugs have been properly insta (4) Inspect the condition of the eled The extent of service to which a spark pli been subjected is generally best indicated degree of wear of the electrodes. distortion of metal shell and gap settings. half of original thickness) shov indicatio flat. loosen each spark plug two complete turns only. broken or severely wornV>ints. (2) Using the proper size deep socket wrench. No repairs are possible. causing irreparable damage to the plug.
312 and 313. = ~ f .. namely (9) : E which give : ef E* = a ~Yd> ^ = 33' to : 1 e ^ = fdSadtef 73^T E = f* E ^ = If ld* <? * . (8) and (9) with regard Saint... : For the case of rariconstant isotropy we have a =d> =e> 3ef . 29 of a prism on (modified by Art. fibres) having we can only take two of the above relations. 20..] methods of arriving at the values of the following moduli and coefficients. (H) ' relations admissible in general for the metals.. z have not ratios exceeding f is This the ellipsoidal distribu tion of elasticity see our Arts...... we x use the formula of Art.. or to a fibrous formation. 308.. For wood... . Case of (a).. or the slide moduli e.. 138 and 142. x (e=f).. 47 and Table I) for the torsion 26' 2c' rectangular base.. [283 stresses in three directions.. If e be not equal to/. M For a modification of the statements in wood see our Arts. . > sensibly..... b 3fd C== Y E Ue . Case (6). 40 and more.. : E E E v.. three relations of the type : will sensibly hold. find the three direct slidecoefficients. We If there be isotropy in the plane perpendicular to axis experiment on the torsion of a right circular cylinder.190 SAINTTENANT. Let the base be and let V be much > c'..Venant now proceeds to indicate experimental [283.. where the ratio of K to y (the axis of x to amount can the of the sense 10.. or at provided x most 2 among themselves. . . f. (1) To d.....
In colder climates. bolt after being sure the filter body is properly centered in the base. ME (4) Clean all parts (except the filter ele ment) and dry thoroughly with compressed air.2942Q/434 STEP 3. maximum bearing life. filter m form a good (7) seal.T STICK OR 0Y REMOVING lEVfi PLUG Figure 4S4. (10) Scrape and clean the gasket surface of the filter base and mating surface on the crankcase. sembly to the crankcase with three capscrews. The gasket must lay flat to lief Figure 435. Oil Cooler Removal. 6. Checking and servicing engine oil pan. Tighten the (3). Install new gasket and secure the filter as Remove the oil cooler (1) Refer to paragraph 456 and remove intake manifolds. (9) ter reverse while the engine is warming up.TM 5381029420 AND AD& OIL AS ' SB)E THAT OH ME 3810. as follows: Replace the pipe plug (15) in the fil body and tighten. (8) bolt General The oil cooler is a selfcontained unit mounted on the "V" of the engine under the intake manifold. (1) spring and slide it through the body and element (5). Inspect the base edge of the filter body to be sure it is not bent or nicked. (6) Place a new bodytobase gasket (14) the filter base. Oil Cooler a. and External Lines Place a new filter element (5) on the filter base The larger opening in the element faces the filter base Set the filter spring (4) on the filter element. and oil economy. the oil cooler is a safety feature to assure safe lubricating oil temperatures. 460. Drawing engine oil pan. 435 . After wanning up the engine. check the and connections for leaks. by heating the crankcase oil quickly for proper engine lubrication and sludge control. the oil cooler works in Place the washer (2) on the holddown (4). (5) Check the operation of the pressure revalve in the filter base Be sure the ball does not stick or bind. SHOWN HERE. In extremely heavy duty service or very hot climate. CHECK LEVIL USING DIP.
es se composant d un arc de cercle ou de deux arcs concentriques et des deux rayons qui les limitent. l r^^rQ^ ^ 2 " ^^ 2 COSy where This result m r is practically obtained Ci* sin 2< by assuming u to be + 2 (Arm + A'r~ m ) sin m<jb. when </> < = y/2. sans le deVelopper. of the form and determining the constants by the surface conditions (ii). Tait dans leur beau livre A Treatise on Natural Philosophy. 2 (pp. 36}. There are additions in the offprint. 1878. become = 0} ^Q) sector.) SaintTenant obtains the required solution in The fundamental equations (see our Art. 850 1). qu'on obtient une varie*te* de contours en se servant des coordonne'es curvilignes isothermes plus grande encore et MM. ont leur emploi pour e*tendre les solutions telles indique". pp. of our Art. en 1862. sans substituer pre*alable ment une s'en certaine inconnue auxiliaire a Tinconnue ge"ome*trique u. our 36. then the second or surface equation reduces to the following conditions when the median line is taken as initial line I y be the angle of the annular : for values of r >r <r 1 . que Me*canique pratique.] cylindrical coordinates.192 SAINTVENANT. This memoir was read on the 2nd and 9th of December. after the solutions explained in Art. 4 and 5) given in the memoir on Torsion (see have been cited Its object is : Olebsch a remarque". . <. [286 849 54 and 8939. LXXXVII. for all values of satisfied 2 between " y/2j ' ^ '* These conditions are found to be 2r 2 by the following value of u 2 . 1867. et en tenant aux coordonne'es polaires ordinaires r. vi. T. 17. "ce qui " tre'sinte'ressant en thlorie et d'une reelle utilite* en est" disentils. relatives aux rectangles rectilignes. Eqn. In 3. & des (3) {= (1) contours rectangulaires mixtilign. 1 ur = when r = rQ or r {rr*=zu$ M l . conjugate functions) ." II m'a paru que la solution relative & ces sortes de sections pouvait e'tre obtenue d'une maniere simple et directe. Nos. rQ and ^i(>r ) its radii. . [286. Thomson et orthogonales de Lame" (i.e.
6. Drain and blow out at vent and foreign material inside the cooL (2) ing clean dry compressed air.TM 5381029420 (11). Immerse oil cooler (7) in a si cleaning solution. Washer Capscrew Bodytohose gasket Pipe plug damaged external line. Refer to figure 45 replace any /. Refer to figure 437 a move external oil line (21) which connec lubricating oil cooler to the air compressor (2) Replacement. 4. (3) Reinstall manifolds e. 2. 11 assembly (21) at (3) Remove capscrews (18) and loci ers (19) which secure covers (8 and 14) engine block. 5. the engine. 14. (2) Reinstall pdpes (1 and 11) and pipe assembly (21) at fitting (20). service a/nd replacement. 43 (2) Service. Oil Cooler Service. 436 . Filter 11. Disconnect cooler inlet pipe Refer to figure 43 vent tubing. d. (1) Removal. 381029420/436 Holddown bolt Shell washer Filter 9 Relieve valve ball 10. (para 456) ME 1. Annually. 18. fig. NOTE Cover oil cooler mounting bosses on the crankc so that foreign material can not enter the engii c. Oil Cooler Installation. gaskets (6). 7. install (2) Refer to figure 437 and remove water crossover pipe (1). Disconnect pipe (20). usin. Crankcase Breather and Vent Tubing (1) Removal. 8. 15. Engine full flow oil filter. (1) Install new gaskets (5 and 13) a stall oil cooler (7) with capscrews (18) an< c< washers (19). Filter body gasket base External Lines. There are five capscrews. (3) Installation. Be sure a sages are clean and clear before installal (3) Replace covers (8 and 14). replace hose (6. Figure 4S6. Service of the vent tubin sists of keeping all connections proper cured. 3. B the oil cooler from. fig. Service as follows (1) Remove covers (8 and 14. Filter spring Filter element Relief valve plug Relieve valve gasket Relief valve spring 12. Refer to figure 438 a move any defective component pf the ver ing.
tion is well brought out by the result MjffiH = '5589 for 7 = 360.e. [290. These points are at distances from the centre differing from those He then gives the values of the centroids by a small amount only.] In the maximum slides for 11 SaintVenant states the value and position of the same two sectors. where the slide is zero. des inclinaisons croissantes avec les distances oil ils sont du milieu de cet arc. of the shift u for various points of the same two sectors In 9 sectors. As well known (see our Art. when r = 0). enormous. (d)) It will be seen at once that for bodies of this kind the equal.] full We when the old theory is used. contour. is distant "5622^ from the centre 7 = 120 the failpoint and cr = '6525 rr^ and Tait their is distant '3671^ from the centre In a footnote SaintVenant refers to the remark of (see Thomson that for 7 > TT the slide becomes infinite at the centre (i. results of the old theory are SaintVenant's theory makes loth torsional moments most erroneous and very dangerous in The reduction of the torsional resistance for a split secpractice.= 4900 7Tt . (2) Annular sectors when r4 = 2r : see again that the errors. he finds the fail points (points dangereux). [289290 is on the old Coulomb theory.e. are the 10 SaintVenant determines the points of 60 and 7=120.194 sector SAINTVENANT. simply [289. sur le plan primitif de la section. This does not necessarily connote rupture. but only that the strain is greater than that to 710) . i. elements de Tare prennent. 7= : Les plus grandes valeurs de u sont aux points de rencontre de I 'arc La me*diane </> = reste immobile. 181. but the sides. In both cases the maxima of the lie upon the maximum maxima upon the rectilinear For 7 = 60 the failpoint and 0. et les avec les deux c6te*s rectiligues.
Inspect the clutch pedal travel by depressing the clutch pedal by hand until resistance is felt. a. Compression Test. It should be between 3/4and 1inch. Valve Covers valve covers are provided. Arms f64. it must be adjusted.TM 5381029420 Section XVII. Fhese items include the engine clutch release nechanism. to oil leaks. 6. k MAINTENANCE OF ACCESSORY DRIVE MECHANISM knurled nuts at each end of the flexible drive cable and remove the end. hrottle arrangement. General Customarily. altitude. Engine Service and Test Clean. free detect those cylinders not conforming to the allowable 10 psi variation. Drive Cable Installation. plunger. refer to figure 439 and replace valve covers. Install the new drive cable in the same clamps as the old cable 462. ble core B61 . Refer to figure 440 and ad valve lifters. Section XV11I. and lubricate the engine in accordance with instructions in ^0 5381029412/4. not to 'xceed 10 psi between the highest and lowest eading per cylinders at normal cranking speed. inspect. The tachometer drive cable is connected to the engine between the banks of cylinders. A compression check nust be made with all spark plugs removed. this trol paragraph is restricted to clutch conadjustment and inspection. 439 . spring. ind 'ications listed in Adjustment. ised as a basic guide. just the clutch. There will be 6. In the event that the entire cable must be replaced. Install a new from the gage end flexible drive with method of replacing it is described below. 466. Because of the use of hydraulifters. Release the pedal. There fore. carrier General. thus eliminating the tappet noved need for periodic valve tappet adjustments. Adjustment. just forward of flexible core in the sheath and attach the ends of the the knurled nuts. If required Engine components and engine connected items ivhich are the responsibility of organizational evel maintenance are included in this section. This engine is provided with hydraulic vavle lifters instead of the more common a. the speciparagraph 376(2) are to be 467. the Service. b. The valve lifters consist primarily of a body. General Removal and Replacement. Compression readings will deviate considerably 'rom specifications due to crank speed. there is no need to adjust valve tappets on this engine. Inspection. and attach the ends of the cable with the the Flexible Loosen knurled nuts. need for normal periodic removal and replacenent of these covers since valve tappets are re>laced ic on this engine by nonadjustable hydrau c. b lic valve ambient temperature Therefore. the air cleaner. The purpose of the assembly is to keep the rocker arm in tight contact with the end of the valve (zero valve lash). Rocker and the engine valve covers. 163. and check valve. bank of the engine. NOTE The best indication of valve or ring leakage is justed to General The engine clutch can only be adwhen it is removed and reinstalled. a method of replacing it is also described. Meas General. MAINTENANCE OF CARRIER ENGINE ASSEMBLY b. a. the two transmission shift mechalisms. Always due and remove cover gaskets when replace the covers are removed unless replacement gaskets are unavailable and the old gaskets are in good condition. a. >ne for each 10 Two ure the distance the pedal travels. Engine Clutch Controls a. only the flexible core of the speedometer or tachometer drive is replaced and a Withdraw the flexifrom within the sheath. Speedometer and Tachometer Drive Core Replacement. wide open and the engine air cleaner reCompression should be uniform. 165. If not.
[293. 1880. que Tresca fut un esprit plus large. Saint. in 4. This report consists of 23 lithographed pages. [292 293 3 (pp. must be Saint. 1584*) with the more recent re4 . Boussinesq. mi homme de vraie Science et par consequent de theorie dans la meilleure et la plus saine acceptation de ce mot si souvent mal compris. 143 7). In April. 20 23 with his contributions to the We shall have occasion to return to . 145 should be cancelled.Venant. as Gomptes rendus. It is le entitled : but theorique des principaux travaux de Henri Tresca. The writer attributes to Tresca a keen appreciation of theory. p. si frequem ment accuse. influence on theory of Tresca's researches many have II erroneously believed : importe de montrer.Venant then drew up the above (Danel. . profesd la Faculte des sciences de Lille. 119). Lille. p. for membership of analysis. strongly recommending Boussinesq his contributions treat of 6 the Academy. Boussinesq sur les solides et leur dlasticite ne sont pas moins originaux et 20 deal with his various mechanical and papers pp. is occupied with some general observations on the elasticity of rods whose axes are curves of double curvature. Pp.196 SAINTVENANT.Yenant compares the results of his replaced by fa ^ra /J memoir of 1843 (see our Art.) 1880. CL.tory theory of light.Venant's dealing with the a contemporary may be noted here. the footnote seur [292. The and the origin of the science of plasticity are sketched. faite par M. 1885. T.] A Swr elastical researches of second paper of Saint. There is nothing of importance to note. he was no mere empiricist. dans 1'interet de sa memoire com me dans celui de la verite scientifique. par leg&rete ou en haine systematique de la Science.] Analyse suocincte des travaux de M. nts'). Pp. 12 17 ( 9) to the theory of elasticity (' Les travaux de M. 17 )hical . 11922. de n'exprimer que des chimeres (p. Boussinesq had printed and presented to the members of the Academy a notice of his scientific writings. SaintVenant's essay when discussing Boussinesq's memoirs. Their only relation to the is the remark that the coefficient of preceding formula for torsion The final section of the memoir torsional resistance used by some writers. de Saint. namely prIQ . searches of Bresse and Resal : see our discussion of their memoirs below.
Remove the power steering pump stalling reservoir. rear 8. (1) Refer to figure 442 and drain reservoir belts off the (3) Disconnect pump sheave. nuts. shifter 12. mg pump lines. b. a fluid reservoir. 11. Note that the cover includes a dipstick type level gage. front axle drive 10. main transmission control Figure 441> Axle^ transmission. control lever Bod. main transmission control 4. Add oil to FULL mark on dipstick when rein der). Power Steering Pump and Reservoir Removal. 2. Rod. rear 9. 7. a. Lever. transfer case control Lever. (5) Refer to figure 444 and remove and replace the power steering reservoir. front axle control. Section XIX. rear 14. Belt Tension Adjustment. Rod. Lever. Refer to figure 424 and adjust belt tension which should be 1/2 inch midspan deflection. front axle control Bracket. belt tension. rod Lever Kod. 13. remove the ad The power steering system (fig. Pin. 6. Idler. inlet (2) Refer to figure replace reservoir. front axle control. Lever. transfer case control Lever. Pump and the (1) pump drive belts as follows: steering pump Replacement Install the power as shown in figure 443 Refer to figure 442. 8. and lockwashers and remove the power steering pump as an assembly.TM 5381029420 14 ME 381029420/441 1. 444 and remove and . General Refer to figure 443. remove the cap nut and drain the fluid from the hydraulic reservoir into a suitable container. (2) Refer to figure 443 and loosen the four adjusting capscrews to relieve power steer c. 32) consists of a vane type hydraulic steering pump. transfer case control. and transfer ease controls adjitstment. MAINTENANCE OF STEERING ASSEMBLY (4) 469. pump by removing cap nut. the steering gear proper (which contains a hydraulic control valve and a power cylin justing capscrews. Lift the power steering and discharge d Reservoir Replacement Refer to figure 444 and replace the reservoir as follows. 5. and mechanical steering control linkages 470. idler yoke Rod.
du probl&me du choc dune barre dlastique fixee d This solution is very similar to the full treatment of the problem by Boussinesq referred to in our Art.] Saint. and so does not completely solve the problem. enter into the question of the time and manner in which the bars separate. fixed at one terminal and struck by a moving weight at the other. shifts u% [296297 either bar at end of tke fixed bar. and 991*. he does not in this memoir attempt to solve in finite terms.\ where m is a root of the P = equation cot WTj : P  2  tan #&r2 = 0. son eootrtmiti non heurUe. however. 423 [297. longitudinal.Venant then considers the case SaintVenant does not terminal: see our Arts. o^ r = a 2 2/^2 > *i an(^ ^2 being the velocities of sound in the two bars.of Flamant concluded the whole subject with a graphical investigation of the successive states of the bar and the impelling load for the whole duration of the impact: see our Arts. goes on to remark that in the case of two free bars we may express the result in finite terms. This. en termes finis et simples. entitled : Solution. . then the x divring the impact are : and wx of any point p _ 2 cos {mr2 fa + a2 ag)/ m cos 2 sin { ^~ \surwT]. But it fails to determine the instant of separation. SaiutVenant with the aid After Boussinesq had given his solution . 4017.] 427. as also in the case of one free bar and a weight moving with a definite velocity and He The case of a bar striking it longitudinally on one terminal. when r2 is very and and Poncelet's T so Navier deduces with small as compared I? of a bar a the vibrations struck for by weight on its free expression [296. 273*. par un corps quelconque. he proceeded to do in an article in the same volume of the Comptes rendus. 341. . and TJ.198 SAINOVVENANT. on pp.
Figure 444. 443 . Power steering reservoir service and replacement.
200 SAINTVENANT. p. p. Green. Thomson and the footnote VoL L. be treated as linear for the slight elastic strains of our many of the materials of practical structures: see Note D VoL L.Venant is not satisfied with appeal to experi[300. was the important conception that possibly intermolecular action depends not only on the individual molecules. as Clausius. He then refers to Green to Taylor's Theorem. 928* and Ge"neralenient et philosophiquement aucune consideration purement math&nwtique ne saurait r6v6ler le mode de la dependance mutuelle des forces agissant sur les elements des corps. la regard er comme pouvant tre celle & laquelle le souverain LSgislateur a soumis les phe"nomenes intimes dont les formules en question representent et mesurent les manifestations exterieures general.Venant appeals to experiment and cites Stokes' adduction sound vibrations with approval see our Art. But Saint. : of the isochronism of Saint. 39). ou la preuve que les formules qu'on nous propose dependent de quelque loi assez g&ierale.Venant finds this loi assez g6n6rale. however. others : [300 see our Art. une raison scientifique. qui ne rend ne suffit pas il nous faut encore une explication. without the backbone of Newtonian gravitation : pour convaincre nos esprits.] ment and observation. et des changements geonietriques qui s'y operent. : (pp. ou c6te"s de quelque loi physique exprimant un ensemble de faits constates (p. assez grandiose in the law of intermolecular central action. appealed Now pair to other molecules. Saint. comme faisait Leibnitz. we know. : 928*. Tempirisme. assez grandiose. which surface energy is itself a function of position relative to the totality of other is . 401). We have remarked elsewhere that the stressstrain relation in cannot. but on the position of each of them in the universe relative as a loi assez grandiose. tels que ceux des longueurs et des angles de leurs la connaissance de ce mode ne peut tre derived que des faits. 891. Clebsch. c'estadire simple. 625. pour que nous puissions en raisonnant. behind this appeal for 21 independent constants to Taylor's Theorem. these give Eeplerian laws. En compte de rien. if intermolecular action arises from molecular pulsations in a fluid ether. quand ce ne serait que d'une mani&re instinctive. and his followers. we find intermolecular force a function of molecular surface energy. as a function of the distance. although unrecognised by Green. For example. and cites its only acceptance by the leading physical matheto maticians from Newton who.
445 . exploded view. Steering column.ME 381029420/447 Figure 447.
. r'.. although the mean internal kinetic 5 proceeds to question whether the says Equation (a) can give the form of ty required by Green.......... I propose to discuss elsewhere. It does not appear to be so if some of the variables r are the (6) ? distances from fixed external points... If we accept. (c). Is this change legitimate ? The form (a) retains the possibility Is this lost in of intermolecular action being a function of aspect.. From this equation we easily deduce for any molecule m. r.. These generalised equations of elasticity leading to the Dissipative Function etc. une nouvelle fonction dont il importe peu que les variables ne soient pas... I think this assumes that the internal potential energy of the molecule can only be a function of centroidal position..... f".?*. (6).. soient ou elles qu'avec les centres d'action fixes exte*rieurs (p. that we can replace it by an equation of the form Saint...) = . ^ .Venant that the former can only depend on the latter... but it may be one of aspect as well as 1 of centroidal position. supposing no sensible thermal changes. 2.. Both Green and Sir William Thomson make the potential energy of the element a function only of the change in shape... in which case the velocities and we should obtain by the Hamiltonian process totally would appear in 15 different equations to those of Green for elasticity.. j..... we are thrown back.. and that we take the mean of large numbers (see his 12). 1 cos (rx) . 68).. all . that the mean changed by an energy on which the temperature may be supposed to depend remains unchanged ? This change iu the potential energy of the molecule will be a function of the relative molecular position. ... however. of the relative position of molecular centroids. however... be that the internal potential energy of (either the molecule or) the element is a function of the relative motion of (the atoms or) the elements... dependantes les unes des du systeme tant entre airfares.] (a)... [SOS Is he justified in thus making the translational energy of the seems molecular centroids a function solely of their position ? He to think that both the omissions (1) and (2) are legitimate provided that there are no such changes of temperature as produce violent atomic vibrations. where 1 2 denotes a summation with regard to values of r..6tant les distances des molecules est ^ r" &c. en partie. the typical equation: mx = ^dV. oti /.e. .202 SAINTVENANT... But is it not within the bounds of possibility internal potential energy of the molecules may be elastic strain. It may.. i../'. with both Green and Saint.Venant in He : ^.. on Equation [303. r'.
.
r'.. R elle I do not understand the argument which follows the words cessera de s'observer en ajoutant. Suppose the molecules repre: sented by electromagnets then the total action during any motion initial would depend not only on the A and B. SaintTenant's second argument is of the following kind If the intermolecular force depends on more than 9). For example such might necessarily on the distance of with. . Saint. but owing to the induced currents on the paths and positions of A and B with regard to the other bodies in the field.r". we have somewhat A B may D be the case when we treat of aspect influence. the particular centroidal distance. as given by means of fixed centres having reference only to A and B. This condition of exclusion can be easily fulfilled for molecules at sensible distances by making a function of the inverse powers of r. Here to start of an assumption the action of upon the on distance of both from G and but not depend from D. [305 parcours aux parcours d'autres quelconques La nullity du travail total produit par un cycle ne peut done tre a lieu pour chaque action individuelle ce qui generate qu'autant qu'elle soit fonction la force que nous avons appelee admettre k que oblige de la s&de distance que nous avons appele*e r (p. [305. SAINTVENANT. then the distances between astral molecules will affect the action between terrestrial.. r'. ought to be such that for any dVJdr depends sensibly only on the molecules in the immediate neighbourhood of m.. .] (see his we could obtain perpetual motion. r". We will now cite of *F 13 (r.Venant continues the influence of an astral intermolecular distance on a terrestrial must be absolutely insensible.. It seems to me that of one such magnet A on another B and final relative positions of SaintVenant's argument would compel us to assert that by introducing other magnets into the field or by moving them about in a proper manner. et en ajoutant arbitrairement choisis. . 71). the action of its molecules is sensibly independent of the state of other matter even at a visible distance..204 varies.) Hence the form small system ^ SaintTenant's actual words : Mais cette ressource d'exclusion sensible est impuissante a 1'egard des distances mutuelles de molecules appartenant en particulier a chacun de ces systkmes ou Elements non proches de celui dont on s'occupe. for even when we are : dealing with a small portion of terrestrial matter.
SV1 valve 7. 2. hoses. Air manifold 5. and fittings.TM 5381029420 57 45678 9 10 55 55 56 51 ME 381029420/44 1. Brake valve Treadle valve 3. PP4 valve 8. valves. TWl control valve Figure 448. Doublecheck valve 6. Air brake system piping dmfiram. Threeway control 4. removal and replacement (Sheets 1 through 3) 448 .
comme voulue ainsi par I'experience mme. la possibilite condemi. traire. ce sentiment quo les forces. r" would see Arts.r. general dynamical equations be a function of and between 2 might the intermolecular force t be found from the dynamical equations q which in its turn might as a function of r' and r". distances. &.In this case our equation will be of the form ^ . /'. de la loi des actions fonctions des seules distances ou elles s'exercent.. loi que le simple bon sens. sont dispos^es de maniere a faire. pensera comme moi. I doubt whether Green had thoroughly seen the important . while r'. (r) +/. *." Green. : + 1^ + ?^+*^ m w where a and 7 are certain constants. a fait accepter pendant plus d'un siocle et .. [306 function of &. let us say. r'. 1529*. of The point is very great physical interest.206 SAINTVENANT.. (") + adoption. (r. 183 and of the rariconstant 185. or does the action of G See the footnotes to our pp. 931*..) 1' =/(r) +/. qu'il faudra absolument adopter la forme ou la particularisation indiqule cidessus : et tout le j'affirme hardiment. r".... etc.Elle fait revenir a Et je suis convaincu que Green luimme y croyait sans s'en rendre compte. une naturelle impossibilite.. du mouvemeut perpetuel. dans Tunivers. Be this as it may.] The strong points in: (i) argument seem to me to lie of G the probable insignificance of the indirect action on J5.. I still feel it impossible to accept the as satisfactory SaintVenant of statements following : monde. sans aucun doute. /. Je ne peux. J 8 . refusait ain.(pp. between m v w4 have no direct influence on the action etc.. the ultimate between ra t and w 2 : particles the action of C on on A } affect that of A to that B on A ? of B on A. as it really concerns the direct application of the Second Law of Motion to Can we or can we not superpose of bodies.si. [306. j'en suis convaincu.. en effet.. a chaque action moleculaire mutuelle en particulier. interpreter d'une autre maniere cet " instinct de physicien et de geemetre. 72 and 73). (ii) the as compared with the direct action of A insufficiency of most of the experiments yet brought to bear against rariconstancy. We should have to apply the Thus to determine the F's and g's. et non des autres distances . aide d'une observation generale des faits.
Air brake system piping diagram. valves. removal and replacement (Sheet 8 of S) 450 . hoses.33 45 30 DETAIL 15N 38 DETAIL 12L DETAIL 13M DETAIL ME 161 38102942 Figure 448.TM 5381029420 24 37 39 24 DETAIL 2B 35 36 2C 40 DETAIL 4D DETAIL 5E DETAIL 6F DETAII 48 DETAIL 8H' DETAIL 91 DETAIL 10J DETAIL 48 41 66 67 29 43 43 23. and fittings.
till for EZ /1ZX Clebsch (p. une extension de plus diminue le volume . 89 95 to determine [309.2 . 6e = c + a and c = 6e3/ : We of Art. he obtains it in the form 4 4 1 4 />2. 8. rien n'empcherait de porter 77 jusqu'a 1 pour les bois tendres (p. This error the latter had recognised in the Appendice complementaire to the Lemons de Navier. et quelques experiences de Wertheim ont montre* qu'aux approches de la rupture d'une tige m^tallique. for oak. For conditions For wood however some other suffice. EJEm < 9. 169 (d)) had held that 77 must necessarily be <J. 2 EJE9 = e2// whence ^ = J jEJEm JBJff = f JMJE*. {15 83 (6) The relations vi (i) to hold together with a . let us suppose (a) : = 5) The relations (ii) to hold with equal transverse and raidconstancy then : elasticity (or 3/=c&.] stretchmodulus quartic . 2) and at one time SaintVenant (see our Art. and he now adds : Cette opinion n'est fondle sur aucun fait . our Art. for fir. comparable a celui des bois. [309 SaintVenant holds that for a feeble degree of aeolotropy for example. 48 for pine. il ne Texprime que pour les corps isotropes. 89). rj (i) SaintTenant now seeks some correction of the amorphic formulae which will give better results than this for 77^ when E^JEX is large. 307.J JlB Hagen found : 2 must have or. 225 for beech. of stone relations (i) or (ii) kinds the or rolled metal and in some must hold. These expressions are never imaginary and give reasonable values After this 77^ begins to take unsuitable values for T?. = SQ. c'estadire au moment oil sa mme mati&re est arrive'e a un etat tr^s fibreux. d = e = d'=*e'. en sorte que.208 SAINTVENANT. It follows that m = J elf. we have i\m so large as 2236.^ up to EJ] m = 4.. sans pouvoir aller jusqu'a = 2'236. He first proceeds on pp. in drawn produced by permanent compressions as. in order that the stretchsqueeze ratio be real we This result is contradicted by Hagen's experiments (see 1229*). b.+ + +2 : Neumann's =+ . that easily find from the formulae whence ^ = 9/4 .
Fi ont wheel brake chamber. and install another vehicle when the other vehicl< tached to the rear pintle hook and w\ dummy couplings are connected to the to hide. REMOVE MOUNTING NUTS AND WASHERS. and remove the brake shoes. couplings cated between the rear of the carrier to a "jumper" connection between the earn the rear of the outrigger box. UNSCRfW AFft LINE CONNECTION TOREAf* OP BRAKE CHAMBER AT SWIVEL __ ILOCKING STEP 4. in the illustration shoes. (2) Refer to paragraph 485 the wheel. Trailer dummy couplings ( 54) are provided both at the front of the and at the rear. removal and replacement. Brake Shoe Removal Remove brake shoes (1) 481. as follows: Dummy Couplings Jack up the axle of the wheel to be worked on and block the axle so that the wheel is supported off the ground Be sure the machine is adequately blocked to prevent tipping (2) Refer to paragraph 485 and remove the wheel Remove the brake drum nuts shown a General. Brake Shoe Installation (1) Refer to figure 453 and install brake (3) Refer to figure 453. remove the "C" washers from guide pins and anchor pins. c.TM 5381029420 ADJUSTER COTTER L WN AND PIN. ME 381029429 4 Figure 449. remove the shoe return spring. CONNECTION. The crane c and remove the brake drum. In addition. The crane can be towed by anot hide when the front pintle hook is mec ly connected to the other vehicle and the couplings are connected to the towing Figure 454 shows a check valve and an o 452 . The dumn plings are used to connect the crane to vehicle similarly equipped. d.
105 SaintYenant tabulates the values of suggested on p.80.210 which shall satisfy SAINTVENANT. . for various values of EJE9 from to 80 x and also for oc The values value of of 77^ are now found to be possible. 104. ~ f . this does not seem at all improbable. risque de se tromper enfaisant y As SaintYenant observes there is a great need of new experiments to determine sx /s& by m (by flexure). and sufficient conditions are found to reduce to 2 + 4^J. but for EJEm very great. and on the The ratio E/p.] The empirical formula for n On p. but in general we may take it from 7 or 8 to 30 (p. 108). and the metals employed in the construction of bridges and machines : esz (vi). (by torsion) and 77 (= z and delicate measurements of the transverse dimensions of bars under trac EJE E E . m (= I to 80) when y has the numerical 77^ for the parameter values 9 and 2222. with transverse isotropy). Nous pensons qu'on ne courra gudre = 16 (p. . p. such as stone. is n and EJE The Table also contains they give respectively t]^ about 2/3 and 1. [313314 analysis the necessary After some rather complex those conditions. the corresponding values of EJe (= E/p. wood. + 81 Xjaa ' 4 + ! where we suppose EZ >JX > ET n and 1 SaintYenant then gives a "table of the limiting values of >n of m = 1 = 4/ 18 %n VA.] most probably sufficient for elastic problems concerning amorphic aeolotropic solids. 108). can thus be very second (y = 2222) from 25 to 5267.* . tion). These values vary on the first supposition (y = 9) from 2*5 to 78*2. What shall this be ? [313. In default of experiment we may finally adopt as formulae [314. + 9EJE 12+9 12 m 7144 SJJP. These values for y are chosen because. for n . provided a suitable n be chosen. As for the value of y we need not confine it to 9 or 2222. great. at least we have at present no experiments to contradict it.
place bias* drift to the enter of spu and tap with hammer to luosi n he. except lock straps. All four propeller shafts are identical in for to figure General Refer a General The front axle diffeientml 455) is a doublereduction unit which en a spiral bevel pinion geai and helical spur j construction. removal and replacement. Rear Axle Differential a. and nuts to disconnect flange mountings To disconnect lock strap connections. and termination (flange or lockstrap mounting) b Removal and Installation.TM 5381029420 ME 3310294PQ 454 Figure 454. Section XXI. Dummy coupling a. 455) ferential The forwardrear axle ass equipped with an mteraxl which divides drive torque betwe is 456 . bend the lock straps away from the capscrews and remove capscrews length to control drive torque to the front axle 6.s I i move healings and cap*. Refer to figure 455 and remove capscrews. General There are two differentials and four propeller shafts in the carrier drive train ganizational maintenance follow ing paragraphs as which require ordescribed in the After cf\pson\\s and lock strips hue Keen moved. (fig. Front Axle Differential 483. Install flange or lock strap mounted propeller shafts as shown in frlire 455. Propeller Shafts a 455 for location of the propeller shafts. Service Refer to the cm rent issue of 381029412 for lubrication instructions 485. lockwashers. General.uin^ up. from yoke 484. MAINTENANCE OF CARRIER DRIVE TRAIN NOTF 482. and bearings.
upposed to vary slightly. 174 7) reproduce arguments ictice. is it In other that for all practical loadings legitimate to assume ere is little or no mutual action parallel to the prismatic osssection between adjacent longitudinal fibres? After referring to the labours of Poisson and Oauchy on the our Arts. aint.J SAINTVENANT. quand ions of the crosssection. 8. L 181) ie : Saint. be and the terminal load as well as 'the . The proof holds only for rods. Instead of setting out from the assumptions (a) our author ipposes the following conditions to hold. From the conditions (6) the conditions (a) are deduced by the dnciple of elastic work. p. seek arguments in favour of the legitimacy of the 517) sumptions ^=^ ^ = Jy S J? = (a). [316 317 This note is concerned with the applicability of Saint[316. 266. ken by Saint.Venant as the basis of his solutions.Venant next turns to Boussinesq's memoirs of 371 and 1879: see later our discussion of that author's researches. on Torsion or the Lefons de Navier eady given in the memoir the approximate elastic equivalence of statically equipollent The remaining sections bds: see our Arts. Saint.] nant's torsion and flexure solutions to such cases as occur in The first four sections (pp. prisms be length of which is great as compared with the linear dimen These are described as fort approcMes. [317]. He points out that Kirchhoff proves only ie possibility.Venant applies ise the method of those memoirs to the simple of a bar of homogeneous material with three planes of elastic nnmetry. not the necessity of these questionable relations see my footnote.e. 9 and 170. >rds. 466* and 618*) as involving arbitrary bject of rods (see for rods of length great as compared with true only sumptions .Venant enquires hether the investigations of Kirchhoff give any better validity to assumptions (a). z being the direction of ie prismatic axis : dz* dz* dz elles ne sont as rigoureuses. the crosssection may. however.e linear dimensions of the crosssection. i.
It is (5) With the ring installed. air pressure may cause to fly off the wheel and serious injury to personnel may result (6) Install the wheeltire on the vehicle. This pressure should be 105 psi. WARNING inflate the tire from the aide opposite the ring. The governor should be adit starts compressing air when pressure drops to 105 psi and stops compressing air when pressure reaches 125 psi. it is recommended that the gage board pressure gage be checked with an accurate independent gage. 490. inflate the tire. Shock Absorbers a. Removal. NOTE very important that all rust. make a series of brake applications to reduce reservoir air pressure. General compressor is lubricated by oil from the engine system and cooled by water from the engine system. starting at the ing [ge split. Before adjusting. Therefore. removal and replacement. governor starts the compressor.TM 5381029420 (4) Using a suitable tool. 488. Shook absorber*. Both the starting and stopping pressure settings will change by an approximately equal amount 4419 . Refer to figure 459 and loosen the adjusting screw locknut. Note the pressure at which the 489. force the ring into place around the of the wheel rim. Refer to figure 457 and remove Installation. To adjust. the shock absorbers. lubrication and cooling depend upon proper lubrication and cooling for the engine Intake air is taken from the clean air air side of the The engine air cleaner. I Figure 457. Pressure should be 125 psi. Using an air hose from the side opposite the ring. 6. a. Turn the screw clockwise to lower the pressure settings. 458). turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise (viewed (3) (4) proceed as follows: (1) Start the engine and build up air pressure in the air brake system. Refer to figure 457 and in stall the shock absorbers. if one is available. turn the tire over so that the ring side is facing the ground. Compressor Assembly Adjustment. Section XXIII. justed so that Remove the governor cover (fig. corrosion. With a screwdriver. Check the gage pressure at the cab air pressure gage at the time from above) to raise the pressure settings. MAINTENANCE OF PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR the governor cuts off compression. and accumulated dirt be removed from the ring and its seating surface on the wheel rim. If the ring is improit Always perly installed. (2) With the engine still running.
ou la force taugentielle totale dans une direction transversals aussi quelconque. Its contents are extracted : from the memoir on Torsion (/).7 zy da J dzj d f~ j = 7z* yaw. and the Note. The Note finale du 37 (pp. It may. 1.214 SAINTVENANT. par rapport & la trace"e coordonnee longitudinale. 3899 The following Note. complete qui en ait e*te" theoriquement donne"e 190). = or > S2 + TJ l . pp. 195 f. : 2402. 53. pp. some results from Chapter XI. and x. du moment de flexion autour d'une droite BUT la section perpendiculairement & cette direction (p.7 KX aco 7 Saint. 21020. [319. reproduces [320. etc. we easily find from the equation of our Art. Case ([} that wo v ' must have w T = or > (1  7?) S/2 + (1 + 17) V^/ + Z* while OleLsch obtains from the stress condition T. 8 10 is more satisfactory.j = =M ocaco I : I f. [319 321 can at best only apply to rods and not the prisms of SaintVenant's problems. take the case when have values differing from only the stresses ^. : We may refer to one or two points in this last Note SaintYenant takes two simple cases for an isotropic material and compares the stress and stretchconditions for aafe First loading. que V effort trcmchwnt. These formulae express analytically dco is an element ce thor&me connu et tee's utile.Venant proves for the case of flexure the results I d [. Perhaps on the whole the appeal to experiment referred to in our Arts.] In a note pp. 49. 285 and 291 . however. still be the method la meilleure et la plus (p. 5. pour une section quelconque.] only portions of the great or the subsidiary memoirs on Torsion see : our Arts. and the Lefons de Navier [321. y are any rectangular axes in the crosssection of which of area. of the Lemons de Navier.] (a) see our Arts. See pp. est egale & la dSrivee. of the Torsion see our Art. 25282) corrects Clebsch's erroneous assumption of a stresslimit by the proper stretchconditions. 197). (6) and 180. Tz. I J a#J where z is an axis in direction of the prismatic : axis. zero.
Hook The pintle General. 461) mounted on the rear outrigger box. hook (23. Alcohol Evaporator Strainer Refer to paragraph 477c for removal and replacement of the alcohol evaporator strainer. b. Install the pintle hook in the rear outrigger and secure with nut (12) and cot 492. b. the rear outrigger box. Replacement. Refer to figure 461 and remove any rust or corrosion from the outrigger beams and boxes and paint in accordance with TM 9213. Replacement. fig. Section XXIV. Replace any damaged or bound outrigger beam roller or jack screws and damaged outrigger box pins. no leaks. a. Pintle a. eye pins. Outriggers a. Boom Rest to figure 460 the in Removal Refer boom rest. Report any broken or cracked welds to direct support main tenance. Replace the hinge pin and chain if broken or damaged. jthere are 'adjust the alternator belt tension since the alternator belt also drives the compressor. MAINTENANCE OF FRAME COMPONENTS d. is Replacement. c. 46 . Position boom rest as shown figure 460 and install lockwashers and cap 494. screws. and remove ter pin (11). Refer to figure 4r62 and rereplace the outriggers.TM 5381029420 Check all water. air. Boom rest installed. Removal Remove the cotter pin (11) and nut (12) and remove the pintle hook (23) from 6. move and 493. and oil lines to be sure Refer to paragraph 449 and 491. or capscrews. Repair. Repair. I SUPPORT BOOM REST REMOVE CAPSCREWS (3) AND LOCKWASHERS (3) ME 381 029420 ''460 Figure 460.
* being the direction of the prismatic axis if . ( ^~V/cy _ (31) > Urrr^J \V C V JS zt) (i) the second term under the radical is. or of length 21 with a Then if K be the swingradius of the section load 2P in the centre. 274 5 in repeating of Art. 122 of the Torsion: see our Art. (c) en France. Case (iii). In the case loadplane. of the rectangular cross section 5 x = c2/12. and of transverse elastic isotropy denoted by E. becomes with slightly since SJp = 2TQ/JS by our Art we have 2 /c 5. J i* + 1 2 or ~ VA +^ = 6c. Suppose it builtin at one end and loaded with P at the other. work out the value of Art. It brings out well the influence which want of isotropy and slide have on the condition for safety. small. of crosssection CD. d'apres Pexemrapport qu'on prend gdn^ralement d'un dixieme mais que des ing&iieurs <3glise d Angers. SaintVenant now introduces the following suggestive table dctormmed^ by the method of our Arts. 53. Let us take the case of a beam of length Z. 279 given by : Whence the condition of our Art. we see that the failpoint will be at the builtin section which remains plane. He does not. 271). replaces the sy/sv and $Jsa of the notation so that he to have been dissatisfied with the value adopted in case 3 We appears the memoir. may note that SaintTenant on pp. about the neutral axis and h the distance from that axis of the farthest 'fibre'. / 1 co ^ t^. .216 SAItfTVEtfAtfT. 53. now of that article by their mean. Case (ii) (=TJI of his notation). 3124. (d) ^ of our very good example of SaintVenant's failpoint method 82 ( 17). 53. h = c/2 and with c parallel to the the condition becomes: 1+ . ju and 77. [321 the TI and T^ of immediate rupture. Here the maximum stretch and the uniform slide are is A given on pp. modified notation : (i). however. A 3 constant ratio between T and T is usually assumed : ple des colonnes legeres d'une ancienne anglais portent i un sixieme (p. c. as usual. (d).
TM 5381029420 I 463 .
323.] Venant first Case of two combined cylindrical flexures. and we can see that this gives a couple round the axis of y for each element 2e&/ of the side^ where *. stretchmodulus in the simple flexure of a bar. at once : [324 We find **W *v s = ~ > * = * 1 cp't and (5). (a) yz and we have : = zx == say =U j zz (Hi).=> We can cut axis of away a portion y if we impose of the plate by planes perpendicular to the a load at each point of the new sides given by Obviously 1/p must be very small. cylindrical curvature of radius p. 117. for the case of plates to the shall denote it by If. In 3 Saintcombines two solutions such as that of our Art. We JH= "3 ' \ We easily see that (iii) The load reduces to satisfy the bodystress equations. (ii). is the case of spherical curvature. 79 the results (jf>. nates r. XX ~= H p over the sides perpendicular to x.218 SAINTVENANT. This side load all zero. the : He transfers to cylindrical coordivalue of p being the same for both. Substitute in the formulae of Art. Here the quantity 2/+/' . The proper distribution of must be obtained by compounding r and J5. and thus obtains with the notation of our p. the shears being The corresponding total couples are .d'*/c corresponds where in the case of isotropy. and the plate then takes a [324.
Tool Box a. REMOVE NUTS AND IOCKWASHERS. ME 3810294. removal and replacement (sheet of t). Tool box installation. 2. 496. REMOVE TOOL SOX. Fire Extinguisher extinguishers used. TURN JACKSCREWS RELIEVE CAPSCREWS (2) OUTRIGGER BOX PINS (2) . Outrigger. CAPSCREWS v (4) WASHER (4) IOCKWASHER AND NUT (4) t * (4) _ _^ STEP 1. r ' WE 381 0. to figure 4G3 and re fOOLBOX b Replacement Replace the tool box as shown in figure 463. Removal Refer move the tool box. with a like serviceable item. .20/462(?) Figure 462..TM STEP 538102942 1. or which have lost weight of 1/4 pound or more. the seals of which have been which have been broken.29420/4^3 Figure 46S. I Replace fire Section XXV MAINTENANCE OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER AND TOOL BOX 495.
couple tangent contour of the mid plane will be In practical applications arbitrary.(vii).) 26 s The deflection of the central plane is given by the cubical parabola _ <z? i**\ (viii) _ This agrees with the case of a rod of length 2a and depth 2e. 8. flexure. giving the plate now a flexure parallel to y.J perpendicular to y. in Art. : Problem of the thick circular plate. Suppose we try to combine two sets of solutions such as (vi) of the Then we previous Article.. and for y = d= 6. and b to a.any value from b to value from a to b.. but the resultant shearing force and about the to the We l . We shall find that the magnitude of the central shift can be determined for any load whatever.. find. (p. from (viii) : We _ 3 fPax*+Qbf 2 Px*+Qy*\ 6 2ff<?\ /' Hence although we combine this with a solution of the cannot make WQ = 0.. we can make only the square not the cubic terms in x and y vanish. we form given any Le probleme de la flexion de la plaque rectangulaire pose*e de niveau tout autour ne peut probablement recevoir que des solutions approximatives. not necessarily symmetrical. terminally be supported and loaded with 2P at the centre if the platemodulus replaced by the stretchmodulus K H can cut out a definite portion of the plate by planes [327. if Q corresponding to P. 325. Thus the contour of the midplane of the rectangular plate cannot be treated as fixed. This can be solved [328. H _(. together with x = a.220 SAINTVENANT. we must appeal to the principle of the elastic equivalence of statically shall suppose that there equipollent loadsystems see our Art. 346). In other words for cc= a. if we impose the tractive loads given by yy of equations (vii). . together with y . . find for the stresses *xss : [327328 Hence we = yz = xy = 0. these forces will be supposed distributed in a definite manner.] accurately for flexure whatever the thickness. if the plate be symmetrically loaded in all directions round its axis of figure by forces Just as in the case of torsion or applied to its cylindrical boundary. is no tendency to extension in the plate and that it is bounded by two coaxial cylinders of radii ^ and r (r > r ).
.
. 2. multiplied by r to the same constant.d' (2z*. 350). Bz "" 2 } rz * [ (vi). may then be pp. < arbitrary functions of Now we have r* = 6 (uz + w?r) = d jg 1 ( . and so ways SaintTenant remarks that we can satisfy this relation in several method seems to me to equate either side (p. X (r) containing an odd power of #.222 Integrating SAINTYENANT. cfoj He takes this constant to be zero. would prevent us from fulfilling the may We condition r+e z =Q for r = r. [330 : we find. it only alters the value of the constant in the expressions for the shifts we are about to give. N Here B is another arbitrary constant and x? r and 2 respectively. .Veuant l9 givas expressions obtain for them on 4.^) . but the proper B be neglected. easily deduced. if A be an arbitrary constant Integrating again we have : . ^^ =r we The values : of ^ and If^. not a term but leads to this . however.+ B r rx 2 / 2^ /32_2 ^ * ( r . If this constant be retained.3 351 By putting r ^ where y 2 is =: H _f 1~ 3 given by 5 and may be neglected when e/^ is small. ought to add a constant C' to the value of in u = (7/r. >n+T I+ w=. substituting for . w and w from (vi) we find the following relation 1 between C v / _( e . Substituting the values obtained by integration for and \ * we have rz : A c 3r + r a ( A + 3J} r . or in 'rr = %fC'/r*. Saint.. z 2 +X W . jj log ~ (r/rj . which.4 2)_ x ^ ^ j. < i. O T> *. .
Consists of comparisons of two instruments. G. Service: Operations required periodically to keep an item in proper operating condition. General This section provides a general explanation H D lows: Direct support maintenance General support maintenance rt. Explanation of Columns in Section II compressed air supplies. The maintenance functions are defined as Section II designates overall responsibility for the performance of maintenance functions on the identified end item or component and the work measurement time required to perform the by the designated maintenance level. Adjust: To maintain within prescribed limits. Install. d. I. INTRODUCTION F . Axscmblij (liovp on the in MAC sired performance. seating. Test: cipient failure electrical To verify serviceability and detect inby measuring the mechanical or characteristics of an item and compar ing those characteristics with prescribed standards. c. F Calibrate: corrections to be cause To determine and made or to be adjusted on in umn ( contains a biief description of the components of each numeiical gioup Column. Work measurement time standards (the active repair time required to perform the maintenance function) are shown directly below the symbol identifying the maintenance level. or the special tools and test equipment required for each maintenance function as referenced from Section II. mechanical. subassembly. Section tions or IV contains supplemental instrucexplanatory notes for a particular main tenance function B2. one of which is a certified standard of known accuracy.TM 5361029420 APPENDIX B MAINTENANCE ALLOCATION CHART Section Bl I. Replace: The act of substituting a serivceable like type part. by bringing into proper or exact position. Group Number A number is assigned to each group in a top down breakdown sequence The applicable groups are listed Column (1). This colb Column (2). or module unserviceable (component or assembly) for an I lows: C Operator or crew Organizational maintenance counterpart. H. A. The symbol designations for the various maintenance levels are as fol umn struments or test measuring and diagnostic equipments used in precision measurement. C.. Section III lists d. E. to paint. or fixing into position an item. Inspect: To determine serviceability of an item by comparing its physical. The implementation of the maintenance functions upon the end item or component will be consistent with the assigned maintenance funcfunctions tions. part. to detect and adjust any discrepancy in the accuracy of the instrument being compared.! Maintenance Funct'ows This lists col the various maintenance functions (A through K). Repair: The application of maintenance Bl . The lowest maintenance level authorized to perform these functions is indicated by a symbol in the appropriate column. B. or to replenish fuel. hydraulic fluids. and electrical characteristics with established standards through examination. or by setting the operating characteristics to specified parameters. to clean. Aline: To adjust specified variable ele ments of an item to bring about optimum or de disassembly sequence beginning with the first gioup removed. lubricants.The act of emplacing.e. maintenance and repair functions authormaintenance levels. i. D. Depot maintenance fol of all ized at various 6. to drain. or module (component or assembly) in a manner to allow the proper function of an equipment or system. to preserve.
in this first case are. Po =t0=(. = r Thus the solutions are at separation of the material at r . Thus for the inner disc may now be Then dealt with as consisting of an 'inner and 'outer annulus. must be horizontal . and w for r > r < r l9 can be at once found. hardly satisfactory except for the case of a very thin plate.' dwJckr=Q when r=0 W= and rz . The as solutions obtained by SaintYenant he himself observes. and finally In the solutions he the total couples along the same circle r = r gives for the shifts the u and w for the annulus are not equal to . SAINTVENANT. they would certainly produce permanent alterations in the material. and cannot be considered to hold at all in the neighbourhood of the rim itself. are vertical shifts we then justified in assuming that equating the and the tangent plane slopes (w and dw/dr) for . further round the ring r = r the shearing stress must vanish for the inner disc which can thus only be acted upon by couples and will take a spherical curvature (1//> ) as in our Art. What he does is to make the vertical shifts of then the midplane zero for the disc and the annulus when r = r the slopes of the tangent planes for both are equated. J5 and C (p is of the problem are then obtainable by putting r = r known from ri 1) SaintYenant in the equations (xi) which hold for the outer annulus. [331 ( The plate because evidently the tangent plane to the midsection at z = 0.224 with disc' 14). the u and w for the disc when is r =r In particular u when r = r . a function of z only for the disc. But shall we assume they hold accurately at points not in the neighbourhood of this rim ? If the stresses acting at this rim were really confined to a line. r 0. except for the midplane. 324.^ \ ( 1 /r +  A> for the conditions at r = r Three equations to determine the three constants p . . best only approximate. M finds: whence the values of u. but In other words we have theoretical of as well for the annulus.
TM 53810*29420 I I B3 .
362.Yenant practically divides his whole plate up into such It appears to me possible that he may rings. thus be really introducing an important sum of small errors. Saint. The results I cannot get over the difficulty suggested in my Art. agree in the case of uriicon2 stant isotropy and neglect of y with those of Poisson see our Art. 365. . lorsqu'on se propose avoir settlement lafleche centrale. 331. I case when validity of these results except in the am doubtful as to the 2 we may neglect y . The deflections obtained by SaintYenant are (p. deflection of the centre below any ring re and so the form of the surface taken by the midplane.Yenant explains how we may (e) [335. In 19.Yenant : is the most general possible and is thus Mais. m6me discontinues et irrdgulieres. m6me non syme'triques. 284*. Saint.226 the solutions of SAINTVENANT. p. la d forme que prend 363). results. when thus integrating. In 21. 502*. : given by Boussinesq. sans chercher la plaque en ses divers points. . p.Yenant seems to think this process more rigorous than that for thin plates dependent on Lagrange's But equation and used by Poisson: see our Arts. des charges que supporte la plaque soutenue en haut (p. une remarque bien simple montre que les expressions en ^ et r suffisent au calcul de cette fl6che pour toutes les distributions possibles. : We 8 = where Q is the total load. he treats by this method the case of a thick plate uniformly loaded and finds from the results in (d) . 496* 504*. case of a continuous load to substitute </> (rQ) 2irrQ drQ for Q in the and r to find the equations of (d) and integrate between the limits we shall obtain the to r If we integrate from total deflection. 331.] stated by Saint. but Saint.] treat the problem of a thick circular plate subjected to any symmetrical have in the load continuous or discontinuous on a plane face. [335336 are applicable to the case of a plate either fixed or (c) builtin at its contour and loaded with Q uniformly distributed round the ring r = r . 2 are not true for the ring in consideration unless y may be neglected. 362) : (i) fixed Midplane contour simply supported or (ii) Cylindrical face builtin For the reasons given in my Art. first These (/) This case [336.
.
occupies pp. Then if u be the total shift of the free end. . first We have be : (i) Bar horizontal : Q F2 a ~2 . ct. Or UQ ** W be Ol tlie statical (ii) Bcvr vertical : T^ i /"I . As these con8 (GompUment A la Note /male du 46). [339. its resilience.] account of the various tentative stages in the history of the two theorems of Young. . 480 a results of this note together : Arts. I ft Trn %A v Let 9 ujl^TJS (i) . g gravitational acceleration.228 SAINTVENANT. which as first cited. the other end being fixed. The first seven sections (pp. et de la resistance de la mature de la barre 480 gg. and we suppose the stretch uniformly distributed. 2 \JB ~W or is the W0rk necessai 7 to Destroy the efficiency of the bar. 480 a 480k) give an [340. section o>. Let the bar be of weight P. length I and stretchmodulus E\ let Q be the weight and 7 the velocity of the body which strikes it at the free end. 4017. The numerical with their graphical representation will be considered in our account of the Memoir of 1883 see our it un pareil choc . we have from the principle of work theory. [339 340 Memoir 881 of 1882 on the same subject.] The next important addition 60. approximations may density p. Hence the resilience of a bar varies as its volume <o. tributions are not due to SaintVenant we postpone the discussion of their contents until we are dealing with the special researches of Boussinesq and Cerruti. will be found on pp. then in Case the greatest safe stretch within the elastic limit. of SaintTenant is the Note finale du It is entitled tudinale d'une barre 6lastique par Thforie de Vimpulsion longiun corps massif qui vient heurter : une de ses deucs eactrgmitts .
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Venant du It occupies no less : De ^Impulsion transversale des barres dastiques. p/g is the mass per unit length of the bar and of any permanent load at the same point. The terminal and initial conditions determine the constants of the normal functions while the conditions at the impelled point select the normal functions required and determine the notes. same length.] 61. g the body acceleration (usually only gravity) on the to point. The next insertion of Saint.] The first 51 sections (pp. [342344 is the Note finale than 138 pages (pp. but : and the calculation of the if we keep only one 1'ai cette expression simple de la fleche dynamique pent. p. and Eco/c 2 with our usual notation the rigidity. les a fait sortir de leur 6tat car c'est pendant cette union. ou gradue*e. [344.230 [342. ne dur&telle que le temps d'Squilibre d'une demip6riode oscillatoire. que les dSplacements relatifs des parties de ces pieces atteignent leur maximum et qu'elles courent le plus grand danger de rupture ou d'Snervation dont les calculs de resistance ont pour objet de les sauver (p. . mais unies cwec le corps Danger dont Pimpulsion. comme je reconnu dans une multitude d'exeinples. etre identiquemeiit obtenue . 1045. 490 627) and contains the complete theory of the transverse impulse of bars. SAlttTVEtfAKT. leur flearion ainsi que des conditions de leur resistance vive ou [343. et de leur vibration Determination de avec le corps qui les aura mises en mouvement. 20.] The process of solution dynamical deflection are generally long. not hitherto published: see our including results of SaintVenant's The Note is entitled Arts. 2. 490). even term of the series. SaintVenant's method is : simply to solve in ' normal functions ' or coordinates the equation where u is the transverse shift of the point in the axis at distance z from one end of the bar. and Notice II. 490597) : are devoted to the analytical and numerical solution of various problems of bars vibrating transversely with a load attached ces pieces sont supposes vibrer non pas seules comme le supposent les solutions donne'es par Clebsch. which may vary from point The bar is supposed to be loaded and to receive dis placement in a plane which passes through a principal axis of each crosssection. 2001. ou brusque.
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Let us apply these results to the simple case of a prismatic [346.+ #2 smh : . ~r U. its weight JP..+ C cos + Cs cosh jm j.] bar supported terminally and struck by a weight Q with velocity F at Let the length of the bar be 21. 52*) ~ ~ mz ~ mz . .. is horizontal. [346 At the join of two bars : du du a weight of mass Q/g At the (v) we must have : join of two bars where there is Qd?u .... 4945. and its midpoint. (ii). 18 r = t/a ^ C08m r coshm we have finally Further u = when t = 0. l I/ U i I To satisfy (ii) and the second of (iii) we must take r = Oa = n O. 343.... du lake as a particular integral z : = Zm ( A . Equation (i) of Art. therefore u of the form cos * cosh . .232 (iv) SAINTVEffAtfT.. thus s We becomes : together with the conditions : u= 9 yy ctz =0. 8 2 shall suppose the bar so placed that the impact T2 = p^ y(2^o)K )... r {  Sm ....d TTT T2 # (ft d f^ d u\ + &\ & \^ nr <feV / z . mz . m*t We find The solution of this equation takes the wellknown form first given by Euler... ( 1 7 ( 2 #i<*>iKi dtyA 75 <&* / ) =n 0? ' together with the relations (iv) : see SaintVenantfs pp.... (see our Art.. or g may be put zero. when = . mz Z sin =.
I! 0^0 I 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 ! I I 1 1 Oo o OoOo . .2 11 JS a.m.  1 I \o ira O O OS O W > KH tf So Wfc P * 2 s B a "2 O H S Ja O OT O rH I W g S o J O at CM O> M O OT S S S B1 .
LXI. or ^2= f\l/(z) j F. T. accord Z ingly equation (v) of the preceding Article gives us for the numerator of A m the expression m(l) f\l/(z)d% where is zero except over this ^(0) small portion. when its ends are fixed in different fashions. varies). 508). Vol. Compare Lord (v) of our Art. /^ m <% can be obtained by the differentiation with to of a certain function regard of Zm and its fluxions with regard to z (p. [350. But he . supposing the functions Z^ can be found which He shews that : satisfy the equation then the integral fZm&m'&l = . He finds .234 SAINTVENANT. an initial velocity. Is (iv) and (v) of Art. 43. i. evaluating this expression [349350 On we find m (sec w . 1865. where it has a value slightly less than V. 347 Am m Eayleigh's Theory of Sound. against an He says that if a small portion of the bar receive objection raised to it. where q represents the total weight of the system and the integration extends from one end to the other of the and m' are two system j unequal ^roots of the characteristic equation in which arises from the terminal and load conditions (p. 20910. 507).] We will now indicate the various problems which are dealt with analytically (a) by SaintVenant. by equations similar to depending only on the initial velocities.sech m) + js 2 Equations (vi) of this Article with complete solution. is . 2 In 714 he treats as a general problem the cases when the the rigidity ^o>/c not^ prismatic (ie. 346 give the SaintVenant now this choice of initial velocities it a proper one ? has defended in the Comptes rendus. remarks that the weight momentum possessed by this small portion and the Q ought to be exactly y F.] (b) that of a doubly builtin The next special example given by SaintVenant beam struck at the midpoint..e. pp. m m The 506). p. y y [349. when there are various bars or when one is^ bar bar with a varying load forms the complete system. m only on the initial di" placements (p. m will be nearly constant for this portion . i. 2 The value of the denominator of these coefficients. coefficients of the time function will be determined A^ m~ 2 sin m 2 tf + B^ cos m * 2 .
TM 5381029420 B13 .
894 895. for our 6. 351.Venant has a for our Z. 352 correspond with the given in our Arts. Wehavethen: For the free ends. volume.. but as a rule it is better to treat it separately as arising from the kinetic conditions of the problem and determine it by general dynamical principles such as the principle of momentum. El for our EWK'J with Saint. c (ii) and (b) respecI have gone through Saint. when . du/dt = v when z other values of z at the epoch t = 0. I will briefly indicate SaintYenant's [353. and equal zero for other slight differences. c (i). ~ d?u + PI3 /dsu\ :o ) = I 0f ' q \ u . i. bodies of weight q and Q moving with velocities v and V respectively.e. Here the This solution will have an algebraic part as well as a transcendental. which has been divided out of the cha/racteristic equation . As before let us take A P q. = part can sometimes be obtained by retaining the root m 0.236 In both. all 1 for t . . cases S^STTVENANT. ~f^2 = T/2 +F > as in Case ( ) c Art. = V when . 6 for our a and fy I have altered his notation to agree with that of our first . z = I. T*2 ^ dt z = = 0.] if it We have next several cases in which treatment in the following example : prismatic bar is struck transversely at its two terminals by (e). 349 introduction of vibratory terms to the solutions obtained by Cox's method in Art. [353 i __^_ 37"' and the characteristic equation is : See pp. the bar is free or pivoted.0. 1437* and pp. 514 7 1.Yenant's tively of our first volume. The length of the bar is I and its weight j the origin is taken at the end at which q strikes the bar. worked not but independently analysis The results immoveable the bar would not be were rigid. T .0. out his results.
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namely. we find that these equations will still be satisfied. all but the expression / ^m dz in the : JQ The value of this integral I find to be m cosh w~ cosmsinhm)(l .sin m)} + <f 2m (sml^m . ne s'occuper que de celleci. sans craindre que la nonprise en consideration de cellelk so^ une cawe tferreur (p. however. et la partie transcendante ou Et me'me on peut g&i&ralement. but they must hold generally. de leur mouvement. . which we must notice.sin m) i +2P#{6sinmsinhw(l cosmcoshm) + m (cosh m . although in a long footnote pp. 525 the lengthy expressions for the numerator and denominator of this quantity. encore mieux. straightforward o [353 that By expressions = p integration we can shew both these x {the function of 0. 524).sin ^) + 6m sin m sinh m (sin m cosh m sinh m cos m) p\ P 2 j (sin 2 2 2 { } . 521 4.238 SAINTVENANT.cos m cosh m) + (sinhm. But these equations are satisfied for each m of the sum by reason of equations (ix). he a more proves general proposition.cos m) (sinh m . m = to the left of equation (viii)}. I do not think this point is explicitly brought out by SaintYenant. That is. that equations (iv) and (v) have only been proved for the algebraic portions of the solution. ce qui est vibratoire. the principles of kinetics will hold for the algebraic and transcendental parts of the solution separately as we have seen in the above example. the algebraic part has no accordingly influence on the determination of the value of A mt which Z)+f f & Jo as before. qui seule int^resse le probleme de la resistance de la matiere. Substituting the full value of u. dtablir sfyartment la partie algdbrique ou de solidification. if : (I) + S f AZm JQ ~ dz = I 0. Equation (vii) gives us easily the numerator and value of the denominator. &' SaintYenant gives on p. and therefore both = We equals : have thus l( C + G' j\ Zm dt[ J or. dans les probl&mes de mouvement des barres ou tiges &astiques libres ou piyotautes autour de points ou d'axes fixes. There is one point. namely : Z On peut done.
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. other points Ut=Q = 0. have to solve the equation [356 We subject to the terminal conditions : = J . we find The equations for U can now be easily solved.... or Z/^Q =F for the weight Q.. if ^ (^) and ^ () be and velocity corresponding to Z7.e.240 SAINTVENANT. t TT Hencewehave: C^ TT Further but for all u = l 0.. . whose abscissa is Z. we i.... (v)...27 where SaintVenant takes u = and chosen so that the gravitational terms disappear from equations (i) and (iii) i.tanh m) = 2P/J + In order to determine respectively the initial shift ) .... is independent of the time 4. value of u u . Bm and .4 TO we have. Now. (ii). ^ ^ : Thus^have and integrating having regard to equations (ii). Z7g=s0 = the ^=o = the initial initial value of wu is l .. l Further the initial value of u the deflection due to the bar's 3 own weight P and the load Q' attached........ deduce : r ^ = where Z m cosm ) ) f T coshm mz 5^. ' and the characteristic equation is : m (tan m .
TM 5381029421 Bl .
. 549). on doit prendre. le travail de la force ql pendant " / parcours d'une demicirconference est 7^ ql cos Qt d (Qt) . so that q separately satisfy all the conditions but (iv).. 1'on appelleft Teffort op^rateur qu'exerce. si Ton y fait 2fy cos Qt est justement dgale a Ql 7rrly c'estkdire au travail de la force tangentielle constante x . 1' 2 For the right arm r d*u/dfi + W'u/dz = 0. m '' initial j{ conditions will be of the following kind : When = 0. une roue monte'e sur Parbre du volant.. et d'un rayon 6gal a la longueur rx de la manivelle. en sorte que I'expression pose'e est bien ce qu'il faut pour que cette force verticale entretienne le pour &=  mouvement du m^canisme en opdrateur qui a e'te' & fournissant. when a? = I For the with th left arm : i*dfajd& + Pdfatjdzf =0.. . Substituting u and u in the equations (i) to (iii) we find they remain the same with the suppression of q and q l9 that is d 3 U/dz? and vanish for z . tangentiellement a sa circonference. He beam each equal Z.I and z = I : Now Saint. and shall ] cPUJdz* l respectively.. w when zl = 1)  ' ' ' ' ^' ' "When The = 1^ = 0. ffiujcbf = and Eu*? d^jdz* + q = l 0. et si Q est la vitesse angulaire de la manivelle. effort qui est rendu sensiblement constant lorsque le volant a un moment d'inertie de grandeur suffisante. son maximum positif pour Qt =ir il devra tre mil aux points morts.Venant. u = $(z). dujdt = = 2QcosO.. [358 supposes the arms of the applied to each extremity of the form method adopted by Saint. we must have u u^ = 0 = du/dz dujdz and d?u/dz? = d*ujdz*} 3 l ..242 I will indicate the SAINTVENANT. le travail If we accept these values for the forces acting on the beam we can easily state the analytical conditions of : the problem. 2 1 cosO#.. q En effet q^ devra avoir son maximum n^gatif pour Tangle Qt=Q. le temps t tant suppose' compte* a partir de 1'instant oh Quant k par exerce's les bieHes. d^pens6 pendant sa dure*e (p.. du cdte' gauche.. and that the forces may be represented by a periodic term : 2Q beam. . oh Qt =?r/2 enfin comme 1'espace parcouru verticalement par le bouton de la et 37T/2 : celleci est horizontale.(iv).. inte'grale qui.Yenant takes u = v + U\ u^v^U^ and chooses v and v and ^ shall disappear from the equations (i) and (ii). with d*u/dz* = and EUK* dsu/dz? + q = 0. gr Q = tfr where r2 = il/ l (z l ). a la fin de chaque pdriode. u^^fa). manivelle pendant le le temps dt est Q^ dt cos Qt. He justifies la cos fit which practically acts perpendicular to the this assumption in the following manner forme a assignor aux expressions des efforts verticaux q et q1 observons que si. We put also : = du/dt $(*).
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Saint. representation of the results. 557) be found. /= either extremity of the beam subject only to its 2 . own weight. has not yet been published (see 1 The plaster model referred to in our Art. however. soumis vibrer alternativement dans deux sens opposes (p. although the plates have been long engraved. It is to be hoped. n'insisterons pas sur la solution. namely to the practically important numerical calculation of the results given in the which is previous articles.] We now pass to that portion of SaintVenant's work peculiarly characteristic of the man. A/7< Vf V J l~g ot  /g SaintVenant does not draw any numerical conclusions which seem to me to suggest several points of but only remarks finally importance. une fois a* dvelopp6e. then /= _L or p f [360. of considerable service as offering a concise picture of the whole motion in a particular and most important will case. Let the deflection of it into a simpler form.Venant at a date later than the footnote of 1883 having expressed an opinion that the curves ought to be plotted out for more frequent values of t/r and z/l. The work that lies behind the numbers given can only be appreciated by those who have attempted similar calcula The graphical .244 whether of the it SAINTVENANT. having regard to 'the of the practical importance problem.engines ensure its fulfilment.] SaintVenant treats in 325 : the problem of the doubly supported bar centrally struck see our Arts. fournira la connaissance des plus grandes dilatations con tenir dans de justes limites. as well as for a wider range of the ratio PjQ. : Nous les bases. . en r^glant les dimensions de cet organe de des forces to ujours variables. that some one will be found willing to undertake the labour of the requisite numerical calculations. 104 and 1 I much regret that it has been settled that these plntos shall not bo published. [361. or [360 362 how far the dimensions beams We can throw of ordinary beam. from his results. appalling tions. dont nous croyons avoir pos6 de ce problems complexe et d&icat. amount of This occupies pp. solution qui. 553576 ( 3242). 105 footnote p. has been previously noticed. le faisant flSchir et mecanisme. 553). [362.] < 3557 7 4*7T '272 A /^.
Section III. REMARKS . SPECIAL TOOL AND SPECIAL TEST EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Section IV.
The maximum f stretch at ' outer fibre : r ' ^0Efc' 2 where r = PI3 ^ ^ P/Q %. It will that of maximum distance of the . where TQ gives the failHence our condition for nonfailure is limit see our Art. and /3 must be put equal to 2'60. 1 or 2. I reproduce some of his results in the accompanying Resilience of a simplesupported beam.246 SAINTVENANT. [363 In 33 SaintVenant describes how he has traced the [363. 173. by graphical up measurement the maximum curvatures and the times at which they occur. in general a 2la) is /c*/h* is number independent the volume of of the linear . be noted that the instant of maximum deflection and curvature do not coincide. 175 or 1'80 according as equal J. SaintVenant throws this into a slightly different form. table. struck transversely. where h is the from the neutral axis and 1/jR is the curvature this must be less than TJE. substituting r and squaring we find : By Here T*fE the beam.] "lr form taken by the rod at different intervals of time from t = deduced curves he has these From to t 2'25r. any instant = hjR. although the maximum of the maxima for the various times as above tabulated is central. SaintVenant remarks that at each instant of time the maximum curvature is not central. is the modulus of resilience.
Replacement and Repair Clamshell Conversion ._ Brake adjustment __ Clutch removal and replacement . 2111 2111 2111 245 242 248 C Cables. . Boom Maintenance Bridle Assembly Rcrvicp. 2108 21086 2408c 2108d 2108e .TM 5381029420 PART ONE CRANE INDEX Paragraph Accessory Drive Shaft and Housing Replacement Administrative Storage Air Cleaner Assembly Service and Replacement Alternator Belt adlustment Belt replacement Teat 2106 14 ~~HII r 278 __ 288 2886 2S8e 288d 288e Replacement Angle Indicator Replacement 248 ll 284 294 294 294 294 295 247 B Backhre Conversion Backhoe Dipper Assembly Backhoe Front Attachment Service i 28 288 211 241 282 f Dipper aasemblv pitch adjustment Repair and replacement Backstop Assembly Replacement Batteries 282o 2826 282c 240 240 '241 247 258 241 247 251 Test  253* 258c Replacement 25H 251 2111 2111 Boom Hoht Brake and Clutch Brake band removal ._ Clutch adjustment Boom Jib Mast Service and Replacement _. 244 287 241 . 2836 283c 2l 4 288 288 2110 243 27 21 211 27 242 Conversion. Inspection and Repair 2118 245 Replacement Carburetor 283 2188 246 288 Adjustment Removal and replacement Chain and Sprocket Adlustment Clamshell and Dragline Bucket Service. Equipment Backhoe Clamshell ^ ^ M ^ " Crane Dragline I ' 28 fj 29 fj Piledriver 210 214 2187 242 28 Shovel Counterweight Removal mnd IntlUtIon Ctane Boom Malntentnoe 11 . Replacement and Repair .
356. gr He thus deduces for the timeterms' bracket the value 1 Hence the total deflection /produced /= maximum of u.initial 4 by the blow is given by: deflection due to weight of beam. [366. He remarks that the maximum value of the second part of u (Equation vi) treated as consisting only of the first term will be reached when m*t tan r = m* FT 5. + the statical deflection and is the dynamical deflection of Art. a revenir de T6tat fibreux ou a l^tat cristallin ou grenu ? particules entrelace"es. quels qu'en soient les rSsultats. Saint. [365366 ou une sorte de fusion.Venant shews that the solution obtained on the hypothesis of Cox. or since ' m calculates on p. I Tinstar de nos maltres. namely Q/(BP) 9 when P/Q P/Q*=k \. and 2/ a theorem of Young's. 363 to a first approximation. rdle et de renoncer aux considerations et patients caJculs dont nous avons.248 calorifiques SAINTVENANT. in this The experiments on repeated load to which we shall refer later volume have thrown light on some at least of SaintVenant's problems.che de donner quelques specimens. root of the characteristic Equation (v) of Equation of Art. we have nonimpulsive resilience.] In the next sections ( 367). f= tf . SaintVenant 562 the value of the coefficient of the radical and first ' = 0. seront nScessaires pour renseigner l&dessus la throne se bien garder d'abdiquer son qui devra. 355 [365.] with Q' = 0. 4 the same is extremely small. t. that the form . k Des experiences. dont il est difficile de tracer le programme. v ) 3 // PI V Here is the Art. Hence where fs is /=/. mais oil de ces deformations persispourra jouer un r61e essentiel le mesurage tantes regardees comme annongant des commencements d^nervation et de desagrSgation. as of the finds it has almost exactly for values of value. 1. 362. 2. If V= 0. SaintTenant passes in 35 to the problem of our Art.
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... and as the masscoefficient Let His method is more general and simpler gives a general expression for the value of 7. Take final the shifts at the instant shifts. it than Cox's... 578 87 : 7 be the initial impactvelocity of the weight Q .. we indicate it here : see his pp.. u= This gives y = /{*}' ^ . In a footnote he remarks that the second approximation will the bar be far from exact in cases like those of Arts. let v l be the velocity of any point of the beam immediately after the impact.. so that v 1 = V: at the midpoint. (ii).. In a long footnote he gives the history and a proof of the principle of virtual shifts as applied to impulsive forces (pp.. 577 82).... [368 The case given in our Vol. then: when the bending effect begins as the virtual the integral extending along the length of the beam....250 SAINTVENANT. L. p.. 353 and 354 where is free or pivoted at one point only. Dividing by QV? ... (iii).... SaintVenant next proceeds to obtain Cox's formula [368...] an by elementary method.. l : U^(z) relation.. Now the total kinetic energy of the system after impact must be . SaintVenant does not appear to have considered. 896. we have The determination of y thus depends entirely on the relation we choose between fo and Fr Cox's assumption is that the relation between the statical shifts at the centre and any other point holds continuously Thus if u = be the during the motion. let Vl be the impact velocity. or the velocity attained by Q when the beam begins to bend.
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. and we must have recourse to the transcendental series or the numbers given in our Art. 363 give (1183) 1252 > according as (1486J f^ P/Q = h I (2J . as those of carriage springs. to have the ratio of the corresponding At the same time the method of vibrations involving the transcendental series ought to be used to control this result wherever it is possible (p. T introduces into 7 a term of the order 7 /height of endsection \ ( height of mid . 3/yP. J/(?) \" i/ I U[. flexure SAINTVENANT. 620 623. for [371. 363. 625). L ) so soon as we have assumed vJV statical deflections (p.] Leaving on one side Note : a moment Saint. examination of the results of the Iron experiments: see our This amounts to little 943* and 1409 more than the remark that Hodgkinson's ^ is almost equal to the theoretical of 7.Venant's 52 55 we observe the following points in the concluding pages of this long (i) pp. An 10*. supported beam l/p Thus in the case of a simply = centrally struck we should have by Cox's method but the values deduced from the Table in our Art. 365 by Cox 597 SaintVenant deduces the result of our method. and the statement that the values of the modulus value $ obtained by applying the resilience formulae to 67 experiments agree sufficiently well among themselves. _ (ii) SaintVenant remarks that/^. SaintVenant gives an empirical formula for these three cases . f . 624). the value of 7 being known t jie.252 height. The values obtained by Cox's method for the maximum (iii) curvature and so for the maximum stretch are not sufficiently exact. =^ \l i p/7) can be applied to a variety of cases of impact. On pp.sectioaj which (d) is negligible. etc. 69. Commissioners' Report and Hodgkinson's Arts. 595 s Art. [371 : must be calculated by the methods of the memoir on But the addition of this material only see our Art.
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] We will first give Phillips. sous Faction Annales des mines. 467 50(5. viz. or l'&ude. 1882. is the maximumstretch is always given by the formula . 1044. [372.] We must now return to pp. d'une charge en mouvement. shall suppose the beam simply supported. all we may say maximum stretch for that and other larger values of first P/Q is h given by the expression K the impact. 145204. 11 11 sensibly unity. Problem or the resilience of a horizontal They beam subjected deal with to shall include a travelling load: see our Arts. propounded by Let P . the range within which there is any necessity P/Q lies to apply the transcendental series to ascertain the curvature and so the condition of failure. the rigidity of the beam. 1 2 under our discussion the memoirs of Phillips and Eenaudot We .. des pouts s6rie. ri) Hence if we find that value for P/Q for which the that the numerical coefficient h of K ^r V is V ^c.or K independent of the mass of Q. 1855. 597 619 of Saint Venant's note which Willis' we have omitted above. 21 the length. say that after We P/Q = 11 TT 2'5.. pp.W l l We 1 Calcul de la resistance des poutres droites telles qua Us ponts. 1417* 1422*. t. t. If this be true.du mouvement des From some will it slight calculations I be reached when very much limits have made I believe this result between 2'5 and 3. etc. 1861.254 SAINTVENANT.Venant's additions and rectifications we shall thus be able to give the reader a more complete view of the advance made by the problem since the because these writers have memoir of Stokes: see our Arts. may then. 4 metalliques a poutres droites. 2 Etude de Vinfluence des charges en mouvement sur la resistance Annales des ponts et chaussees. which have been rectified by Saint.. the equations for the complete problem as 2 be the weight. p. 1276* 1291*. made mistakes in their analysis. See the Note in and takes place in the instant of the Comptes rendus cb Boussinesq. [373. u the shift to the right and u to the left of the travelling load Q (distant x = Vt from the righthand terminal) of points distant z and z from right and lefthand ends of the beam. i. Application des Potentiels solides dlastiques. . With Saint. 486. pp. p. I think.Venant. [372373 (say.
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But they become: C^ D^bj Equations (Hi) and (iv).as) = x ~ } a. Further. It remains to determine C. (iv) may be written f&U\ \ dz* /^ ss + V c&V l9 A Now y = ^ when = x or after a short reduction Since ^ = 2Z  as. ________ Equations (ii) now become 17=0. we have : = 2 (J . and : S=0 r2 Qi% l ^= Integrating (vi) 0. 2). and thus find . ..56 Let us assume SAINTVEtfANT. [374 w=w'4substitute g 27. and 1: =0 whens^O we have These satisfy equations (vii). I 3P 3P 3P . w^Mi' + g Z7i. and neglect f ^j We find from Equations (i) by dividing out by 1/0: <M7 #17.
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give M and . ^ may write down the complete value thus being obviously given by interchanging x l with x and z l We with This embraces both SamtVenant's forms (o>) and (a/). ]) we use ) in them the We may ask b (xiv the curvature. the terms in P). 609 012) Phillips'. 'centrifugal force' of the travelling load ^ ( ) . and = o5 1 = = ? we find: If we put P=0. correct values were first obtained by Saint. and find they agree with this result. we obtain Stokes' result see our Art. He does not make use of the general differential but calculates and sums the equations. If c <?.258 SAINTTENANT. to the parts of the bending moment due to statical loading. [377. 1287*.e. obtained. oider in 1//9 and u. It will be observed that these expressions for the bendingmoment and the deflection have been reached without any as to the value : assumption of the ratio Q/P. for the terms in 1//3.] We may make some remarks on the above results. first He The obtained erroneous coefficients. [377 Adding 5 U to u f of (v) we obtain the complete solution to this degree of approximation. and bis process is much shorter than In 54 (pp. and to the mass P accelerations parts so I L^ dz rf j of each element dz of the beam. and (xiii ) whether the expressions in Equations the maxima values of and u. 6 1 5 I have tested them. first The due to the last two influences are of the statical values for 1/p. SaintVenant gives an elementary proof of the value of the a bending moment in our equation (xiii ).Venant. Phillips gave the complete equations for the problem and included the effect of the inertia of the beam (i. p. however.
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quantities in terms of which SaintVenant solves the It will be found that r/2l . i.] The v solution found by SaintVenant ~ ' QP ^ / f TT 15JW QV ^_ 2 ft r_ 2 cPX . 615 e. ) .. SaintVenant. . however.> <"> The algebraic terms as niight be supposed owing to the method of h The factor jljJJ approximation. / * 155 "^" IN . he omits the last term of the bracket on the righthand side. 379 centraldeflection as the load passes we find For tlio 125 l~~ i Ql* i? / 2 I "*" l\ "S/"*" A 5PP o~rn 6. while tins factor instead of Jf J .e.. are not exactly the same as in (xiv ). and Stokes solves it on the supposition that Q/P is so small that quantities of the order (Q/P) x v may be neglected. 1 2Q17* we have the small equation (i). The equation (i) shews that v is of the same order as Q/P. (m) " See his p. : where q is the constant of Stokes 7 We may note that /Si of Stokes = PI3 . Substituting for v in equation (ii) of Art. in other words. important..260 where gj = 5 by SAINTVENANT. 1 jr is given by 3x 2 . f... 1290*. however. 6^? f ' + 3 /r\ a: (l) I l^ r we havo u. [380 5^ and the deflection at z is given ( thus determining what is represented by v. OQ a ( o/ 336 o 31 ^. instead of 1 is not.l/q. and// of SaintVenant = [380.. and the exception If we take legitimate. In most practical cases is Q and P be very far from equality. he makes no assumptions as to the value of the ratio Q/P except that P/Q is not to be extremely large. investigation see our Art. will not accordingly 31 P 1 . seeks a value of v by approximations in which powers of 1//3 are neglected.2Z2 \ 6lx \ : \ da? p 2 ) P r .
are leplaced. and that we may add to them the expression 31 Plr I This lesult in order to approximately account for the peiiodic ternib and (iv) differ from those of Saiut Tenant (a) p 615 h and (') p 615 1 but seem to me to give the correct \alue ot Ui The conespondmg part to be subtracted fiom the bending at the centre as the load passes it is . distance between equal to Vt lebb the constant Thus while the z in the given element and the head of the tram d u/dt is not a function of t. \ moment sin  r This again differs from Saint Tenant's results {') p 6 15 h and (') the 615 By a mispiint which has escaped collection he has j p fraction f where I have fextension of the problem which we shall consider [381 ] The last here is that of Renaudot. on the supposition that the tram (i) longer than budge. we may proceed as in oui ni&t the then and stitical the far&t dynamical deteimint to 373_376 . p that of the travelling load the head ot In this case equations is distant x = Vt from the right hand terminal is of our Art 373. or bince x = Vt we may write Here w is the z ib to shift of the be put in w _ ~dt 2 ~~ [dx 2 ~* du_ dxdz _ du u\ dz j I'hus the tiist equation becomes PV du ~ p'V (du du + du\ ( j with the necessuy teinnual Stating from equations (u) ind (m) Aits conditions foi eich poition of the gudci. by f dt and element (p'/g) dz of the tram on the budge.381] ! SAINTVENANT 261 SaintTenant concludes that occurs only in terms involving 1//3 the algebraic terms given by the first method aie the coirect ones. that in d w/dt is to be tieated as a function of t. who does not deal with the case of an isolated oad (as a locomotive) but with that of a continuous load (as a tram of Let p be the weight pei ti ucks or carnages) ciossmg the bridge which foot run of the glider.
however.Venant remarks that Phillips has also treated [382. + \ 72 R") approximately. Tn this case equation (iii) of Art. [382 The maximum bendingmoment will be greatest approximation. 619 and our Arts. 381. erroneous. it will. 2/3" {sec J1//3" 5 1 1 }. 733* and 188). These are and they must be substituted in the second approximation involving the terms in 1//3 and 1//3' (see pp. or. Saint. 70 " /. P' It gives for the maximum moment MP t P . 38 1 becomes g dz 2 and we can find an exact solution. Eenaudot neglects the term 2 in equation (iii) as of small (2 1 + \ o^> ) j for the bracket in the value of the bendingmoment. where *. 377.] His the case of a travelling load crossing a beam doubly builtin. . as has been pointed out both by Bresse and SaintVenant. for builtin effect. 619 to Bresse's exact solution for the case of a bridge across which a very long train is continuously moving with velocity F. It is then given by the load just covers the whole girder. There is also a reference on p. moment.262 SAINTVENANT. nor would it be of much value to correct his results. ends (encastrements) never produce their full and such alternating motions as occur with travelling loads in bridges soon deprive such ends of nearly all their effect (see p. as in Art. M ir } P =l hp ^ l +P ^ . when the bendingmoment when the train is Similarly we may deduce headed by a locomotive of weight Q followed by a train of weight p' per In order to obtain the position of the maximum bendingfootrun. 616618). so that the bridge takes up a permanent form. be sufficient to find the values of z and x which give the maximum moment for the statical approximation. or wo aee that thu that in which the train just covers the whole . This result is dangerous instant less is than that of our Art. solution is.
a single equation involving only the stresses Let the body stress equations be and given quantities dxx d'yx dzx dx + Tdx dUcz dy dz dy difz + ?+? dz d'zz =( _ dx dy dz Addiug the third of these equations to the differentials of the fiist two with regard respectively to x and /. JJ stress equations.383384] SAINTVENANT 263 It is then pioducing impulsive changes in the elastic line of bridge the bridge. and 64* see our Arts 258* somewhat at length with this Note as it SaintVenant adopts treatment hitherto given for thin plates Boussmesq's method (see the memoirs of 1871 and 1879 in the Chapter devoted to that elastician) but with ceitain important modifications hitherto only I propose to deal forms distinctly the best He describes Clebsch's investigation. notwithstand with unnecessary simplifications. and the solutions for statical equilibrium of (iv) a reproduction with extensions of Navier's results obtained in the memoir of 1820. deduction of the general elastic bodyshift equations for thin plates (n) a full discussion of the contour conditions. the Note finale du 73. (111) . body ^y . and the controversy with regard to them thin circular plates published in extract . we find . + <L\ ydy ) . y dy 7 .  dxtly dz (dx d d ~^[ d U z .* ~) 4 ^ 7 ( z y*~* %)+5\ J + z f~l 7\dx . such difieienfcials betoie addition being multiplied by z. and not a steady form of the elastic line as in the case of a very long tram imagined to be continuously crossing We now reach SaintTenant's last contribution to the [383 ] annotated Olebsch namely. tiree directement des des differentielles g&n6rales de V6quilibre d'dastivit The Note consists of four essentially distinct parts (i) a .. pp 689 752 It is entitled Theone de la flexion et des autres petites d6foi nations des plaques Equations solides 6lastiques planes minces. " I think the terms are fully warranted and indirect very complex ing that it starts [384 ] let its faces Let the mid plane of the plate be taken as that of = and be z = =*= e We shall endeavour to deduce from the three xx. as "obscure.
[385 =+ tos = e. 323. we easily find from 1 and 2 Q W is Using the = (a . This is the equation obtained by Lagrarige. 484^ and 640^. Y" = f 7  ^alifc . of what further assumptions Those usually made are the following : we shall make ^ = 0. the most 2. 284^.e'*/c) sx + (f . the subscripts denote as usual that the stresses are to be given their values at the surfaces z = * e.) and LeVy. (This is made even byBoussinesq P.. y of the midplane.rf/c) sy ! Substituting in (ii) ' and integrating _ ~ _ J #. where the normal shift of the point #.d'e'/c) sx + (b .z/p. Poissoji and (Jauchy see our Arts. recent writers on the subject.d'e'lc) *J = (/' . the platemodulus of our Art. < [385.] The question now arises.264 Integrating this from SAINTVENANT.+  jjrti and = r*Z<b. where 2 : . All the terms in the expression (xy) are thus known quantities. where p and p are the two curvatures of the It follows that : plate at its midplane for the point x. sy = z/p'. where < (xy] =Z'+ (=)+... dxdy dtfdy* we have the equation ^ : ' ' ~ ( >' : This becomes in the case of elastic isotropy parallel to the midplane : 3 H=ae" /c. sx . 117 (a)).(S) . y. stressstrain relations for three planes of elastic symmetry (see our Art. 7e X" = + 7 e f aXtfa.
et dont les effete accumule's se transmettent au tronon & travers ses quatre faces laterales. however shows that zz is \ery small compared with *.. 01 ab k la petite coordonnee z on voit que les Si on lesjurbfegre par rapport composantes *x zy n'ont de valeurs. h Pinte'rieur d'un tron^on ou eldment de plaque. . que celles qu'elles peuvent avoir sur une des deux bases. agissant sur sa masse Ces forces locales n ont qu'une influence insignifiante qui n'est presque nen en comparaison de ce qui vient k la fois de toutes les forces agissant sur le re&te de la plaque amsi que sur ses bords par les reactions des appuis ou autrement. hence z* is doubly small as compared with xx. but it will lead to i difficulty with ugard to the expression (xy) This expiessiou coutams* terms of the iorm (^)+ and (~) _ e the foimer < fi (11) These terms disappear when we substitute them in But Leie a new and integiate between z = + e and e . following the hint he gi\es on p 700. perhaps. zy because these quantities occur with lateral variation. xy and yy Thus we may take zz = as all writers have hitherto done [387 ] is not.386387] SAINTVENANT 265 Saint Tenant considers what [386 ] On pp 696700 ( aie the aiguments in favour of the assumptions 1 and 2 of the He remarks that owing to the thinness of the plate. previous Aiticle the normal or % variations of both the stresses and the strains must be Hence as a first laige as compared with the longitudinal variations approximation. ^ must vaiy v ith s fiom + ftoe S tint Vc n \nt (p 699) siys we must take p)+ = \ a V) and put (^)_ . but this seems to me to destioy the basis oi his =X ' ( !J) illc^ ^ 1C e ^ l ^ ei 1S /ei Hence it follows th xt e ( > Possibly.0. we have the fluxions with regard to x and y of both stress and strain components more and more neaily zero as the plate is taken thinner and thmnei It is sufficient however to assume that those of acx. plus ce qui vient des forces J. then a surface load in the bime sense will give the same btianib pupuitlicul u to that sense is the itdeyial of a body Thus the fiexuie equations foi a beam aie force also in that sense appicmmitum . when the dimensions of a body are veiy snull in uiy soiibe. of x y only 9 equation difficulty arises . the true UK thod is to consult r tli it. as The third body stiess equation. quite convincing It would sight better to assume ** to be very approximately a The expressions then for xxt xy 9 vy would contain function of x. x$ and yy are zero or small The body stress equations 45) then give Saint Thus the stresseb zx Tenant puts it 9 *J on integration will be of the order e. y only terms not involving but functions together with the terms linear in This aigument seem at first . ce qui s'applique surtout aux composantes agissant horizontalement (pp 697 8) 9 . load ^i = x( K y) ) suppose the surface of the plate z = + subjected to a This will make no change in the nrst thiee teims of equition (11) of Ait 384 although \ve cuinot suppose ^ =0. B.
.. ' .. com mo consequence... [388 deduced on the assumption that there is no lateral stress. ar^ are zero.. Thus the second for z fluxions of sx w in Sy. ainai qu'il arrive ]x>ur les sections voisines. where x is the direction of the axis of the beam.] In 5 SaintYenant shews that from the assumptions. 699) and assume. dans les tiges dprouvant la flexion ditc infyalv (p. better than those which start by Since writing the above I have obtained the full solution for a Him ply beam continuously loaded on its upper surface. : It will be noted that this treatment brings out the real diilicultios and assumptions of the problem.. and 1 and 2. and z the duection of 1 supported the load. = = M = 0) we can deduce (which are less restrictive than o^ <rw 0.. dxdy. 325). whose integral between the faces is equivalent per unit . car leurs petits intcrvallos hori/ontaux pcuvcut tres bien croitre lineairement avec z quoiqu'elles aoient dovonuos courbos. that the result of such load so far as the shifts of the points of the midplane are concerned can be represented by a body force. II convient de remarquer en passant que cela n'entratnc nullcmcnt.. que les dilatations de petites droites niat^riellos horiKontales do direction donne'e varient lindairement le long de toutes les lignes primitivemont vorticales. of our Art.. HI celles qui sont voisines affectent des inflexions pareillos. or : approximate values  ~ ' . I find ~ is of the name order as J. _ 9 dz*~ ' ~ ds? dy* . [388.266 SAINTVENANT. or : dxdy we may write it follows that we must have where the zero affixed refers the quantity to the midplane. those 385. des divers points desquelles ces petites horizontales auraiont 6i6 tirdos.. (a) ~~3~dJT results da?. comme consequence cint^matique des dgalitds posees (a). when plates have a surface distribution of load. yet we do 1 not hesitate to use them for beams subject to continuous lateral load a ** not zero definite best to I conclude then that it is (and always put value as SaintYenant does on p.. GUI) see our Art.. que ces verticales resteront exactement droites et iionualos au feuillet moyen devenu courbe. embracing Writing the first set of expressions at length we easily find that : dz~ Whence we d?sx dx*' dz~ _ dy 2 ' _ dz " dxdy : see by differentiating with regard to z that z __d?s " "" da?" (/3) . SaintYenant remarks of the equations (y) : Elles montrent.. area to the surface load.
m I the case of isotropy pnallel to the plate 702) J \rl I d fdu. . w .+ F' = 0. similarly / / e Sd = 2SJ< and I J e where the _ denotes a mid plane value Hence fiom the integration of the body stress equations affixed we obtain /dxa?Q + + dxt/ Q \dx ~ "^" 2c ff \dx ^ ay where X' and 7' are the and 7 integrals of X J ) + (9)^. ^ (9). = I do Q \ 4 dx\dx d fdu (] dyj dvA ) f +j J d fdu dv. method the fundamental equation of the plate see Thomson and Tait. in terms of the mid The^e equations leduce to the simpler forms (p 2i. . or Lord Rayleigh's Sound. 6 639. the plate modulus of Art 323 be noticed that these equations for the shifts U Q v^ are or tlie ttansverse and longitudinal sti un independent of thit for This has aheady been lemaiked exercise no mfiutucc oueich other wheie If It is will . j across the plate sti esses Substitute the values of the mid plane plane shifts u V Q and we have . let us two between the limits =t= of z We note first.389] SAINTVENANT 267 \ssummg the strain energy to be a function of the curvatures and so deduce by Lagiange's. Q dy\dy dx d fduo dv f (z ^. by C mchy and Poisson see oui Arts 483* and 640* . 214 I may remark that the equations (n) and (m) obtained in Art 384 still hold if 2e the thickness of the plate changes gradually with a? and y [389 ] integrate the first howevei. since Returning to the body stress equations of Art 384. that r+t . Yol i. or other. by equations (y) of Art 388.+.
let P.268 [390.] by In contour conditions. and ds> dn elements of the arc and normal of the midplane contour. In its present form it has been obtained on the supposition From fi we that 2e is constant. Q.] stresses parallel to the SAINTVENANT. In 8 [390392 effect 10 Saint. w^ x ^ nf^y^y I c s a /. When there is elastic isotropy parallel to the niidpUne they reduce to if IL [392.()_ e equated to deduce the equation for the transverse equilibrium of a membrane.. 13 Saint.Venant considers the of midplane on the normal shift wQt Thus he obtains what may be called the terms due to the action of Hhe plate as He finds that in the function <f>(xy) of a transverse membrane. R We find at once : P = ## cos a + yx sin a. 704. [391.Ven ant next turns to the involving the normal shift R'j the first two symbols w more controverted conditions proceeds to calculate M. Art. the alterations for 2f variable are indicated Saint. Qdz = Q'.Venant commences his treatment of the Let a be the angle between the normal to the midplane contour at any point and the axis of a?. p. of Art. /<^?6 () dv \ sin ( dy) du^/dxj sin a ^ a"j 7^ "~ ' \dy dx) cos aj Q' Saint.] ^^o flfa. we have f+e 2e (XXQ COS a ~ + yx Q + ^ sin a) = = I Pdz =P'. 389. be the components of the applied load parallel to the axes. J c r+e I (xy cos a 5J sin a) J e Substitute for the midplane stresses in terms of the shifts and we have : These are the sufficient and necessary contour conditions for longitudinal strain. He M .Venant in a footnote. Q = Hence by equations (i) 'xy cos a + yy sin a. n nnd representing the moments round tangent . R : 'xz cos a +^ sin a. 385 we must include the expression equations (v) and (vi) of : great dwQ zero the sum of this expression and Z' + (9)+ .
for elastic isotropy parallel to the mid plane This first condition is not the subject of discubsion but has been generally accepted [393 M ] In a similar mannei we find n = Q" cos a . 5J"= 2/ jjr+ e I R' = /^ = cos a r I +* 2Js. + sin a r +e ^r/z . e /+e (P cos a + Q sm a) zdz = F* cos a + Q" sin a = ~ ~F~ {**" cos2 a + 2S" sin a cos a + 55" sin2 a}. = 6 {sin a COS a n 2 (xx ''yy") (cos a.393] SAINTVENANT 269 and normal respectively to the midplane contour for the load applied to the strip 2c x ds.P' sin a. ' = (af'} ^ v ' ( . \dx r) with dy 1 elastic isottopy paiallel to the ^ mid plane And Fuithei again. 9"xg= [ 5fc. a single dash on the loads denotes an integiation with to e. between the same limits tions (i) of Ait 389 for the stresses we find sin a cos a Or. and a double dash an integration after legard to z from + Substituting from equa multiplication by %. r and jt? being any two directions. and R' being the total sheanng load on the same * strip.Sin2 a) xy"}. and as before. d'e' Jf where xx " " yy \ Ct 01. o where.
270 . appliqucos en curtains points de ce cylindre et faisant couples autour do so iionnalus. [394 where dS' +=a <&' .# xz = = and J* from  dS fdS* (3. The first objection to the replacement of the couples n by a distributed shear is that referred to in our Art. with regard to reducing respectively to the differentials J7 ( x and y of _!?? Wcc2 + _^ ) when there is elastic isotropy parallel to the midplane.f TT^ \dx dy I have reproduced the values of n and R'. There are two points which which deserve to be noted. Aucun auteur n'a suppose 1'existencc d( pjiroilles forces.Venant y avait des forces exterieures isolees. 488*) and replaces the couples our tion n by an (see ' M additional shear as ^ added to R'. Tons supposent que les forces se repartissent sur des surfaces d'etenduo finie .] Art. ainsi qu'ils Pont tous fait.'S) ^ . CtiS He attributes reconciliation this method of reconciling Kirchhoff and Poisson arise in this to Bonssinesq (p. dies seraient capables d'y imprimer a la plaque. des torsions finies.Venanfc adopts Thomson and Tait's 'reconcilia[394.. 6ffr : These results can be easily deduced by integrating expressions of the form dxz d (z. (it nous ne considererons m^me. 488*. entro ceis points. quo des forces agissant sur le cylindre contournant d'une manic re continue et ^raduello (p. 715). In other words he equates the L contour load to the couple M 8 and the shear K+ 7 . (jui sont capables de produire des alterations permanently de la contexture de la matiere de la plaque si elles agissent avec une certain^ inlonsite sur des portions excessivement petites de sa surface. namely that the Kirchhoff contour conditions could not be used for the case of a discontinuous M distribution of shearing force replies to this S'il : and normal couple. M M Saint. 714). because they are a> the most complete hitherto given and will be useful for reference hereafter. SAINTVENANT. Saint. .
probable and of our Art 388 . the equation of Lagrange can under certain conditions still hold. dans la statique elementaiie des corps solides e"paisseur conspirei (p 714) We may 1 I think conclude that shiftequation ((vi) of Art 385) for thin plates is only an approximation and depends upon the assumptions that^ = and that sx sv cr^ contain only the first power of z. et leurs effets seiont sensiblement les monies que ceux de couples de forces verticales de mme moment. The second that due to he holds that when the couple M M Lvy (see our Art to vertical forces n is due we can leplace it by a shear distribution perpendicular to the plate. les autres au dessous de la periphe'rie moyenne. . and Saint.394] SAINTVBNANT objection is 271 397). d xdy. agissant en sens opposes. et si la plaque est supposes avoir une comparable aux deux autres dimensions. ces sortes de deformations sont nggligeables Les couples de forces horizontals dont il s'agit s'exergant d'une maniere continue sur les aretes successives. He shews that if the following conditions hold cr sv ) 3 dxdij. ces couples ponrront pour prodture certains effets d'ensemble dont nous ne nous occupons pas. comme on salt. qu'on leur substituerait en faisant tourner ceux 1& de 90 degre*s. but that when it is due to honzontal forces this is not allowable This point has been discussed at length by Boussinesq (see the sums up Chapter we have devoted to that elastician). .Venant his arguments in the following woids Si ces couples sont formes par des forces horizontal tangentes an cylmdie. les unes au dessus. d^ydx. tels qu'une ^nfleoc^on impnmle & toutes les aretes. The the approximation extremely small 2 is close when the thickness of the plate is To the same degree of approximation the two boundary conditions of Kirchhoff are tiue for very thin plates the plate has a thickness small but not indefinitely small compared with its other dimensions. dif = 0. ne produiront que ces torsions locales dont nous nous occupons ici. dy* cfo . et accompagne"e de cette torsion gene"rale autour d tin axe vertical dont il a e"te traite dans les chapitres relatifs aux tiges Mais si la plaque est extrmement mmce. however. substitutions qui se font. but it is not then legitimate 3 to replace the normal couple by a distribution of shearingload This latter conclusion is opposed to SaintVeiiant's opinion on When p 720 d& 2 . dy* dx\ dxdy. as in Eqns (<y) These assumptions are.
however. 640*). but these conditions He then allow of a definite but small thickness for the plate. et pent se trouver souvent en dtfaut. I must notice. 385 really lead to the expression of the stresses and as linear functions of e.T Ydz Jo which to jg. Now it longer replace normal couples by will cause a difference in the strain compared with the other dimensions of the plate. Thus Poisson's only a too general statement of the Jo cases be linear in cvenant himself. From this assumption SaintVenant deduces equations (7) of our Art. 9 9 b equations (iv ) of Art. With proper transformation of symbols these are < : . for this of the plate to a distance into its material of the same order as its thickness. (see ..] of other writers' treatment of the problem of thin plates. He notes that Poisson and Cauchy assume that the stresses can be expanded in powers of z giving convergent series. and this distance is no longer vanishingly small as remain true. He remarks of this assumption that it has never found supelle n'est pas porters suffisamment fondde.^385 and (7) of Art. SaintVenant now proceeds to an interesting summary [395. 384) do not agree with the similar terms obtained by Poisson (see equation (9) of our Art 484*) and Cauchy (see Equation (70) of our Art. 388.] SaintVenant appears to think that the terms Z + ~' f dx + d dy Now Poisson and Cauchy assume forms such as : * Y ~ / ] _e ]>owers of <. [396. v. which occur in the function (xy) of his result (see equation (iii) of our Art. [395396 we can still deduce Lagrange's equation.) while from the first stressequations we obtain by integration for & two body quadratic and ** functions of e together with terms *  I Xdz and . 388.az 7 = A ^ fd\ (dX\ 3 \^fa)T terms involving fifth and higher . states that Kirchhoff's contour conditions seems to me that we can no vertical shearingloads.272 SAINTVENANT. that SaintVenant's own assumptions of our Art..
(2) that the stress Z=0 throughout the prism. or our discussion of the memoir later) Lvy investigates what aie the possible solutions for a prism with two free faces. order that the three suiface conditions of Poisson for thin may be satisfied periodic in z. pp the term he has introduced into the values of the shifts u and v in stresses will is . and &hew cleaily SamtVenant on its relation to Saint Venant's assumptions of another deals with 726 733 part Levy's memoir namely. 9JJ 2 + ~ /fPy\ (J] + terms involving fifth and higher powers of or *r = T i c 2 rd e 3 + terms involving fifth and highei poweis of e. pp 219 306. 1877.397398] Similaily SAINTVENANT 273 Z 1 = f+e \ Zdz = e.y's his controveisy with Bous&mesq memon and [398 the thin ] SamtVenant now turns first phto foimulae He obtains the following results T E II to the conciete application of deals with niculai plates and IS . w are supposed capable of being expressed in a senes of ascending powers of z and the forces acting on the lateral sides of the prism have a given resultant load It follows that the now be given in ascending powers of z. which appear through the factor (e ) It will be seen that these results of Ldvy give the proper limitation to Cauchy and Poisson's hypothesis. and (3) that the stresses 72. . but SamtVenant plates as it producing effects only of the following Boussmesq rejects same ordei as those we are neglecting in oui appi oximation This term is Wo shall return to this point latei when treating of Ldv. v> w and in ?? and JJ cannot surpass the third. which may be neglected Thus their assumption does not lead to an eiror in this point as SamtVenant suggests It seems to me also that Poisson and Cauchy's hypothesis is more valid than that of Olebsch and other wnteis who simply put = p= At this point SamtYenant notices Maurice Levy's [397] memoir of 1877 (see Journal de Liouwlle. when the shifts u. v. and that there no limitation as to the thickness of the plate (or height of the prism) Lvy finds (1) that the powers of z in u. ^ contain only 2 2 second powers of z.
the greatest . y^ C7" > : = 117m2 ' .. 74052). We have here to solve the equation (vi) of our Art. [399 Let there be a uniform surface load p per unit of area. When it and the is builtin: the line of inflexion (i. is H = *6202 a in the case of uniconstant isotropy.e.] reproduction and extension of Navier's memoir on rectangular platos (pp. given plate is simply supported: UT M. The maximum stretches in the two cases.. v o(/z by or = '931 a if /. is determined by * = **".274 SAINTVENANT. given by d\0o . namely : .. 385. line of zeromoment where M determined by r = 5773 a. f r umconstant x . . 6.Venant's Note are occupied with a [399. results those of Poisson in our Arts. a. The last pages of Saint. Shift of midplane at radius r : Central Shift / = "jj^f . Further we find that : When tlie the line of inflexion. #// = 8/3. 504*. Let us take the origin at one of the angles of the plate (sides and a<b) the sides being the axes. 3J5T/ 3X 1285? " (ii) When the contour is builtin. When the contour simply rests on a ring of its own radius (i) a.0) by r = a */ s ^j= >. I f or . The conditions Compare with these for the faillimit are thus easily written 497""' down. as in the case of uniconstant isotropy. . r unlconstant . values of sf = are respectively i /.
or we find ^0=5 The second term The maximum will. y = f is only very nearly given by the 6/2. . 01 1. be only 1/75 of is stietch S Q very nearly given by Caw (b) An 47A 4 isolated central load eo = P i Here wiS S111 ft W 0= whei e iri QP 7r y/ao 7 ^^^(i ^.399] SAINTVENANT 275 subject in the case of a simply supported edge to the conditions ~ 0. H y doer + (H 2/) (JLy ^= WQ = 0. for irffe (a J +b) this a = b. The maximum or central deflection Q fiist n teim of this series with x = a/2. when x = when y= or a y for values of y fiom to 5. for all points of the contour The solution is easily found to be (p 743) where This result i 4 = ~i is & P* I ^j "a r f / op o 70 sin  WTO a ^T/? sin  . f01 values of x from to a.1) ' ' i ?i \ + V 1 J and ^' 11 o odd numbei ^ only f .1)~ /?/& (.. + QPab s 2 . /3) applied to the calculation of the following special examples Case (a) A uniformly distributed load p per unit of surface area ~ W _24p " Here  ^V U /' + n'\ ' b) f the summations being for odd numbers m'. o y $ (a.
[402. [400 402 (a). " references will . but it is possible that the results we have here collected will reach some to whom it may not be accessible. . p.. 1883. d'nn tant6t avec gradation continue. afterwards was put together and repaged. and August 6. Flamant the due to Saint Venant in conjunction with cotranslator of the Clebsch and professor at the Ecole des Fonts et Chauss^es. 1883.. 127. les derivees instant des deplacements des divers points de la barre variant.] After a short account as in the Clebsch (sec our Art. An offprint 281 T. 23. and 353. a note with of it by Boussinesq (Comptes rendus.] Determination p. 508 et seq. xcvn. Paris. 263*. pp. July 16.] to the science of elasticity.} a V&tude de I'dquilibre. T.. se succedant Tune 1'autre a des intervalles determines. tantot par bonds considerables donnant aux mouvements une empreintc pdriodiquo do & 1'autre. 30. et Representation graphique des lois du was presented to the Academy on memoir This choc longitudinal It appeared in the Comptes 1883. rendus.iptes distributed also as an appendix to the annotated Clebsch. be to the sections which are the same in the rendus and in the is offprint. xcvir. The memoir M. 60 de Clebsch). Par oxrmplo.. 214. have given a large amount of space to this monumental work because it contains mubh that is of value to both physicist and technologist. This offprint 154) [401. 341) of the evolution of the problem the authors refer to the analytical solution given by Boussinesq (see the same article ami Boussinesq's Application des potentiels des solides elastiques. His annotated Clebsch will long form the standard book of reference on our subject.276 SAINTVENANT. Note (du D'apres cette 480 k choc longitudinal s'accomplit suivant des lois ayant des expressions analytiquos differcmtrs. Hence / // We and s' /s for the same total loads = ir/4 = 25 nearly: see our Art. Pacquisition brusque de vitesse qui a etc faito an prornier instant <lu choc par 1'element heurte. like result for so approximately as in the nearly but not / in Case P. and reproduced by them on le 480 gg of the Clebsch.. and we would gladly bring home Venant has rendered to both the important services which Saint[400. pp.
.
T. 1 f '**'* .
along the Along fiist foi In the memoii the authois use a oui / <r toi oui w.shift (at distance = weight.403 II 404?] SAINTVENANT 277 nous a done paru utile de piebentei ici aux iegaidb? par une ou de diagrammes. une pemture de ces singuheres et remarquables lois. and we may suppose it velocity of sound placed houzontally and stiuck lioiizon tally by a mass of weight Q with If the bai be veitical tlie effect pi educed by its weight velocity V must ilso be taken into \ccount A t the instant at which the blow ends. or the adopted  1 P E One end of the bar is fixed. = stietch modulus. x fioni impelled end) of the bai.Venant has helped to results of most intricate analysis make of He was ever conscious that till theoretical formulae are reduced to simple numbeis. Sl/a [404] atjl 1 Tho foi /ero. 6//a. du/di = s^ = f01 & =(sec our Art 204) and the following nuniencal values aie obtained Q/P < the blow ends between the times t=2Z/a and 7283 < 4 7283 1511 =47/aand <?/P>l 6//a and <?/P> 4 1511 < 7 35 1 4Z/u. quarter. p density. and are able to determine which approximate formulae we may fairly accept. co == u. and which we must replace by others better adapted to represent the exact facts of the case [403] I reproduce the more important diagrams of the memoir seems to as their practical value for engineers and technologists me very considerable is The following notation I = length. the task of the mathematician is very far indeed from Only the final diagram or numerical table can fitly completion ciown the analytical labours of the mathematical physicist By means of such graphical representation we see at a glance the chief laws of the phenomena investigated. cross section. afin de les eclairei et d'en faiie bien compiendre la nature et les intSressantes consequences 1 ) ( suite d'epures What then our authors accomplish is the graphical representation of the results of Boussmesq's analytical bolution which was obtained in terms of discontinuous functions It is one of the many practical value the instances in which Saint. a = Jfi/p. uul u toi uui a . half 1 5 diagiam which I icpioduce gives the sluftb u and thitcquartei span foi times at/l = to the honzontal axis at/I is measuied.
. t. The shifts for the duration of the impulse are denoted by a line ending in a small circle which marks the end of the \ and i heavy after the impulse are marked by dotted lines. le passage de cette onde . We see that in all cases the maximum shift is at the end which receives the impulse. ll. We end.. rait la t6te de cette onde. The scale of the abscissae is 20 mm. for the unit of respectively.278 vertical axis sAlNTVEtfAtfr. si la barre vibrante etait emport<Se perpendicuCela montre bien que les lairement a sa longueur avec une vitesse a/ 1. impulse. avec ceux at/ 1 =1. lignes obliques figwrent. 4.. etc. aux rencontres de ces trois horizontales avec les obliques joignant en deux sens opposes les points a/Z = 0. [405406 for u= flw*/(7Z). ainsi. et bonds et les brisures sont determines cela donne une raison sensible du bm6ine et du trin6me at . x = 1/2.et celles qui descendent ont at + x de I' onde x la en marche et d'Gbranlement. 21. 21. Les pieds des ordonne*es de ces points de brisures sur les lignes horizontales d'abcisses marquees x = 1/4:.2Z . Here the abscissae arc at [405.. tant directe que r6f!6chie aux extr6mite"s de la barre. en effet. d'une horizontale x I tracee au haut.5.21 que M. or the squeezes reduced in the ratio of a.' both at/I and u. .21 = 0. for d = 1. 2..] /I. 4 of the memoir) gives graphically the law of squeeze at the terminals and at J. and having for scale 20mm.de Thorizontale x = du bas.and J and span for the same values of P/Q. to V.] The third and fourth diagrams (figures 5 and 6 of the memoir) give: . ou ce que parcour.x = 0. the shifts the lines become again till they begin to repeat themselves when heavy. (Fig. Ces at . J. pour equations .. The second diagram the ordinates d = (aj a/ V. x 3Z/4 se trouvent. note that in all cases the maximum squeeze is at the fixed [406. Oelles de ces obliques qui montent de gauche a droite ont.3. Boussinesq a fait figurer dans ses formules de deplaceinents. for at/I = 1 and of the ordinates 10 mm. 4:1 . pw (8). Three curves are drawn r = P/Q = ] . points de brisures.x et at + x . is a multiple of 2Z we note sudden changes in the slope (or the shiftvelocity') of these curves the points where these changes occur are termed by the authors Whenever at  x or cat + a .
488 .zruici r '0.
.
compare our Arts 943% 368. 5 686 < 13 816 13 816 < 25 16 ( t = Sl/a The maximum squeezes S&) at the fixed end for abscissae the values of to Q/P from 25 10. footnote p ccxxm We see at once that the HodgkinsonSaintVenant approximation gives the terminal shifts with very considerable accuracy. and the Histonque Afaege."M = 7 when the maximum is reached '' Hence . ~y t tne pointed line is the second approximation =   the curve given by .*JQJP foi finding the maximum squeeze 1 Thus that foimula nevei 1 It its and may be obtained as follows Suppose the shilt unifoimly tli^tnbuted maximum mean value = um Then woik done =iFwZ (". the upper heavy cuive has for ordinates the exact values of x )a/V wheie sx is given its maximum value. and the oidinate uma/( VI). i e at the fixed end The three curves have (s The lower heavy curve is the parabola obtained by taking for oidinates and the dotted curve by t iking foi ordinates For the abscissa scale ordmate scale 20 mm for 5mm d1 is taken for Q/P=l and } foi the It will be seen that the tiue values differ immensely fiom the values suffices given by the old formula d. and may be adopted with safety for all values of Q/P>^ In the course of the calculations the following numerical lesults not indicated on the diagram are obtained The maximum shift u^ is reached if t t Q/P < Q/P > Q/P > (2) 5 686 between = = 2l/a 4Z/a 6Z/a and and and 6l/a.406] (1) SAINTVENANT The maximum shifts at the 279 end struck (u m ) Here the abscissa gives Q/P from to 6. the scale of the unit of both being equal to 20 The heavy line is given by the true theoiy . the broken line is the paiabola given by the first mm approximation y = \p. Legons de Nawer.
[409410 its absolute form indeed is unnecesobserves that the discovery of formulae of elasticity. pp. pp. 107 and 341: see also the passages in the Notices referred to in our Art. Flamant. Resal in a few words (p. 69. Oahier. these curves arc those 105 and 361. la fleooion des prismes. and was made on referred to in our Arts. dressees par feu de Journal de lEcole PolySaintTenant. may. entitled : M. 1886. and introduces no change into the expressions for the strains or stresses.. perhaps. technique. In the case of transverse impulse the authority of M. and pp. publiees par M. Flamant. Comptes rendus. but he himself falls into an error in his algebra. and so gives the colour of an error to SaintVenant's work. 658664 : prismatic axis.] Sur la flexion des prismes. Resal sur error. Observations relatives A une Note rfoente de 8. 108. en. points out Resal's algebraic and remarks that the difference between the terminal conditions of SaintVenant and those proposed by Resal only produces a small rotation of the coordinate axes. This memoir by Resal 719722. The footnote on p. T.VENANT. 97128.282 SAINT. 799) acknowledges his error. 244 of the present volume stating that it had been decided that the plates should not be published was printed nearly two years ago. while results drawn from those for longitudinal impact are mentioned in our Arts. hydraulics the of establishment sary for the and electricity. pp. Ven ant's memoir on the in Saintto point out an error professes Art. has not taken account He then proceeds to assert that SaintVenant = see our of the relation fxzda) 4 P : He endeavours to shew that this has led SaintVenant Art. have helped .J Gourbes representatives des lois du choc longitudinal et du choc transversal d'une larre prismatique. however confusing to the reader. [410. e Lix 1889. I can only hope that this footnote. 797 Boussinesq in a note in the same volume of the Comptes rendus. to erroneous results in the case of the elliptic crosssection. The writer notes see our flexion of prisms of 1856 a rectilinear of element of that SaintVenant fixes the direction the first face and not the direction of the first element of the [409. 81.
Venant which lias been carefully edited by Flamant I The Plitcs deal with longitudinal impact Pigcs III blu w the griphital btages pupiiatoiy to diawmg the shift the ease of PjQ~\ (the not \tion curves foi fw points of the. oj Bane. leads me to believe that far greater accuiacy is obtainable by graphical processes for the case of transverse than for that of longitudinal impact Compare VI of the memoir or Diagram I of our p 277 with Plates IV Plates X and XI of the memoir Flamant himself writes qu'il Quoi en soit 3 le travail de Saint Venant a un interest suffisant il justiner sa publication pent seivir d'exernple en ni entrant comment. it is not very In the case of transverse close for the stretches we Arts 4017 impact are not yet able to test the accuiacy of the graphical values of the curvature. so that the whole may be looked upon as ically a work of Saint. et il donne. 18H an oif punt of oui Chapter x ( . les valeurs de ces series a termes periodiques de pSnodes d6croissantes peuvent etre reprsentees graphiquement . grace a un labour considerable par 1'etendue duquel cet mfatigable tiavailleur ne s'est pas laisse rebuter. 34*2 from the Annotated Glebsch ( et f>eq). n'en sont pas moms prScieuses. as in the case of longitudinal impact. but the fact that the shiftcurves shew no abrupt changes of slope. which have been obtained from the shiftcurves based on the first few terms of the transcendental series. tout an moms. 1m [412] 99110 m 1 The footnote appealed in / IH ]<li\tnal liti>uii cha. puibqu'elles constituent tout ce que Ton sait sin ce sujet si important au point de vue de la stabilite des constructions (pp 98 9) The text which accompanies the plates is pimcipally extracted 60 and 61. ) . si elles ne sont pas absolument exactes. sui les pom grandeurs de ces quantites.411412] to bring SAINT. see our Arts 339. dt ^uint I ciiant. une premiere indication permettant de deduire des consequences piatiques qui.VEN ANT 253 The 1 about a reconsideration of the question of publication were as far back as 1873 engraved plates [411 ] In the case of longitudinal impact the exact results calculated from Boussmesq's solution in finite terms are known and have been discussed by SamtVenant and Flamant see our These enable us to compare for this case the While the acapproximate graphical and the actual results cordance is fairly good foi the maximum shifts.
curves like contain Y. 362 and 371. (p. Flamant also refers to Boussincsq's solution (sec the Chapter we have devoted to that scientist) but remarks thai it leads to formulae so complicated that it does not to seem possible deduce any practical results from them Thus Sniut(p. Venant's graphical calculation of the strain for these special cases . It is impact we have already discussed unfortunate that we have so means of testing their accuracy. however. of a tangent to an approximate curve is unfortunately the slope Thus for P/Q ^= . the strain is considerably greater in the latter than in the former case. of our . curves measures the stretch (or squeeze) slope of these and it is easy to see that its maximum occurs at the fixed end. The curves 3 for transverse in our Arts. and shews that if the same body falls with the same velocity first longitudinally and then transversely on a bar.284 SAINTVENANT. in taking. These curves serve in general the same purposes as those of Diagram but they do not give the same abrupt changes of I. . a parabola with [414.] little squeeze. and these are not approximately coincident with the plane transverse crosssections except at distances which area considerable number of times greater than tho depth of the bar. But ratios of the maximum to the mean squeezes (pp. 124). and XL. while Plates being that of our Art. 122 4) some interesting comparisons between longitudinal and transverse impact. more accurate than in SaintVenant assumes the form of a small arc the instantaneous positions of the its axis vertical and so takes the curvature 8 times the subtense divided by the square of the chord I wish it had been possible to reproduce Plates X. as is usually done in the textbooks. [413414 Plate IV. SaintVenant results. Elamant makes (pp. 119). 278). but their scale precluding this. for the cases P/(? = J. I must content myself by referring the reader to the original memoir. although the ratio of the strains diminishes as PjQ increases. to very good give unlikely 2825 be to maximum finds the V/a and to occur at a time slope p. 277. The crt/Z=3*25.] crosssections are In conclusion Flamant remarks that in both cases tho supposed to remain plane and that this is far removed from reality in the case of transverse impact. 403). SaintVenant's graphical values shew at least that one errs greatly Diagram II. 2. at the lowest point of one of central axis to be For the reasons given above. 1. for the strain will really propagate itself in spherical or ellipsoidal surfaces from the point of impact. gives these curves. and 4. and VI. the mean for the maximum [413. I am inclined to think the results the previous case. 109 110). The accurate values are 3*213 V/a and at/I =3 (see our The errors are even larger than this in the p. slope.
qui a 6te une des glones de TAcademie & notre epoque et un modele pour les tiavailleurs de tons les temps (Comptes rendus. wheiem they could be grasped by minds less accustomed to mathematical At the same time he was no small mastei of analjtical methods himself. was published in the Annales des Ponts et Ohaussees foi November. 1886 In presenting this paper to the Academy. p 215 ) .Venant died on January 6. A by Boussmesq and Flamant of his life and work. p 73) . Dixieme Annie 1888 ^' /// //' '// / In estimating the \alue of SaintVenant's [416] contributions to our subject. avec tous les details que comportaifc Tetendue materielle de texte dont nous pouvions disposei. together with a complete bibliography of his contributions to science. La vieillesse Short notices of his life appeared in the Comptes rendus. sans mfh mite's. Fexistence si bien remphe et les travaux les pins marquants du profond ingenieur geometre. toision and nical elasticity of he kept steadily in view the needs of piactical beams impact and means of numerical calculations and graphical by engineers. T Gil pp 141 7.415 is 416] SAINTVENANT 285 all the theory we can at present use in practical structures subjected to transverse impact [415 of the ] Academy on announcing Saint. occupe jusqu'a sa. T civ 1887. notre maitre & tous denx. T on 1886. representations he presented his results in a form. used the following on January words de notre Eminent confrere a e"te une vieillesse benie II est mort plem de joins. more popular account of Saint. and he undertook m addition purely numencal His calculations befoic which the majority would stand aghast analysis on tin distnlmtioris of distioity round a point and of . 1886 b} the Editor of the present volume full and excellent account . we have first of all to note that he is essentially the originator on the theoretical side of modem tech A In his whole tieatment of the flexuie. appuye pour le grand passage sur les espe"rances qui avaient souteuu Pascal et Newton (Comptes rendus. and in Nature. dermeie heure des problSmes qui lui Staient chers.Venant's life based chiefly on the notices in the Annales and Nature will be found in the TaUettes biographiques . 1886 The President his death at the meeting held 11. Boussmesq said avons tachS d'y lappeler. February 4. 1886 by Phillips.
his kindly foresight and consideration. but we see now clearly that it is to to the to which we must turn if we want supporters of multiconstancy 1 of SaintVenant's to investigate the question rariconstancy foundation. : de St. has not only The of those who would identify plastic solids and viscous fluids.236 SAINTVENANT. V. Sarrau. requires a certain certain magnitude of stress (shear). Regnault experiments nor to the viscous fluid and ether jelly arguments of the first . the investigation of of Oersted. the striking mental freshness. L^vy. the viscous fluid a magnitude of time for any stress whatever. His influence we shall find strongly felt when investigating the work of Boussinesq. . on the basis of Tresca's investigations. molecular action and of polar or false these hypotheses and not etc. at of the points action may either or both be true. of the new . branch of theoretical which he has termed plasticodirect value. 1 This is well brought out by the comparison of Voigt's recent memoir (GiUtimjer Abhandlungen. Not the disciples merit of SaintVenant's work is the able band of he collected around him. to permanently least displace their parts. fairness of his vigorous spirit. fundamental equations in the two cases differ in character: a the plastic solid difference which may be expressed in the words science. The things. molecular action new directions for physical inof while his numerous discussions on the nature have greatly assisted towards clearer conceptions The hypotheses of modified molecular issue. He formed the connecting Mathieu. 27). Resal and Flamant. but shews clearly the fallacy dynamics. p. [416 homogeneity in a body opened up vestigation. the perfect thought enabled him to penetrate to the basis of the depth of his affection. 1887) with those of the early supporters of multiconstancy. his rare personal devotion attached to him all who came in his way and stimulated them to renewed investigation (Flamant and Boussinesq Notice sur la me et les travaux de B. link between the founders of elasticity and its modern school in France.
ioupm^ kindred icseaiches 01 bunding together the complete woik of an individual . pp 178 of Rankme'b Miscellaneous Scientific Papeis edited 101 67 pp W M see our Art by W J Millar to as 1 S P while The pages of the latter will be briefly we are dealing with Rankme's memoirs leferred The titles of the separate sections of this chaptei refer lathei to the method 4* . Vol deals only with the elasticity of fluids pp 86 91. pp 47 80. with 181 and pp 185 6 It is reprinted on additions. 185060 I including those of W J M RanLine [417] Elasticity.CHAPTEE XI MISCELLANEOUS RESEARCHES SECTION Mathematical Memoirs 1 . It is published at length in the Gambndge 1452* and Dublin Mathematical Journal^ Vol vi 1853. Thus this section discusses leseaiche of than to the substance of the memoirs Bresse Phillips Wmkler etc which are of the hrst impoitance to en^meeis \\hile the physical and technical sections will be found to contain many papeis of gieat The o\ei whelming numbei of memons demanded interest to mathematicians some classification and the giouping of them bioadly into mathematical physical and technical sections seemed the least objectionable arian^ement In ceitain cases memoirs have been taken out of their proper section 01 then chionolo n icxl oidtr with a view to j. 1851 and gases This paper Rankine Laws of the Elasticity of Solid J [418 ] read before the British Association at was This Bodies paper is briefly noticed in the Report for that year It 1850 Edinburgh. W and J its Rankine On the Centrifugal Theory of connection with the Theory of Heat Edinburgh ill M Royal Society Proceedings.
pp.] 73) contains reproductions of formulae already given by Cauchy./'=/...288 BANKINE. p. 48 54. which reduces these formulae to those of our Art. Lame and others for expressing the stresses or strains in any three in any three other note that Rankine uses pressures where I use positive tractions and that he uses symbols Tv T^ T for the halves of what I have termed the slides. lassO. Although the word strain is used in ordinary language indiscriminately to denote relative molecular "by and the force which it is to Eankine that we owe the scientific appropriation strain. [419420 Section I. 55) and by the assumption of the linearity of the stressstrain relations Rankine reaches expressions for tho stresses which with our system of notation may be given as : Theorem : 3 = e'sx + d"sy + CSK . pp. It is desirable that some single word should be assigned to denote the state of the particles of a body when displaced from their natural relative positions. in the restricted sense of relative displacement '* . 68 [419. 8. 7381) of the ^aper Eankine restricts his enquiries to homogenous bodies possessing a certain degree of symmetry in their molecular actions. p. produced. (pp. . if it had been generally adopted see our Vol. throughout this paper.] In Section II. 68) he writes : displacement. does not note that the principle of energy requires us to minnow that d =d e *'. 117 formulae (a). P. 5463. w=f<T . He By is thus dealing with a case of what might be termed central elastic symmetry. it. On p. condensation or distortion. 49 (8. 54. I may I am inclined to think : would be of value I. P. S. * :nlnn w hether consisting in dilatation. P. shall be equal and opposite (p. 73). P. xll There are thus twelve Ranlcino apparently independent constants. 8. which consists in this: that the actions upon any given particle of the body of any two equal particles situated at equal distances from it within the sphere of molecular action. yet it appears to me that it is well calculated to I shall therefore use supply this want. a notation which rectangular directions in terms of those rectangular directions.. p. a process of rather general reasoning in what is entitled L (p. 881. in opposite directions.. of the memoir (pp.
308 Rankine's results. He bases his result which lie the usual conditions of ran constancy on what he terms the hypothesis of Boscovich. or in analyti cal language he would say that SS=y7 if <r z = whateve y <ry>s rectangular directions lying in the same plane y. S P pp In this Results of the Hypothesis of Atomic Centres reasoning Rankine deduces that when molecular force function only of the distance 814) is is entitled Ly rather vague central and f d= dW. /=/=/'. but such bodies do not satisfy the above conditions Hence all the further conclusions of Rankings paper which depend upon th truth of (i) or (11) can be considered to hold only fot the limited 9 ang( of amorphic or other bodies for which the ellipsoidal relations of the seconc type hold [423] Section III (pp 6366. c) (u) ai But this is the wellknown second type of relation for bodies with ellipsoidal distribution of elasticity. S P p 80) deduces relations of 4:d=b + cd'd" 2d + d'=%(b + II . that it m\j be conectec by combining it with in hypothesis of his own. e = *W. to which we shil Wo hive scvtial times had occasion to point out tha leturn litei the hypothesis of Bo&covich docs not re\lly invohe the condition T i. he holds. and although the work required to produce the dis tortion might be the same. howevei. ir 10 . or remembering the real equality of d' and d". if tine ought to hold for crystals with three rectangular planes of elastu symmetiy. however it was produced.421423] [421 EANKINE 28 Rankine now proceeds to Theorem II (p 61. z and y' z' ma be This Theorem II does not appear to be correct and Rankme* error seems to have arisen from his supposing that a pure shearing force alone can change the angles of a rhombic He ha prism t neglected to take into account the tractions which would have t< be distributed over the faces to produce the sort of distortion he i considering. Hankine u the type (i). except whei the ihombic angles are right In the latter case his theoren i educes to the wellknown results 9 = sy and <ryz = cr^ [422 ] Theorem III By means of the erroneous Theorem (p 61. or for what Saint Yenant has teimec amorphw bodies see our Arts 230 1. which he considcis not t( be tiue foi all solid bodies. yet thi equality does not involve the equality of the shears. S P ] j which he states as follows The coefficient of rigidity is th 79) same for all directions of distortion in a given plane.
where I use positive tractions and that he uses symbols v 3 for the halves of what I have termed the slides. II. does not note that the principle of oncrgy requires us to suppose that d" = d'. 8. a notation which T T T I am inclined to think : would be of value I. 8. =f" sx + &*v + tfsai = e'sx + d"sy + csz eCT aas> 9 . It is thus to Eankine that we owe the scientific appropriation of the word strain.288 Section I. 73). which consists in this: that the actions upon any jjartide of the body of any two equal particles situated at equal noes from directions.] In Section 5463. P. He By is thus dealing with a case of what might be termed central elastic symmetry. is well calculated to supply this want. adopted On p. [420. P. (pp. 49 (8. (p. pp. P. p. . 4854. 117 formulae (a}. 6873) contains reproductions of formulae already given by Cauehy. . yet it appears to me that it I shall therefore use it. of relative displacement throughout this paper. 7381) of the paper Rankine restricts his enquiries to ions bodies possessing a certain degree of symmetry in their ar actions. in the restricted sense whether consisting in dilatation. 55) and by the assumption of the linoarity of tho stressstrain relations Hankine reaches expressions for tho strossos which with our system of notation may be given as : Theorem : w = asx 'vi +fsy + e"sz . EANKINE. e" = p' /"=/'. shall it within the sphere of molecular action. 881. : It is desirable that some single word should be assigned to denote the state of the particles of a body when displaced from their natural relative positions. in opposite be equal and opposite (p. 54. of particles. p. Lam6 and others for expressing the stresses or strains in any three in terms of those in any three other rectangular directions I may note that Kankine uses pressures rectangular directions. pp.] memoir (pp. condensation or distortion. if it had been generally p. P. S. of the [419 420 [419. a process of rather general reasoning in what is entitled I. which reduces tliose formulae to those of onr Art. 68) he writes see our Vol. language indiscriminately to and the force by which it is produced. v^ *** = = dtr^ 9 T* 7i =J<rxa There are thus twelve apparently Hank i no independent constants. Although the word strain is used in ordinary denote relative molecular displacement.
if true. He bases Ins results which are the usual conditions of ran constancy not to on what he tcims the hypothesis of Boscovich. (11) But ellipsoidal amorphiG bodies with an this is the well known second type of relation for bodies distribution of elasticity. be tiue foi all solid bodies. except when [422] By means (p 61. of his own. to ^hich ^c slixll by combining it \vitli in hypothesis Wo have scveial tuneb had occision to point out that leturn htei the hypothesis of Bosco\jch does not re\lly m\ohe the conditions . howe\ei. z and y' / may lying rectangular be This Theorem II does not appear to be correct and Rankme's error seems to have arisen from his supposing that a pure shearing He has force alone can change the angles of a rhombic prism tractions which would have to the take into account to neglected be distributed over the faces to produce the sort of distortion he is =7 y equality In the latter case his theorem the rhombic angles are right = S and <ryz = cr^ i educes to the wellknown results to produce the disconsidering. yet this does not involve the equality of the shears. e = e' = e". but such bodies do not satisfy the all the further conclusions of Rankine's paper which depend upon truth of (i) or (11) can be considered to hold only fm the limited tange the ellipsoidal t elatwns of the second ofamorphic or other bodies for which hold type ought to S pp [423] Section III (pp 6366. In this by rather vigue Results of the Hypothesis of Atomic Centres when moleculai force is central and a reasoning Rankme deduces that function only of the distance P 814) is entitled d = d' = d". 308 hold for crystals with thiee rectangular planes of elastic Hence the above conditions svmmetiy. and although the work required tortion might be the same. which he consult is bo conected it that he nnj holds.421423] [421 BANKINE 289 Bankme now proceeds to Theorem II (p 61. see our Arts 2301. S P p ] The coefficient of rigidity w the he which states as follows 79) same for all directions of distortion in a given plane. Theorem III 8 P p 80) deduces relations d=b + cd'd" %(b + c) or remembering the real equality of d' and d". however it was produced. of the erroneous Theorem II. Bankme in of the type (1). or in analytiif 0v* = oys whatever cal language he would say that 2/3 in same the dnections plane y. f=f=f". 01 foi what Saint Yenant has teirned Rankine's results.
there will be forces acting between those centres The body will greater than those between other points of the body. such a body must be totally destitute of rigidity or elasticity of figure. pp. [424 Art. of the memoir (pp. 395427. its parts having no tendency to assume one position as to direction rather than another. consist of two one of which. Its elasticity will. Its longitudinal and lateral elasticities will be equal in every direction. possess elasticity of volume to any extent. the three slidecoefficients. diffused through w pace with perfect uniformity as to density and all other properties. pp. obliged 84) that: in a body whose elasticity arises wholly from the mutual actions of atomic centres. in proportion to its longitudinal and lateral elasticities. 1889. P. [Here Rankine gives conditions which amount to putting d = e ~f. 276). 98100). It may. coefficient of fluid elasticity. Molecular Vortices Hypothesis of He had previously written several to cite the description of gases and papers on this hypothesis dealing with the elasticity of the with mechanical heat. condition of perfect solidity. than the amount proper to tho Art. P. and they must be equal to each other by equation (5). 80 (8. and unless the body possesses ellipsoidal elasticity to reject Rankine's fascinating statement on p. Rankine applies 669. now possess a certain amount of rigidity. indeed. p. and display the phenomena of cohesion at its surface and between its parts. Society of Edinburgh. P. He which he terms the parts.7. 66 7) : Supposing a body to consist of a continuous fluid. e. in. 420. July. 17881 Of course equations (7) and (8) of this section will be erroneous of the second type. Further Bankine's reasoning has been questioned by Sir see p. his 84 6) to tbe elasticity of solids. Vol. The reply of Bankine to this criticism is given on pp.] If we now suppose this fluid to be partially condensed round a system of centres. all the coefficients of elasticity are functions of the three coefficients of rigidity [i. arising from tlie mutual actions of tho ecntros of . but less. S. and that Boscovichian systems of rariconstancy (see our not lead to rariconstancy has been recently do which chosen be may Sir William Thomson see Proceedings of the Royal demonstrated by or Mathematical Papers. 66 thus we are (3. d. For and theory generally vapours our present purposes it is sufficient Rankine gives of his hypothesis in this memoir (pp. a = lc = d' = e' =/' = d" = e" =/" in the stressstrain relations of our afterwards writes the latter series of quantities = . in fact. P.0.RANKINE.] In Section IV. William Thomson in a note attached to the memoir : : p. /]. (8. 98). Rigidity of solids. pp.e. a body so constituted is properly being the distinctive property [424.
as well as in his attempt to separate elasticity into the two factors of perfect solidity and of perfect fluidity. M Section V (pp 7180. Stokes. Longitudinal. there may be some temperatuie for each substance Wertheim's equation is verified " at which taming a reference to the reseaiches of Green. Poisson. and it vanishes on the Boscoof fluidity. which involve the conceptions of rigidity and bulk elasticity But from what we have seen above these factors of elasticity do not correspond exactly to fluid and Boscovichian methods of action. will follow the laws of perfect solidity . i e the elasticity of a rariconstant substance stretch Rankme's Equation (9) for the directexpressions given and crossstretch coefficients in terms of the slide modulus and J" would only be true for a particular type of amorphic body In the case of isotropy relations such as (u) of our Art 422 certainly do hold and then we have The m Thus coefficient in the ordinary isotropic notation of our History the \ p. or those \\hich For the sticss strain lelitions expicss strain in tcims of stress . Lame and Wertheim. Lateral. and Cubic Examples of then Ecpemnental [425] Coefficients Determination \vauls These are the coefficients which Rankine ifteitermed Thhpvwomic (see oui Art 448). with a comparison of their notations foi the elastic constants with that of Rankme himself The latter remarks of Wertheim's hypothesis (X = 2/i) that it must "If the effect of heat is to dimmish ^ be regarded as doubtful and increase J.425] BANKING. Navier. 291 will be a condensation. S P pp 879) con MacCullagh. while the other mere elasticity of volume. and Kankme's imperfect solid cannot in general be obtained by superposing on a fluid elasticity the rigidity of a perfect solid. S P pp 8998) is entitled of Pliability. Cauchy. and of Extensibility and Compressibility. resisting change of bulk equally in all directions There is indeed much that is suggestive in Kankme's hypo thesis of molecular vortices. or J= t vichian or rather umconstant hypothesis Rankme's special error would thus seem to he in the extension of his results from isotropy to aeolotiopy other than that of ceitam amorphic bodies To this Section a Note is added (pp 6971.
7580). 17881. 420. : and he a . Rankine then proceeds to express these six thlipsinomic coefficients in terms of the four constants. c of they are coefficients stretchability. p. Further I/a is obviously E.292 RANKINE. as well as the thlipsinomic coefficients a. the stretchmodulus. He determines them for brass and crystal glass from Wcrtheirn's experiments. [426. Eankine then proceeds (J). f.] We have already referred to Sir W.6. lateral elasticity (A). 1) 97100).e. the coefficients of pliability of the slidecoefficients i. 422). An additional Note (pp.' better term terminology would thus be in accordance with that which we have adopted for the usual elastic or tasinomic coefficients see the footnote on our page 77. d> e> f and 7. classifies aj. and indicates how they might be found for aeolotropic bodies (pp. or 1/d what we have termed the dilatationmodulus and represented by F: see Yol. : lateral extensibility and compressibility* them cross traction coefficients. d. 8. P. p. coefficients of may perhaps . fluid elasticity longitudinal elasticity (X + 2^). of which he imagines in the case of central elastic symmetry all the other elastic constants His results are rather lengthy and appear to have to be functions. For the stretches Rankine has in our notation : *z = . P. = and b iq/JS. b and d may be experimentally ascertained. 8. 885._ fy + J h_ /* +^ Here d is what Rankine terms the coefficient of cubic compressibility. to show how the rigidity (/x). no application except to the case of a certain type of amorphic body For the special case of isotropy we have (see our Art. merely gives the relations between the symbols of the present memoir and those of ClerkMaxwell's memoir of 1850: see our Art.b x yy + as Tz. [426 are the reciprocals of our Art.b2 xx . Our We b1? b 2 bs are . e. We a3 are coefficients of longitudinal extensibility and compressimay perhaps better term them direct traction coefficients. of the coefficients of rigidity. pp. Thomson's criticism with which the memoir concludes and to Rankine' s rejoinder (pp. the coefficients as follows bility. There is thus little of importance here beyond the terminology. where 77 is the stretchsqueeze ratio. 1536*. 185. i. 100 .
for to be the means of tiansimttmg light all moleculai pi assures which piopeily fall under the definition of elasticity. foi a medium such as that which Mr MacCullagh assumed It ib true.427428] [427 RANKINE 293 J M Rankine On the Laws of Elasticity Gam] and Dublin Mathematical Journal. to a great extent. Rankine again reduces in the case of ranconstancy the stress strain relations of our Art 420 to relations having only three He obtains the relations of the second independent constants ellipsoidal type (see our Art 422. one of deduction priori (11) cfc (p 230. and 1 in the following section lie \g\rn builds l^ w up w See oui Aits Ij0o . Vol VII 1852. pp bridge 21734 (8 P pp 101118) This is a sequel to the memoir referred to in our Arts 418 26. That the integral calculus and the calculus of variations are It is thus apparent that applicable to the theory of molecular action the science of elasticity is. if that teim be confined to the foices which pieseive the figme ind \olume of bodies (p 221. and contains nothing of special note 1 We may remark that Rankine endoises Haughton's view of the i elation xy = yx cited m our Art 1517* conectly leniaiks that this often quoted Theoiem of It is not tiue. foi not true for all conceivable media instance. S P p 114) for These do not seem to me the only assumptions of the paper. $ P p 105) Mr Haughton is Cauchy Here as in the earliei pait of the mcmoii Rankmo insistb upon the distinction between the icsistances to change of bulk md to change oi form. (11)) but by a hypothesis very different from that of the earlier part of his paper Section VI entitled On the Application of the Method [428 ] of Virtual Velocities to the Theory of Elasticity (pp 217 24) follows closely the methods of Haughton's memoirs of 1846 9. the sections being numbered in continuation The object of this portion of the memoir is to compare the results and symbols of Haughton and Green with those adopted by the author Rankine here follows Lagrange's method of investigation and sums up his assumptions in the following postulates (i) W That the variations elasticity are sufficiently small to first of molecular force concerned in producing be represented by functions of the order of the quantities on which they depend and. ne\ ertheless.
and would therefore resist a change of figure. in addition. isual rariconstant equations of elasticity. \xxyy\ 4 J. These it will be reDered have 15 independent constants (see our Art. force that resistance to is only by the mutual action of centres of change of figure and molecular arrangement can be explained. process. etc. some steps of which I do not grasp . Method of Virtual Velocities (pp. mutual action of centres of force. [429. P. or from the centrifugal force of molecular motions. and afterwards adding the proper portion of P. of 1 For example. Rankine's position : The following words exactly reproduce the last article cannot arise from mutual actions of centres of force. supposing (/) to be the law of mtermolecular force. ie. together with the three purely rariconstant conditions \xxyg\ \yyzx\ \*zxy\ \ f (H).294 EANKINE. 224 P. S. due to the body. for such actions would necessarily tend to preserve a certain arrangement amongst those centres. [429 an so elastic solid of upon a homogeneous the ordinary type by superposing a fluid elasticity body consisting of centres of force only and having rariconstant equations. 224. how the expression on p. takes Rankine deduces by a J \xxxx\ + 7. 226 (8. that property being inconceivable of a continuous The elasticity peculiar to solid bodies is. Fluid elasticity must arise either from the mutual actions of the parts of continuous matter. but he does not add this constant to the coefficients like \xyxy\ which in the rariconstant theory are equal to those of type \xxyy\. therefore. Solid bodies may nevertheless possess. fluid 1 elasticity (p. is entitled : On the Proof of the Laws 30. 116 and To get the most general system of coefficients he adds a footnote). p. Thus he really supposes the multiconstant coefficients to satisfy relations of the type \xxyy\  \xyxy\ = \yygz] \y*yg\ = \szxx\ = \xyxz\ = \yzyx\ : \zxzx\ { JRankine's J\ : (i). 108). pp. the of Elasticity by 8. . or from both those The fluid elasticity considered in the causes combined. constant to the rarirconstant directstretch and crossstretch coefficients. The investigation is simplified by considering in the first place the elasticity of a solid body as arising from the mutual action of centres of force only. 110) for the total action an indefinitely slender pyramid is obtained. p. a portion of that species of elasticity which On the other hand it belongs to fluids.] Section VII. 108 114).
composed of fibies. the latter three always hold. 1 tiue of ill known homogeneous substinccs diftcient directions voiy little in she\\s to be sensibly tint then elisticity ^ uies Those substmces. m. and thus experiments would have to be made on very complex aeolotropic systems [430 ] Rankine now proceeds to reduce his sixteen elastic coeffi cients to four. such is tmibei \\hoso whit exponent \u elasticity in diffeicnt dn actions vines much. li^cis. lie not homogeneous. 7i. 8 P 112) is far from clear to me. three rariconstant coefficients coefficient of fluidity reduces the sixteen to seven by putting the coefficients of asymmetrical elasticity (see our footThe exact reasoning by which he reaches this note p 77) zero first J He supplemented by the result (p 228. and f g.5 P p 112) He proceeds as follows Let <j> (r) be the law of cential intermolecular force and 5 denote a molecular summation over a cone of elementary solid angle. the former three (obtained by putting /= 0) do not generally hold and are replaced by the two of type (i) above constants The most general aeolotropy has thus for Rankine only sixteen It would be interesting to know how far experimentally Rankme's views are justified Are any of the inter constant relations of rariconstancy more generally satisfied than otheis? Rankme's defective theory can hardly in itself be consideied an argument in favour of the i eduction of the constants to sixteen Unfortunately the results aie identically satisfied foi all bodies possessing three rectangular (11) planes of elastic symmetry. S P . he assumes that t leferied to the axes of elasticity ^ ^ will be of the foirn ) = exponential (f+gl + km + Lnn He then continues Lot us issumc is i Fijt/i Postulate. be constants. but ind tubes of diftcicnt siibstuices (p 229. but I presume it does not central amount symmetry his previous supposition of the of the elastic distribution apparently sup to more than is He poses that his reasoning perfectly geneial is to i educe the six remaining ran constant co by means of the ellipsoidal conditions of the second Rankine deduces these conditions by a type see oui Ait 422.430] RANKINE 295 Hence he puts the six ran constant relations on diffeient footings. n. &. and he asserts that they hold for "all known homogeneous substances" The next stage efficients to thiee (p 229. then he assumes that 72 = S?~<'( 7 ) 1S a function F fa) of ^ "the mean intewal " If the diiectioncosmes between centres of force in a given duection of this direction be I. (n) method totally different from that of the first part of his memoir.
. 143 were made a function of i..Venant see our footnote p. Hence I do not propose to reproduce the earlier discussion. But I think Eankme's results would follow if F(r) of our equation (xxx. etc. memoir suggestive in parts. 135. transformation of a Surface of the Fourth Order (pp. merely noting Rankine's undoubted priority. The results memoir are indeed rejected in the one On Axes 52 where Rankine in our Arts. there reduction of the constants below sixteen.J In a Note entitled : to Sections VI.] two postulates I have cited at the beginning of my criticism in Art 427. The same results.Venant in a much simpler symbolic form some years later (1863) and have already been cited in this work: see our Art. 133. P. were obtained by Saint. 89. Rankine gives expressions for the the coefficients of elasticity from one set of I believe this to be the first rectangular axes to a second. and VII. states that "there is now no doubt that the elastic forces in solid bodies are not such as can be analysed into fluid elasticity of this and mutual attractions between centres simply.. appended to the memoir and On the Transformation of the Coefficients of Elasticity ly the aid of 281 4.296 Thus lie RANKINE. [431432 with/ 2 2 deduces that gZ + hm* + kri must be very small as compared take we or that may : in the summation expressions of substituting this value of the type elastic constants he easily deduces relations R 1 for the or those of the second ellipsoidal type. however. even if they could be. occasion (1852) on which expressions were given for the trans formation of the elastic coefficients. pp. Rankine concludes this section of his memoir by the [431. 443 discussed of Elasticity. _^2. 114 8). seems full of very doubtful reasoning. so that Rankine's reasonas his hypotheses are at fault. which was fully admitted by Saint." But my present would be no necessary point is that.) Art. 1 I am not certain of the accuracy of these summation expressions if (/) be the law of intermoleeular force. 8.. : and Art. fhose postulates do not seem to me to involve the The reduction of the twentyone elastic constants to three.
Vol vi 1851. which can be obtained in practice are those based on the transmission of nearly longitudinal vibrations along prismatic or If the vibrations were solely longitudinal. the best results. we cylindrical bodies W M should be able to find the "true longitudinal elasticity." Kankine holds that the supposition that the stretchmodulus is to obtained from experiments upon the longitudinal vibrations of a rod or bar is ingly. not with the time longitudinal elasticity. 297 J Rankme On the Velocity of Sound in Liquid [433 ] and Solid Bodies of limited Dimensions." direct stretchcoefficient i e the It is however "impossible to prevent a certain amount is of lateral vibration of the particles. which are yet almost entirely unknown. and in otheis to the latter (p 239. inconsistent with the mechanics of vibratory movement. S P p 169) will briefly indicate the couise of in the following six articles We Rankme's investigations (8 P pp 1706) aie entitled Equations of Vibi atory Motion in Homogeneous Bodies [434] Pp 2406 Genet al In this integrates the general equations of vibratoiy motion paper for a solid having cential elastic symmetry. and accordexperiment has shown that the elasticity coriesponding to the velocity of sound in a rod agrees neithei with the modulus of elasticity. pp 23867 (8 P pp 168199) Eankine remarks that if we could ascertain the velocities of transmission of vibratory movements along the axes of elasticity of an indefinitely extended mass of any substance we should at once be able to calculate its coefficients of elasticity As we cannot experiment on such a mass of solid elastic material. i e with nine independent elastic coefficients see oui Art 117. although it is in some cases nearly equal to the formei of those quantities.433434] RANKINE. especially along Prismatic Masses of Liquid Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal. the effect of which diminish the velocity of transmission in a ratio on circumstances in the molecular condition of the depending superficial particles. (a) Rankme Rankme adopts as types of solution shifts with factors of the toim *^^l(\/e taibycz)} whcie c his tin to ditfeient v ilutb given by the loots ot i putiuiLu Ceitam lathei complex lelations must hold among cubic equation .
a'. c'. a3 i. ( pp . a function only of the direction. 1519* 22*. Pp. [435436 series of such terms Eankine finds for the " s[ + 1' sin ^ (. a.298 the constants. stretches. P.ax . 181). c. pp. 1768). and 1268* 75*. the slides and the six stresses as deduced from equations (i)./e. P. 175). n' for each set of terms. indefinitely extended treated See his pp.] It velocities of " propagation are less than in an unlimited ratio Rankine now remarks that: be shown that the vibrations corresponding to the velocity may . Blanchet. p.] Here the velocity is no longer Case of a Body of limited Dimensions.cosines a. 250 6. m r instead of Z. shifts : EANKINE. 24850 (8. or we have seven independent constants. c of the wave front. &. 17880) deal with the General [435. the also of a'. P. P. Eankine puts _ and *i A _ c\ f\ ' r\ finds for the velocities of propagation in our notation.fo/. and Stokes. m.ft2 + c3 = 1 and six other equations of condition. t . Taking a 27T. w' instead of . 8. 180 184) and the axis of x as direction of propagation. Taking the special case of an isotropic medium (pp. medium has been by Poisson. 523* 1166* 78*. P. Eankine gives the principal results which depend upon the fact that in this case for small oscillations we must have The special any dimensions and figure" case of an 245. pp. MacCullagh. Green. pp. . 2468 (8. b'. Haughton. Cauchy. 917* 21*. p. Jc. S.cs) i =2 (terms in m. " Such expressions Eankine says contain the complete representation of the laws of small molecular oscillations in a homogeneous body of (p. but Eankine in these pages gives the shiftspeeds. 6. Hence these mass in the [436. 2501. m'. c'. ') w = S (terms in ^. &'. and these are connected by the equation n. P) Thus there are fourteen constants X. see our Arts. S. I'.
adopting a hypothesis like that JQI liquids. for the longitudinal com ponent predominates. these velocities would be in the ratio of *J2 V3. " It seems to me that however. Quarterly Journal of Mathematics. Yol xxni pp 317 42 and Vol xxiv pp 34058) For a musical note " the velocity of propagation must be the same for all the elementary vibrations into which the motion may be 2 resolved. "Those laws. c' = 0. and are dealt with by him on pp 251 4 (S P He finds expressions for the surface stresses and lemarks pp 182 4) that if we knew "the laws which determine the superficial pressures in vibrating bodies" these expressions would enable us to find b' and c' and so deteimine the velocity of piopagation. however. in which case they are reduced to oidmary trans verse vibrations (p 251. are as yet a matter of conjecture only a reasonable hypothesis is that the surface stress or load vanishes. draw any special conclusions from these P simplified lesults [438] Rankine next turns (pp 256 GO) to the relation between the velocities of sound in a rectangular horizontal pi ism an infinite mass of the same liquid. and the transverse vibrations become accurately transverse nearly in an Appendix II (pp 265 7. and circular prismatic gives results for the cases of rectangular . based upon his own theory of moleculai voitices. but even then except in very special cases Rankine's expressions would probably be too complex to afford any manageable solution of the problem (see two memoirs by Chree.437438] RANKING  299 1 . and he shows of liquid and that on a certain hypothesis as to the surface conditions. S p 182) P be zero we must have b' = c = 0. as indeed Werthemi found them by experiment see oiu Artb 1349* 51* Returning to the vibiations m of solid rodb Rankine." that is to say 5' + d must have the same value in all the This leads Rankine to con terms of the expiessions for the shifts siderably simplify his equations for the stresses.6" free unless c cannot take place in a body of wliicli the Miiface is V = 0. 8 pp 197 General Equations of nearlytransverse Vibrations Herein Rankine calculates out the surface traction his pri<*m This is shown P 9) entitled m and shows that if it is to [437 ] The vibrations which liave the velocity are teimed by Rankine nearly longitudinal. strains and surface 6 (S loads in this paiticular case see his pp 254 pp 184 7) Rankine does not.
XXIIL pp. 1349* 51* and the last memoir of Chree's cited. ties of sound in a solid prism and in an infinite mass as for a liquid. [439440 here rather vague but the only are the hypotheses In the case of the rectresults do not seem very satisfactory. which coefficients depend on the molecular condition of the body's surface yet imperfectly understood It is (p. This is an attempt to explain by some rather pp. and Rankine sup vibrations is really limited poses that the freedom of the lateral that the ratio of the two so rods used fix to the the means by velocities V2 V3 and sometimes approaches Journal of Mathematics. pp. (S. may safely agree with those conclusions of Rankine's. The case of the rod of circular crosssection is investigated in (pp. 341. and Vol. P. pp. lateral the vibrations of the angular prism Rankine supposes to one pair of faces of the prism take to parallel place particles and he finds that the same relation holds between the veloci Not only. an Appendix I : 2625. P. Rankine: On the Vibrations of Plane Polar ised Philosophical Magazine. Vol. 3245. p. P. 1505). 8. Quarterly equality.] W. : cludes that the ratio of 2 2 Vl~&' c' 1936).300 rods. RANKINE. and Rankine con1 lies between VI <y/2 and : as the diameter of the rod v/2 \/3. generally exceeds : [439. seems to me that the proper condition at the body's surface the vanishing of the stress. 192). experiments Comparison Savart does not give very satisfactory results. XXL p. 335. Vol. J. and he certainly put the matter in a clearer light than it was left by Wertheim see our Arts. and the retardation referred to depends on the coefficients of the coordinates in the exponents of those functions. approaching the less value of Wertheim and with some diminishes. (ii) In The symbolical expressions for vibrations in limited bodies are distinguished by containing exponential functions of the coordinates as factors. See Chree. : Otherwise I think we [440.] Rankine concludes generally that : liquid and solid bodies of limited dimensions. general ' reasoning based on Rankine's theory of molecular vortices' (or Light 4416 . 8. pp. a condition 261. the freedom of (i) lateral motion possessed by the particles causes vibrations to be propagated less rapidly than in an unlimited mass. but that in most cases of longitudinal vibrations this leads to very complex conditions for the determination of the coefficients of the coordinates in the ex ponentials. 1851. I. M. 295.
of Mr Green and others on elasticity (p 441. S p 150) M P This can only refer to Theorem II of the memoir of 1850 see 2 As Rankine is here talking of crystalline bodies his statement is erroneous our Arts 421 The keynote hypothesis to Rankine's researches is to be found in the That the medium which transmits light and radiant heat consists of the nuclei of the atoms vibrating independently. of then atmospheres. and emission its transfeience from the atmospheies to the nuclei (p 443. depends upon the position of the plane of distortion. which must consist of atomic nuclei in order to transmit. or the elasticity which resists distortion of the particles. and rather difficult to follow owing to the suppression of the "strict mathematical analysis" its conclusions were deduced by which [442] is W m J M Rankine On the General Integrals of the This Equilibrium of an Elastic Solid Equations of Vol vn the the Proceedings of Royal Society. is btill incapable of absorbing [441 ] W J M 403 Theory of Light 14 (8 P pp Genei al View of an Oscillatory Philosophical Magazine. S P p 152) The difficulty is then to understand how the ether of space. of Cauchy. RANKINE surrounded by elastic 301 see our Art 424) atomic atmospheres the phenomena of polarised light the following lemarks We only refer to it here to cite For if there is any proposition more certain than others respecting the laws of elasticity. pp This papei contains no reference 156 67) is Rankine to the theory of elasticity. or almost indepen dently. published 202 It is an abstract of a memoii which 1856. it is this that the transverse elasticity of a medium. being the same foi all directions of distortion in a given plane This law is implicitly involved in the researches of Poisson. pages 196 was received December 7. 1854 Judging from the abstiact the memon must have been of a very elaboiate charactei but it see oui Aits 454 does not seem to have been ever published the Internal and 455 After some definitions ind general statements ippaiently .441 442] nuclei. Vol Yi 1853. absorption being the transference of motion from the nuclei to the atmospheres.
The Third Section appears to of the rectangular prismatic in a long series of what. M. and that rupture does not maximum stress see our : 1367* 8* : W. pp. P." The solution seems to have been in Cartesian coordinates and obtained in some way by expanding the stresses in trigonometrical series of the three coordinates.' i 302 EANKINE. 201). Apparently the method consisted only troublesome be would I should imagine. contragredients et hoc genus to understand the processes of this memoir. 1079* 80*). as it will rarely happen that the elastician will have made a sufficiently wide study of invariants. and not improbably physically important [443. 119149). [443 of the ordinary theory of elasticity. as well as for the twentyone elastic constants which it the novel nomenclature which it proposes to introduce.] line results relating to states. covariants. strain always take place across the direction of do not necessarily coincide. Forms which relates to linear and which has recently been so greatly advanced by the researches of Mr Sylvester. approximations very (p. solid have dealt with Lamp's problem (see our Arts. Unfortunately the writer obtains his results by the application of "that branch of the Calculus of transformations. pp. and Mr Boole. we are reproducing results told that the "Second Section of the paper relates to the problem of the general integration of the equations of the internal equilibrium of an Elastic Solid. J. 261285 (S. Rankine On Aoces of Elasticity and CrystalForms: Phil Trans. It is remarkable for the number of new. The Fourth Section dealt with the general integrals of the equations of elasticity for an isotropic solid. unfortunately. the importance for practical Finally Eankine insists upon the cone of shear and the cone between purposes of the distinction of slide. but it is extremely difficult to follow the account given. 1855. This paper was read on June 21. while terms such as umbral matrices and contraordinates tend at the best to obscure the simple physical principles which . Mr Cayley. especially when it is not isotropic. By this I attention to the facts that judge that he had in the memoir drawn the directions of maximum stress and Arts. 1856." I say.
303 biquadratics which give the and directstretch coefficient are no doubt tawmetwc covanants. etc The writer states that if the elasticity of solids arose from the action of centres obeying the ranconstant hypothesis or partly from such action and partly from an elasticity like that of a fluid. 429.Venant in his memoir of 1863 has given short and direct proofs of most of Rankme's results bringing out in each case their physical bearing see our Arts 132 7 which should be compared with Arts 445 7 distributions of stretchmodulus he behind the equations The [444 ] Rankine commences with the statement that As originally understood. S p 119) refer to the peculiar hypothesis of the earlier memoirs see our Aits 424. S P p 119) coefficient* of elasticity aie the The foimer seems a [445 tint lie ] clearer statement than the latter We now give a Table of Rinkme's nomenclatme raots to id opts 9\<\f/is to denote striin and denote . a method which we have seen to be erroneous Rankine further remarks that there is now no doubt that elastic stress is not such as can be accounted for by fluid elasticity and central intermolecular action as a function of the distance This of course is which is merely a declaration of his own multiconstant views. or speaking algebiaically. " somewhat obscured by the reference to "fluidelasticity Assuming multiconstancy Rankine conveniently defines an axis of elasticity as any direction with respect to which certain kinds of elastic stresses are symmetrical. but it may well be questioned whether this is the clearest method of approaching their discussion Luckily Saint. unless we could i educe those fifteen constants in the method of the earlier memoirs. the term "axes of elasticity" was applied to the intersections of three orthogonal planes at a given point of an elastic medium. directions for which certain functions of null or infinite (p 261.444445] often RANKINE. with respect to each of which planes the molecular actions causing elasticity were conceived to be symmetrical The next two paragraphs (p 261. ' P resisting change of volume only.' then it is easy to prove that three such planes of symmetry exist in every homogeneous solid It is not obvious that three such planes would exist in a homo geneous aeolotropic solid with 15 constants.
: We have further the following surfaces Thlipsimetric Surface = stretchquadric stressquadric : : see our Art. 137. the three heterotatic axes those of the heterotatic ellipsoid. there is be cut out. 122). 612*. no shear on the faces of the element (p. p. : At each point of an a cubical element elastic solid. shall produce. (iii). such. p. It follows at onco from SaintTenant's treatment of the subject see our Art. 610*. (3) and (4). [445 Table of Tasinomic Coefficients or Constants. may 126). 26G. If Wahfo symbolically denote equation (to + 1W + to)} 11* + 2 {to (w + % + to)} B + Heterotatic Ellipsoid. down these equations: \xxxx\ its 264 P.304 EANKINE. For the former three axes equations of the type \yzxx\ f \yzyy\ The three + \yzzz\ = which wo may state in the one position in which and they possess the physical property following words hold. P. Orthotatic Ellipsoid. in writing forgets the double sign (S. : . This physical property is not very obviously convoyed in Hankino's method of looking at the orthotatic ellipsoid. S. This has for equation : 4 2 {\nsyyz\ ^a?} 25CC 4 2 {//we orthotatic axes are the principal axes of the orthotatic ellipsoid. Tasimetric Surface = see our Art. that a uniform dilatation of that element by equal stretches of its three dimensions. Kankine see his p. It will be noted that Bankings nomenclature does not distinguish slide and a cross stretchslide coefficient by special names between a cross (\xyy*\ and ay*l).
446] EANKINE lelations of the type 305 For the heterotatic axes we have three \zxxy\ \xxyz\ = 0. and an equal distortion round y. then (p 268. or what he terms It is the biquadratic which gives the distribution of the directstretch coefficient He terms its coefficients the homotatic coefficients Diameteis of this surface which are normal to the tangent planes at their extremities are termed euthytatic axes (p 268. they vanish on the i an constant hypothesis terms fluid elasticity that elasticity for which the heterotatic becomes a sphere . = {2//v  + . 4v I \miuti\\ sm 4o) \]  { +{!'//>/ I I / } COS 4o> whei e ci> L II yOy' T E 20 . and let be any othei pair of rectangulai axes in the plane of y> s. S P p 126) The coefficients of the heterotatic ellipsoid are termed heterotatic differences. y. the traction on the faces normal to x arising from the distortion round x shall be equal to the shear round z arising from the distortion round y (p 267. z) versa). the body is then heterotatically isotropic Rankme ellipsoid body is orthotatically isotropic when the orthotatic ellipsoid becomes a sphere body which is both heterotatically and orthotatically isotropic is A A not completely isotropic as it has stil] 11 independent constants is [446 ] The next surface dealt with by Rankine the ^biquadratic tasinomic surface. such that if iliere be a distortion of that element round (i e a slide perpendicular to) x. If there be a stretch along y and an equal squeeze along a (01 nee no sheai will result round x on planes noimal to y and x S P p 128) Suppose the axes of cooidmates to be any whate\er. S P p 127) Rankine returns 29 later to the consideration of these axes in Sections 22 now proceeds to the dissection of this surface by rectangular lineai tiansformation By this means it is always possible to make He three of the terms with odd exponents 01 thiee functions of such terms Thus Hankme shows we may find three mutually lectangular vanish axes for which thiee equations of the type \yyyz\ \zzyz\ These axes he teims the principal metatatic axes hold the following property (supposing them to be the axes of The} possess x. there is one position in which a cubical element may be cut out. y'. z it is easy to \ytiV3f\ show (by the method \sfzg z\  of our v Art 133) that . and the physical property which we may thus state At each point of an elastic solid.
heterotatic. elastic solid. These expressions are termed metatatic [447. eight equal angles of = \z*yz\ and we If x. y. Green's proposed structure for the ether endowed it with cybotatic symmetry: see our Art. b. bisecting the right angles formed by the principal These six metatatic axes and metatatic axes (p. 131). p. metatatic and euthytatic. 271. 2 be the principal metatatic axes. If may throw 1*7 :. we . 128). their productions are perpendicular to the faces of a rhombic dodecahedron.constant isotropy.. The metatatic difference will in this case be equal to 2 \yyxx\ H. c denoting the directions of the axes Sx = (aaaa) w + ( aa &&) yy + (aacc) 7z + (aalc) ^ + (aata) w + (auab) JJ.. solid is metatatically isotropic when for a cubical element cut out in any position. 7?symbolically the strain into the form useful for symbolicToperations we put = va va vavu and (aaaa) 2f w . 130). In this case the coefficients reduce to three and the symmetry is cybotatic (p. 270. P. or what Rankine.4 \yzyz\ . P. three directstretch coefficients be equal to each other. in each plane in an A 2 \yyzz\ + 4 \yxyx\ for all sets of axes. = w when i^W^I see that lyW^I any multiple there is a pair of diagonal Or. S. In addition to orthotatic symmetry let the Cybotatic Symmetry.] which express strain as a linear function of stress. a. "When one and the same set of orthogonal axes are at once orthotatic. terms pantatic isotropy (p. the solid is said This reduces the elastic constants to to possess orthotatic symmetry. or the twelve plagiotatic coefficients vanish. S."' . We may express ' these coefficients as follows.2 \xxxx\ and unless this vanishes the body will not be metatatically isotropic.] Orthotatic Symmetry. the nine orthotatic coefficients. P. a stretch in the direction of one axis and an equal squeeze along another produce no shear on the faces. there is [447448 a system of two metatatic for that plane and forming with each other pairs of axes 45. then \yyyz\ = of 45. Metatatical isotropy involves three relations of the type Hence. Rankine next passes to Thlipsinomic Coefficients or those ^[448. 146. If the metatafcic difference vanishes then cybotatic symmetry reduces to bi. in each of the three metatatic planes. S. p. metatatic axes. \yyyy\ \xxzx\ = differences. 269.306 RANKINE. p. the three directslide coefficients and the three crossstretch coefficients..
yz3.\x then the solid is said to possess rhombic symmetry. those in y*z. see3 . all the direct stretch slide coefficients are zero These three axes which always exist but may be oblique or rectangulai are termed the principal euthytatic axes 01. they he in the same plane and are noiinal to This is the axis of symmetiy and to the faces of a hexagonal prism hexagonal symmetry (11) of 120 Bankino (pp 278 9. for the thiee The axis oblique axes aie noimals to the faces of one ihombohedion of symmetr} must be a fourth euthytatic axib In the limiting case when the three oblique axes make angles with each other. S p 134) P Rankine next proceeds to consider strains and stresses when [449 ] referred to oblique axes. namely \yyyz\ = \sxyz\ = \xzx\ \xxxz\ = \xxxy\ = \yyxy\ = should say.449 450] BANKINE 307 Rankine gives the following nomenclature It is easy to see that all the Thhpsinomic axes coincide with the As a rule platythhptic (or corresponding systems of Tasmomic axes cross traction) coefficients are negative (p 273. i e if the biquadratic txsinomic surface reduce to the foim \xxxx\ 4 (x +y + 4" *) f 2 {\yyzz\ + 2 \yzy + Z X2 + ^' ^ s +4 {2 \xzny\ 4. see our Art 446 By transformation to oblique (or rectangulai) axes he reduces the equation of this surface to its canonical form. z*x. as we [450 ] We have next the following foims of euthytatic distribution classification with regard to If a solid has three oblique principal euthytatic axes making (i) equal angles with each other round an axis of symmetry. with a view of dealing more at length with the biquadratic tasmomic surface and the euthytatic axes. S P ]>p 140 1) pro\os MIIOUS piopeities . x*y and xy* being removed involves the vanishing of six plagiotatic coefficients for that system of axes. in which it has only This nine terms. and if each of these axes has equal systems of homotatic coefficients.
[451 symmetry having regard to the existence of other euthytatic axes. all or two of the principal euthytatic marked by a rectplanes into a distribution of euthytatic symmetry rhombic dodecahedron. if not more reasonable. brings no evidence on this point. which might be classified in the same manner. If a solid has one euthytatic axis (z) normal to the other two these two having equal sets of homotatic coefficients. When of an octahedron with a rhombic base.308 of this kind of EANKINE. %y. subcase axes (iii) still being A of orthorhombic axes in the planes zx. 309). to those of (iv) are marked by a cube. The principal euthytatic axes are the axis of symmetry and all lines perpendicular to it. statement: He makes the following of minimum It is probable that the normals to Planes of Cleavage are euthytatic axes elasticity.] several primitive forms known in crystallography on the basis of these 1434) various distributions of the euthytatic axes. pp. by an irregular dron with rectangular base. 28ft 1 (S. 143). to choose as our fundamental biquadratic that which gives the distribution of the stretchmodulus For the diivetions of the (see our Art. P. p. If other euthytatic axes exist they are normal to the surface of a cone (p. (vi) (vii) Complete isotropy of the homotatic coefficients is is the case in which every direction an euthytatic axis. The homotatic coefficients are completely round one axis. or angular prism. . (xy) it is said to possess orthorhombic symmetry. doubtful for the following reasons : He and it seems to me somewhat Any biquadratic surface would give a similar system of (i) symmetrical forms. and therefore the planes of cleavage would be perpendicular to directions in which the directstretch coeltteiont has a maximum or minimum value. symmetry is the existence of further pairs of euthytatic such exist they are normals to the faces The three principal euthytatic axes being orthogonal. a regular rhombic dodecahedron and a regular octohedron. isotropic Monaxal symmetry. oblique. 8. 280. (v) by an octohe Orthogonal symmetry with equal sets of homotatic coefficients The three cases corresponding for each axis is called cylo'id symmetry. we have (iv) This subdivides itself according to the existence orthogonal symmetry. It would seem (ii) quite as reasonable. its principal euthytatic normals to the faces of a right rhombic prism. Rankine classifies the [451. of other euthytatic axes in none. Why should the biquadratic which determines the distribution of the directstretch coefficient be chosen? Kankine's euthytatic axes correspond to directions in which this coefficient 1ms a maximum or minimum value. P. On pp.
SB = (aaaa) xx. and deduce euthythliptic instead of euthytatic axes as giving the planes of cleavage The ultimate planes of cleavage thus obtained may coincide with Rankine's. = (fcaa) xx. pp W M .452 453] or RANKINE 309 maximum is traction produces a minimum lays oi this figuie aie those foi which a given minimum 01 maximum stietch But even then it not yet proven that in an aeolvhopic body rupture will first occur across the directions of gieatest stretch (in) If we put all the sti esses zero except xx. gi anting an euthytatic classification of crystals. but how far will lupture (supposing elasticity to last up to rupture ') be affected bv the existence and magnitude of the other components of strain ? The magnitude of these depends in each case on the value round the given direction of the platythliptic and plagiothhptic coefficients Thus it would seem to me that if we assume the direction of (iv) the greatest stretch for a given traction to determine that of ultimate rupture. then it would be better to form the biquadratic giving the euthythhptic coefficient (aaaa) in any direction. (T yz = (bbaa) Zx. bodies the laws may have the same ciybtallme foiin and yet diffei materially the case of zaii con This would not be possible of their elasticity P m m stant elasticity It may be noted that Rankme luimmferous ether being a simple i ejects the hypothesis elastic medium. as no such of the medium He notes also could grve a lotation of the plane of polansation that the refractive action of a ciystil on light reqimu> fxi fc\\ei constants than are supplied by the cryst iFb elasticity The menioii concludes with a note on Syhettiian Lmliae (pp 2845. may be cousidered as independent of the six heteiotatic differences on which the heteiotatic axes depend In other woids. and the whole process have a more direct physical meaning It must be lemarked that some geological writers hold that (v) the planes of cleavage are perpendicular to the duections of maximum These are not necessarily those in which either 01 minimum ti action the stretch modulus or the duectstretch coefficient is a maximum or a minimum Then view would lead to a third method of ti eating the problem see oui Art 1367* pp 1457) of the memoir are some [452] On pp 282 3 (S Thus Rankme notes that the 15 hoinotatic coefficients geneial lemarks on which the euthytatic axes depend. S cr^ (abaa) xx The maximum stretch sx for a given traction xx will thus occur foi that direction in which (aaaa) (really 1/J&) is a maximum. y cr^ = (caaa) xx. S P pp U7 9) Rankme On the Stability of Loose Eatth J [453] This is published in the Philosophical Tianscictions foi 18o7. but the conditions would appeal in a diffeient form. Sz = we have (ccaa) xx.
L. 1857. 1856 it an abstract of is the given in the Proceedings of Royal Society.310 9 HAttKiNE. on the plane at the point which is Denote this stress by . there is a [454. par exemple d'un parallelepipede ou d'un cylindre droit. and in that plane suppose a straight with the direction of T^ consider the line making an angle T ^ : stress line. trand. Take the plane which contains the directions of t and TQ . Duhamol arid BorThe problem for the right sixface was first proposed by Lame: see our Arts. and it occurs when In the Comptes rendus. p. Suppose that the axes of coordiwith the principal axes of stress. [454 : _27 . the prize waw not awarded . I860. coincide certain nates at a point Let T# T# T 8 be in descending order of magnitude. 235. of the elementary formulae of stress The memoir employs some in the problem of earthwork. Vol. The commissioners were Liouville. for a solution of the following ? problem : les integrates des Equations do 1'equilibrc interieur d'un Trouyer corps solide elastique et homogene dont toutes les dimensions sont finies. pp. 1079* 80*. Two memoirs were sent in. Vol. but as neither of them contained the solution of the question proposed. let P normal to the straight be the tractive. 1857. en supposant connues les pressions ou tractions inegales exercees aux differents points de sa surface. This had been offered for the second time in 1857. and let them denote the principal tractions. E. it was received June 10 and read June 19. Lamt3. Q the shearing component of and R. the directions of R and let 6 denote the angle between P Then put and it will be found that the following results are easily deduced : from the elementary formulae of stress D sin maximum value of 6 is sin" 1 D/$.] note of the Grand Prix de matMmatiques. VIIL.
The in a memoir entitled De EEqwhbre mterieur (Pun corps sokde^ elastir que. due to Eankine French Academy of Sciences a memoir. p xxm This is probably closely connected with the paper of which an the Proceedings of the Royal Society see our abstract is given m Its nonpublication and the failure at Pans suggest that the analysis was piobably defective as well as lengthy portion Art 442 A only of the Paris paper was afterwards in 1872 communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh and is published in the Transactions Vol xxvi see our Arts 455 62 Rankine On the Decomposition of Fwces [455] Transactions of the Royal an Mastic Solid to externally applied Vol xxvi. et homogbne" Rankine by P G Tait prefixed to the Miscellaneous Scientific Papers. Y.455 456] BANKINE Sll One of these memoirs was. Vol x . et homogene. "Obvia conspicimus." the receipt of which is acknowledged in the Compte* rendus of the 6th April. and maiked with the motto. amounting in this case to very unnecessary veibosity [456 ] The memoir opens with the statement theoiem (which had been given p 400. weie the of exception communicated to the French Academy of Sciences fifteen years ago. balanced system of forces applied to a connected system of of icsolution into three rectanguhi b}btemt> of piiallel capable points self balanced forces applied to the same points (p 715) self The three lectangulai axes to which the thiee systems of self Kinkmc balanced forces aie paiallel aie teimccl isorthopic axes But it ib to the theoiy of covauants proves the pioposition by appeal Let X. . dlastique. Z be the components of foict acting cisily pioved ab initio Then foi equihbimni we must have on the point x. 1857 See our Arts 442 and 454 The memoir suggestive. 1855) Eveiy is m of the following the Philosophical Magazine. z SA" 37=3^ = 0. I but proposed again foi 1861 "In 1857 he also sent to the believe. is like nearly all Rankine's papers.1872. W J M The author wntes the principles set forth in this paper. nubem pellente Mathesi. De VEquilibre intenewr See the Memwt of d'un corps solide. though now (with first theorem) published for the first time. extremely and rich in terminology.pp 715 27 Society of Edinburgh. y.
m. An Arrkopic System of forces is defined as one for which all the Rankine adds that in this case every rhopimetric coefficients are zero. He justifies this reduction by remarking that although we may not in the treatment of an elastic solid transfer the point of application of a force to any point in the line . which proves the theorem. its coefficients the Rhopimetric Coefficients .. Then the quantity rP cos is the angle between r and (I..312 BANKINE. its principal axes are the Isorrhopic Axes and the corresponding values of A. y. n). Kankine terms (i) the Rhopimetric Surface. directions of the coordinate axes and consequently the of independent m nZ= < < %rP cos $ is (a covariant or) the through the origin. % parallel to this line is IX + I.. m. be distance between the origin and x. directions. directions for Hence there are three which : 2^=0.. while D [457. [457 Consider the line drawn through the origin with direction.. same in form But it equals for all systems of rectangular axes + mr& (7s + Zy) + ZS (Zx + X*) + lm$ (Xy + Putting with Bankine : Tx). y.. n. J3....cosines Y+ P then the force at x. i < which J) = E= F= 9 in this expression.. C the Principal Rhopimetric Coefficients. z \ let the r be Let say. we have this equal to AP + m 2 + Cri* + Wwn + 2Enl + ZFlm. are that A = JB = C.] to reduce Eankine next applies his theory of isorrhopic axes any load system applied to an clastic solid to throe separate selfbalanced systems of parallel loads <iud thus the of elastic equilibrium to the solution of three problem separate cases of parallel loading. axis is an isorrhopic axis. : But there are three rectangular surface principal axes of the quadratic namely those of the Ax* + for By*+Cv + 2Dyz+ZEzx + 2Fxy=l . but the proper and sufficient conditions for this = J3 = F=Q.. (i).
if we take away from the internal stiess * found aftei removal of the giavita tion terms the quantity gpx' and fuithei suppose the suiface load increased by the component gplx parallel to the axis of x This system of surface and body load is according to Eankine anhopic.and surfacestress equations Eankme proceeds to remove the teims m\olving terrestrial gravitation from the body stress equations Such gravitation is usually the only body force which occurs in elastic problems Take the plane of yz horizontal thiough the centroid of the body and the axis of x vertically downwards.458] of action of the force. of surface. y'> z' on the element dS at #. r. z. Rankme sa^fe. = HJyZpdxdydz + Jfy Z'dS) (p 717) After reproducing the body. then the rhopimetnc Y coefficients for be given by foimulae of the type \ A = fJfxXpdxdydz + Jfx'X'dS 3 = JJJzYpdxdydz + J> T'dS whence the isorrhopic axes can be found [458 ] 1 (u). if \\c itmembei the But this seems to me only true if the suiface is changes in sign of / oi yz the about plane symmetrical . then by assuming in Lamp's notation. Z be the bodyforces an elastic solid will of load at x'. RANKINE 313 we may still resolve each foice at its point of action into components in different directions. we cause the body forces to disappear from the differential equations The first surfacestress equation now becomes X' . or When the straining forces to which an elastic solid is subjected are restncted within certain limits.ypx I) dS Now the hist mtcgial \anisheb since the phne of yz passes through the centioid and the second tcim also. the straining effect of any number of self balanced systems of foices combined is sensibly equal to the sum of the effects which those systems respectively produce when acting separately (p 716) If Z". y.1 (xx 1 gpx ) + mxy + nT f Hence a system of surface tractions given by would just balance the weight of the body "VVe may thus \vithdiaw the weight of the body from our consideration of the pi obi em. for from (11) t Further = C = Z> = =F=0 = A j fjxgpdxdydz 4. Z? the components .ffx' (. 'xx 'xx gpX. X'.
take homalotatic. 720 1). or if tlio li'omalotatic system be subtracted from the abarytic system we must ho left with a pure arrhopic system.] Rankine gives the following definition abarytic surfacesystems. 719). homalotatic sysUiin arc equal to those for the complete abarytic system. [459 of surfaceloads which forms with the gravitation of a Rankine terms an antibarytic loadsystem an arrhopic system. ffomdS = JJoandS = Thus the rhopimetric coefficients 0. body and the corresponding bodystresses are antipressures') The system ('antibarytic The system of stresses left after taking away the antibarytic stresses from the actual stresses at the several elements of a body's surface are termed abarytic stresses ('abarytic pressures ) (p. (pp. The rhopimetric coefficients for this surfaceload are of the for. An abarytic system may be broken up into a homalotatic in the following manner. Calculate the system and an arrhopic system six rhopimetric coefficients and assume the internal stresses to be equal to these coefficients divided by the volume of the solid. The internal stresses corresponding to an abarytic system of surface of the type loading satisfy equations 7 : dxx =1. The memoir next proceeds to an analysis of abarytic load[459. i. Rankine remarks that the above homalotatic system of six uniform stresses really denotes the mean state It of stress of the whole body. load which produces uniform stress throughout an elastic solid is termed : An These satisfy the bodystress equations and give for the surface load Y' = j j type : Z' = or.e.7 dxy H das dx dy dz 7 =A U. of the .314 EANKINE. a homalotatic system of surfaceload.
staits from the assumption that [462 ] In examples of Z2 = by. gs are equivalent to an antibarytoc loadsystem a hoinalocamjrtic f The coefficients e4 . p w = cz. \\luch 1 Catching for a moment Ixaiikme s mania ioi nomenclative \\e mi^ht teim all the cabes in which the sticsses aie lineai functions ot the cooidmateb caset. 01 to stresses due to uniform bending .460462] may RANKINE 315 be remarked that the axes of pimcipal traction of the hoinalotatic system are the isorrhopic axes of the complete abarytic system following out the operations indicated in the above any system of load applied to an elastic body to the solution of a problem in airhopic loading Thus the reduction of the load system into three rectangular systems of parallel load can be made lor any three rectangulai axes. g^ e% g# e& 3 . which will as a rule considerably simplify [460 ] By articles we i educe thepioblem (p 722) [461 ] The next section of the memoir investigates those cases in which internal stress is independent of the coefficients of elasticity of Rankine concludes that when the shift*. of ./5 #6 correspond to a homalostrephic load system or to stresses due to unifoim twisting (pp 723 4) Rankine shows that both homalooamptic and homalostrephic loadHe does not discuss 01 give a name systems aie anhopic (pp 724 5) to the stresses arising fiom/4 . and consequently the stresses by constants and linear functions of the The stresses mil then be of the coordinates. this result will follow type B/aiikine classifies them gives no general as follows c l9 c4 name to stresses of this 1 type . gi} e5) g59 e6 and/ 6 conclusion Rankine takes (pp 725 7) two simple The fust homalocainptic and homalostrephic stresses enibiaces practically the Eulei Bernoulli theory of nexuie. for axes parallel to the axes of figure of a body. foi example. foi m line 19 ot 727 lie +/# deteimmcb them = 1. Rmkmt puts y //> wheiu b and c aic undetermined const mts erioncou&ly. The The coefficients e 1? / 3. and the second the toision ot an elliptic cylindei allowing for the distortion of the cioss sections The latter investigation. can be expressed by the solid algebraic functions of the coordinates not exceeding the second degree. correspond to load system. but The constant terms system etc correspond to a homalotatoc load coefficients /i.
[464. M.316 does not hold as his elliptic crosssection. iii). Rankine : On the Stability Chimneys. on commenting anything which socms to have been novel at the date of its publication. 68127 and deduce . memoir the which with Had little importance. Rankine himself writes in his preface explained in this work. but so far as I know. for it was among the : first to bring the theory of elasticity in a scientific form before engineering students. W. I. Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Factory of Glasgow. pp. * is he noted this he would have found just * double the values he gives for and^ in equation (22).] Pp. of A branch knowledge of the principles of the stability of earth. however. It is a simple problem in statics which is here dealt with.. that which relates to the equilibrium of stress. p. These two examples are. or internal pressure. 1858 1888. and these would then have been in agreement with the results of Saint. effects of the wind and of the weight of the chimney. and does not discuss its elastic strength even in the matter of crushing due to the weight of the chimney itself. the 1858 and in published : xvi+ 640 pages and the twelfth xiv + made by the Editor are contained in the Appendix. 879. J. J.] The first edition of this work was London.] W. at a point in a solid mass. 1860. We deal with stresses in solids [465. BANKINK point [463465 not on the perimeter of the y. Mechanics not usually found in elementary treatises is viz. will briefly note the several parts of this work which treat of our subject. and to the It is the basis of a sound general theory of the elasticity of solids.. and of the strength and stiffness of materials . My references will be to the pages of the more The work itself is important in readily accessible twelfth edition. the only elementary treatise on it that has hitherto been published is that of M. The chief additions the history of elasticity. J. and can be easily solved by an appeal to the theory of the core : see our Art. of closes. Millar.Venant I do not understand the remark as to Cauchy as cited in our Art. 1418. This paper treats only of the Vol. Rankine A Manual of Applied Mechanics. IV. Lame (p. 8vo. 815* and Vol. 18. [463. M. those in liquids as a special case. twelfth in 1888 edited by W. Glasgow. The first edition contains 66*7 pages.
x and y being two arbitiaiy lectangulai angle (c) I entitled . had been given at the time of publication of his work. strain for its geometrical aspect farther pi ogress in differentiation of terms is made by defining shear as tangential stress. points). i e ceasing to treat it as a name for strain see oar m A Yol i . and n denote the normal to any plane perpendiculai to this plane and t the trace of these two planes.#J cos 2 nt = n (xn) sin (xn). and applies them to a variety Most of his results have found their way into of special problems other textbooks and papers sometimes with scanty acknowledgement . and his discussion of stiess centres although a little later than that of Bresse (see our Arts 815* and 516) was probably worked out quite independently referred to Thus. c axes taken in the plane of the stresses Let p. pp 1 17 may diaw special attention to the Problem on pp 110 12 Combined stresses in one plane Given the normal intensities and directions of any number of simple stresses uhose directions are in the same plane required the directions and intensities of tlie pair of principal stresses [tractions] resulting from their combination Let the puncipal tractions be T^ and T^ and let the fiist make an with the axis of x. then Hankme shows that Thus the intensities of the pimcipal tractions issummg planes of i eduction.465] RANKINE 317 his memoir of 1855. rectangular axes in the plane. if the system of stress in a plane be given by J. as (a) the dynamic aspect of elasticity. y ^(xx (xn) whence he easily deduces the properties of the principal uniplanar tractions and of the ellipse of stress. reserves the term stress for Rankme. Hankme shows that w = m cos2 (xn) + w sin2 (m) + 2^? cos . conjugate sti esses' and the relation of these He gives general quantities to moments of inertia (pp 71 85) expiessions for the traction and shear across any plane (pp 92 3) and for the discovery of the puncipal tractions He deals with the special case so important in practice of umplanar stress (pp 95 112) and with His tieatment of this subject i& the fullest which. such problems as ' centres of stress' (load < 'neutral axis. p' denote the noimal intensities of any two of the given stresses. I may cite in this matter a dissertation by Kopytowski Ueber die inner en Spannungen in einem ft eiaufliegenden Balken. but to find tluu to do this cm be found without directions reqimes us . the 'ellipse of stress' (b) 7 Rankine I think. yy.Jy ) sin 2 (xn) . p 882 deals with.
Breaking across fracture is also rather cumbersome and ' ' might be more briefly termed snapping. [Extension [Stretch] [Distortion [Slide] Shearing Transverse I Torsion Wrenching [Twisting] Breaking across [Snapping]. . occupies Chapter III. entitled Strength 377 and forms for its date an excellent practical treatise Xl We can only note a few ~e technical side of elasticity. discussed fall outside the limits of our present subject. Tearing (Compression [Squeeze].work of all kinds. : ^ As usual Rankine strives to give scientific definiteness wide but rather vague use. Fracture. This earthpressure. a few and special applications in the previous of The theory uniplanar stresses developed (e) to framework. but his further definitions require notice : Rankine's The Ultimate Strength of a solid is the stress required to produce (i) fracture in some specified way. thus a wrenching fracture is associated in our minds rather with a combination of torsion and pull than with pure torsion 1 Perhaps . discussion and definitions of perfect and (6) imperfect elasticity and of set (pp. buttresses. but objection might well be taken to some of the words for fracture .] pp.] I should prefer to retain the name wrench for the stress side of the strain combined of a stretch and a torsion (which might perhaps be called a wring). [This is now usually termed absolute strength. Thus for in are terms which he proposes the following nomenclature for the fracture 1 with characteristic kinds of strain (p. domes. 129269 and brick. 815*) which is not however referred to directly by name. 272): Straw. the term 'twisting fracture' would be less liable to misinterpretation. The ^ topics [466. 1 . arches. sections is applied on pp. We might then scientifically appropriate sprain for the setstrain produced by a wrench... 272 3) are perhaps not wholly satisfactory in the light of more recent knowledge. 270 and Stiffness. 112127 we have the bodystress equations deduced to fluids etc. on ^1 .. masonry of the core involves a considerable discussion of the properties (see our Art. [466 On pp.318 (d) BANKINE. [ Bending This analysis of the more usual forms of strains is convenient. 1 . Crushing and Cleaving.
and thus proof strength Rankine notes is not by any means measured by the elastic limit this and remarks (p 274) The determination of proof strength by experiment is now. (iv) strain which the body will bear without fractuie 01 without injury as the case may be be called haidness. product or proof. although it may not produce instant fracture. a matter of some obscurity. (in) therefoie. however. as the Kankine defines use strength of two Toughness and Stiffness quantities. such stiess being eithei exactly to the pi oof 01 nearly oqu il to one lulf of the stiess coi i espondmg un p 27 3 . that stress the retention of the strength of the material unimpaired exceeding the proof strength of the material. to identify hardness kind with this conception of stiffness Malleable and ductile solids have ultimate toughness greatly (vi) exceeding their proof toughnesb (vn) equal Brittle solids have their ultimate and pi oof toughness nearly the quantity (vm) Resilience 01 Spimg is and ib equal to the pioduct of lequned to produce the pi oof strain. after the material had been rendered unfit for further whether ultimate or pioof. definition it proof strength neither suggests the not scientifically very cases method nor shows the possibility of its determination In many we may have set without any reduction of absolute strength. stiffness is measured by a tasmomic (or elastic) coefficient of some particular It does not seem correct. but it maybe considered that the best test known is the not producing an increasing set ly repeated explication Obviously this is merely a negative test and could only be successful in ascertaining the proof strength of a given piece of material. its own direction winch takes place that stiam by the mean stress of mechanical ^\ork m diumg sti the production of that stiam. which might also (v) the ratio borne to that strain [toughness] by the stress lequired to produce it Thus while toughness is measured as a stiam.466] EANKINE 319 The Proof Strength is the stress required to produce the (11) is with greatest strain of a specific kind consistent with safety. is used to denote Stiffness. is here used to denote the greatest ultimate Toughness. produces fractuie eventually by long continued A application and frequent of for repetition (p 273) is This accurate.
to Pliability (Extensibility. I. 5 (e). 230.. He gives the variation of the crosssection for a doubly builtin heavy beam of uniform strength': see his p. i. 1217*. the discussion of strains. The ratios of the ultimate strength to the proof strength and to the working stress There is a table of such factors are also termed factors of safety. (p. Note D. elementary processes. p. These are treated on the supposition that the stresssystem of a beam under flexure is uniplanar. is we might add Shearability and Twistability) to denote the inverse of stiffness. works out problems of hollow. 340. [467468 and elastic resilience. and the usual Rankine (pp. in order Such a ratio is termed a factor of safety. 1013% 1016*. i. strain. [467. p. 115. however. He considers that the generalised Hooke's Law is " fulfilled in nearly all the cases in which the stresses the exceptions being a few are within the limits of proof strength substances very pliable. 850* 5* 857*. 275). an identity which proof strength with the limit of linear elasticity itself seems to be the exception rather than the rule: see our Arts. on p.320 It RANKINE. He cylindrical and spherical shells of Lam6 but he uses only (pp. shearing. shear and ' and obtains results corresponding to those He adopts. Compressibility. : would be better to distinguish between absolute.energy. 99100.. transverse strength.] strain and the ellipse of strain. to compression and crushing (splitting. and then passes to shearingstress and strength (as in rivettcd joints of all kinds). to flexure (bending moment.] especially to Rankine now turns to the mathematical theory of elasticity. It is which a general term used accurately' measured by a is thlipsinomic coefficient (x) 273). 875. terminology of the present work: see our Arts. We may remark that the Manual uses isotropic and amorphous as This is not in accordance with the synonymous terms (p. 280 3) discusses at some length uniplanar [468. 336 and our Art. Such lines of stress as are figured by Rankine on 342 and are to be found in many practical . limits of strength: see our Arts. 293 and 296) stress and footnotes. 274).e. but the researches of SaintTenant have shown this to be incorrect : see our Arts. bulging. to beams of equal and greatest strength (solids of equal resistance. buckling. experience. and Yol. 1296*.) and to Lines of Principal Stress in Beams. 278). Flexibility. and Art. problems of technical elasticity. and at the same time very tough. and 142. snapping). for the latter only (ix) p. crossbreaking). Working Stress on the material of a structure made less than the proof strength in a certain ratio to be determined by practical to provide for unforeseen contingencies (p. such as This statement seems practically to identify the caoutchouc" (p. 4 (77). proof and then perhaps to reserve the word spring see our Vol. etc. 274. 891.
469 4tfO] EANKINE 321 textbooks. who detei mined the values of c from Hodgkinson s expen For pillars with both ends rounded instead of built in we must ments take 4c foi c (pp 3613) This part of Rankme's book concludes with a discussion of vauoub kinds of girdeis and some miscellaneous remarks on strength and stiffness A consideiable The and of stiength woik as well as [470 ] m the Appendix is numbei of useful piactical tables of elasticity of \arious materials will be found in the pages> of the 1 last portion of the Applied Mechanics which lefeis the fourth chapter of Part V entitled Motions It treats briefly of bodies attached of Pliable Bodies. are therefore even in the most favourable cases. then to Crushing by Bending a formula of the type is given for the strength 7i. a constant and y the depth of a point on the the flexural rigidity. P i Rankine next passes to Torsion and Combined Torsion and [469 ] Heie Bending with little to be noted . pi oof. T c and consideis that P He states that this . pp 552 65 to light spnngs the inertia of which is neglected and to a fe\\ cases to our subject There appears to be no no\elty in it On the whole Rankme's Applied Mechanics mij be taken as a book which was a very distinct advance on any woik pieviousl} of elastic vibrations 1 The lattei contains also in the latei editions a sufticient discussion oi the theorem analytical treatment of continuous beams ind ot Clapejions . foimula was nrst proposed by Tredgold and afteiwaids levived by Gordon. elastic line below a fixed horizontal Its full investigation obviously see Rankine' requires elliptic functions p 353 and compare his pp 190 5 for the treatment by elliptic functions . eg the thin web of a girder. P of a pillai or <o column of length I and least diameter cross section and tensile strength empirical gives absolute. only rough approximations Similaily Rankine's treatment of the influence of slide when combined with flexure in producing deflection is erroneous see our Art 556 and our discussion below of Wmklei's memoir of 1860 Then follow a number of problems on the elastic line for various beams which do not call for special notice This section of the chapter concludes with a leference to the Its 'Hydrostatic Arch' first fully discussed by YvonYillarceaux equation may be written where p is is the radius of curvature at any point of the elastic line. or working stress values corresponding values will thus be obtained for Q T constant depending on the material being an Rankine appaiently Q .
first decade of our halfcentury from the distinctly separate very The step to them from books of the the previous thirty years.. 133 nicht und elastisch&r gespannter gespmnter Querschwingungen Stale.. I. for the six possible variations among and supported terminals.... essentially to the theory length of the bar.. one .' [471. can of course be deduced from the latter of these by doubling the In the length of the rod. His numerical results are considerable value.. Ueb&r die 168.... is a memoir by Seebeck entitled 1852..] In Vol..... (iii). I the length of the rod and i any This result is the law stated integer..phys. tV P = i' EU . and the particular point of interest is the modification in tone produced by the stiffness of musical There are two strings. + where n^ir is the frequency of vibrations of the stretched rod.. r The second part of the memoir deals with the vibrations of [472.. E&K* its then the equation for the transverse displacement y at distance from a terminal is : due to the year 1849. Leipzig.. Savart and deduced .322 published professing to SEEBECK. fuller Seebeck thus omits the effect of the angular rotation of the His equation may be compared with the Seebeck first equation given by Donkin: Acoustics..... p.] stretched rods. nj'2v the frequency without the stretch. The memoir itself is of sound.) former case Seebeck shows that experiments: (i) third case.. and have been largely used by later ery writers on sound.. (ii) both ends clamped. = 0...... and which have formed the subject of both ends pivoted.. and finds in this case from the resulting equation s P jops.......... : Classe der Koniglich sachsischen Qesellsckaft der Wissenschqften. njfa the frequency for the rod treated as a flexible string under tension P. and belongs Let m be the mass per unit and P the longitudinal stress. 168. free nodes etc. by N.. pp.. deal with [47l_472 the problems of technical and Weisbach Such works as elasticity.. (The end pivoted and one clamped. is very great and marks the beginning of the type of Tredgold's these of Rankine era of ' technical education. of the Abhandlungen der math. the iped.. cases which Seebeck deals with.. rigidity CD sections of the rod..
by the rigidity. Vol i p 245) is to be hoped that this oversight will not lead needlessly Seebeck's investigation It any one to lepeat Seebeck shows that the correction foi stifhiess is exFoi examplt. and Loid Kayleigh while questioning Donkin's conclusion does not note that Seebeck has really settled the point Lord Rayleigh possibly had not been able to see Seebeck's memoir and perhaps Donkin. that. comma as a much as harmonic differed from (^) purity by Theie is an appendix to the munoii giving an account of some [473] . especially in this respect. through the same interval. of the not too high sub tone * of a complex stiff string or flexible rod. it does not therefore follow that the haimomc relation is bettei reserved in spite of rigidity \vhen the ends aie clamped thin when the> aie S ee. so that they do not cease to form a harmonic series . aftei giving equation (iv) m Donkm's form. had read it somewhat caielessly passages in question Donkin gives (iv) without the last term of the culled bracket and after comparing it thus mutilated with (n) remarks see that they differ essentially. however. but it is somewhat singular that Donkin misstates the result (iv). made with rods with clamped terminals see our Art 1228* Obviously the stiffness of a doublyfixed string destroys the harmonic charactei of its tones Passing to the case of a doubly clamped lod Seebeck shows that (ui) does not hold and that the determination of the notes is much more For the case. the purity of the harmonics is destroyed by the stiffness and all the notes are raised in pitch Both Donkm and Loid Rayleigh refer to See beck's memoir. p 182) Loid Rayleigh on the othei hand. lemarks According to this equation the component tones are all raised in pitch by the same small interval. but only that there is no additional disturbance in the formei cise though the absolute alteiation of pitch i& much gieatei (Theoty of ^oinul. however. whom he The following are the follows.473] SEEBECK 323 theoietically by Duhamel. but which only holds for pivoted terminals Savart's experiments were. and therefore the harmonic i elation is not distmbed It would probably be otherwise if terms involving * 2 P \\ ere by the rigidity retained . on hih tremely small in most piactical cases (p 163) tone 27th was the fh^t that the own lecture room monochord. and the series is therefoie no We longer strictly harmonic (Acoustics. in the case (iv) of fixed faces the pitch of all the component tones is raised. he finds n* =n where the notation is the same as in the previous case (p 162) Thus in this case we have two diffeient effects. whereas in the other case (n) each tone is raised through a greater interval than the next lower one.
see my footnote Vol. dagogcu wic bci dor langoreu Bauer des statischen Versuchs die gemessene Dehnvmg rnorklich vergrassorn und daher einen kleineren Modulus geben muss (p. 29) and he remarks how absurdly confusing is the term perfectly elastic as used . mit entitled It is which they are liable. : lesonderer Anwendung auf 40).SEEBECK.] 164 168). and refers for a further discussion on this point to the Programm der technischen Bildungsanstalt zu Dresden. l He carefully distinguishes between the imperfect elasticity* (I) which arises from set and that which arises from elastic afterstrain. receive set (see our Arts. ( ' in the textbook theory of the (pp. 1 die Untersuchung der Mastioitdt fester Therein will be found lists very complete at that date of the stretchmoduli of various materials obtained by both statical and vibrational methods.) refers to the of vibration produced by causes which are changes in amplitude of our Art. Denn wahrend der kurzen Dauer em or Schwingung kaun nur . in a great extent to elastic afterstrain. impact of spherical and other bodies 28 and 31). even under the feeblest stress. or two statements deserve special notice : p. He points out that Wertheim's statement that all bodies. at the same time expanding and developing Weber's arguments see our Art. This latter contains an excellent little paper by Seebeck on the various methods which have been used for detercharacter of the errors to mining the stretchmodulus and the Ueler Schwingung&n. 136 ftn. Korper (pp. 7 and 8) does not prove anything more than the fact that Wertheim's material had not been reduced to a state of ease (p. 1296*" and 1301*. (a) . 9 13) the effect of a constant Motional and of an airresistance proportional to the velocity in reducing amplitude of oscillation of an elastic body. 34). 756. I. A passage in Seebeck's memoir (p. 712*. as well as a fairly com One prehensive list of experimental investigations on this point. 1846. [474 Seebeck's on the tones of doublyclamped stiff cords experiments of He considers that experiment and theory (as represented by (iv)) are in close agreement (pp. 471. He remarks that one of neglected in Equation (i) these causes is elastic afterstrain. He attributes the reduction in amplitude of vibration. oven in (c) metals. [474. : He considers that the effect of elastic afterstrain must bo to (d) render the value of the stretchmodulus as determined by statical measurement smaller than the value obtained from vibrations : der klcinsto Theil der Nachwirkung in Thatigkeit treten.force tlie Seebeck discusses (pp.
die Sandanhaufungen like Seebeck's auf longitudmalschwmgenden Koipetn theory causes the sand to accumulate at the nodes Savart's at the loops and not Seebeck's statements are much oleaier Although onlj desciiptoe. CLAUSEN 325 He holds that the effect of after stiain was mingled with the (e) teinperatuie effect in the experiments of Weber and Wertheim referred to in our Aits 705* and 1297* Hence those results must give too great a difference between the specific heats at constant pressure and The objection applies peihaps more strongly to constant volume Wertheim's than to Weber's mode of experimenting See the remaiks of Clausms referred to in our Art 1398* 1405* (/) Finally I may note a little scrap of historical information bearHe points ing on the problem of impact which Seebeck gives on p 32 out that Daniel Bernoulli had attempted to calculate the loss of kinetic energy in the form of elastic vibrations which occurs when a body strikes centrally and transveisely a fitee rod Bernoulli came to the conclusion that  of the total eneigy befoie impact would be taken up as elastic vibrations in the lod His investigation is based upon the assumption that the lod will be bent into the form corresponding Bernoulli's memoir is published in the Norn Comto its deepest tone mentam Acad Petiopol Tom xv p 361. 401 [475 ] Seebeck also contributed papers treating of the theory of the vibrations of elastic bodies to Dove's Repei tonum dej PhysiL. Melanges Mathematiques Petersburg . 1770 It maybe taken as the first attempt to treat impact elastically. T ix pp 36b et Also 1851 Astionomiqties. 1849 These papeis deal principally Berlin. Cauchy. 410 20. Berlin. and they detail b} have been repioduccd with considoiable expeumental Terquem see Section II ol this Chapter Seebeck died in 1849 [476] Clausen Ueber die Fonn ai clnteltomscliei Saulen. and may even yet be read with interest 4 of the latter paper I would call attention especially to pp 52 wherein Seebeck draws attention to Savart's etwas Liuisthchen und mcht einwurffreien Vorstellung of the mode in which combined longitudinal and transverse vibrations displace the sand on a These pages are entitled Uebet vibrating rod see oui Art 327* Bd VI pp 3100. and the primary step in investigations which have been so ably followed up by Poisson. F Neumann. and Bd Yin pp 1108 (AkustiL. St Bulletin physico mathematiqne de VAcademie. with the theory of sound. SaintYenant. 79. than Savart's.475 476] SEEBECK. Boussinesq and Hertz see oui Arts 203 14 and subsequent articles in this History 7. separate pagination). 1842.
. 27994. zur wandte Auflb'sung dieser viel schwierigern Aufgabe den Lagrange von ihm erfundenen Variationscalcul an. Indem ich die Auflosung auf eine andere Art versuchte. deren allgemeine Integration Lagrange nicht versuclit hatte. 368). volume this is to tion. for in the comparatively short columns of architecture. [477 Clausen pp. wodurch es sich zeigt. the only solution. und gelangte zuletzt zu dem sehr auffallenden Eesultate. Clausen has succeeded in solving the and comes to a different result. 113*) obtained the differential for the solution of the problem and showed equation required that the right circular cylinder is one. In general differential equation.] Let be the area of the crosssection. and under certain conditions. This problem as we have remarked of no very great practical importance. if all the crosssections are similar figures with their centroids in the axis. dass die Saule von gleicher Dicke die dass sie bei gleicher mern. und dass das Yolumen dieses bei gleicher Hohe und Tragkraft sich zum Volumen jener Form : gleiclmng. St Petersburg. 1853. or K = /ta. the longitudinal stress produces set load is reached see our Arts. say. Hohe und Tragkraft das kleinste Volumen enthalte. auf elliptische Transcendenten zu reduciren. and be a minimum. Seit dieser Zeit ist diese Aufgabe Wissens nicht beriihrt worden. seeks to find the form of a column which for a given buckling load Tome I (184953) shall is have the least volume. [477. = V= / cocfo. Further if P be the load and y the we have upon the Eulerian theory Jo deflec Now K 2 varies as o>. Then we have rl if ds be an element of the axis of the column. 1258 9*.326 CLAUSEN. gelang es wider Erwarten. the following lines he somewhat misstates Lagrange's conclusions as to the best form of column : Als Eigenschaft der zweckmassigsten Form wurde angenommen. die Differentialstarkste bei gleichem die zweckmassigste Form vom Cylinder abweicht. long before the buckling : Lagrange as we have seen (Art. Hence We have thus to make I (y yfY ds a mini mnmum.es Volumen sei. dass verhalt wie 1 JSJi a) (p.
= . (2) by then we have y. . and add their sum to the double of or integrating c 4 * ( \ clb / ] = c4 + 1 2^z  I2z 4 (4). add and Multiply these equations by =cLs cCs giate.F // 01 the . being an arbitiaiy constant Whence we deduce . and so the section. then we have to solve ^s"~~^~~ ~~y u w (V\9 \ _.478] CLAUSEN 327 By diiect application of the Calculus of Variations I deduce the equation This agrees with Clausen's result stated as Equation (3) p 372 if we introduce a minus sign undei both roots He seems to me to employ an Let us unnecessarily complex process to leach this simple conclusion write z = co JEftIP. and we find = if 3 (**) (3). x (o) V ' Thus ^. z = zQ foi the point at which ^= ds (3) Multiply (1) by u. means of elliptic functions is given in terms of the arc 5 of the axis by 4 [478] We have now to deteimme the value of the constant c According to Lagiange (Ait 112*) we may measure the efficiency of a column of given height by the latio Pj V and P ^ arieb ab V /P Hence 4 4 if two columns cany the same load we must have F /I .y~ t u^ ds* ' where u inte and ~ lespectively. .
Equation (5) now becomes : . After some F must be a c 4 finds = 0. r whence from (8) ^"!V^ F V : f . then we have and GI and <72 ^^ being constants. . (8). the volume of this uniform column. '21 Eft' Letusput=2 =* cos 3 2 ^ * [20 JJS cos OdO + sin 20]. s 7 yp ^~ = ^ /~Wi^ or ^ =7rft> y > Further since the columns are to be of the same height wo must have this equal to the I of Equation (8). We deduce for F'. :: ^3 : 2.328 volume of a column which is CLAUSEN. [479.] is Now (o> suppose we uniform = o> ) but of the take a column the crosssection of which same shape as before. _ N/JU/f^ Jz * /g\ Further. To obtain the total length between the limits * \TT of 6 supposing the strut and volume we must take these expressions doubly pivoted. and it follows that. of unit length [479 and carries the same load is 4 c that Clausen takes as his condition for determining troublesome rather analysis he minimum.
and Wertheim's memon on Toiswn in Section II of Chapter scarcely to have been The memoir ought Journal in punted in 1852 . almost squaie. 51.Venant 1549*. that the formei He figures this column agrees in shape with either half of the latter ' dass die Form. pp 340364 quite ignorant of the existence of the . 1852. be questioned see our Arts 146* 911* 958* and 1258* as that of [481 ] E Segnitz Ueber Torsionswiderstand und Torsionsdie reine festigkeit Journal fui und angewandte Mathematik. if the length and the area of the cross section of the column Thus take a lectangular section 2# x 25 remain the same. we have only to compare the loads carried bv the latter for various forms of crosssection to aruve at a variety of comparative lesults These loads. that the circle is not the form which offers the gieatest lesistance to buckling. The author seems he slidemodulus and of the shearing resistance of a material of extension the torsion to endeavours longitudinal by explain P the rod or prism treated as a bundle of fibies Young (Natural 7 7 / / Vol I p 139) had already pointed out the insufficiency 1 ' l of this hypothesis factor by Maxwell.480481] CLAUSEN. they are meiely assumed to be similar and similarly placed Clausen remarks. erne dem and remarks Augen mcht an opinion. circular if b > 3a/7r ^ e if the side b lies between (3/x) a and a Thus certain rectangulai sections. vary as K2 and b<a and compare it with a circular section of radius c. however. wie mir schemt. instead of the doubly pivoted strut of the previous He investigation arrives at the conclusion. which will not be accepted by ungefallige ist' many In the present memoir the form of the crosssections is left un determined. I think. aie bettei than The practical value of the circular sections in the matter of buckling whole of this investigation must. he gives no analysis of the point Since. this It had also Wertheim and been considered as a collective see our Aits Saint. or they are as the therefore section will be better than the rectangular ajir 5/3. however. howevei. which he might have foreseen. for the same buckling load and height the volume of the column of variable section is less than that of the column of uniform section in the ratio of 73 2 [480 ] Clausen devotes pp 77080 to the consideration of the problem of the column builtin at one end and loaded at the other. the 2 relative efficiencies are as c /4 b/3 where Trc = iab. the load carried by the best column is always the same a column of uniform section of 2/^/3 times its volume. Bd 43. SEGOTTZ 329 that is.
Annales des Mines is not accessible : : see our Art. 483. The commissioners remark that Phillips sera fort utile aux ingenieurs et aux des regies rationnelles et d'une applitrouveront constmcteurs. qui y cation facile. T. which is appended to the memoir (pp. 1852. 34. : (see Section III. [482484 ' E. Tome I.330 [482. des v&icules qui circulent sur les chemins defer. de resistance (p. Phillips. Seguier and Combes speaks very fully and favourably of Phillips' results. pp. en acier employes dans la construction Gomptes rendus. avec un degre de precision extreme. The theory here developed is very complete and has been carefully verified experimentally by Phillips. the details of his experiments being given in other parts of the memoir. They recommend the publication of the Savants Strangers. but this memoir is the principal one. 195 : 227. Phillips M&moire sur les ressorts en acier employes materiel des chemins de fer. pp. pour I'gtablissement des ressorts capables de satisfaire.]  PHILLIPS. This report by Poncelet. 1852. [484. Phillips les : concernant ressorts Rapport sur im Mdmoire de M. flexibility et . and should be taken in con junction with the Note entitled Demonstration des formules de la fleche et de la flexion d'un ressort quelconqae sous charge. 1504 *).' The first chapter is entitled: Theorie mathematique des It occupies pp.] dans le E. of the memoir in the collection as a footnote on the first portion of the report is printed there is an additional the where in memoir the of Annales. We have already referred to previous notes 336. Annales des Mines. avec la moindre dSpense de matilre. 195 and memoirs by Phillips on this subject (see our Art. of this Chapter) were L 483.] ressorts. . & des conditions donne'es de Le 'travail de M. 31936). 235). We shall consider these at some length. par des experiences directes. Combes that the formulae for springs given some A what earlier rue to by Blacher Clapeyron. long Note. It will be found useful to those to whom the original memoir in the 22635. Les resultats qu'elle donue ont <te verifies dans les cas les plus divers. page remark by M. indeed it is one of the most important that has ever been published on the theory of laminated It consists of three chapters and a springs.
p etc be the picssuies per unit length between the fiist and second. . de la part de 1'acier. c lamina and the cential axes of the laminae e^L^ e L etc . and l/p then be the cui vature at & of the matrix lamina y etc be the distances between the central axis of the matiix let c. tiicl aftei wauls investigates the conditions foi this then p.. e^L^ ez L . distant 3 from FT by 1/r. the second ind thud. but such an equation a& that at the middle of his p 201 lequiies some comment ol this kind see however p 282 of the mem on . 1. />. FF and oiu Ait 488 . let a load Q be applied to the teimmal L. et auquel j'etais qui parait indiquei. let the curvatmes of the different 1fl. symmetiy enables us to tieat the spring as 'builtin. M . .mma. laminae etc at the section distant I fiom I V Now Phillips practicilly assumes that the distance between is the same whether measuied peipendiculai any cioss section and This is probably almost to FF 01 along the cential axis of the lamina true in practice.ft at ly tively by L. let J/.' and Let the distances of the Fig (i) terminals of these laminae from the mid plane FFof the where spring. their respective central axes after manufacture be given at a section L L . un etat d'elasticite bien plus partait que dans le fer ou dans la fonte (p 196) Let a spring be supposed built up of a number of [485 ] separate laminae eL. J/i. be given lespec etc .485] PHILLIPS loin de m'attendre moim&ne. . 1/? 1? l/r etc . etc projecting one beyond the other as in let eL be the 'matrix lamina. etc be the flexur il ngidities of the successive laminae Phillips supposes that the laminae aie throughout in contact with Let each olher.
/ Now >i<+1 and as a rule r t ] i**Q at that point. + .. hence l/p + 1 l/p is a finite quantity and there is an abrupt change of curvature at the point where the (i+ l)th sheet This abrupt change could be got rid of laps the ith. (ii) or t M making + . second lamina... .. /hen e is so small compared with p that it may be neglected. (iii).. l function of the J/'s and ra ) 7 7 s.. (i). we easily deduce : ^ 2 as part of the matrixlamina. M nr + +.rl9 r must either be equal or in ascending order of magnitude from r + to r.i+l . by .. as is isually the case.... 1_ p M+ i 2 where M MS +. or by trimming and pointing off the end of the lamina as suggested either in our Fig. ru r^ L .332 PHILLIPS. if F be any i. [485 of flexure and neglecting Applying the BernoulliEulerian theory tfht of the spring. *i t of the ()= (*)]% ('*) ... in our Fig. if the laminae are to touch. + 1 ......QL\ A = r + MI r r r 2 t i Calling this l/p^ let us find the difference of l/p t + and Li+l1 we l/p t where have S o q o where 2 F(M^ rq is ) denotes. we have : Continuing this process we easily find for the curvature at a point on the matrixlamina lying between L^ and Z.
486488] Le m&ne raisonnement feuille. or the r's to be all equal at the same cross section of the spring. etc will be given by formulae of the type . . (!T) Whence if e. third laminae. elt 62 ? etc have formulae for the matrix lamina between e maximum L be the successive thicknesses of the laminae we stretches of which the type for the t and  v+1 is =a u _J Suppose all the laminae to be of the same curvature before bemg built up into the spring. then when there is no original difference of curvature in the laminae. resistance (pp 207 8) [487 ] Phillips remarks that the formula (11) of the previous article enables us to calculate out the value of p for a succession on the matrixlamina for any given spring. the nature of the curve in which the laminae are shaped and then initial curvature have no influence on the stretches in the spring 01 upon its or. and thus to He gives (p 206) draw a curve of its form under a given load details of five experiments in which the deflections thus obtained were compared with their experimental values There is an extremely close accordance between the experimental and theoretical of positions results [488 flection. We next pass to the analytical deteimmation of the de ] the investigation of which occupies pp 319 et t>eq of the Yut? hwe generally from (n) We =a+ Iz (vii). et PHILLIPS 333 ont les se continue pour toute l'<tendue de la maitresse on v&ifie ainsi I'utikte' de ce fait pratique que tous les bons ressorts extr^mite's de leurs feuilles aiguise'es et ammcies (p 204) s [486 ] The stretch z afc distance t? from the central axis of the matrix lamina. or at distances Vi. v2 etc from the central axes of the second.
^w BH be ^ne values of a and b for the portion of the matrixlamina which covers all the other n laminae..... however considerable... semilengths . and finds : but the lefthand side = dy/d\. measured indifferently either along the horizontal or along the central axis of the matrixlamina... In our investigations we shall replace Phillips' A by since we use A in a special technical sense in this work. C and C". L will be the of the successive laminae n+\ .. and so on.. [489 where ^= _ $ ? SJf o we have s.... to the direction perpendicular to that of the load Q. but that when the spring is made up and in the unloaded state it ought to be very approximately flat.334 PHILLIPS.. and let only <7n _ 1} C"M1 be the As CH> G' corresponding values of C and C'.... hence integrating again X* . but given section measured along as we have already pointed out equation (ii) is accurately true only when we use z and not A. # n1 M . from the lowest upwards. This condition is probably satisfied in most springs in practical use. A u ^ the values of a and b yt _i for that portion which covers laminae.] Let the spring Lave laminae and let separate lap of the spring.. Phillips by neglecting the difference between and unity writes (vii) in the form : (yiii). The conditions to be satisfied at the lap of two laminae are that the deflection and slope shall be continuous. or is the slope of the tangent at the central axis to the horizontal.. ie. X being the distance from 77 of a Phillips has X where the central axis of the matrixlamina.. .. Thus the true limitation to Phillips' investigations appears to be that any curvatures. a and b will have different values for each [489. where p = dy/dz. to me that (ix) is only true so far as we may legitimately ge A and Phillips does not seem to have remarked that 3 already supposed this interchange allowable when he puts A _____ d of z on the righthand side of (vii). may be given to the laminae in manufacture. (ix). but wo shall suppose z . This equation (viii) he integrates on the assumption that a and 6 are constants along the central axis between the laps. before L n L n _ L9 etc.
+ 4^ . \\e then find / /= j/x a (Mil) . etc be the conespondQ= ing values of A n _ 1+l and J5^_ 7+1 then we easily see from formulae for a and b that Aw<. we must find the value of y when Let yQ be its value and let <4 u _ Ul AL+I. M y we have the expression _ ? 4 _^z? +1 ^V.7 i^L =Z L_ ufc T^fc+i lfc 11 Q . ^t  have thus the deflection at any point of the matrixlamina To due to the load Q.490] while if deflections PHILLIPS 335 axis of the matrixlamina An be measured from the lowest point of the central we must obviously have Cn G n = Q easy application of an ordinary method of solving finite diffei r ence equations leads to the results the summation being for k.+i e^ are all zer and further that find the deflection > We  QL a Thus =y 2 ^I j?^_. wfc+i [490 ] Phillips considers vanous special cases of the foimula (xii) of of the spung due to the preceding article Thus the total deflection the load Q will be obtain* d by putting ~ = L ami k = n . while between 'ni JDn _ A+1 and Ln _ k (xi) + C^7 2.
then the deflection (i) is proportional to the charge. the laminae seems a result likely to be important in the practical construction of springs. [491492 A of this is special case : when all the flexural rigidities are equal we then have <> Phillips still farther simplifies this by taking or supposing the laminae equally spaced out certain reductions we have : . then of our Art. zzr. Suppose the section taken between Z. [491.^ between Phillips easily deduces after the . PHILLIPS. It is further shown that the change in the sine of the angle which the tangent at any point to the central axis of the matrix lamina makes with the horizontal laminae. 319329). 7 and Lk+1 let sr = the (see fig.336 . (i) in our Art. laminaL _nr1 between the the k first 1th and &th laminae. 485.] Phillips now proceeds to extend the results just stated an ingenious process of general analysis to the case in which by He shows the primitive curvatures vary in any arbitrary manner. 215 19 Phillips calculates the pressures between [492.] the various laminae at any section given by z. that the deflection is still proportional to the charge and indepen dent of the original form and curvatures of the laminae (pp. is also proportional to the load and independent of the primitive form and curvature of the On pp. 4Hf>) pressure per unit length between the matrixlamina and the first sub. 329 This independence of the deflection on the primitive form of 33).. is independent of the primitive curvature and form of the laminae (ii) of each lamina are constant (pp. that : manner and second sublaminae. he then proves that after Qlf QP fn(nl) 111 1 These results show us that when the flexural rigidity and curvature throughout its length and the rigidities the same for all laminae... .
if we assume with Phillips that the inertia of The motion is then simpleharmonic the spring may be^neglected and of period ^irjfjg. Hence it the length oi the liunna be / and its cioss section .493] PHILLIPS 337 (XV) all Thus since p is given by (11) we can find these pleasures. then we have (5) If ft resilience is well = Phillips gives the result in the form Vr on p 223. wheie /is the statical deflection which Q would produce in the spiing be the ratio of load to deflection. so that Q = $f. the known to be ftf/S or Q*/(2ft) Now let w be the amount of work due to a blow which will just flatten the spring. and let the statical force lequned to flatten it be P. they must be positive if the laminae aie to have no tendency to separate [493 ] The memoir then to their resilience passes to the effect of vibrations on springs and The case of a weight Q placed upon the centre of a spnng is (a) very easily dealt with. which (c) is obviously a mispimt The resilience may also be given another form suggestive of I Young's theorem 1/p to l//o. (seo oui Vol p 875) The work required to bend an element dz of a the sli((t h iving \n mitixl curvattue 1/r Himna fiom curvature is well known to be Thus the woik requnod to manufictuu 01 1/9 i\ itten the element from its cmvatuie of 1 M .
. total resilience of the spring Of this result Phillips writes : Le travail se trouve done diminud toutes les fois quo lo rossort no part pas de sa position de fabrication.=  . parce que SQ n'entre que par son quarrd.?. () . for the total work on a lamina we have fu the expression Et ?( Hence the w /... (xvi).338 PHILLIPS. is not may when it is equal to r.? . the work done _ ~ 6 ' value $ = ^e/r. qu'il y a avantago a faire en sortequela bande de pose du ressort qui rdpond a un oftort d'environ 1000 ..... On voit... but .. .... arise in which the blow begins to act upon the spring already in a state of strain. all if F be the laminae to have the same final stretch on flattening. if Now the stretch in the lamina has for maximum U be the volume of the lamina.e. i. the initial radius of curvature.. dans les ressorts ordinal res.. en mOme temps.. where SQ is the initial stretch. Hence the work required to flatten the element dz of a lamina is 1/1 equal to or. its primitive condition is one of strain. the total volume of the spring : Total resilience Cases ~^~ . supposing its stretchmodulus JE.. the work required to flatten the whole lamina. ou environ 1/3 de on perd environ 1/9 de la puisanco du ressort pour est^ roister au choc. Ainsi.. Or c'oat ce qui arrive pour tons les ressorts de choc et de traction qui sont pose's avec uno certainc bande main on voit quo la difference sera toujours assez faible quand s no wora paw truH grand.. [493 be rectangular and of height e. and Hence the work done in flattening the spring Supposing then we have.. In this case p .
which loads us to L. or generally. toutes choses gales d'ailleurs & quent.ler 301 and contains many points of great interest occupies pp 227 [494] Chapitre convendbles t Phillips first draws attention to the fact.A+i) MJ^. sous le rapport de la choisir des simphcite. . we have then to ask how they can be spaced out so that the spring can be reduced to approximate flatness. par cons<$ ce point de vue. maximum strain will occur when the spring is completely and in such state the maximum stretches in all the laminae ought to be equal The maximum stretch of the matrixlamina on = flattening e/(2r) and this will be the same for every section of it If the laminae have initially the same curvature then they will have the same maximum stretch in every crosssection when flattened But supposing the laminae have before being formed into out the spring initially different curvatures.L l+l  MJ(Pr ) % (XMII) If \\e formula which detd mines the spacing of the laps the laramao aic ill of equ il iigidity ind initially of equil cuivatuie (xvm) is tlio have L L. produise un allongement s le plus faible possible . which d(tu mines tho spacing for tins special case . P (L . = L! L = L.L l+l = = ^ (xix).494] PHILLIPS 339 kilogrammes. + PA = 0. sous un peu roides plutdt que tres nexibles (p 226) employer des ressorts Deuoubme entitled Des formes les plus & donner CLUM ressorts et des regies pour les calau. et c'est cette In the second place it is evident that the best sort of spring be builtup in such a manner that all its parts are equally strained under any load or at least the maximum load (or maximum strain due to any oscillations) which it is designed to bear As a will rule this flattened. and what conditions must be satisfied m order that the maximum stretches shall be the same for all the laminae Let reduces 2P be it the load which applied to the middle of the spring approximate flatness Then Phillips takes as his condition of flatness that the cuivatuie of the matrix lamina shall be zeio at each This gives us fiorn equation (11) of our Art 485 lap of a sub lamina to . forme que je suppose adopted (p 227) arcs de cercle. L J^ + PA+iO.. etc. referred to in our Art 491. il y a avantage. =._. that the primitive form of the laminae is practically of little II importance y a done avantage..
Hence the volume of the spring having a considerable initial strain and the same flexibility and absolute resistance which requires a given load to flatten it. maximum made the curvature for the zero at the laps. omitting that of the matrixlamina. then therefore if the stretch on flattening is to be lamina and for the matrixlamina we must have &th the for the same we have rk <r. call it ff\ we have to subtract from this figure the sum of the little triangles of bases 4 and heights e or the volume of the spring will be measured by JP 2S4e&j but by what precedes F>I?e/l and lk e k <le. we must have [495. = ~= 2rk 6i. and having the same matrixlamina (pp. e or . Now if there be initial strain since ek/lk > e/l.^MjtKPr^MejfKlSPrk).' 340 PHILLIPS.0*.#fo /(12Pr).] Hitherto Phillips has only load P . 233 4). we have <l and 4e& < If we flatten the spring out so as easily to calculate its volume. M or flattening load. it follows that e^/rk < eP/r or k/rk <M/r. r we have breadth of the laminae.. [495 If any lamina say the Jcth has a considerable initial strain. we see that if there is no initial strain and therefore all the depths of the laminae and the spacings equal. and therefore 4 < ~ Z and <2 4. or the resistance to initial strain is greater in the matrix lamina than in any sublamina (pp. but e 6 lk fc <e so that & fortiori 0. or eL. similarly it follows that e k /lk >e/l. will be measured by an isosceles triangle of area De\l less the sum of the little triangles of bases I and height e. lie now proposes to deduce the proper shaping off of the ends of the laminae in order that the curvature may be zero at all points. < ^ ^. the volume. In the case of a spring with laminae equally curved initially it is easy to prove that the maximum stretches at all the crosssections in all the laminae will be equal. JLI ok 3 7 = r JL< k 2r lsk+l . we see that the perimeter of the figure formed by joining the corners of successive laminae falls outside the above isosceles triangle and has therefore a greater area. 238 9). where I is the Ij. Phillips then proceeds to shew that as a general rule the nonequality of the heights and curvatures of the sublaminae with those of the matrixlamina has very little influence upon the deflection of the matrixlamina. even if the load bo not the maximum fc . hence 2 I. For the matrix lamina itself from L to L. For if ek/r k = e/r and ek < e.nan in the case when all the thicknesses are equal (pp. 231 the other hand if the thicknesses of the laminae increase from rix downwards it may be shewn that the volume of the spring is . is greater than that of a spring with equal heights and spacings for its laminae.T we must nave ek < Tff 6. and A.
7 * A and by the liw of spaemgb (xix). which [496 ] seems of considerable interest and practical value He finds namely ' the deflection of a complete or incomplete' spring when all the laminae are of the same section except at the laps. Fuither Whence we easily find 1 . ^ XX1) Tims the ciuvatuic foi the complete portion of the spiing 01 the . and the like same law as may be shown of the other successive laminae Instead of tapering off the thickness we might have reduced the breadth.496] or. since the spaces aie equal.L^ after 3 2/i K = constant = Thus the thickness at the ends of the first sub lamina follows the the case of the matrix lamina. since M varies 3 y /x = constant = /(L  L^). if PHILLIPS 341 and y be the variable thickness of the lap e z as y we have 3 Lz=x. or teimmated our laminae in poignard or triangle form (see ng (m) of our Art 485) Phillips states that this latter method is the more wasteful (pp 237 8) m formula is obtained by Phillips on pp 332 6. we have by equations of the type (xx).7 PQl p 7 . where account is He supposes also equal curvatuies of taken of then pioper shaping manufactui e Calling wi the fiexural ngidity of the &th lamina at the shaped lap. since the matiix lamina has umfoimly M\<r = P (L . which determines the value of y foi each x For the first sub lamina we have whence.
of and (xxiii) be twice integrated and the four constants integration determined by the vanishing of the deflection si = 0.] most general type of spring we must use the formulae : . and thus the matrix lamina takes the whatever be the load. is reached after some algebraical reductions : If the spring is complete.............. b = Q/(nM)... of the staged is of A circular arc spring then we have I But Thus we have ... <*>.. (xxii).. %Ln being the portion of the nth lamina not thinned down.= a + bz where ..342 part which is PHILLIPS...... then the following expression for /J the droop due to the load Q... For the portion of the spring which is complete we have !=' * P where If (xxii) al = ~  by (xxi).... nl = L and ....... [497 *m ' /n constant. a={P(Lln)QL}l(nM).... to cease with the nth lamina so that the length Suppose the staging is neither tapered nor covered by any sublaminae. 214 M n equal flat laminae of memoir) of experiments on the deflection of springs actually in use on various railway wagons and locomotives... or 3/2 of the value of the droop of a spring of the same rigidity and of the same length 2L. and compares the experimental values with those calculated from the formula (xxiv)... and by the equality of the deflections and slopes and when when z=Ln as slope obtained from the two expressions for the curvature of the complete and incomplete portions...... 5 of the Phillips gives details (on pp... To calculate the depths and spacings of the laminae of the [497... There is a very remarkable accordance between theory and experiment....
une Spaisseur & la entre leurs et commune egale un 6tagement commun moyenne epaisseurs. so that all have the same primitive curvature When the spnng is manufactured there will then be a and thickness very slight initial strain in the laminae before the spring is loaded. in each lamina when flattened. haut. Z/ the hilf length and b the bieadth of the mvtrix lannni. ils se calculeront par la r&gle g&ierale (pp 240 1) _ [498] There are two special methods of easily designing a laminated spring to which Phillips lefers on pp 238 9 may suppose all the laminae cut as it weie from one and (a) the same hoop of metal.cjual sp icing of the laps.498499] wheie s is PHILLIPS the 343 maximum stretch. Such a spnng possesses the advantages refeired to in our Ait 494 We may suppose the laminae to have no initial strain by (b) descubing the laminae from the same centre and with bounding radii increasing by the mean of the thicknesses of adjacent laminae. then . on fera de mSme pour gal & la moyenne plusieurs des de et amsi suite feuilles suivantes. while the thicknesses themselves mciea&e proportionately to the radii of the central axes. de leurs Etagements . interesting properties 01 sensibly the same thickness (Case (a) of the previous Article) If be the total thickness at the mid section of such a spnug sup [499 ] On pp 240 H posed complete. because by Art 497 the latios of the successive thicknesses to the corresponding spacmgs vary mvcisely as the thicknesses and so decrease now 2 of the memoir are given a numbei of of the laminae of which have the same spunks. partant rayons. or obey the i elation We This sort of spring besides having no initial strain has also the advantage of a slightly but sensibly less volume than that desciibed in Tins is really the conveiso of the pioposition in oui Ait 494. Jj of F= #A nearly since / be the droop the sprma when unloaded. 21* the flattening load and V the volume. and T the sprin^ & is M T = ^ 2V> T Zl T = ML ^ ^' r r Z ^ * = M 2 2^> etc > P being half the central load required to flatten the spring Of these lesults Phillips writes S'ri arrive que les epaisseurs augmentent de quantity trop petites pour k toutes les feuilles les Epaisseurs calcule'es qu'on puisse donner crapres feurs & donnera on en du plusieurs feuilles. I the (. then we hue in the notation of the previous articles //Z. p (a) 340. jusqu'k ce que le ressort soit ternune Quant aux amincissernents. Further if nearly.
] practical calculation of the dimensions of springs.6PV 7= : ' Thus we (a) find for a given material that The (i) (ii) a spring is proportional directly to : the square of the flattening load. chiefly those of railway wagons.by first equation of our Art. L.springs thus calculated were constructed and the experimental deflections agreed very closely with those obtained by theory (pp. and we must have : l<. Since l/L= length e/H= ^pf>2 . or. the flexibility. : inversely to (i) (ii) the breadth of the spring. Whence we deduce when a let v equal the flexibility of the spring. its length. (v). its flexibility. then we must have.344 PHILLIPS. The data assumed arc J the flexibility of the spring its absolute resistance (2Z ). Phillips next proceeds to apply his theoretical results to the [500. [500 a there is little or no (6). (c) have also sensibly the same volume. initial strain : r = L /2f= the ^. : and further Springs having the same flexibility and ultimate resistance. it follows that the L of the spring ought to be such that a condition generally satisfied in practice. (5) The volume (i) (ii) of a spring is proportional to : the square of the flattening load. 498. 24252). Phillips supposes in addition suitable for springs He . the droop produced unit load is put at each extremity. 2P. The . supposing stress and strain proportional Now : and hence: a= total thickness of ' and . (ii) (1)^ the chord of manufacture of the load the normal (iii) (2c) spring. (iv) (2$) j (v) the breadth of the laminae (6). determines numerically the lengths of the various laminae of various classes.
I of the thickness strain and the spacing are given respectively by ~ m f while the L\l ' number of laminae will be the whole number in the quotient = 20. le that they no eletoinimed so tint the stretch on flattening is tho same . foi all the liinni i< the iiibt type of toi spring en. (b) tho second type when the thicknesses decrease fiom the matux to the sub 1 unin u inel (c) the thud type when they increase In Loth (b) and (() it is supposed tint the thicknesses.501] PHILIIPS 345 that the limit of resistance of the spring is reached undei the load 2P shows. its radius of curvature and the corresponding spacing will be found from those of the (k l)th lamina by the formulae For E mm $ = The nrst foimula might for practical purposes be replaced by '=" K. that Phillips then puts without further comment L \/c +f*9 or he equates the length of the spring to the chord of half its arc thus tacitly neglecting quantities of the order {(. however. is known = 2 flattening load.000 kilogrammes steel Phillips takes and per sq 0025. how the details may conesponding to flattening be calculated when the flattening load corresponds to neither 2P nor to 20. accordance with his previous approxi He furthei supposes the laminae mations see our Arts 484 and 488 to be of equal initial cuivature and thickness and neglects any initial Thus he easily deduces that the values e.::) On pp 252 5 after discussing the effect of bolting the [501 ] matrix lamina and under certain conditions several of the sub laminae of the spring to a rigid frame on which the load is placed.c)/LY This is. the thickness of the &th lamina. as a thoroughly safe stretch below the faillimit for good steel On pp 247 8 he shows that. when the laminae are descnbed about the same centre. and is of great interest the first type when the types of 1 miniated springs to be considered (a) curvature of uimufactuie and the thickness of the laminae aie cquil for all.li lannn i experiences only pressure it its terminals and tint each such piessuit mother is half the tire limmae lemiin exactly fitted to one loicl Phillips shows tint . the droop produced by 2P the the subtense / of manufacture. Phillips next turns to the veiy impoitant practical point of whether adjacent laminae His consideration of this mattei occupies do or do not tend to g tpe There are thiee fundamental pp 255 68. and also when the data are otherwise varied Since the flexi He bility is is known. however. ladn of cui\ ituie and the sp icings ire eilculiteel by tho foimulie of oui Ait 497.
but without gaping is of the second type the laminae a When spring 1'experience' (p. then the contact of main spring and secondary spring ought to begin when the load is 2Q and The main spring will go on up to complete coincidence under 2P. may be somewhat. is a matter of rather troublesome approximation but is discussed very fully 2705 by ^parts^ are flattened and Phillips (pp. etc. est plus e*paisse et divergente. on a fait En mme : which is called into play by the normal the main spriny. qu'il convient de faire en sorte qu'un ressort travaille habituellement aplati sous la charge qu'il supporte. These effects all the laminae for the load corresponding to flattening.346 PHILLIPS. but not after flattening to separate. of the third type its laminae tend to separate after but not before In both cases (6) and (c) there is complete contact right along flattening. On voit ainsi. If the its extreme resistance 2 P of the spring be reached when both 2Q be the normal load. Phillips deduces the Pages 268 93 of the memoir are devoted to what the [502. Cette derniere partie qui sert d'auxiliaire est calcul^e d'aprks 1'exces de resistance propre qu'on desire attribuer au ressort. corresponding to the ends if the spring under its normal load does its work in a flat small very condition. c [502 ce qui est conforme a without sensible pressure. but only slightly modified at the sections of the spring This modification will be of the laminae.] He describes author terms a ressort & auodliaire or a reserve spring. the part which is only called into In order play when the normal load is surpassed the secondary spring. et ne vient en contact avec elle que sous un exces de charge et successivement. it in the following words : remplir par des appareils diffiSrents deux conditions essentiellement distinctes : la flexibility et la resistance qui n'ont nullement besoin d'etre remplies par le instrument. quelle que soit d'ailleurs cette rdsistance (p.). . en outre. Finally if a spring is tend before. constitue le ressort proprement dit: elle travaille seule ordinairement sous la charge normale . the secondary spring must be constructed in such a manner as to establish only a gradual contact with the main load The part of a reserve spring may be termed spring. 256). 492. especially when the form sought is to involve the least expenditure of material. ind^pendamment de ce qu'alors les gfissements des feuilles. 1'autre. forme'e de feuilles toutes de m6me dpaisseur. 269). that a reserve spring may offer a progressive resistance to oscillations beyond the normal load. principe. important conclusions we have referred to above from the expressions for the pressure between successive laminae which we have reproduced in our Art. 268). et par suite le travail dft au frottement sont moindres (p. generally be formed of a number of laminae of equal thickness spaced in the usual manner and calculated so as to have a given droop i under the normal load 2. Le ressort se compose alors des deux parties 1'une. The calculation of the main spring under these conditions. place"e audessous.
if we take a single lamina foi the secondaiv spring case (u). and if there be n laminae in the mam spung we have nM Furthu. for in this case its ugidrfcy m' (and so the thickness of the lamina) must vary throughout and the maximum btietch must not exceed s when the lamina is flattened "We have then in the notation of our previous articles m while m'^fclBbe'*. 6 must be > e'/(2r') Whence we easily deduce The leftrhdiid side will Ije found to be a line .L' isily nMI(Pi).503] PHILLIPS The secondaiy spring may be made in one of seveial forms for example it may be (i) circular. i e if there be n laminae of equal and curvature of manufacture in that part of the rigidity spring we must have may be the elastic line of the normal load. however. in this case its radius of manufactuie / ought to be equal to the ladius at the centre of the last lamina of the main spring when under load 20. the shape of the secondary spring when under He remarks that in most cases it is sufficient to make the [503 ] Its semi secondary spring consist of a single lamina length L' will be that of the last lamina of the mam spring diminished by the spacing M/(Pr) and we should then have in case (i) to determine its rigidity M! from the equation } A moie complex condition comes in. 01 bettei a form a little more curved than this so that the oscillations of the mam spung may be earned gradually and not abruptly to the secondary This case is 92 discussed by Phillips on pp 286 the last lamina or (n). to K dueed r . nuximum foi or/ llM \ and since the inequihty in ly lx ( L .
feuilles d'epaisseurs croissantes. It refers 501 as of the third type : to Je ferai remarquer. on p. and thus specially . especially in the case of from the chord and arc of the matrix lamina having reserve springs. 295 is worth citing. 2824). 3000 kilogs. If L and S be semichord and semiarc 2 a the quantities L /(2r) and /S /(2r) must be practically equal (pp.g. ct qu'alors toutos dprouvent les les feuilles monies allongements. This sets a limit to the main spring when the secondary spring lamina shaped like the form of the main spring 28990).348 if PHILLIPS. gives the subtense formula he holds to be sufficiently exact in practice when the chord and arc are interchanged.]  A remark of Phillips on p. [504 e 506 we remember the value of Hence finally we must have : M and that = 2r$ for the main spring. the former must be modified if the difference between the arc and chord gives a sensible difference in the value of the subtense when the two are interchanged.). car lew rayoiis etant croissants. The few remaining points in the second chapter of the [506. en passant. and 500. [504.] must have n <27. 485. He measures the amount of error thus introduced and shows how it may be allowed for. springs have secondary springs attached to thorn consisting of one or more large laminae so arranged that the flexibility is much less after the load has passed a certain limit (e. He remarks that the flexure due to a as the difference of two formulae. For example if P= %Q we number of laminae in the consists of a single under the load 2 (pp. 282 draws attention for the first time to the which may rise to importance. 488. VOucsL Phillips describes a novel kind suitable for resisting both impact and steady pressure and These offering special advantages for passenger coaches on railways. Phillips source of error : [505. Co fait est d'autant plus saillant. que le type d6ja ddcrit des ressorts k normale.] memoir may be very briefly indicated On pp. been treated as interchangeable in the equations see our Arts. 295 8 Phillips deals more particularly witli the calculation of springs intended to resist impact. and gives details of various springs actually constructed for the Chemin de Fvr d<>. since the normal load approximately flattens the spring . les feuilles ne viemient eii contact quo successivcmcnt. rentre re*ellement dans la clause des ressorts a auxiliairc. classed in our Art. Seulement le propre de oes rcssorts cat quo toutes sont jointives sous la charge uormale. one of which given load is obtained The latter without load and the other with load. que souvent ces rcssorts so turminout par ime ou deux grosses feuilles. qui travaillent aplatis sous la charge et dont toutes les feuilles eprouvent dans 1'aplatissement mi mCme allongement.
and so far as I know the only textbook bits of m extracts have yet found a place is M Flamant's Stabihte des con striictions Resistance des materiauac. annealed. 1886 pD 574 88 [509] Giuseppe Fagnoli Riflessiom intoino la teoiica cleUe piessiom die im coipo o nstevia difoima invanahle esercita contio dai qiiah e sostenuto in eqmhbno appixjcji iiqnh ed incmovibili Mem delf A ccati drfh ttnenze di ttoloqna T vr . the details of which have been given in the course of our analysis of the memoir (instead of mm [508 ] The memoir just considered is a striking example of how a very simple elastic theoiy sufficiently accurate for the range of facts to which it is applied can be made to yield most valuable results Phillips' theory of springs such as are employed in the ordinary rolling stock of railways is one of those excellent work which can only be produced by the practical man with I have devoted considerable space to a strong theoretical grasp itb discussion as the Journal in which it appears is not among the i\ hich most accessible. ployed is given mm [507 ] Chapitre trwsieme is entitled Experiences sw Velastwit'e de Phillips concludes that for practi tempered. chaptei and an developed may be used for the investigation of new forms of springs It is followed by a table of numerical details of all the springs which had been constructed according to Phillips' theory before 1851 A description of the apparatus em Vacwr and occupies pp 302 18 and long details of experiments on various kinds of steel. Paris. while for the normal load the stietch should not exceed 002 to 003 Dans les meilleurs ressorts faits jusqu'k present. Pacier travaille habi tuellement a environ 0022 sous la charge normale (p 317) In the couise of his investigations Phillips notes that to stretch once up to 005 01 006 saves it from any sensible set when to the same stiam (p 316).000 kilogs per sq and the fail limit. hammered etc cal purposes we may take the stretch modulus at 20. and further he briefly refers again subjected a result associated with the 'paradox in the theory of beams (p 318) to Thus he states that a stietch of 0095 as a subject lor futiue study steel for 7 can 005) corresponding to a load of 190 kilogs per sq be reached in flexure experiments without danger The appended Note then follows. as a stretch of from 004 to 005 according to the quality of the steel.507509] PHILLIPS FAGNOLI 349 lelative heavy loads or impacts do not tend to vary very greatly the the buffers of the carriages heights of On pp 299 301 we have a short lesume of the results of the indication of how the theory therein.18*52 pp 109 3S . or that hmit which it is not advisable to exceed even for an occasional and exceptional load.
2849. and supposing the body to be under the influence of no bodyforces and in equilibrium then we can easily show that the equations of elasticity in elastic cylindrical coordinates are : u 2 dv X+ pdO (i).] Vdquililre Bulletin physicomathdmatique de rAcaddmie. 1853. 1855. Adopting the notation of our footnote p. T. T. r _ A =0.. 739* 41* 34256. d*  + _ r 1 d  1 d* r cP + + <h dr (tr r. Popoff: Integration des Equations qui se rapportent des corps elastiques et au mouvement des liquides : This is reprinted (with the title only 9.350 POPOFF. of internal reactions in strange metaphysical conception bodies/ rigid [510. The paper was received in October 1852. pp.d<j> Laplacian in cylincliical coordinates. [510511 This memoir.. pp. Bulletin de la societd imvibrations petites de Moscou. 145 in Russian) in the Melanges mathematiques et astronomiques} T.de St Petersbourg. & A. dz where or is thtt _ V. 79.. Premiere Partie. [511. pp.] ' perfectly A. IL. and 564* of Popoff There does not seem any particular advantage in the method and he draws no new conclusions from his solutions. as longwinded as its title. xxvi. Popoff : Sur I* integration des Equations relatives auos d'un milieu tlastique. This paper deduces by a slightly different method the solutions of the uniconstant elastic equations for small vibrations first obtained by Ostrogradsky and Poisson: see our Arts. naturalistes des pgriale Moscow. was probably the last the aid of the theory of elasticity the attempt to solve without a body of more than three points problem of the reactions upon It seems to me utterly obscure and involves the of support. XIIL. .
(11) ' x can obtain by our equilibrium. reproduced solve the general problem of the strain in a lightcircular elastic To show the type anv system of surface stresb cylinder subjected to of solution I cite the value of w A'c) cos n<$> + (34* .f T d<j> dw dz elastic (11) . which PopofF has has not considered the surface conditions nor the stresses. x (iv). 71 Jo and n a to GO A. <j>. S51 _ . he expresses them by integrals of the form given in equation Art The 371. Lairie cvnd Bessel solution is fairly straightforward although only the outline of the The results aie somewhat too lengthy to be integrations is given. is an integer to be given all valueb fiom are constants to be determined by the surface conditions to deteimme. it The constant a is piactice the most difficult and in each exponential.B *) sin n<f>] wheie e = = W I cos (ar cos x) sin 'o rir I sw(ar cos x) sm' x cos x dx.i. although (4). A'. and even foi appeais in each Bessel's function the simple cases of axial symnietiy. a= & where du dr B _ + dv + dw _ __ _+u X+ r r dz  1 x p* (m). and it seems to me that really practical pi ogress will haidly be made by attempting to Bessel's functions fuither Possibly moie might cany this solution be achieved by solving Laplace's equation in cyluidncal cooiclmites to deduce definite integial by a definite mtegial and then attempting solutions for the shifts m In his notation = . if we write for We Art 884* the thermo in (i) & and d<j> instead of eqn itions of write .512] POPOFF . . Further. of Todhuntei's Functions of Laplace. B. we obtain an appalling equation to The analogy of stints leads us to see that ascertain its relation to n . should be consulted by any one endeavouring to but here. . for thermal equilibrium. V q= z ^ being the temperature at r. O . B m there are many cases in which it must be imagmaiy The values of u and v are still more complex. = du dr !+? u I civ r . v and w do not 1 become infinite for r = O solved He f [512 ] The solution is really in terms of BesseFs functions. It is these thermo elastic body shift equations. and he limits his investigation to cases in which q. u.
partition d'une force VP nrvnmVd with a very full. not but Suppose pressure give . A proof of the existence of interest see our Art. in the the BernoulliEulerian hypothesis It contains a very complete discussion circular arches. 813*. Phear: BRESSE. is entitled : fitude hypothttique de la re sur la section droite d'un prisme. tne centre of percussion pressure of a given this After area or crosssection. circular testing any proposed [514. pp. of no at rest peculiar : of stress is "so The author remarks that this representation our University mathethat it seems to deserve a place in elegant matics/' Recherches analytiques sur la flexion et la 269 pp.] Chapter L. are of considerable value in of the problem. [515. I proceed to give some account of the cation and comparison. Vol. or that we owe to him the important I regret that I all that flows from it. 1854. farther the resultant vertical tension. Bresse : methods of Eddy are of more general application and would at least as a method of verifiprobably be nowadays adopted. 1059*. particular. [513516 a body point within Journal. and three plates. resistance des pieces courbes. Paris.1 M. chapter with the GOUTS comparing of the neutral axis in our Art.352 [513. assumption that the stretchmodulus varies of surface density distribution variable a were if it as it He treats It is to over that section. of and centre utA e core.1 J. and Bresse's tables the same time the graphical At arch. B. Lamp's stressellipsoid Note on the Internal Pressure at any Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical 1854. clear and interesting discussion of 143 and the loadpoint (stresscentre) and applications to the to elations ellipse of inertia. entitled Repartition d'une Pp.] ^adherence avec son charge totale sur la base d'un prisme riayant pas : appui. I have no doubt that lithographie referred to the Gours was due to Bresse. be noticed that Bresse proves these properties on the over the crosssection. 16. I. PHEAR. This haso can Suppose a loaded prism to rest on a horizontal l>aso. 44 56 of tins chapter are [516. conception of the core and this with name his was not able to associate conception in Vol. ix. Pp.. contents of this treatise. treats analytically on and This treatise consists of five chapters flexure of curved ribs.
to draw such load point curves foi a variety of directions of the (11) series of parallel neutral axes Obviously the loadpoint curve which solves the problem goes through the given load point On pp 46 48 Bresse pro\ es an interesting property of the load point curve.3n). such that the load point or stress centre of the area cut off when it has the straightline as neutral axis may be a given point For the general case Bresse only suggests a method of tentative solution Namely to take (i) a series of paiallel neutral axes and find the load points of the portions they cut off. we have only to draw neutral axes peipendicular to this symmetrical axis and the requiied one can Bresse woiks out the required dividing often be fairly easily found in which cases the line in the case of the rectangle. analysis is not difficult when the load point is at a distance na fiom the centre (n> i) on the axis of symmetiv parallel to the sides 2a. we cannot make use of the foimula in our Art 815* as it gives in part tensions The problem considered by Bresse is then How must the pressures be distributed over P H H H the portion of the prism's base remaining in contact with the plane in older that the resultant of these piessiwes may be equal and opposite to P? Obviously the boundary between the parts of the section remaining and not remaining in contact must be the neutral axis for the part Otherwise a portion of the section on both sides remaining in contact would give pressuie or be in contact The pioblem then i educes to the following To cut a poition off a given area by a straight line.51*7] BRESSE 353 load oil the prism to meet this base in the lies within If point the core. the seiies of points so obtained gives a curve. circle. ellipse. which we may term the 'load point curve . if falls outside the core. m P It is ci oss 4 shown on p 52 that the maximum stiess in the cate of a ciicuUi section mci eases much moi e rapidly is the load point is i emo\ ed fuither fiom the centre than in the case of \ lectanguUi one the side of winch is equal to the diametei of the cucle [517] Bre&se's second chaptei is entitled Genenthtes 67) sin la flexion et la resistance des pieces combes (pp GO gives a veiy clear account of what the mthoi This ch \ptei undustamU b} in T E n 2S . and. etc In particular in the case of a rectangle 2a x 26. and the maximum stress is paiallel to the neutral axis and 7 H . the neutial axis lies on the opposite side to the load point at a distance from the centre equal to the side of the lectangle a (2 . namely that the tangent to this curve at any load point passes through the centroid of the area cut off by the corresponding neutral axis In the particulai case when the given load point lies upon an axis of symmetry of the section of the prism. the base will be leqmred to give piessure only and the distn bution of that piessure will follow the law laid down in our Art 815* On the other hand.
The total stress at this stresscentre is measured by the This stress may be resolved corresponding ray of the vectorpolygon. To find the effects of a change of temperature in pro(ii) ducing stress and (iii) shift. a variation of the stretchmodulus in the crosssection. [518 arched rib (piece courbe) and the limits he has set to his discusThus he neglects slide. and draw a corre1 sponding linkpolygon for the rib. follows (i) : have a superficial density at each point equal to the stretchHe sums up the problems he proposes to deal with as To find the stress over each crosssection of the rib supposing the loads and reactions given. lorsque la pi&ce. 68 76) of this chapter deals with problem (i) It shows how to find the stresscentre (loadof the previous article. is entitled : Flexion et resistance des pieces courbes. when those crosssections are supposed to and for ' modulus. he supposes sion of the general problem. The component in the plane of the crosssection gives the total shearing stress across the section. 879 of Yol. 68156). * ' in and perpendicular to the cross section. gradual change of crosssection position . To calculate the reactions when the unstrained form and the load are given. i. 815* or of p. se trouve dans un plan contenant aussi les forces extrieures (pp.] Chapter III.and funicularpolygons. [518. Choose the meet of elementary loads and the two terminal reactions.354 BRBSSE. and he calculates the stress across the section is in the unstrained any section on the assumption that a for he allows. dans Vetat primitif et dans I'dtat de flexion.section of the rib in the corresponding stresscentre. however. its first link being the reaction at one of the terminals of the arch. This is the line of pressure of the arch. and it meets each cross.and linkpolygons are the convenient generalised the names force. point) of each crosssection when the reactions and the external forces on the rib are known. torma . if substituted in the P formula of our Art. gives the distriby which Clifford 1 Vector. the component perpendicular to the plane. The 'meanfibre of the rib is defined as the locus of the centroids of the crosssections. The first section (pp. Suppose the rib divided up into elements and the corresponding distributed or concentrated loads represented by a Now form a vectorpolygon of these single resultant for each element. so torsion to produce no effect great that the ribaxis cannot still be dealt with as a plane curve. the two reactions as raypole of this vectorpolygon.
if E the stretch modulus vary. N pl me shrtch. the stresses in one or both of these two cases [519 ] $ III (pp 8495) is entitled Recherche des deformations de la fibre moyenne sous V action de foices esctemeures Its object is to find expressions for the supposees toutes connues shifts at each point of the cential axis (la fibte. clue to the stiain may be lepiesentecl by ASa.' distint z fiom the line thiough the centime! of the cioss section peipendicuhr to the loid. moyenne) of the arched nb. let ineitia' and e the 'mass' of the cross section supposing it loaded with a L Then the change in supeificial density eqnil to the stretch modulus the angle So. and tint in the lot p be the shamed. measuied so that a inci eases \\ith s the be the 'moment of length of aic fiom the given cross section. and for the change in inclination of the ciosssectiou at any point of the central axis We may obtain Biesse's equations as follows Let a be the angle the cioss section at any point of the cential axis makes with a given cioss section. P ' \ (>/ <>s . both analytically and giaphically. ( 1 + s\ J A& . i e the load plane passes through a pnncipal axis of each cross section (note oui Art 14). and of the conti s point Then \ve easily deduce foi the stietch in a 'fibit.519] BRESSE 355 bution of ti action over the cioss section Bresse is dealing with cases where the plane of flexure is the plane of loading. p the unstiamecl GUI \atme at any arc $s by ASs the coiiesponding total nonnal stiess il axis. we must put K will also change if the cioss section be supposed to vary slightly As a rule it will be sufficient to tabulate (or exhibit graphically) for the extrados and intrados The quantity b may sometimes be T obtained with sufficient accuracy by scaling its value from a caiefully It can of course be ascertained for any crossdrawn line of piessure section by an analytical determination of the resultant of the forces acting on the nb to one side of the cross section In the following section of the chapter (pp 76 83) Bresse gives two most inteiesting examples of the calculation of the tractive stress over the cross sections of arched ribs in the cases of a simple arch due to Tritschler (Pont de Brest) and of a combination of ribs forming an I do not think a more instructive study can arch due to Vergniais be found for an engineering student than to work out for himself with Bresse s data.z( /I \f> 1\ ) + /. so that the foimula takes the simple form Heie.
. A8s Putting in for p and p their values in terms of a and we have M c A8a "~ da ASs ds /] . 87.) + ft (xx. 85 he does not give the second term of the expression above for ASa.... therefore taken to increase a... if ds sin a = ft a coefficient of stretch produced by any cause other than the loads..... s we have s ' N dx : M 717" M i Or rearranging M . p. where. .(x ..xj M} + .a*. as for example temperature: u and v be the shifts. *o JUT This agrees with Brease's equation (8 bis). Jtience.. &..... 88. 35.Aa . .. . On p..Sjj where the summation subscript 1 is to apply only to quantities marked with the Similarly we find : ** = . 1 ASs 8s m Ss 8s p \ ASs _ A8a _ 1 Now the second term on the righthand side neglected in arches because it is the product of hence integrating.. however. a.Wo = Ao <yy. (ii). as follows: ds cos a = dx. he has treated the central axis as straight.. p. it follows that: s may small generally be differences. because he appeals to a result on his p. and Sw = A9s cos a 95 sin aAa Summing this (the second * term on the left by parts).....) MI + i TUT ^ ^ ^ 1 flrf. bis).. (i).^1 &.. A<xAa = S~8s . [519 3 the bending supposing (z//>) to be negligible. mav obtain Bresse's equations (9 bis) We and (10 dy..356 BBESSE.. (iii). is given by moment M 9 \P PO/ \ = fl ( 1\ ) \P Po/ + *r^ P s..) + 2 * S [ L (y .) + (x j8 (y  v/ () ) + S f..
and so inte gration cannot be applied. the natuie oi the tuimnal h\m& ind . when one lemembers the inegularity of the sti etchmodulus across the crosssection and even the doubt due to a change of as to its mean value theoretical result for the deflection The temperature of 1 centigiade is \\orked out on the supposition It is 00159 meties Exthat /3 the linear dilatation = 00111 periment gave in the mean about 1/6 [521 entitled ] 00135 metres or a diffeicnce of 120 The following section of the chaptei undei discussion is Itedieiche desfuiceb inconnueb. as is most frequently the case. and the nearness of the theoretical and expenmental results is remarkable. On pp Bresse indicates how the constants v can be determined practically Thus one or more crosssections will have their directions unchanged. (i) to (in) applied to several special examples Thus Bresse deals with case of a uniformly loaded rib of circular form and with uniform crosssection The integration of the given span is the lesults are easy. as obtained from the mean of experiments on the rib before and aftei erection = 0650 metres This is an excellent example of the application of theory to piactice. the load being in both instances vertical and the chord honzontal (a) (b) The The at Tarascon over the case of a castiron circular rib of the railway viaduct Rhone (see our Ait 527) The deflection as obtained by calculation is 0642 metres. or one or both [520] Aot . and it otcupieb pp 1U5 In the examples hitherto considered Bieb^e his supposed the terminal leactions to be known. this is not genuall) the case. and we now turn to the pioblem of dibcoveimg the unknown leittioiib whtu the pimiitivc foiin.520521] BRESSE 357 We ha\e rttained the sign of summation as it indicates cleaily the method of procedure by quadratures. 9094 u . when. the loads and bending moments are not continuous. though equations long (see our Arts He considers this case with a unifoim load first along 525 6) the arc and secondly along the chord. terminals will be pivoted or there will be a line of symmetry for the rib three conditions will always be given which enable us to deteimme these constants On pp 95 105 we have the formulae .
conditions to be applied to equations the unknown reactions : We (i) will briefly cite the (iii) in order to obtain At a fixed or pwoted terminal we have u = v = to determine (a) the two components of the unknown reaction at that terminal.358 BRESSE. U.. 125 is a paragraph determine all the unknown quantities. sufficiently indicated by our statement .. . may consist. and the temperature equal to ^ . Louis.. shows the sufficiency of the elastic and statical equilibrium equations to On p. S. determine all the unknowns. Mass. [521 the superincumbent load are given. His method is. . . . According to Bresse it has the effect of increasing the planned length of the central axis. which suffices to determine the normal reaction of the curve. 1 Bresse speaks of a doubly builtin arched rib as having pcu cVimportance This is. however. the analysis varies in quantity according to the nature of the Two of the more interesting cases investigated are those of structure 1 an arched rib with a horizontal tiebar parallel to but not coincident with the chord.. used apparently in buildingup an arched rib out of its component parts. by the principles we have laid down above. When two ribs are fixed or joined together. these equations suffice to determine the reaction and the bending moment at the point. He proposes to allow for it by adding to the coefficient ft a term having a viilue independent of the sum of the breadths of the wedges . and Aa (6) the two components of the reaction and the bending moment at that terminal. 110). and produces a uniform stretch in the rib and so a pressure upon the buttresses although the rib be not loaded. we (e) have a relation between ^ and v for that terminal. which suffice with the above to determine the constants Aa UQ and VQ j thus in each case there will be sufficient equations to . I do not understand clearly in what entitled this process of calage or wedging. we have three (d) of the values of u. the type of the remarkable bridge at St pratique (p. When two ribs are built into each other. v and Aa for equations arising from the equality both ribs at that point. which is 518 feet span and formed of doubly builtiu steel ribs. : . . 112 122). .. 123 5 Bresse the bridge system of Vergniais (pp. Du calage des arcs. and a system of three mutually builtin pieces such as form On pp. In all these cases there will be three equations of statical equilibrium for each rib. . If a terminal be constrained to move along a smooth curve. however. the planned length of the central axis . which gives two equations to find the components of the mutual reaction.. . .. to determine At a buiU4n terminal we have u = v = 0. we have u and v (c) the same for both at that point. Bresse treats a number of general cases of fixed or builtin terminals etc.. or of combinations of ribs.
la somnie des deux quintites unsi dUeimi on a 1 1 difiuence dtb quxntitess cgale a It soimnc soit . dune iciction des rune soit intes. of It is an excellent which the numerical dimensions are given whose is much increased by practical suggestiveness application. J h mconnue. a notre connaissance.522 524] BRESSE 359 In vi of this chapter (pp 126 147) we have a very interesting but laborious bit of algebraical work. nees sen son moment. que symetuques manquci flexion en un soit rune des variations u. ce siciens n'ont pas veYifie (p que. stated This property is thus of it by Bresse it being assumed of that that the axis of v is bymmetry and that of u peipendiculai to v If symmetry be given to the load system En ijoutant pour chaque force manquant cle sa svmetiique une 1 dont ks foice eg lie et situee symetiiquement. namely. of calculating the parts elasticity of the shifts or of the reactions due to each individual load and then by adding the parts of ascertaining the totals. les phy 149) I The point is of inteiest remark on this subject see our have only come across Art 876* (3) Pictet's a propeity of symmetrical [524] Pp 153 156 deal with with d special application and arched ribs asymmetrically loaded. ces dans aient hypothec . 2 en &uppiiuiant les foiceb deteimme on deux. a method ' ' which will often ft be found very convenient of course on being independent of the loads dilatait pas These results depend They would fail egalement une barre Par exemple. pai compos point. Aa qui cuacteiisent iHclement aux axeb. the application of the results of the previous section to find the mutual actions between the several ribs and the reactions upon the buttresses in the case of a bndge on the Vergniais principle. however. si la chaleur ne tendue et une barre coniprimee. v. variations in the treatment accoiding as the nbs are supposed to be either pivoted or builtin to each other and to the buttresses [522 ] et [523 ] The final section of the chapter is entitled Remai gues theoremes concerjiant la maniere dont les forces earterieuj es entrent The dans lesfor mules de la flescion 156) Consequences (pp 147 author shows that the shifts as well as the terminal reactions are linear functions of the loads and of the thermal stretch coefficient This of course is a result of the general principle of perfect /3 It gives us a means.
. sous Faction considere et en son symetrique. .60 BBESSE.3 sin < cos < + Of sin 2 < (< + sin < cos </>) . then for any load : Q + Q' = 0. .. (i). or Thus if we can obtain results for symmetrical loading.. so when we add to make symmetry. and the same plane. tions at the terminals are given by the equations of Statics. 521.on doit. lorsque. Q' become Q l Ql Suppose the load to be made symmetrical. . see 524. Thus Bresse finds : : . the thrust Q is obtained by an application of the principle referred to in our Art.. angle the radius to the loaded point radius to midpoint of rib. remains after flexure in one Bresse's method is direct and simple. See our Arts. tout en etant symetriques. He supposes ( 81) a single isolated load II at any point acting The vertical reacperpendicular to the span "2a of an arched rib. on the terminals. [525 du systeme primitif des forces..sin0) + cos< 6r 2 (cos0 40sin0 cos n < + 2 $ cos j < . that Q.. U58* and 1573*.. and = the makes with the @ = the swingradius of the crosssection superficially loaded with the stretchmodulus. prendre la difference des quantites analogues pour deux points syme"triques. to the equation deduced from constant length of the span our Art.] Chapter IV. let an arch have a vertical axis of symmetry and let Let Q. Similarly by 0.... where 2cj> = the central angle of arched rib. there be an isolated load iS at a point determined acting parallel to the chord of the arch. Q' be the horizontal thrusts the load be parallel to this axis. the terminal thrusts ( 82) if r . for which the central axis. and become Q 2 Q2 when we subtract Then according to the above principle to make symmetry. we can [525.. de plus. elles ont des directions contraires (p. 157217) deals with the thrust of arched ribs of uniform crosssection. deduce results for asymmetrical loading. se produiseut au point qui. For example. originally circular. (pp. 155).
3 sin C os  <^> \<f) sm < cos  <#> } biu 4 u <#> (vi) co ^> + sm <#>(<#> + sm <^> cos </>) 1 He al&o ^ives lesults ioi (i) and (n) when the unitoiml> clibtiibutc d loads do not covei the whole ot the . Lastly (P due to temperature 163). Q= where = mass of area of cross section loaded with the stietch modulus applying the principle of superposition of stress we aie able from Equations (i) to (iv) to ascertain the thrust due to any conceivable system of isolated loads Any continuous load may be concentrated ovei small elements and treated as a system of isolated loads Or. sin3 <f> <^> + sin > cos <> E By 1 (i) Thiust due to 2pp<f> being the weight of the aich (ladius p) ( or a load distributed uniformly along its length 87). Q = 2pp<t>x 4 2cos Thrust pioducecl by a load 2p'a distnbuted umfoiinH (n) the chord of the aic ( 88). f "* << + sin d> cos < + ? cos< 5 <p tt sm <(sm ^ i+i * ^> (<^>  cosqS) (p <#> 2<f> cos 2  cj) 3 sin < cos <+ sin + sm ^ cos <#>) ikrng _ j + _r ^ sm J^ + l sin * <p 1 < <^> + 2< co& ^ . if there be a change in the length of the central axis 01 any other cause and having a stretchcoefficient 8 <^> + 2^> cos <j[> 3 sin < cos ^> + g? (iv). ~ Q' = 2X .525] BBESSE 361 where ri cos <f> 3 sin < cos < + sin 3 < (< + sin <f> cos <) Next ( 83) if a couple with its axis perpendicular to the plane of the centralaxis be applied to an element of the nb at the point 6 . on the othei hand we may replace II 01 S byf(0) dO and integrate along the cential Thib is done by Bre&be in the following thiee cases axis e L sin <fr (sin 6 < & cos j>) cos < 3 sin < cos + ^ sin <j>(<j> + fein < cos ( 84).^.
p be put upon the arched rib per unit length of the chord I : KG' la 2 2 If there be a coefficient of thermal or other stretch fi : n Qi=qi where e l = S^Sw as before.] unit length of the central axis if : a load p be put upon the arched rib per where p is If a load the radius of the central axis. Bresse throws into the form Q where. and that its maximum value 0025 in Table IV. 2 < (< + sin g < cos The quantities ^. namely '0005 to 0025 inclusive rising by 0005 (Table IV. K' are expanded in powers of 2</sr and r = on pp. the mean for all values of 6 for 2</>/?r any angle < since they vary little with 6) for values of from '12 to 1 (l ^) /(l + K' *) for the same range of values of 2</7r and five values of (?2/a2 .). at end of the volume. then by *02 and ultimately by 04.362 BEESSE.] The most important it case is that represented by Equation (i). K. and their values tabulated in Tables I. to *95 (Table and for values of r rising by '05 from The mean I. The entries give the values of ^ for values of 2</7r from 12 to 1 rising by 01 at first.sin2 0) ^ .cos2 < < sin 0} 2 4 cos < < (cos 6 + sin cos <  < sin < 2 3 sin cos <. the value of Table IV.). [526. sin 2 < (sin < . [526527 (iii) arch ( 89). would have been increased had additional entries been made for values of G*/a? less than '0005. values of K and K' are given (i. if 2 A= and B = < (sin + 2< and K= . 172 that the value of Gf*/a? varies for seven French bridges between "000106 and 000795. Bresse points out on p. is probably seldom approached in practice. to IV. and finally the values of K Bresse shows that [527. K= sin .e. As most of the bridges have a value of G*/a? lying between 0003 and 0004.). (Table III. . 173 191. Thrust produced by a fluid pressure along the extrados of the The result is too complex to be cited here.
then the ratio of Q Q' as detei mined by Equations (v) and (vi) may foi most practical purposes Biesse gives the following values (p 203) be taken as unity (m) If Q" be the horizontal tension of the cables of a suspension budge which is of span 2. is measuied for the cential axis f Tf the same load (2pp</> = 2ap ) be distributed uniformly along (11) the central axis 01 uniformly along the choid. rise /. and loaded with p Ibb pei foot r run. then the latio of Q as given by (M) if to Q" ( = eyr) ^ ^ erv nearly unity if G I& be small Thus ff /a be less than 0005 we have sensibly for Hence foi most practical pioblenib A\C may t ilculate Q' fiom the tension in the cables of a suspension bridge of the same spxn and rise see om Ait 1459^ note thit Q' is always l<st> than Q We [529 ] Chapter V is entitled Resistance d un ai c cuculaw e d section cont>tante. the rise of the aich.528529] The \ alue& BRESbE 363 of values of 2<f>/7r from l9 n L and q 1 aie tabulated foi in Table II Unfortunately <fr by a pi inter's eiior appears as T! in that Table and the erroi is nowhere pointed out Biesse's first foui tables thus give us a means of ascertaining the thiust in many piactically important cases of circular ribs of luufbuu m 12 to 1 cross section The method of using the Tablet* ib exemplified on pp 217 by their application to the bridges at Biest and Tarascon The discussion on the lormei bridge bnngs out clearly the smallness of 212 the erior introduced by concentiatmg into a serits of isolated loads the parts of a continuous load which act upon even considerable portions of the arch [528 ] We may note one 01 two other points brought out in the couise oi this chapter On pp 193 196 it is shown that Equation (\ii) may be le (i) placed with sufficient appioximation in practice by taking the formula where/. cliaige dans toute sa lungueiit de poids uiiifoime ment lepaitib thib btituant Ihuiizoutule (pp is 218 249) The it object ul chaptu to calculate the in iximuin Liaction ui} point of .
the normal force on a crosssection e the mass of the crosssection of superficial density E. Then the traction in a fibre at distance y from that axis is given (pp. and therefore as the squeezes are always greater than the stretches. the maxiinum positive traction is in the extrados ot the arch and very sensibly greater than onethird of the maximum negative traction. that : ff^ M = Qp or. pp. not think that this is justifiable. 220 2) by Let E be the stretchmodulus of any fibre. he therefore seeks I do jreatest negative value of the expression (Nje + My/e). If 77 be. the maximum positive traction in the extrados of the coutrefort is greater than the traction. n being a ff= certain function of and GP/a? (compare 7 our Art. really assumes that the elastic limit is reached in compression and extension with the same numerical strain. (cos a cos <) Jj?V> (sin (iii) j Q=n x 2p'a. This is practically the loading which would occur. then it by no means follows that Bresse's condition is correct. . if Q cos a~p'p 9 2 sin2 < a sin2 a) <J> (ii). E J . which hero occurs at the same crosssection in the intrados. per foot run of the horizontal chord. or J. Similarly in the stresses for the Systeme Vergniais given in Fig. M. 527). N crosssection making an angle a with the central : It is easy to show. We thus know the i traction at any point by substituting and (iii)' Bresse assumes that in an arched rib it is the pressure or which first reaches the elastic limit. say. p being the radius of the arch. What we really want is the greatest positive stretch of the material.364 BRESSE. if the bridge were tested by a train of locomotives or a uniform pile of iron rails (I'arc sous Faction de la charge ffdpreuve. 2189). For example in the results given by him for the Pont de Brest and represented graphically in Fig. 23 of Plate II. and c the moment of inertia of the mass of this crosssection about an axis through the central axis perpendicular to the loadplane.jyp ^ A'\ r 2 (cos a cos <) (in sin < cos a cos <) (ii)' (iii)'. and accordingly the proper condition seems to be to find the greatest positive and negative values of N/e + My/c. and equate that maximum to the safe elastic stretch. f [529 an arched rib due to a uniform loading of the rib of p Ibs. then to choose the maximum numerical value from either the positive values. or the negative multiplied by rj the stretchsqueeze Bresse ratio. But we ought I think to investigate whether y x the maximum squeeze is greater than the maximum stretch. we have only to deal with the former. p'p (2 cos a sin <j> 4 sin a) 3 (ii) . 26 (B) Plate 111.
and Biesse depend largely on the sign of shows that if n > J cot <j>. and is about as the maximum negative traction m the main aich Thus actually existing bridges. ' is the dis The values of aie tance of the cential axis fiom 'the extieme fibre 269 foi a considerable range of values of these tabulated on pp 260 arguments. lesistance llius 0001 we hud appioximitely 0003 l >81 foi G / = 0002 0004 1008 OOOo 1750 OOOG Ibfc'l 0008 1080 0010 2117 0012 2101 OOlo 2210 r . (n) the cioss section as determined by the latios of G and h to 2a the span If G/a be const uit. then vanishes at either foui points or two I will not points besides the pivoted' teimmals see oiu Art 1460* M M * enter into the details of this investigation. These as given by Equation (m)'. TP and . and we take the mean \alue of h/a (which does not vaiy much since G/a i& consb\nt) we can hnd \ \alue of the i itio or a maximum elastic of rist to spin. of the line of piessure and of the whoil of the cioss section is the bettei treatment of the problem. which &neb a minimum of V . charge nmforrrieiiwnt smvant I'kowzontale (pp 238 249) Tins section deils with geneial theorems (deduced from the numencal and bheiefore open to the objections of oui Art 329) icsults of Table as to the elastic strength of an aich when \ve v\ry (i) <f>.530531] BKESSE 365 as great in these maximum negative ti action m tlie same rib. i e whether it lies inside or outside the whorl of the cioss section Bresse's method only applies if all the load points lie inside the whorls see Yol i p 879 m 230 are occupied with a discussion of the possible [530 ] Pp 221 magnitudes and positions of the maximum negative traction. since for the reasons given in the previous article it does not seem to me entnely satisfactoiy . some allowance being made if necessary for the effect of shearing force Suffice it to add that if be the stretch modulus of the 'mean fibre' Bresse reduces the maximum negi tive traction to the form E l ^ where is a coefficient depending on or 5. the graphical constitution of curves of thrust and bending moment. and a honzontal line diawii acioss Bresse's columns maiks whether the maximum negative traction occurs in the ex ti ados or intiados (Table ) V After some numerical examples of this Table on pp DPS Bresse concludes his \\oik with a section entitled c^rconstances qtw peuvent influer sw la resistance d'un aic a section [531 8.where h a . ] 237 constants. it is obvious that Biesse's for the maximum negative traction would be method of seeking The true deceptive criterion must each case be deduced fiom the situation of the loadpoint (01 stress centre). or %\hat is the same thing. \ary the ratio of use to span.
GOUTS de mfaanique applique'e.] menta/iix. still they indicate the existence of numerous very interesting properties varying with the form of the rib. 122 Bresse considers a special case of an arched rib of hollow and investigates for what values of the ratio of rise crosssection elliptic to span it is more advantageous to place the crosssection with its axis horizontal than with it vertical or vice versd. [533. is occupied with a discussion of the corps prismatique. pressure [534. M. 90149) rod. 5 moment of inertia. 813* 5* and 514 6. an amplification of the treat . xxviii and 536. strength very considerably from those Although for the reasons stated above. Bresse's results in this section must not be considered as final. height and span. This follows with some amplifications the treatment of the lithographic course and of the work on arched ribs: see our Arts. I shall discuss the Troisi&me Partie under the year 1865. first and second of the third chapter on continuous beams disappears in the later edition. (pp. few modifications. They conclude what is the most thorough investigation hitherto published of the elastic strength of circular arches subjected to uniplanar flexure.366 In BEBSSK [532534 major In 123 he deals with the problem of the best ratio of the height to the breadth in the crosssection (supposed to be rectangular and of constant area) of an arched rib having a given load. Chapter I. The laws of ribs with circular central axes differ in respect of relative of straight beams. Only the first and with. Troisieme Partie (Galcul des moments deflexion dans une poutre A plusieurs traces solidaires) appeared in 1865. the core and the distribution of traction over a crosssection when the line of is known. reappearing in a much fuller form in 1865 as the Troisieme Partie of the work. : A The however. pp. former third parts deal with topics related to our present subject. entitled : GdneralMs . Bresse The [532. and the chief difference between the II. the neutral axis.] Premiere Partie of this book was published in Paris in 1859 in second edition of the Premiere Partie appeared in 1866. Principes fondales Recherche des tensions dans diverges parties d'un 89. and a third in 1880. is deals equations for the strain of a It whose central axis with the general is not necessarily a straight line. the loadpoint.] Chapter II. The Premiere editions is that Partie in i the second edition 1 from which I cite contains pp. The is entitled Resistance des MaUriaux et Stabilite* des Con: structions. parts.
positive when taken clockwise the external forces per unit of length of the lod at unit length and T> N m v+dv u+du unit element (this is introduced would but it seems to me that in most conceivable cases Bresse. dt d x 1)iK .534] merit in the BBESSE 367 not is call for special entitled work on arched ribs and the major portion does remark The only part which need be noticed Des mouvements mbiatoires dans les pieces elastiques 143 9 and occupies pp Bresse deals with the case of the vibrations of a rod. v be the s shifts of the centroid G of any crosssection (distant along the central axis from any fixed point of the rod) measured along the tangent and noimal (outwards) to the central axis at G Let x be the variation in the angle which the tangent at Gf makes with any fixed Let be the mass of the rod per line. K the a\vingiadius of the cross be zeio) section a) at G lound an axis thiough G peipeiuhculai to the plane of the stretch and /x the bhde modulus. umfoim for the cioss section G. Then Brtbse obtains the follovuns. f d*v fdi dt .T + u\ J \ +i 1 . by Let l/p be the euivature.fdv + p X(T v& p/ Eu fdu /du __ f u\ > d ' v . so that that plane must pass through a principal axis of each crosssection the cross section itself is considered to be uniform . the central He axn of which is a plane curve supposes this rod to vibrate only in the plane of its own central axis. d /du dv d /dv v\ /x . Let u. both being supposed flexuie. M the clockwise couple round G pei E M equations d u dt .
[537.] Resistance if The second case dealt with is dune chaudiere & profil faiblement It is entitled: we could trust the investigation. Nous n'avons voulu. que la deformation de des thdorie la pieces elastiques. 176 188 . It contains. nous ne pousserons pas plus dans les cas mouvements [535. 514 to 531. Slide is considered after the manner of Jouravski (see Section III. and method adopted is the old hydrostatic process. of our present Chapter) on pp. 206 9. involving no elastic principle: see our Art. of our present Chapter. pratiques les plus simples. total shear over the crosssection at @. but the methods are very clearly and concisely put. and Jules Poir6e see Section III. and.+ . The is which practical part of the GOUTS begins with Chapter entitled Probttmes divers concernant les poutres droites (pp.+ A \ds ) Here S'o) ( is the total traction and uo> the p/ ^. par ge'ne'rale compiler mettre en Equation le probleme des Fexpose' de la methods & suivre pour Pour le moment. nous indiquerons. 225 : analysed tinuation of this subject (pp. Chapter V. 1012*. 326). this case might Bresse however culating the dimensions of slightly elliptic flues. essentially theoretical The chapter concludes with an treatment of the problem of struts (pp.368 4. v and Bresse makes the following remarks on them : loin I'e'tude de la question . 323 338) with the Chapter IV. a section on the strength of cylindrical vessels (pp. good deal of this chapter is not novel. vibratoires (pp. ColletMoygret. practically treats his elliptic cylinder as if the portion between two 1 Matter not in the book of 1854 is chiefly confined to some account of the experiments of Desplaces. en donnant les calculs pre'ce'dents. and some interesting problems of continuous beams with large numbers of A supports are dealt with on pp. but there is no reference to the work of SaintVenant. The first problem dealt is that of a boiler or flue of rightcircular crosssection. 150224). [536. [535537 Y (4. these should certainly be studied by any one practically interested in this subject. deals with the problem of arched ribs 263) after the manner of the work we have already see our Arts. These three equations suffice theoretically to determine u. 148 9). 210224). is also a con which requires some notice on our part. la solution pr&entera g6n6ralement de on le verra ulte*rieurement les comme par exemples que grandes difficult^. : elliptiqiie (p. novel. be useful in cal . 264 338) *. however.] (pp.] III.) \ds p/ BRESSE.
is T= pa c Spar 2c The first teim in the traction is due to the inteinal pressure supposing the flue to be exactly circular. I its length. A^r the change due to the strain in the angle between two tangents to the central line of the flue's cross section at the ends of an arc 8s. would &eem necessary to at platemodulus To assume the existence doubts as to the entire method of tieatment of a neutial axis passing through the centroid of a transverse section in the case of a bent plate subjected to strain seems in itself a very if it is legitimate to use any formula of this kind at all. c the thickness of the flue. of the flue. e = the eccentricity of the 2a its internal major axis .if)}.537] BRESSE 369 parallel cross sections at unit distance could be dealt with as if it were a rod Thus he takes the pioduct of the flexural rigidity and the change in the curvature as equal to the bending moment ness. the positive loot must be taken turns this formula into numbers and shows that a veiy slight \alue of 2 e ( 02) will lequiie the value of c to be increased in the ratio of 5 3 Thus the existence of slight ellipticity in a flue is \ery unfa\ouiable to its stiength (c) Theie is a decrease m the semi mvjor axis given by and in ma ease in the semi mmoi axis of about the same amount (p 332) . the second term is due to the flexure pioduced by the slight ellipticity The result (b) gives a quadratic to find the proper thickness c foi Biesse a given \alue of T and p. Z = the length of the flue (a) p= by x is equal to The bending moment of . then Bresse puts Now. x the abscissa of any > point measured along this major axis from the centre . supposed unifoim. but I must confess to {i having grave nsky proceeding If results we may adopt in which Bresse's assumption we arrive at the following elliptic cr6ss section the internal pressure in the flue . which occurs at the ends of the major axis.a ) per \p& (%x* the wall of the flue at points given unit length of the flue (b) The maximum given by ti action. to M the moment tending Let c be the thick bend the wall of the flue round any longitudinal section. supposed small and uniform . it least replace the stretch modulus by the e by Ej(l .
10 from the mation. This result is independent of the absolute strength It is discussed at considerable length by Bresse on pp.370 Further the eccentricity city before strain e' BBESSE. T Bresse points out that the thickness of the elliptic flue will (e) have to be greater for the case of external pressure than for the case of an equal internal pressure. Macalpine finds in his own notation : v = . supposing that the resistances to compression and extension are [538. Macalpine in the of Three Original Papers (Glasgow. 334 7. 26 31). it The term ^() arises from the second approximation and can obviously in certain cases sensibly modify Bresse's result. that f if E were replaced (d) Bresse next supposes p external pressure p. H. as wo aix> neglect . and may be referred to here. I think the two agree. sin 4ac ^ JL cos ^ JL <f>. bottom. after strain is [538 given in terms of the eccentri by These results would be. slightly improved negative. 30. or the strain exceed the elastic limit. It is entitled On the strength and stiffness of an unptic cylinder submitted to hydrostatic pressure (pp. would become very great. e' of conclusiveness on my mind. 1. But M his bending moment e c as ^ S r Jf=^ 4a(2co ^l)^. 338. Macalpine obtains practically the same results as Bresse for the change in the axes.) t. perhaps.TnVd The same problem is considered by J. To the first approxiFor on p. (p. however.] equal. James Maclehose and Sons) ited in 1889. In this case e will is to say that there is an be real or equilibrium possible only if * or oalgr of the material. But the manner in which it has been deduced does not leave an impression Were c even to approach this value. but for the maximum bending moment : he finds (instead of %pe~a2 ) ^peV Jl+ (} \ per unit length. ds ' Changing to our notation and remembering that.
and a cos < = x. at any rate I 374) (pp 361 It bears of couise have not come across the same results before consideiable resemblance to the ordinary theory given in treatises on Sound of the transverse vibrations of a rod Biesse obtains an equation of the following type (which may easily be deduced as a special case from those of our Ait 53t) foi the trans verse shift y of the centroid of a section distant x fiom one teiminal of a beam of length I ^tfy = (Ty + y JuKj2dt dx* mg?njf\vheie mK . which require the patience of a Saint.539] 4 ing e BEESSE 371 . and does not here add much to Poncelet's results The great defect of Poncelet's work is that it leaves us "with complex analytical expressions.Venant to reduce them to numerical results of practical see our Arts 401 and 411 value Bresse next passes to the transverse vibrations of a uniform beam simply supported at both terminals and uniformly loaded I think his work here is original. 2 = the time from any epoch method of tieitment 1 My objections to this ha\e been moie fully gi\en in Ait Io47* 24 2 . (fry ~ . m = combined mass of beam and load w' = mass of beam only per foot inn. pei foot run. dxrdf JW=the flexural rigidity of the beim. we may put b . we have which.a. j = curvature = I/a. agrees with Bresse's lesult (a) In other respects Macalpme's treatment is neithei so full nor so clear as Bresse's He falls into the same error of treating a bent plate as a rod 1 [539 ] The sixth chapter of Bresse's took is entitled Prdblkmes particuhers sur les poutres wbrantes and occupies pp 339 387 This chapter is perhaps the most interesting in the book It gives a good resumtf of all the work which had been done in and since the time of Navier and Poncelet on the subject of vibrational stress in bridges It opens with a discussion after the manner of Poncelet of the longitudinal vibrations of bars variously loaded (cf our Arts 988* 993*).
: pp. and is t = even . [540 initial velocities Bresse obtains a general solution for any initial shifts and any see his p. noted Phillips' error see our Art. 369 . I Ji^tf + Z 2 / (ira?) the summation is very nearly equal to ^ ^ and the maximum central deflection given by Thus the maximum deflection is almost twice the statical deflection under the same load. multiple of . 988*. at any point velocities are^ initially given by integer further interesting case on p. 372 may be It practically amounts to an expression for the deflection of a bridge or beam. For the case of a doublysupported beam.372 BRESSE. %^g. he also deals with one or two special 370 1 he shows how the constants may be easily Thus on cases. calculated when the shifts of x. With the notation of our Arts. Bresse finds for the maximum beading moment of a doubly builtin beam subjected to a travelling load At the centre : : : and at the terminals : The comparatively small practical value of these results has been pointed out in our Art. TTST? so * na^ ^or aH practical purposes it is unnecessary to go beyond the first or second term of the summation. noticed in Art. 372 82 and 552 4) and quoting his results. 373 4. 7 : Bresse begins by analysing Phillips memoir of 1855 (see our Arts. however. Now l/t5 = successively 1. 62 = m'K2/m. he has not. 382. negligible as compared For x = 1 1 2. the first to correct Phillips and he gives this correction on p. when a continuous load is suddenly and A placed upon it. For the case of the doubly builtin beam he was. 376. Here a4 = E^fm.] Effet produit sur une poutre par une charge roulante (pp. an instance of Poncelet's Theorem see our Art. 375 87). . as we have 375. : The following and last section of this chapter is entitled [540. Bresse finds : mg V* r M the summation being for all odd integer values of i. 382. = *2 if the weight of the load be with that of the bridge. where it must be remembered 21 is the length of the beam. algebraic functions cited here.
and 422 This portion of the work was at the time occupies pp 388 of publication a useful rdsumd of the experiments of Hodgkinson It is now somewhat out of date The his contemporaries remarks. the hist attempt to use the equations of elasticity in curvilmeai cooi dilutes foi the solution of any problem [544] Lame in 1841 had published in the Joiunal de . and not after a steady deflection is set up by a very long tram [542] entitled The next chapter ESsultats d'ejcpenences sur of the \vork (Chapitre septieme) is I' elasticity des matenaiw. however. cases of plate iron railway girdeis and shows that the speeds obtained are considerably greatei than the usual tram speeds The practical value of the investigation is. of which we have already given the statement and chief results in our Art 382 To the results there given we may add the expression of that article for the central deflection f. are still to the point m * studied we should hear less of the "paradox in the uieoiy 01 beams" see our Arts 178 and 507 The woik concludes with chapters dealing analytically with framework and with the pressuie of masses of earth both topics . I belie\e. with numencal values for the limiting speeds. not very great. on p 393 as to the illfounded character of the reproaches against the theory of elasticity. based on the fact that and foimulae depending on the proportionality of stress and strain ^ * +1 will not explain rupture.541 544] [541 BRESSE PAINVIN 373 own Biefc.se then passes on ] pp 377 387 to the discussion of his particular problem in liveload. however. Pans. in the notation /= 2:^{^'' + pn /3 ''> ec N/Wl)}. as the maximum moment is reached (as is pointed out in oui Art 382) just as the tram covers the whole bridge. (P 382) Bresse discusses. This is comprise entre deux ellipsoides homofocaucc. 1854 foi the of Pans a thesis piesented to the Faculty of Sciences The examining degree of docteur es sciences mathematiques The meinoii commission were Chasles. and Delauni} ' ' contains 46 quarto pages and is. These de M^camque homogene et fitudes sin les etats d'elasticite constante. lie outside the scope of our history [543 ] M Pamvm vibratoires d'une couche sohde. Lame.
1084*). investigations. these he terms the surface conditions (ii) the values of F and dF/dt for t = to be given functions of p v p zy p B except as far as the addition of an arbitrary constant is This is really equivalent to assuming the initial shifts concerned. [548 Painvin obtains a solution of the following type ^ Vi _dX(fa_ddx ~ dp dp3 2 ^%_dT^2/ dpz dps dZ_dz__dZ dp2 dps dfe ' dp9 dp2 dp9 dp2 dp 3 dpz where JT. for Painvin's solution is evidently imposof the sible. impossible (see our Art. Z are all solutions shown (pp. say so. capable of giving the necessary traction. These are the initial conditions. =a and for p l = a'. that At the same time it involves such very pretty analytical we wish it had some real physical value. which he refers to as surrounding his shell. F. and initial speeds. The supposition difficult to Wi is n "fc (ii) is perfectly straightforward but it is the The surface traction grasp physical meaning of (i). y> z the old Cartesian coordinates. 9 of the equation fflFldf. aPV*F = The twists are 17) to be of the type ^ dpi is _ dpi This investigation seems to me unsatisfactory. is to show that the vibrations of a free shell bounded by confocal ellipsoids must be partly twistvibrations . . t p^a p^ parametric values for the confocal ellipsoids. [548. the traction sometimes will be positive. This is. 17 46) 2 2 Painvin determines a solution of the equation f! V P = cPF/df and p^af be the Let subject to the following conditions. then he supposes (i) : the shears 7 and 7 2 3 to be zero for . and the air could not even provide like as anything great negative traction (pressure) as would be required for many sound vibrations. because the solution not entirely freed of x.] In the second portion of his memoir (pp. assuming its analysis complete. Physically the only result memoir.376 PAINVIN. = for zero a and there hence must be a traction a!> put p1 varying with the time exerted over the surfaces of the shell. but I think he supposes the air. of course. if it is to vibrate solely Painvin does nut distinctly longitudinally.
and obtains for isotropy body shiftequations of the type where.549] DIENGBE 377 [549] Theil 23. . with The writer proceeds on applications to the theory of vibrations ranconstant lines. basing his work on that of Navier.Venant's values of the notwithstanding the authoi'b claim see our Art 234 rest of the discussion doet.K^^J a. This elastischen J Dienger Studwn zut mathematischen Theone der Rot per Grunerts Aiohiv der Mathematik und Physik. up to the for this he claims originality The coefficients of the shiftfluxions of the fourth order are given in terms of molecular summations (pp 300 301) He deals with the relations between these summations on pp 323 6. 1854. = ^mf(r) r cos a P = pmP (r) r cos /3 cos 7 A = ^2m/(r) r cos a 2 Cf 2 2 2 3 4 K = i^mF where 4 (r) ? cos 2 /3 cos 4 7 = JjSmF (r) r 4 cos \ cos4 F (r) = r ^. but he retains shiftfluxions fourth ordei . and If the distance r ft 7 the direction angles of the molecule m at A are both zero body be not subjected to initial stresses. pp 293359 is a tieatise on the general theory of elasticity. Poisson aud Lam dicates He prefers ran constancy to Lamp's method as it in die jeweils eingefuhrten Grossen zu bedeuten haben. Cauchy (see our Arts 615* 6*). der gewiss mcht zu medng anzuschlagen ist (p 358 ) folglich was He like proceeds on the supposition of an initial state of stress. explanation of dimension which he considers a failme as it would apply to 'empty ^pice' on p 35b not seem to The promise to explain dispeision in a peifectly intuial maimei . f(r) being the law of mtermoleculai central action. G and In this case the equation above agrees \\ith that which sti esses may be deduced from Saint. wie sie zu berechnen uDd zu behandeln sind em Vortheil. The me to offer any no\elty Dieiigu concludeb with a remaik as to Cauchy't.
Accademia delle Science. 273 Longitudinal vibrations of an elastic rod or string loaded with particles at different points . I. F. 1853 and published as an offprint in 1854. in the tique. (d) 284 pp. It commences with a discussion of the stability and small oscillations of a L. to the best mode of attention 225 and the author draws particular The arise. 1855. . (e) pp. which introduce elastic bodies as slightly disturbed ^flexible string is treated as the limiting cases. Sound 120.285 291: Vibrations of a flexible and inextensible string fixed at its terminals and forming a curve under the action of forces distributed along its length. T.offortliarl f/i TlPt. this is subdivided into several parts dealing with strings whose parts are not homogeneous. xv. (/) pp. of 486. 163 of the work referred to in our Art.378 [550. 272*. [551..+ir/Lic. . 226 232 . 297 306: Transverse vibrations' of a rod composed of diverse nv Viav^nrv ^ovimia Kno17ir r^m. Mcnabrea arrives at formulae agreeing with those given by Navier on p. 1855.PrOOrpnPrmC! narfcj . JStudes sur la theorie des Vibrations. Turin. rods. 232 : : carrying two heavy particles. the string being fixed at one end only. etc. (c) pp. Thus a heavy of particles united by weightless inlimiting case of a number extensible strings. 205329. : fixed centres of force (b) Oscillations of a particle attracted by several 7 Vibratory motion of a flexible pp. [550551 Memorie M&mbr^a. general discussion integrating the equations which is followed by special problems. or again a rod as the limiting case of a number of heavy particles united by rigid links which resist being displaced about their extremities by forces proportional to the angles the In this method the limits adjacent links make with one another.] it relates The following to special cases : are the contents of the memoir as far as (a) Pp. 205 group of particles. The method is due to Lagrange and is used freely in the Mdcanique Analy Examples of it will be found in Lord Rayleigh's Theory Vol. membranes etc. 292 297 Vibrations of a funicular polygon formed of flexible and extensible elements string : : . of finite difference equations become the differential equations for the vibrations of elastic strings. of the transverse vibrations of the rod referred to above. or in Routh's Rigid Dynamics 3rd Edition. (y) if pp. It cannot be considered entirely satisfactory as it often involves somewhat arbitrary hypotheses: as for example. 238 73 Vibratory motion of a string fixed at one end and carrying several heavy particles . della Reale general This occupies pp.] MriNABRriA. The memoir was read June 12. pp.
and ^hen done theie arise several practical discidvantiges Phillip^' anal} sis ib only approximate. Tome vn. telles que is ponts y les sous faction dune chaige eu mouvement This Arts Annales des Mines. to find the motion of the system when set vibiatmg (pp 301 2) The solution is not earned far enough to be of seivice in dealing with Kupffer's empirical formula for the like case see Section II of the present Chapter Pp 307 311 Vibrations of a plane rectangular flexible (h) membrane uniformlv stretched and composed of two parts of different 22 Radial \ibrations of a homogeneous elastic material. PHILLIPS 379 Menabiea besides obtaining the general equation of the vibrations of a rod with a longitudinal tension T9 namely heie a constant depending on the matenal of the lod. is attached to its lowei end . 1855. the weight of which is gi eat relative to that of the rod. and deals with the case of a load ciossmg \\ith any given velocity a straight beam of unifoim crosssection doubly This problem is not of veiy much importance. the deflection being expanded in powers of the distance fiom a terminal. (j) pp 323 7 Note on the theory of light . foi it i^ builtin difficult to really buildin the terminals of a girder. etc ? esistance des poutres di oites. a particle. (i) pp 312 The lesults in this case agree with those given by Poisson in sphere his memoii of 1828 see our Art 449* et seq . and the coefficients ot these powers being the time The^e suies given by rathei lengthy senes in poweis of are simplified by the assumption that is the mass of the beam where w/(W m ib a small ) qiuntit} and LCOK its lootinn pel 2 . Menabrea deduces FiesneFs equations fiom his general theoiy of a particle oscillating under the action of several fixed centies of force (where F is which remains undefined owing A interesting The memoir as a whole contains no new lesults. to the vagueness of the hypothesis adopted).552] MNABRA. pp 467 506 the important memoir to which we ha\e refeiied in om is 37282 divided into three chapters The memoir 468 87) is Chapitie I (pp entitled it Des polities encast?ees pai leuis deu& ex tieimtes. also indicates the solution of the following problem rod is clamped at its upper end . but there and suggestive analytical pio^esses [552 are some ] E les Phillips Calcul de la rails.
r to ascertain ie a maximum deflection occurring almost at the centre of x oduce the bridge and given with sufficient approximation by 2 /l\* QV where Q is the weight of the travelling load. entitled Des poutres reposant librement sur deux appuis./m<? urn eaifaHfiifm <l . The ratio of this deflection to the maximum deflection at the centre is very nearly n ' 3/3 while the corresponding curvatures 2 (c^y/cfcc ) have very nearly the ratio F7 ' 4/3 Phillips then shows that for four actual bridges with a load moving 108 kilometres per hour the former of these quantities does not exceed 1/20. deals with the like problem for simplysupported [553.] : terminals (pp. 5006) la theorie vrfaedenta at. PHILLIPS. son. discussion of the problem in Art. and they are thus in practice negligible. pp. velocity given 5 analysis has for practical purposes SaintVenant. terms neglected are of the order 7Z/(3/3). 487 500).380 flexural rigidity. the girder and V the real effect of this initial velocity Phillips bridge to remain without load and to start from a position xbh an initial velocity exactly equal to that which must be He finds that this initial system of velocities in his problem. and his results as given on 4806 Chapitre II. [553554 only first powers of this expression are then retained. 372 In both the cases dealt with in these chapters Phillips does not initial condition that the velocity of all parts of the satisfy the the load comes upon it.] vratwues de Chapitre III. The been much simplified by corrected an error of Phillips we merely refer the reader to our 6. (pp. at [554. before the initial builtin of the doubly girder. is entitled : Consequences d'u //. In the case girder shall be zero. where I is the length of the velocity of the travelling load. I have not verified Phillips' analysis are too lengthy for citation. however. and as the latter has 2 = m/E&K? and by the approximate solution is of the order 1//3 For the doublysupported girder the is therefore very small.
il faudrait en outre que Dans le cas ou ces di\erses fractions ne seraient pas assez petites. ou F7/(&EWV) dans le cas de la poutre encastree pai ses deux Dans ce dernier cab. we have then 1 l .determines the influence of the speed of the travelling load on the deflection Phillips takes the case of a lail one metre long and for which the rigidity is 197. and that the maximum maximorum takes place when the load reaches the centre of the beam .555] blemes PHILLIPS KOPYTOWSKI 381 The conclusions It deals first with the case of the doublysupported girder drawn with regard to the curvature and stretch 7. 1'on verifiera si la quantite quence. est assez petite 1 I E<*<f) fat une petite fraction pas negligeable. 1 I have not venfiul the analysis slightly modified the numencal icachcs tin Iry \\hich Phillip* lesults \\hich follo\\ ic^ilt but . are involved in the results of our Arts 372 where following SamtVenant we have corrected Phillips' numerical error In the latter part of this chapter (pp 503 6) Phillips deals with He shows that except just when the case of the doubly built in girder the load is coming on to or leaving the bridge the maximum cuivatme at the instant is immediately under the load. beweghchet Belastiuig freiaufliegenden Ballen untei This is an mauguial dissertation for the 4to. 1865 88 pages with a plate of figuies contains and doctor's degree outside the period we are considering somewhat Although falling [555] this memoir is so closely related to that of Phillips dealt \\ith in the three previous aiticles that we may biiefly touch upon it heie The author deals with the case of a uniform beam terminally He a continuous tia\elhng loicl suppoi ted which is crossed by refers in his pieface to the laboius in this field of Nauei. and about 16 for one of 72 He remarks in conclusion de la pratique. et si la charge pei manente n'e* tait bouts. ce qu'il y aura de plus simple \ faire est faut toujours que la poutre puisse supporter la charge au cette poutre en conserepoSj on commencera par calculer les dimensions de Puis.600 (sq metre kilogrammes'?) and Q is 6000 (kilogrammes' he The value of the fraction is then about 35 foi a has kilometres) velocity of 108 kilometres per houi. Gottingen. Willis. on dinii nuerait IMcartement des points extremes ou Ton augmenterait le moment d'elasticite de la poutre jusqu'& ce que la fraction dont il s'agit devienne QVl Dans tous les cas il ceci Comme negligeable (p 505) Kopytowski Ueber die vineien Spannungen in einem L' n 1 c n. d'apres les regies ordmanes QV*ll(ZEa>K*g) dans le cas de la poutre appuye*e librement par ses deux extre'rnite'b. Evidently then the magnitude of the fraction ^= 5.
[559 560 are a reproduction omitted in the differential equation. of Bresse's problem (see our Arts. Pp. recalculated The values of the principal tractions given in these coefficients. however.. I have not. ft is the constant of our Art. Thus. The expressions for the total shear (pp. p the weight per unitrun of the beam and p that of the load.] Pp. 80 are again erroneous for the reasons given in Art. Let h be the vertical diameter of the beam and then Kopytowski also equates this to JEW2 its flexural !*. 2 but is wrong. 381. The latter value agrees with Renaudot's. Equation (69) of p. any is drawn. as well as the maximum total shear at beam will also be wrong. 81 2) has also a wrong The same remarks apply to the numerical results on pp. . 78 80). finds to determine w/c2 : Hence he or. acknowledgment of the source from which the material 6368 bending moment return to Renaudofs problem and calculate the any point for any position of the load. 74 and 85. considerable value " had not Kopytowski introduced what seems a very doubtful hypothesis into his calculations . substituting in I/ ft' of our Art. we have the values of On pp. Then the maximum statical bending moment at the centre when the beam is fully loaded is : rigidity. and also the maximum bending moment. the terminal the middle of the reactions. St Uallon otc. that in each case the moment of inertia of the crosssection has been designed so as just to carry without failure the weight of the beam and the continuous load considered as acting statically. 78 should be 5/32 and not 1/6.384 KOPYTOWSKI. and that for the deflection (pp. 7278 at PF 835 and p. Table VIII. coefficient. so far as the numerical coefficients of the terms in P7*P/(eg) are concerned. 857. T being the traction which corresponds to the faillimit of the material. [560. [559. 381 : 4T 7 n' F v P 2 See the memoir pp.] 4//3'. he assumes. namely. where 88. The coefficient of the term ?/(e#) in Equation (65) of p. 556. suppose 21 the f length of the beam.. Bern. 382 and 540) without. calculated for a certain number This discussion and table might have been of of actual bridges. however. From this formula Kopytowski calculates 4//3' for the Britannia and Conway bridges and for bridges near Bordeaux.
planet. Poisson et Cauchy (footnote. dont la connaissance est indispensable pour pou\oir calculer X et p. application in part of ResaTs investigation a footnote (pp 402 4) of between the Cauchy's fonctions isotropes to determine a relation The method elastic constants in the expiessions for the stresses does not seem to present any advantages "To stated [562] On p 411 \ve have Resal's pioblem a of ciust the of elastic the determine spherical equihbimm the action of the mutual undei a round diameter. I is no novelty in his this think. noticing. our references are to its pages Pp 395 411 are occupied with an investigation of the Resal adopts equations of elasticity in spherical coordinates uniconstant isotropy.561562] is RESAL 385 no sufficient reason for supposing that the moment of the crosssection of any of these bridges really has the value which is found by this process On p 87 some rernaiks occur on the experiments of the Iron Commissioners and on Stokes' value for the deflection in the case of an isolated load see our Arts 1417* and 1287* The memoir is a rather more ambitious than satisfactory piece of work [561 ] H Besal Thlse de polaires de VdlastiaiU et leur application Sur les Equations Mdcamque a I'jquilifa e dime crotite plan&aire. 1865) mdcamque As the latter work is more with some of the misprints corrected readily accessible than the Th&se. that Wertheim's experiments do not seem to be in complete accordance with the relation \/p = 1 He rather weakly remarks Dans r incertitude ou nous nous trouvons sur lavaleur de ce rappoit. Pans. tionve*e pai Navier. la seule constante que Ton a 1'habitude de fane entier dans les questions de resistance des materiaux. en ionctions du coefficient d'elasticite. nous avons cru devoir continuer & admettie la i elation theoiique X = /x. p 404) MM There except. 1855 This is an academical dissertation occupying 40 quarto pages and dealing with a special case of Lamp's memoir of 1854 see our Art 1111* It is reproduced on pp 395 440 of the celeste first edition of Resal's Traiti flementaire de (Pans. however. rotating and subjected to unifonn internal and of its parts gravitation external normal pressures" This pioblem may be termed Resal's Ptoblem although as have seen a poition of it had alieady been consideicd b} Lanu A\C .
(iii). where it is shown that Lam^ made some progress towards the solution of ResaVs Problem.. where: H =r 5 (r^ . 79. 1114* 8*..RESAL AND LAM& lie [563 entirely in Symmetry shows us at once that the shifts the meridianplane.r 8 .r 2) and is divisible and ^ = the internal and external shell of radii rQ pressures at the surfaces of the and ^ respectively.. or reduce to u and v in the notation of our footnote on p. F Resal obtains a value for rr agreeing with ours write down the general value of ff or u'. for the radial traction rr' and for 5J'(=sjy in the notation of our p. JD O (rf . pure gravity). The form we have obtained 2^) is also more convenient for further calculations than Lame's. The following are the values at distance r from the centre [563.. when X = //. 79) the meridian traction corresponding to the shift u' t : ~r ) H or^n} .e. while u" and if' ' it is easily seen are due to the socalled centrifugal force/ + 1 Now value of u' was determined by that we must have Lam for Inconstant isotropy in his Le$on$ see our Arts.. > and g. 216 The coefficient of II in his expression should be + 1/*) and not 2 (X + as he has it.if' where u' and v are due to the radial parts u' surfaceforces and bodyforces (i..r 5 ) + r 3 r^ ) (r^ by fa r )(rr )(r !). he does not . Now these shifts may be divided into two u" and v' 4. for <j><f>' of JJ' given above does not agree with Lame's (p....  2 (A. acceleration at the outer surface.gravitational The value of the Leqom}.r3 . : The 7/ = 0..] obtained by Lame's method for u'. 1094* 5* and compare Arts.
(ftP.564565] [564 ] RESAL AND LAM 387 Both Lam6 and Resal proceed to approximations in the a thin crust We shall examine the time approximations somewhat closely.0 5() /ft  Pl _ 2 I" ffP ") V) P. of u f to the ( same degree of approximation I is . [565 al ] If we and Lame appeal 01 p l with e 01 neglect the products of p to do.(^ 2 M (3X + 2/.) . \\e ha\e on leai ranging as botib (vn) y v 2 Putting succtssn ely (X = \nd = e we \ find + 2.)/. X+2/* X X _f + !fl 2/0 eW ^TM } <YI) . as it appears that both Lame and Resal have fallen special case of into error Let us put rz = rQ (1 + e). r =r (1 + c) c and suppose the squares and products of e and to be small We find its #ft + i(?oft)U +2 ()} is of (iv) The lowest term containing g as a factor value is the second ordei and Further The value .
417) if we put X seem to be erroneous. *'*/ Wo ^~ fl*^ 2 X + . our formula (v) gives : [566. oPi) ^d Eesal (p. (ftfrW 2/A(3X + K3X+2/x) v) (x).Pl ) of equation (iv). Turning to the tractions. 217) has in our notation the results ' It is not obvious planetary crust ^(^0 + The second equation negligible. but he disagrees h Lame*. The author shifts results (vii) and Resal. JJi'. 417) gives the same value as Lame for ^Thus he agrees with the third term on the right of our equation (xu) in the coefficient of gpr e. 416) gives for ^ the value This neglects the term 2 (e ) ( Po . [566 ^r 2e 8/t / 4X \ V 3X + 2/J and and.388 BESAL AND LAME. (p. since he puts X=/A. If terms . without further discussion why in the case of a ^) should be neglected as compared with $gprQ is wrong unless we suppose ejji' necessarily . (ix) differ widely from those given by The equation (x) agrees with one given by the latter The values given by them for the p. p. Like Lame* he appears to have dropped entirely the term I see no reason for this. Eesal (Mtcanique Ctleste. but for J5 he has ' p.] Lame (Legons.
which it must become in the course of time as diminishes and e in ci eases. I If Z = 44> to determine the duection ot sheaimg luptuie and the magnitude ot the sheaimg foice Tlity suggest how the magnitude of this fout uid be found by experiment and obsei\ation of fiulth its duection may 1 Lam6 (p 220) puts in this case u^ =M = ' 1 \\hich arises fiom the eiiui in hib . then JJ is a still gieatei pressuie ' (b) Both Lame and Resal use the stiess quadnc 3C and the sheai cone t> . however. but this would still compel them to retain the term  (p Q . G Darwin. + y ^. which have been still further advanced by Sir William Thomson. results to the they thus initiated those investigations in terrestrial physics. as it will be useful for comparison with later work Lame remarks (p 218) that geologists (i e those of his day) (a) considered that the thickness of the ciust could not be more than y Hence to a first approximation from (xi). of the radius.567] RESAL AND LAJVI& 389 involving e. Chree and others Resal closely follows Lam6 without. theie would be a very sensible hoiizontal traction at the suiface of the earth There is nothing to show the existence of such stress and accordingly Lame = gp^Q& very nearly This obviously means that the supposes* p pi difference of the suiface piessures just suppoits the weight of the crust If it weie exactly true we should have to a inst appioximation u = u^ If or the earth would retain the ongmal thickness of its crust this relation holds we have also from (xn) . 1 X or the meridian stress at the inner surface of the crust is a pi essui e If JJ/ is negative. like gpr& are letained in JJ' this does not seem legitimate If Lame and Eesal suppose p^fr and gpr^e to be of the same order then this would be allowable. or e = ji^If therefore p Q p were not very nearly equal to gpi Qe. so much explanatory statement Their whole investigation of rupture at the earth's surface is based structure of the earth upon the assumption that rupture takes place where the shear or traction is a maximum They thus endeavour to explain geological faults We may it note the general drift of their reasoning.p: ) they have cast out of (xii) [567] Both Lame and Resal apply these . modifying slightly to suit our formulae.
and would I think before any conclusions as to the points of maximum tjcessary could be fairly drawn. Tipcrlicn"hlp To calculate the constants at least to the first is power m only laborious not difficult. Solving the equations so obtained I find 2 /oco ~ : a 37 par 2  25 while (vii) . bottom at the He does not. but lead Resal confines to rather lengthy expressions for the constants. however. p. 436.] These equations completely solve the problem. If we put X = /LG and neglect e/r we aickness . 435.' 392 RESAL. 6n [569. all [569 values of Y = rl In order that these may vanish for we must have : $ when r = r and the following four relations to determine together with %. nave to find a v \. ' pw 2 These results agree with those of Resal's notation be made. . Our (vii) corresponds to his (A) himself to uniconstant results. a2 & 2 from the first of each set of equations in (viii) and the differentials of those equations with regard to r . if proper changes of error I have noted in his . gives : ^IL^ 2 2 n p. except that he has 24 2 in the first. notwithstanding the equations corresponding to (viii).(1 X ). . obtain the where he ought to have 4J/2 values of the constants even for uniconstancy. and our (viii) to the first and third equations in the set X of his p. but assumes the shell extremely thin and then obtains their values when e/r is 434.
when we neglect (e/? ).570] KESAL 393 may now be shifts (in) and (iv) we see that r written rQ so that to B/esaPs degiee of approximation the shifts are constant for each latitude right through the crust and no conclusion can be drawn as to whether points inside or outside the crust are those of maximum strain find for the complete values of the shirts to this degree of approximation Returning to the values of the . m We From (in) we easily find for the mean radial stretch of the crust in the most general case (i . we have after some reductions He appears to deduce it This agrees with Resal's result p 437 from equation (23) of his p 436. but he has not proved that the value is conect even to the terms he there gives for his involving e W [570] Resal draws various conclusions from the results article (x) and (xi) of the previous remaiks that (i) on his pages 437 40 Thus he The flattening at the poles is 5/4 of the bulge at the equator (n) The radius is not changed for the latitude 1 = sm^> (111) 2/3 or =41 48' 37" at the The thickness of the crust remains unchanged decreases gradually towards the equator and poles (iv) The meridional displacements in the latitude aie towards the equatoi and are maxima (v) 45 is The mendional curve appioximattly an ellipse \\ith the semiaxes (vi) Some gcologistb consuld the fl the earth to have arisen fiom the rotation ittun ig at the puLb ot In iftci sohdihc ition .cos2 <). and therefoie.
Tom. 321. consiste essentiellement. It is supported at two points A and E. G. Lamarle supposes the beam of length I to be uniformly loaded with p Ibs.) treatment satisfactory.] ter. Darwin. with simple beams. dans une proportion considerable. Bruxelles.394 this case KESAL. then Lamarle shows that : horizontal through A Suppose . Cette disposition.. [571 572 we find that the stretchmodulus for the material of the crust supposed thin. la resistance d'une piece prismatique chargee uniformement. soit. and both really laid the foundation of work we do not consider this afterwards done de novo by Sir W. 23252. per unit. la resistance des pieces soumises a la flexion.] deux supports. Belgique. Thomson. LAMABLE.simple qui perxnet. Lamarle: Note sur un moyen trbssimple d'augmendans une proportion notable. Ohree and others in applying the theory of elasticity to solve problems connected with the earth's crust. xxn. the first The taken as axis of x and the axis of y taken vertically downwards. en certains cas.e. 50325. de [571. que je n'ai vue indiquee nulle part et que je crois nouvelle. Bulletin de I'Academie Roy ale. l re Partie. It is clear that Resal advanced considerably the problem first dealt with by Lam^. etc. pp. conime on le fait habituellement (p. the mean aodulus of the predominant kinds of rock of which the terrestrial srust is builtup probably differs very widely from this value.. Thus zero at the poles and a maximum at the equator. part of the memoir deals with the Cas general de [572. E. of which B is not necessarily on the same level as A. 1855. soit a remplacer par des encas trements obliques les encastrements horizontaux. au lieu de placer tous ces supports a un mcme niveau. but for oft cited reasons (see our Arts. i. d'auginenter. Eesal deals with the principal tractions and the stresscondition it is of rupture. 232). L'objet de cette note est de signaler a 1'attention des constructeurs une disposition tres.run and to bend in the plane of loading. homogeneous and uniconstant would have to be about two and half times that of wrought iron. a Stabfir certaines in6galite"s de hauteur entre les divers supports d'une m&ne piece. (vii) The dilatation 5 ^ ft . 5 (c). plus generalement encore.
of LAMARTE 395 m and m JB.5W . if R = %p?l(E<*ic) for R m wif /7i .573] where.and we find it. s the stietch in Let A be the distance of the 'extreme fibre' from the neutral axis and = dny/dx. (iv) If the teimmals of the rod had been simply builtin horizontally on = in =f=Q and theiefbre the the same level.w* )/J that the greater of sv (=s) and This gives us be as small as possible and are thus able to reduce the sti etching eftect of the load fiom \Rh as the case may be) to \Rh Various special cases aie consideied in ^lnch one 01 both teinnnals have given slopes. f being the values of dyjdsc at A and B and f the value y at  12. and theiefoie m t whence the 2/=(m + m')Z and JJK = (w = maximum stietch would \Rh ?i')/t 51? s given by the values of . if the teiminals had been simply supported we should have had $ = s2 = 0.. we should have had maximum stietch=^A . = maximum values when =I \<d^ and the corresponding values of s 3 These give. [573 ] Lamaile discusses considerable length and shows that then maximum will be least (iv) if at We s1 have then may so to choose (wa . 01 in which theie is a given difference of height Lamarle sho\\s that a& a mle it is possible to i educe the gieatest stiain cent by piopul} building in tht due to the loid fiom oO to 100 We Rk (01 pei A I 0/11 Q\ . then s/h Lamaile shows that s will os take  0.
and thus enable us to make the resistance of any particular span a r maximum. TT : ^ ^=E\(\ (/x\ . et que souvent trfcspetites relativement grandeurs dont on neglige de tenir compte dans la pratique. Pinfluence considerable que peut exercer sur la resistance d'une piece soumise & la flexion un changement tr&sminime apporte dans la disposition des des constructeurs. would upset the results entirely. We easily find that the points of inflexion. By ~ . qu'alors mtoe qu'on voudrait s'en tenir aux conditions generalement avec une extreme precision. the above equations give m' and / as functions of m. We precedemment obtenus pour les cos have seen that the strength of the beam if for a single span will be a maximum. II est visible. 248 mme Lamarle concludes this first part of his Note with an extension to the case of a beam passing over three points of support. provided we properly select and f.] The Dewxieme Partie des resultats of Lamarle's memoir is entitled : Extension generate de deux on. remarks : [574 He II y a lieu de faire observer que les quantity's m. or those of zero bending moment. or. 1. m' et / sont toujours elles sont de 1'ordre des 2t I. Pon devrait neanmoins proceder mettre le plus grand soin k eviter tout defaut de pose dans le sens oh Peffet 9). increase the resistance of the At [574.396 LAMARLE. the same time I must observe that it would be almost impossible in practice to insure that these slopes and deflections were accurately adjusted. pi* [sinking the middle support by '"QeJ&Mc" we beam by 100 per cent. or from equations j Hence we ^ find (ii) a~ d*y .. are given by . ( V1 ) m This is true whatever be the value of m. and any slight sinking of the supports. trois supports. due even to their elasticity. et adoptees. supports merite de fixer toute Pattention en effet.x ._. 7 + sr I) . Sous ce rapport. produit serait une diminution rapide de resistance (pp. He shows that if the middle support be lower than the terminal supports by the resistance of the beam will be increased giving the terminals slopes determined by by almost 50 per cent. 2 b = ^.
I and tho coi responding difFeiences in hoight of tlio points of support are easy to hnd .575] while the deflection LAMARLK . but the be easily extended to unequal spans The total depiession in the former case of the (n+ l)th support below the first is Lamarle supposes ^1 =/!+/+ +/ Lamaile deals with too special cases on his pp 509 13 he supposes eveiythmg to be symmetucal about the middle of the beam and the terminals to be builtm at the propei slope This is given by El [575] In Case (i) m Q = .mn = n I . we have 2L (xi).2 r ( x) \ and. /. 397 * . if theie be n spans each of length Fuithei we have so that the proper depression of the ?th support is detei mined In Case (n) the teimmals are not supposed to be builtin. or ~ I . if the total length of the beam be 2Z. whence denotes the slope of the tangent at the end of the nth span and given slope at the first terminal we ha\e >n if m mn the = m >Qnjl. (vin) D7 \ Further The equations (ix) must hold foi each individual span. ^ *\ [ i T?.^tf(2l)gJ may results all the spans equal and equally loaded. whence. but may then suppose the last spans in Case (i) to simply supported We terminate at their points of inflexion the last spans will have lengths I = 2 These aie given by + J2 (MI). and I'.
: The maximum is stretch / : obtained for Case (ii) of the preceding article (using Equation (xi)) Lamarle has the following results : increases Thus the increase of strength is a minimum for n = 3 and then from 30 to nearly 70 per cent. Lamarle works out the case of a uniformly [576. Supposing the beam 2Z to have consisted of n separate simply supported spans we should have had for the maximum stretch s"i and therefore 1 171573 so that the advantage increases with n from about 46 to 100 per cent. 521.398 LAMARLE. 513 7.1 loaded continuous beam of length 2Z resting on n+ I points of support.] similar theory for the case of an isolated load and for continuous beams of unequal span (pp. The memoir concludes with a brief indication of a [577. 575. [576577 On pp. This might be done by prolonging the beam over the terminal points of support o /o up to the points of inflexion given by x= ^ I and then pivoting these new terminals. and finds for the maximum stretch s placed at equal distances. 519). 1 Lamaiie lias a misprint heie (p. Lamarle gives an interesting comparative table of results on p. 5245). If we wanted to realise the absolute maximum of resistance in the beam it would be necessary to fix the terminals at the slopes given in our Art. But it seems to me that this would often be practically difficult. . On the whole we may say the memoir is very suggestive as showing what slight changes in the terminal slope and in the relative height of the supports will It largely affect the resistance of a simple or continuous beam.
the author remarks that an approach to such a suspensionchain exists in Hwngeiford Bridge^ London mchts uber die ihi zu Grunde hegende Theone bekannt geworden wahrschemhch haben auch die in der Praxis gewandten und doch ist . Bd T Leipzig.578581] MINOE MEMOIRS 399 serves rather as a warning to constructors of the difficulties associated with the realisation of the theoretical stresses in structures of this kind than as a practical means of largely increasing then resistance [578] L F M&iabrda Sopra una teona anahtica dalla M le deducono leggi generali di va. 1856 are entitled memoir of this 519 21 Eqinhbno di un filo Pp the seems to me obsciue but discussion and does not elast^co J It appear to mvohe the proper number of elastic constants Saintof the tieatment to the adds problem by nothing certainly Venant and Kirchhoff see oui Art^ 1597* 1608*. 1855. Bd I Leipzig. Berlin. T VL Rome. pp 170180 of Crelle's Journal fur Mathematik. 1856. 1857 is It contains nothing on the vibrations of elastic solids that of real importance [579 ] Schlomilch Die gl&icTigespannte Kettenbruckenhme Zeutschnft fur Mathematik und PJiysik. Bd 54. and Chapter dnscliei xn Von Autenheimci pp Zui [581] Theone clei Torsion cyhn Wellen Zeitwluift fin Mathematd inul Pliysih. kuhnen. nut der Theorie abei meistens wenig veitrauten enghschen Ingemeure ubeihaupt nach gar keinen Pormeln constiuirt. 1856. T 6.m ordim di fenomem die quale da equaziom differenziah hneah. pp 51 55 This is an investigation of the proper area of the crosssection of the chains of a suspension bridge in order that the stress may be earliei literature The paper contains references to equal at each point At the conclusion of the paper on the subject . 198 (/). fra ^ quah quelh delle dipendono v^braz^on'l e della propagazione del calore ne' corpi solidi Annah di Science mathematiche e fisiche (Tortolmi). pp 363370 This memoir is translated into French. pp 515 39 Milano. sondern sich hiei wie bei unzahhgen anderen Gelegenheiten anf empirische Versuche und graphische Methoden [580] della Istituto verlassen G Mamardi Note che tisguardano alcum aigomenti Memone deW / R Meccamca tazionale ed apphcata Lovibaido di Scienze. 212216 .
The fundamental equation of hydrostatics is (a) deduced and a remark added that the disappearance of the shearing stress is not true for portions of the fluid where capillary action is called into play. ' The stability of ecwth. or the pressure on the plane overcome the resistance of the . He finds: If 5 be the longitudinal squeeze of the cylinder : and if E=4 JL t . The same matter has been dealt with by Wertheim. The latter part of the paper applies the results so obtained to the discussion of stress in three special cases. I the length of the cylinder A M couple. namely those of: A perfect fluid. stretch of a fibre owing to the torsion. f\ we have So long as hence the s lies Jf =. 1856. 51). only just rupture.? I \ [ 1 +^ within the elastic limit it will hardly exceed 1/1000. of this Chapter). and ClerkMaxwell (Art. the moment of the applied and a its radius. and the minimum and maximum pressures on the vertical plane are calculated. 610* and 1059*). (Section II. The author couple at the other having endeavours to measure the effect on the resistance of the longitudinal Let < be the angle of torsion. [582 circular cylinder built in at one end is subjected to torsion by a for axis the axis of the cylinder. TJeber die Vertheilung des DrucJcs EinladungsSchrift der h polytechnischen Schule in Stuttgart zu der Feier des Geburtsfestes seiner Majestdt des Konigs Wilhelm von Wurttemberg auf den 27. leading up to their stressellipsoids and the shearcone (see our Arts. paper reproduces the analysis of stress due to Cauchy and Lame'. there pp.#=. corresponding to the limits at which the earth will overcome the resistance of the plane. anything of novelty or earlier part of this The importance in the treatment. This occupies I do 1 think not is 9. September. Even if we were to proceed up measurable would become effect the experimentally. [582. The earth is supposed to be bounded by (b) two horizontal planes and a third vertical one. 1549*). SaintYenant (Art.] Carl Holtzmann: im Innern eines Korpers. effect on the couple of the stretch produced by torsion is to s = 1/50 before negligible in practice.400 EOLTZMANtf.
Pius. 556. 535. Pans. Schefnei and Winkler see our Arts 183 (a). Kopytowski. in the manner of Jouravski. are.583584] RESAL 401 A more general investigation has been undei taken by Le"vy earth and Boussinesq see our Art 242 Rankme published impoitant 7 (see oui Art 453). 1856 This paper contains an important application of the usual . howevei. Rankme. Biesse. but most probably Holtzmann lesults m 1856 had not seen them. it of the length of crank to that of connecting rod being But the results obtained are of very considerable neglected interest. 468. H theory of the vibrations of bars (due to Bernoulli) to ascertain what influence the vibrations of a connecting rod have upon the forces which is treatment ratio exerts on the crankpin and pistonhead The terms of the third in order the only approximate. except for the case of a section whose breadth is infinitely small as compared with the height (i e in practice the thin webs of girders) helles Eesal M&noire sur le mouvement vibratoire des [583] Annales des Mines. Tome ix pp 23379. Tomt xvi pp 271tSG. lengthy did not carry us beyond the proper limits of oui subject They ought cert \inly to be consulted by those having to deal piactically with the sti esses in connecting rods [584] H Resal Recheiches sui les tensions elastiques develop pees pen le sen age des bandages des ione<$ du matei lei des chemins Annales de? Mine?. and the special case woiked out by him is simply dealt with and is of considerable niter est A simple beam centrally loaded and subjected at the same time to (c) Holtzmann supposes the beam of continuous load on its upper surface lectangular section and deals with the stress as umplanai. 652 and 665 It is needless to repeat that the method is illegitimate and the results erroneous. especially the analysis of the origin of the various types The longitudinal and transverse vibrations which occur a free of isochromsm between of vibration of the danger penod of out (p 248) rod and the time of a complete revolution of the crank is brought see our Art 359 and ftn p 243 Resal considers at effect some length the on the magnitude of the vibrations of the connecting rod produced by putting a counterbalance upon it at He shows that its influence is to proor beyond the crarikpm duce a constant dilatation m the connecting rod and also to increase under ordmaiy conditions the amplitude of the transverse His analytic le&ults vibrations of the rod by onethird (p 275) if their discussion even for citation too here. 1851) de fei .
known that the true tire of a wheel is made slightly inner circumference than the outer circumference of the false tire (faux bandage) heat. angle then the change in curvature 1/p .] a circular arc of radius p to receive at the point defined by the radial the very small displacement towards the centre defined by p Q e. false tire to ascertain on the Bernoulliendeavours elastic strain. upon which it is placed when expanded by and true tire is in a state of of the wheel spokes. p (1 e) the p (1 radius vector corresponding to the polar angle 6 (measured from a spoke) of a point on the common circumference after strain. tire. the square of the ratio of produced by flexure and neglects of the wheel. radius to the tire the of the linear dimensions effect Resal begins with a lemma of the following kind. One assumption which his theory requires is that the linear di mensions of the crosssection of the tire must be small as compared with the length of tire between two spokes. then o^ and o> being the crosssections of the false and true tires. let ft . the swingradius of Wj about a line through that .be the ' . and I do not think he has folly regarded this point. [585 it an interesting paper although It is well less in involves several rather doubtful assumptions.402 This is RESAL.e) the initial internal radius of the true tire.Let p be the initial radius of the external circumference of the false squeeze of this circumference at the same point.l/p at that point is measured by (i). when he applies his theory to He also disregards the sliding special cases of very close spokes. Suppose [585. and Resal On cooling the whole material Eulerian theory of flexure the stresses in these various members. the squeeze in a fibre' distant y from this circumference in the false tire is easily found to be Hence there false tire is a total negative traction across the section of the given by and a total moment given by where fa is the distance of the centroid of w 1 from the common circumference and KJ. .
Yp + o>. the total stress over cc must consist of a couple. ^av no foi the cross section aa we find at once from (MI) and (MU). ._ /_ ZA . since aa and cc sections cioss the at aacc element the foices act on except &K Po I . ( K* / ( d*e\} e + ggj \ + Et&g (viu). Y is the distance of the centroid of Q from the where O = o^ 4common circumference. \ /i A . and K the swing radius of O about an axis through the common circumference perpendicular to the plane of the wheel [586 1 Now if we take the cross section cc midway between two spokes which make an angle 2a with each other. C osajr//<. or.586] RESAL tire 403 For the true we easily deduce the expressions for the total positive traction and tlie moment with a similar notation. >/ ) .r/30 + A Po f \ < * ^ }~ Ml  W <<* (a  6) + r //i (x). say. and a thrust at the common cir Em Hence cumfeience peipendiculai to the cross section given by Ep. suppose with Resal that the stretch modulus for the material of We (iv) both tires is the same Hence subtracting and (vi) we have For the total ti action in tbe cross section (111) from (v) and adding For the total moment M=Etol.
. Equations (xii) and (xiii) contain the complete solution of the problem. The shearing force at AE (see figure on our p.. Resal here assumes that the total shear is equal to the continued product of the slidemodulus into the total area of the crosssection into the complement of the angle the strained circumference common to the two tires makes with the radius at the spoke.. or lindeldO^E<rp eQ /(2l) .g. spokes.....section it will Let cr be the crosssection of the not vanish but be equal to p sin a. for 6 = a.. (xv).. remembering that dejdO = The Q K is ^ Po is is easily integral found to be e==_(p +r){(a6l)sin(a^+9n 'cos(a(9)} + * is / m +a)r / . Differentiating (xiii) and applying (xv) we obtain m" in terms of e (}9 thus since (xiv} gives w in terms of ? wo have onlv to find p ami m'..p cos (a <9) r2 {A + o / F} + mT + a)JT . but that at a spoke cross.. we have consider the element of the wheel between at once from statical considerations sin a = J$<rp Q e Q /l. Saint.. the on right which do not m' Eliminating we find: successively ft and e for the terms 2 /3 = . 2 (xii).. I their length... It [587.. m' and m". 90 and 96. of this product for a rectangle to however...404 RESAL.... where the swingradius of O about a line in its plane through its centroid perpendicular to the plane of the tire. 403) E but this may be put ju.... [587 when we of small quantities (e.Venant.. It remains to determine the constants p. (xiii)... then if their stretchmodulus be the same as for the tires.] easy to see that the total shear must vanish at the crosssection midway between two spokes. finds values from about for a circle see our Arts.... two midway cross Now sections. : .. we have for their negative traction the expression where e is the value of e for = 0. pe) and write neglect the products involve 0.. where m" an undetermined constant. times the slide into the crossnocticm. of equation (xi).
(xiv) and (xvu) we can calculations indicated in the previous article are carried [588 ] out by Resal. de la Joice centiifuge Pans. Pans. 1857 2369. 1860 the application of the simple Bernoulli Eulenan theoiy of the problem of the suspension by elastic laminae of a The papei contains nothing fuithei balanciet comque due to Redier beaimg on the theory of elasticity This is flexure to [590] Mahistie cei piendre a I Note sui les vitesses de notation quon tames loues. . we squeeze in the tire find a maximum value for c. lay stress on crank about the axis of the wheel m this result (p ResaTs method of dealing with such pioblems to suggest to the student of this subject how he may complete or extend it We have sufficiently indicated 286) [589] le H Resal De inouvenient du pendule comque V influence de la suspension cl lames sin Annales des Mines.e) d0.' and e He then returns to (11) and to a similai expiession for the squeeze in the tiue tire in order to find the maximum value of the traction or Equating such value to the safe elastic limit. who gives pp 2812 rathei lengthy values for m. pp 116. Now if ds be an element of the common circurnfeience of the tires before and f ds after strain. \ lungei in em on and the hue of . we have obviously (see figure fapo Jo os = Po a /> (xvi) (1 But hence (ds . sans cntiucbe leiu luptuie sous Compte** letidiib.ds')/ds = ft and db' = ds = p (1 + ft . however. pp This is onl} an extiact fiom effort Tome \LH .e) <#. and substituting in (xvi) we have 3e)d0 = (xvu) find Hence from The (xii). or for p c the difference the radii of the As special problems Resal treats the case when two tires (pp 2823) the spokes are so close that sin a may be replaced by a and further investigates a minimum safe value for c in the case of a wheel turned by a crank having regaid to the necessity of the moment of the friction between the two tiies being greatei than the moment of the force in the He does not. T xun.588590] of e RESAL MAHISTRE 1 405 But putting e = e and = in (xm) we at once obtain m in teims Thus it remains to find e We have not yet made use of the condition that the angle cOA p 403) retains a constant value or is equal to a.
Bd. entitled: Erste is is Abhandlung but I can find no trace of a . . Koosen does introduce and novelty. 129. Koosen: Entwickelung der Fundamentalgesetze [592.. [591. by retaining iri general the coefficient supposing this Molecularspannung is somehow equilibrated by temperature exchanges between the elastic body and surrounding bodies (S.] uber die Masticitdt und das Gleichgewicht im Innern chemisch homogener Korper. 1857.406 POINSOT. ci. /^ \ du dx dv dw\ ' dy dz) He apparently thinks there is something novel in this result. however. We N the number its of turns of the wheel per minute. der Physik. 646. ' j. then Mahistre finds that a relation of the form : See our Art. ^ p . nor in the following pages. KOOSEN. 296.. 40152. 616* and our account of Saint. perhaps its nonpublication is hardly a loss. merely note that if 8 be the resistance to rupture of the metal in kilogs. is [591592 As the problem argument is scarcely intelligible has been satisfactorily dealt with (so far as that possible on the BernoulliEulerian theory) by Resal. although their titles are by the writer of the article Elasticitoitstheorie des geraden Stosses in the Encyklopddie der Naturwissenschaften: Handbuch I. The author obtains the equations of elasticity for an isotropic medium practically in the same manner as Cauchy or Poisson. Art. I do not understand his reasoning on this point. of that work). J. D its specific to avoid rupture we must have J\T< gravity. and he finds (S. H.Venant. we shall make no attempt to unravel Mahistre's obscure statements. Bd. have nothing to do with elasticity. who showed that A measures the initial stress: see our Art. S. from its brevity. 419) for the type of tractive stress : du\ doc) . R the mean radius of rim. Annalen der Physik. but the equation had been long previously obtained by Cauchy. i 1 . Zweite Abhandlung having been published. 4256). A and believe v* 4 it to be incorrect. 1857 and 1859. (see S. metre. per sq.] published in cited The four memoirs by Poinsot on the impact of bodies Tomes 2 and 4 of the Journal de Lioumlle.
and I should be inclined to describe the whole of this lengthy paper as no contribution to our subject. Leipzig.k Bd cn. 1857 Reprinted in the Vereins deutsoher Ingemeure. noch Aaf den bekannten m m erne Aenderung erleide Die Bestimmung jeder ungleichmassigen Dehnung oder Compression nach mehr als einer Dimension. Berlin. Bd. 1857 This paper opens with the words Erfahrungssatz. were I not obliged to confess that I have frequently been unable to follow its drift [593] der Physik.S 36587. eifordert die Zuziehung neuer empmscher Grundlagen. welche durch jene Annahme umgangeii wild. but both these had been pioposed and adopted previously index to oui Vol I [594] see the references undei Rods in the J Stefan Allgem&ine Gl< >/ <te fin Bewegungen Annalen dei Phyn. somewhat obscure and does not appeal His treatment. i. nach welchem die zur Dehnung oder Zusammendruckung eines elastischen festen Korpers nach einer Dimension hm erforderliche Kraft den Yolummcrementen proportional ist. lasst sich die Berechnung der Biegung eines pnsmatischen Stabes nur unter dei Annahme grunden. to needful seemed it hardly study closely the present memon On examination. Hoppe's Annahme does not seem to have made his results any more incorrect than most investigations After reading this paragraph based on is the BernoulliEulenan hypothesis however. 227245. dass sem Quersonnitt weder semen seiner normalen Stellung zu alien Langenfasern Dimensionen. R Hoppe Bd Zeitschrift des Uebei Biegmg pnsmatischer Stale Annalen S 102.593 594] HOPPE STEFAN 4*07 the consequences drawn from them on the following pages are a mystery to me. however. odei Hypothesen^ derm das unveranderte Volum selbst der klemsten Theile begrundet noch mcht das Gleichgewicht der darm befindlichen Spannungen (S 227) and remembering the lesearches and Kirchhoff Venant of Saint(see our Chapters X and XII ). S 30813. / t oscillatonsche Leipzig. Ib57 foi This paper deduces the vibrations of an m place the geueial equations elastic medium \\hen there are thiee the fiist rectangulai planes of symmetry by Cauchy see our Art 616* s method (b 3657) . to contubute to the subject of flexure It anything of novelty or importance is based on the principle of virtual velocities and indicates the solution in elliptic integrals.
20. The total elastic work to be 2 obtained from a spring is J?F$ /6.... Phillips takes 7'82 as the mean density of steel. and s the safe or limiting stretch at the surface of ^JOL component laminae. per sq. for E.... Oomptes rendus. e their thickness and L the half length of the so that TJ' will generally be small as compared with U..... Paris. and I do not think his paper can be considered as a valuable contribution to either optical or elastic theories.. Stefan makes no attempt to solve his equations. 37980 and 384.408 PHCLLIPS [595 The author then goes on Green's method. 6247. however. 493 (c)) for the resilience of a spring of any form builtup of elastic laminae.. Thus he is really dealing at the common with a very limited case of reflection and refraction boundary. of s for very good steel. of two such media. that if U be the work due to this friction. (i). mm. [595. where E is the stretchmodulus... Tome XLV. pp. the reflection and refraction of light It seems to me. it may : be shown by the processes of his memoir of 1852 that where U=EVs*/Q.. number .000. V the volume.. w be the weight of a train in French tons.000 kilogs.. v its velocity in kilometres per hour. g gravitational acceleration... Thus he finds if W and '01 as the limit be the weight of the spring in kilogrammes : W = '0952 x w x He r v* . remarks. spring. <= coefficient of friction for steel on steel. Phillips : Des parachocs et des heurtoirs de chemin defer... 1857..] E.. n of laminae. we must have: if the spring be able to bring the train to rest without the spring being elastically damaged. The author commences by citing a formula from his memoir on springs (see our Art. and uniaxial to investigate the like equations by afterwards considers the special cases of symmetry and of which must be at the satisfied for common boundary He deduces the equations isotropy. In this he neglects the friction of the laminae upon one another. that in the media with biaxial and uniaxial symmetry he is tacitly supposing the crystalline axes to be parallel in the two media: see his equations S.
ex The experiment was repeated periment gave it as 048 metres several times with the same result Tous les ressorts nouveaux du chenim de fei de Lyon sont construits J'ai commence des essais poui deter Phillips d'apres la throne de r la flexibilite de ces lessorts (p 754) M mme The results of these experiments oft between experiment and citing here The deflections m show such a noted agreement abused theory that they desene metres weie as fullo\\s Senes of locomotive spungs 12 laminae. he supposes that. the causes of accidents arising from the impact of i ail way wagons [596] Deloy Eoctrait d'une Note relative d Phillips tive d'une nouvelle esp&ce la theone de M ^application de d la construction d'un lessottde locomo. W is the fairly or about the weight of three The ordinary carriage buffersprings (70 to 80 kilogrammes) to a refeired to was commission then memoir sitting investigate reasonable weight of 230 kilogrammes. Tome XLV pp 7525. for w from 90 to 600 tons and for v from 60 to 20 kilometres per hour.596] PHILLIPS DELOY 40& Phillips next takes various values for w and v. as such spnngs are repeatedly loaded. the values for Hence he coscludes that it would vary from 21 to 31 tons be impossible to protect a train against collisions by causing it to W On carry at its ends buffers or spnngs of this enormous weight the other hand suitable buffers can be easily constructed to protect the masonry etc at a terminus from the impact of a train with a In this case he takes v' to measuie the velocity of small speed the tram metres per second. 1857 This note gives details of a special kind of spring made by Goum et Cie for the Lyons lailway Deloy calculated by Phillips' formulae (see our Arts 48990) the deflection of this spring under a load of 10. 3 matnx hunnae 11 0377 067 057 03o7 ^ 4 0646 03o47 tendei 9 7 wagon   I 1^4 .000 kilogs and found it 0478 metres. Pans. Comptes rendus. s should not be taken greater than 004? and he finds in French measure m Foi example if v =1 metre and w = 30 tons.
or the real limit to a statically applied elastic stress. He notes that he himself in an earlier memoir has applied the BernoulliEulerian theory to springs and he cites his chief results: see our Arts. and equal the memoirs relating to it have almost as little permanent scien . The last page and the Supplement deal with the experimental stress which a steel bar tractions cannot may be Phillips this stress subjected to without permanent extension. to understand whether Phillips means this as the safe load for bars liable to impact. Mem.410 PHILLIPS. Phillips: Du Urieur $iw corps solide. secondo le : analoghe teorie meccaniche fra Memoria Postuma. 1844. because the value of the springs (see our principal be found. delle Scienze di Bologna. XLVL. Paris.] : Francesco Bertelli dei corpi solidi ne' alia relazione Ricerche sperimentali circa la pressione casi in cui la misura di essa. travail des forces dastiques dans Finparticulierement des ressorts : Oomptes rendus. of which the first was read to the Accademia on February 16. T. mm. 1858. [597598 It cannot be denied that this is strong evidence in favour of the practical accuracy of Phillips' theory. 440. per sq. deU Accad. Bologna. It relates to the problem of the statically indeterminate reactions which arise when a body rests on more than two colinear or more than three noncolinear points of The problem occupied as large a share of attention in support. We must now turn to a series of memoirs published and dealing with the problem of the reactions of decade in this on several points of support. T. 1843 and the second on March 28.] E. 1850. of solids of Italy in the first half of the present century. We note first bodies resting [598. si pp. le manifesta indeterminata e intorno pressioni e la elasticita de corpi medesimi. The memoir is divided into two parts. 483508. 6089). as that in half of the seventeenth second the resistance century.. according to is 40 to 50 It is difficult kilogs. p. more especially so when we consider the irregularities of material and manufacture in such technical products as railway springs. 3336 and Supplement. [597. I. 433461. et In this memoir Phillips remarks that it is generally impossible to apply Clapeyron's Theorem as suggested by its discoverer to Arts. BERTELLI. pp.
. A pp 281318. D Alembeit . T viu Dinaimca. 1857 This is the first Italian memoir which attempts to deal with For the history of science the problem is frequently wasted in the byways of paradox 1 of value as I give a list. pp 289329 Von dem Dmcke eines mit einem Gewichte beschwerten Tibclies auf " der reimn uiid cine FlacJie (see our Art 95*). . . p 92 Ibid Paoli 35 (see our Ait 282 ) Navier Bulletin de la Soc philomat 1825. Sciences mathematiques Vene Ibid T ix 1828 p 7 270 Poisson Mecaiuqite Tome i . Poisson and Saint . 411 of the problem (pp 43640 and 44761) and is apparently of the opinion that its solution cannot be reached without the aid of the theory of elasticity. Sene II T xviu . p 534 Ibid Paoh T vii 1794. p 319 Ibid MalfatTi T ix 1802. T vin 1834 pp Pagani oui Art 396*) Saint Venint 1S378 see our Ait 1572* 1843 see our Ait 1585* di Bologna. T v 1790. p T vi 1792. M . T vn. . T xvin 1774. Paite n Montana. 107 Delanees Mem delta Societa Itahana. Fusmien Annali delle Sctenze del Eeqno Lonibaido Veneto. showing how power is which I have formed. 114 (see Meioui de I Aead de Liuxdte. elastic . p 36 Opmcula. 1798. . Hmdenbwgs Aichiv Bd i S 74 Leipzig 1795 Matheviatik . pp 298304 (see our Art 396*) A Fuwiien Pesano 1833 Barilari I. a view which had not met with general acceptance at the time when his memoir was read He also describes a particular kind of dynamometer for measuring the inThis he terms il piesimetro determinate reactions (pp 4413) Some experimental results obtained by means of such dynamo meters are cited but no numerical details are given and they are too vague to be of service in testing for example the theory of continuous beams (pp [599 ] 4436) d'appogg^o di Dorna Memoria sidle pressiom sopportate dai punti un sistema equilibrate ed in istato prossimo al moto Memorie dell' Accad delte Science di Torino. p 4 Anonym bulletin det. p 178 Ibid Lorgna .599] DOENA. 1 . l^y^ 1827. Delates T vm Paitei 1799 p 60 Ibid T vm Pai te 11 . Turin. T i lb434 p ^6 Bertelh Mem dcU Accad ddle Sliest 18o2 p 109 T vi Ibid Fagnoh Venant appl> the theory only Navier. p T ivn P /0 Anonym Annales de mathem pat Geigonne. . . to pursue the subject further of the principal authorities for those who may wish Novi Commentam incwiibit cm ^n planum Euler De vressione pondens Acadeimae Peti opohtanae. 1833 1 11 1W.itomo un Pioblema del Lotto. angewandten Mem 56 n 1780.
whence either by eliminating the dependent SQ's or by the principle of indeterminate multipliers we have sufficient equations to find all the unknown reactions (pp.). (\\] that we mav reallv introduce this string .. 291.. [600601 the problem of the body resting on more than three points of supthat is to say.. these being the same for all E supposed to vary from and consequently (i) will become : Other relations between the SQ's will be given by the statical equations of equilibrium.... and the supported bodv riffid. the to theory appeal We the earlier literature of this subject (see our Art.. Dorna's paper begins so well that say it begins regret well/ for it has not the flavour of mediaeval metaphysics traceable even so late as Fagnoli (see our Art.. it we can only does not end better.412 DORNA.. Hence if Q be a reaction and Bq its virtual displacement.. we must have : 2QSg = .. suppose that each point of support is connected with the rigid body by an elastic string of infinitely small length I and crosssection stretchmodulus such strings. (i). and of string to string and to be that of the material of the supporting "body in the neighbourhood of the supporting point (p.] a system consisting of a rigid body resting on any number of of the virtual moments of these points of support.) and a memoir on very similar lines to this by M^nabrda will be considered later (see our Art. [601. 598 and ftn.] Dorna's method is perfectly logical if we adopt his hypothesis namely (i) that the supports only are elastic. 604)..... To obtain Sq Dorna now makes the following supposition... We ' Dorna notes that if we give a virtual displacement to [600..... 509).... 286).. have already referred to of elasticity. then the sum of the virtual points of support must be zero independently moments of the applied forces of the system.. then we shall have o>. 300 etc. which makes direct port from a rational standpoint...
che una base piana di sostegno soppoita sotto 1' azione di una foiza diretta attra\erso al suo centio di gravita. Cambiidge 1890 . but I cannot conesponds to any physical reality. (pp 299304) which my numbei of isolated problem 1 This supposes the geneial case in com points. and compaie Chffoid's Element* of Dynamic. ceitamly not to a ngid a hote on Clapey)un fins point has been dealt with by the Editoi of Matlu matter Vol xx pp 12935. Book IV.602] DORNA 413 link with stretchmodulus equal to that of the supporting material to explain what physically does happen at the point of support Now the first hypothesis is just the reverse of what is usually assumed by practical engineers in calculating the reactions of continuous girders. e la stessa. sia che questa open a perpendicolo della base sia che open nella stessa base (p 306) m [602 theory Of the special applications which Dorna makes ] we may briefly note the following of his support. (pp 2902) rigid body lests on n colmeai points of This appeals correct if the n points be supposed vertical columns of equal height and cross section Problema II A heavy These Problema III. but piesent no no\elty except in the fact of then deduction from equation (n) of oui Ait 600 The results agree with those which flow from the theoiy of neutral axis and load point and had long befoie been established by Biesse see our Aits 812* and 5156. m > 1 Jieuitm Mt^uuju . and the special case when the cross section is lectangular The investigations aie correct. or of continuous points posing i suif ice ire connected by elastic string links with points on The the smfacc of a ii^id body supposed to be in contict with them considei that this analysis is not without interest. and even in this case the crosssections of the column ought to be retained in Equation (11) unless they happen to be To apply this hypothesis as Dorna does even to cases all equal in which the reaction is perpendicular to the axis of support is to neglect entirely the distinction between the elastic coefficients of Thus he deduces the extraordinary result stretch and slide to la piessione. (pp 2969) aie the general case of distribution of normal piessure over the cioss section of an elastic cylinder. (pp 2936) and Problema IV. nferita all' unita di superficie. they suppose the supports ngid and the 1 Further the second hypothesis seems supported girder elastic the case in which the support is a me legitimate only column of uniform crosssection with a reaction in the direction of its length. pp 1428 PioUeina V.
librement sur des Tome and gives the equation of the three moments usually termed " Clanevron's Theorem/' Olapeyron states it only for the case of of uniform crosssection. The memoir concludes with a Nota (pp. (pp. Problema IX. 30814). Paris. (pp. The results obtained are all based on the hypothesis of Problema V. : . and other writers as cites He having propounded the general equation. suppose he refers to pp. Clapeyron mentions Navier as having said a few words on the I problem in the Bulletin de la SocidU Philomathique. Problema VII.. 3078) are absolutely inadmissible applications of Problema V. 3046). The results are inadmissible. 1825 . This is only a resume of a memoir. pp.414 surface resting on CLAPEYRON. (pp. Belanger as having cole des studied in his course of lectures on construction at the Pouts et Chaussees the case of two spans. ^^ IJf. This is an attempt to generalise the to pressure applied to a theory of the neutralaxis and the loadpoint curved surface. (pp.i ( Pl ^+ pJJ). which has been much extended by later writers see Heppel in our Art. XLV. 89. E. : It will be seen that Clapeyron only deals with a very special case of his theorem.. His own practical work on French railway bridges led him to investigate a formula free from the reactions. but left it complicated by the presence of the reactions. 3067) and Problema VIII. then mtei mediate ojjcwio.. 1857.] of our Art 600. Problema X. any number of points or on an elastic [603 surface as Dorna supposes.. + 2 ft s + JJ Jf. p lt pm M M . Clapeyron : Oalcul d'une poutre elastique reposant appuis indgalement espacds: Comptes rendus. S. 3168) containing a second (ii) demonstration of Equation [603. 3156) supposes a rigid body to rest on a portion of a spherical elastic surface. 10761080. (pp. 607 or Weyrauch : Theorie der continuirlichen Trager. ProUenia VI.. and are therefore physically inadmissible. . Let lt z M^ snts at successive supports and Z12 Z28 the loads per footrun. which I think was never It deals with the problem of a continuous beam published.. + ljft . Analytically to theorems which are analogous they are not without interest as leading to those which hold for the instantaneous axis of rotation of a rigid body and which were first discovered by Poinsot. 357.
Cotteull and others to framework and continuous beams has been of consideiable service I do not think the statement of the principle by M^nabr^a sufficiently indicates that his proof only applies to what we now term a ' frame or bit of framework '.604] MENABR^A 415 then applies his formula to the case of a bndge of seven A remark on p 10*78 as to a defect in the design equal spans of the Britannia Bridge does not as a mattei of fact apply as that He bndge owing to its mode of construction is not a continuous beam in the theoretical sense see our Art 1489* [604 ] L F M&iabrea Nouveau pnnape sur la distribution des tensions dans les systemes elastiques Paris. however. le travail ddveloppe par I'effet des tensions ou des compressions des hens qui unissent les divers points du systeme est un minimum (p 1056) is essentially as follows The proof given in Let T be the traction any element of the fiame of length I and section a> Then applying the principle of virtual work so that none of the points to which external force is applied have virtual displacements we must have where Sx = variation in the extension DC of any link But T^Exfl. and that the links of such a frame must be supposed subjected to traction only and to be of uniform A crosssection. T XLVI . which may vary. the application of which by Maxwell. Oomptes rendus. pp 10561060 M^nabr^a here states a very important elastic principle. from link to link generalisation of the principle based upon Clapeyron's Theorem (see our Art 608) is easily obtained and will be considered later ' ' M&iabrda states what he terms the pnnoipe d'dlastmte se in the following words Lorsqu'un systeme dlastique met en dquilibre sous faction de forces extdneures. if E be the stictch modulus of the link Hence . 1858.
Q. c parallel to the axes. par rapport aux di verses valeurs de T. 5. % (RaPc) = ] j L. the Equation d' elasticity He terms is a minimum. Q. 6. Z be types of components a. j Now P. but I do not feel quite confident as to the exact form of elastic system he is dealing with. R to be the components of the reaction at such a point Let JT. Thus the principle is proved that the variation of the strain energy M&iabrda does not prove that this for the whole frame is zero. un egal On Sgalera a ze*ro les coefficients des diverses . (i) energy will Let there be n points united by links. l'e*quilibre subsiste toujours. cas. then there be Sn equations of equilibrium for the n points suppose in addition p equations of equilibrium between the external forces. The equations of statics give : # = 0. of applied force at x. [605. on pourra differentier. c.] . are evidently components of the total traction &T in the link to the point a. de liquation d'elasticite (i).416 MtfffABBEA. z. Dans bien des Pemploi des coefficients inde"terminis peut faciliter la solution probleme (p. [605606 (ii). restantes dans liquation (i). y. du Me"nabre"a indicates how the following case should be dealt with. and therefore we should expect to have + R E MR) . be independent so far as the go and require to be ascertained by Mdnabr^a in the following words Puisque pendant les variations infiniment petites des tensions qu'on a supposes. m then we shall have Sn hence m 3n+p : p equations between the m tractions. tractions will by ordinary equations of statics The method is indicated (i). Ces coefficients seront des fonctions des forces exte"rieures et des tensions ellesmmes . or as to the correctness of an assumption he makes. ainsi ces nouvelles Equations unies a celles d'e*quilibre seront en nombre e"gal a celui des tensions a determiner. or > z But laT /%E is the work done by the traction T in the link I.(iii). les Snp Equations pre"ce"dentes qui fournissent le variations moyen nombre de variations S27 d'eliminer. F. 1058). Suppose the system to be resting on a number of fixed points and P. $T En general ces equations sont du premier degre.
in the form in which he has He for all links not going to fixed points. London.ft$R\ =0 (iv) (p 1059) I do not follow this at all It would seem as if Menabre*a thought his theorem true for other strains than those produced by longitudinal traction in bars of uniform cross section This it certainly is further to it not. what is the same thing. m and choose our Me"nabiea remarks that if we take = e" = origin .607] MNABRA Me"nabie*a writes HEPPET 417 But ge'ne'ralite' on peut supposer les coefficients tftlasticitf relatifs des points fixes diffe'rents suivant les trois directions des axes. uncle) lanous Conditions of Load Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Vol xix. . D. F Substitute these values of P. 185960 < This papei deduces. R first given by Doina in a memon For see our Art 599 any link equals the Ej(l^) of our notation same diiection Menabrea lefers to The memoiis of Vene and Vene. and we have six eqxiations from which to find the multipliers and so can determine P. pp 625643. appaiently as a no\elt\. nous les ' representerons par e . to suppose the virtual displacements to be zero for such links put BT = proved appears Taking the variation of (ui) we have = 0] I C. E.QSQ+. of 1857 foi . dealing mote fully with the whole subject he published this. . while the leference to Mossotti is possibly to his Meccamca Menabiea concludes by referimg to a memoii he is about rationale I do not think to publish. Q. Q. e . Multiplying respectively (v) by the indeterminate we have on adding to (iv) multipliers A. Pagani and Mossotti besides Doina Pagam aie those probably which we have cited in the footnote to oui eailier reseaiches in this Here p 411. ainsi I'&juation d'elasticite* sera Pour plus de 2 A P&P+i. or letuined to the mattei till a niemon of 1869 the Stains [607] J M Heppel On a method of and Deflections of Continuous Beams. R in (m). theorem connecting the bendingmoments at thiee T E II Clapcj ion's successne 7 . or. we obtain the elegant forms for P. and direction of axes so that E . Q.
The consideration of the latter load is the be the spans and moments.] dlastiques E. Clapeyron had been led by a study of various kinds of springs to the conclusion that the resilience of an elastic body varies as its volume. + syr. (i).i \ z . It led him to consider how the work of an elastic body could be expressed. Tome 208212. + 16 ft + y Jf.418 CLAPEYRON. I do not think there is any novelty in the methods used. [608 of a continuous beam. pp. to have known that Young and Tredgold had long previously reached this result. to a bridge on the Madras 1 Railway and to a 'continuous rail of infinite length / [608. G are the principal tractions and the integration is A long series of memoirs on continuous Section III. forces esoUrieures: Comptes rendus. when the load system points of support consists for each span of a uniformly distributed load and an isolated central load. which This I presume to be only a resume of the original memoir so far as I can ascertain was never published. Olapeyron dans un corps : Mdmoire sur le travail des forces solide elastique ddform6 par V action de XLVI. B. In a memoir of 1833 Lam^ and he had noted that on the uniconstant hypothesis if be the work and E the stretchmodulus W : where A. successive the pjl9 p^ the bending support M^ MV B9 central then isolated the loads. . Paris. of this Chapter. Let 1 19 l z M W W : = syr. and shows how the be obtained. maximumstress and may zero bending moment). R 12 at the support between the spans 1 19 Z 2 is The author of contraflexure deflections also calculates the points of (i. 1858. He does not appear. 2pA + 2^ Further the reaction given bv : 3 2 2 z + 3 w& + s w. 1 beams will be found discussed in .e. total uniform loads and z 19 author's addition to Clapeyron's work. but there are some interesting numerical applications to the Britannia Bridge. however.
veij 5/x 2. and these stresses are tudinal tractions. will be quite ways V of material distributed m difierent P foi a minimum/. independent of the particulai distubution Un prisine pose de champ sui deux appms poite plus que pose a plat dans le i apport de la hauteur a la laigeur de la section sa resistance i un choc est la meme (pp 21011) . giving the formula in the form due to hiconstant isotropy fa heing the stretchsqueeze ratio). and Clapeyron here speaks of he would do only if it were entirely due to himself teims a& [609] Clapeyron proceeds after stating this formula in modified form to suppose only one principal traction T. 229* and Vol = /j.609610] memoir of CLAPEYRON 419 over the volume of the elastic solid I hold that this result of the to Clapeyron. when its we have He then applies this to the calculation of Wfor various simple cases of rods under traction or flexure etc and also for railway springs. of 1852. then where safe tractional stress. 01 \ Clapcyion finds that foi iion But fiom some e\penments made in the i\oik closely indeed I. it it Clapeywris Theorem. V is the volume of the whole framework Hence if The the and the load P he applied at one point with a resulting deflection/ Thus the same volume will give a maximum however. for 1833 was due entirely Lamd in his Lepom. p 873) E . [610] The remamdei of the mernoii treats of the question of uniconstancy Dealing with one expenment of Coulomb's* and eleven of Duleiu's on toision (see om Aits 119*. the resilience. He remarks that if a framework he constructed in such a manner that the cross sections of the various members are propormerely longi tional to their total stresses.
6204. widely from Clapeyron's. 1856. pp. Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Cambridge. it appears to be quite impossible for caoutchouc. Clapeyron concludes that for this substance Thus while uniconstancy is very nearly true for the metals usual in construction. IX. P. [611613 de fer du Nord on the compressibility of shops of the Chemin caoutchouc and on its stretchmodulus.420 MINOR MEMOIRS. [611. [612. all the other relations this has not been done of a biconstant isotropic elastic body either by Clapeyron or by the several distinguished scientists who have used this argument. until india but : We rubber has been demonstrated to satisfy 1 . This paper was read on December 8. 504. case of uniconstant isotropy. Roughly. zulringen BemerJcungen [613. Bd. 1322*. 1851. from Clapeyron's experiments I find p = 5 kilogrammes per square centimetre. Leipzig. it is one the validity of which is very doubtful cannot accept 924*. cm. This paper 1 For example the slide modulus of indiarubber as determined by torsion and by pure slide experiments must be shown to have the same value as if it had been obtained by experiments on compressibility and traction. 395 as to the vibrations of suspension bridges are of considerable interest..] Other experiments on caoutchouc See our Art. 192 (V) and ftn. J. It does not presuppose elasticity in the chain and so does not properly belong to our subject. it as a conclusive demonstration of biconstant isotropy. Vol. Eohrs: On the Oscillations of a Suspension Chain.] H. ad 609 that in this case the resiliences of torsional. S. 1858. van der Burg Ueber die Art Klangfiguren hervorund uber die longitudinalen Schwingungen. hence he states that the torsional resilience for the =%T*V/E. This is only true see from our Arts. see our Arts.] : Annalen der PhysiJc. id tensile We springs of the same volume and material are 15. 1322*. Vol. p. . differ Clapeyron in the course of his discussion notes that the shear in a case of torsional stress gives rise to two principal tractions making angles of 45 with the direction of the shear. " This is the well known argument from squeezing indiarubber ". but the general conclusions on p.. 37998. I.
tntt sogleich die Figur sehr correct hervor (S 621) [614] transversalen Schwingungen. 1858 This does not seem any real von Lang It proves V contribution to the theory of elastic vibrations of rods an equation of the wellknown form where type X r and Z are two solutions of Poisson's equation of the by the lengthy process integrating through the length of substituting their values and actually see our Art 468* I of the rod Theory of the Fiee Vibations of a [615] Edward Sang Linear Series of Elastic Bodies Edinlingh Royal Society ProI p 358. Part VI (Alhgated Vibiatiom) ceedings. . Edinburgh. is only referred pp 5078. sobald ein remer Ton entsteht. und stieiclit den oberen Theil von oben nach unten roit der vollen lechten Hand mittels ernes Tuches. Part . S 6248. Bd xx\n S 20741. ' ' This paper proves by biute foice that the integral along and r the length of a rod of the product of t*o of the functions Poisson's solution ot the equation which occur 1858 X X s m . Vol III.614616] MINOR MEMOIRS 421 contains miscellaneous information with regard to vibrating bars and plates In particular the author recommends the following plan as leading to very coirect Chladnifigures Man stellt namhch einen Stab senkreclit auf eine Klangscheibe. elastischer Stdbe Bd cm Zur Ermittelung der Gonstanten der Annalen der PhysiL. das mit pulvensirtem Haiz bestreut ist . memoir is of real importance [616] J Stefan elastischen Stales Ueber die Tiansveibalscluuingungen eines Sitzmgsbei ichte. 18567 The first part a shoit resume of to by title the sixth part is accompanied by the ongmal \\hethei indicate but this is not sufficient to results. Leipzig. . Wien. fasst ihn in der Mitte mit der vollen Imken Hand fest an. druckt ilm ziemkch stark auf die Scheibe.
xxix. Akademie. [617618 zero if 5 are equal. its case of varying mass. XVIL. Denkschriften der mathem.] treated this case: see our Art. naturwiss. 897*.422 is PBTZVAL. 639. He states that the and we can thus more briefly than by deduce the value of fX*da.. the displacements and tensions at the joint treats this as a special Iftncrth is variable. An abstract of this memoir is given in the Siteungsberiokte. 916). comparison The author speaks of his problem as a bisher nie in Betracht gezo genen Fall. The remainder of the memoir is ucvuucu to the case in which two pieces of uniform string of different mass per unit length are united together to form a The author instead of considering the equality of single piece. method of integration by parts will not give it leads in this case to an indeterminate as of value the fXfdae can be evaluated by the processes This however. Possibly Duhamel has [618. form. Bd. form 0/0. Wien. Stefans Abhandlung : Ueber die Transversalschwingungen eines elastischen Stakes. I have not tested the results given for the nodes notes. and I do not see of the problem by Euler. 91136. of the differential calculus Stefan's laborious integrations [617.. but these might be useful for purposes of with the same quantities obtained by other processes. Bd. Bd. 1859. discussion the to previous anything Poisson. Wien. WINKLER. von Lang in a paper entitled: Einige Bemerkungen zu Herrn Dr T. which appeared also in the Sitzungsberichte. This memoir commences by deducing the differential equations for the vibrations of an elastic string. and investigates at great length of analysis a problem which is easily dealt with by the ordinary equations for a vibrating string.] J. 16072. S. 1858. and other )t dealt with in ordinary treatments of the subject uered (S. xxxiv. and evaluates the integral when r and The method adopted is longer than Poisson's original that Stefan has really contributed method. S.. He obtains a solution involving a discontinuous function. when its mass per unit weight taken into account. E. Petzval: Ueber die Schwingungen gespannter Saiten. Seebeck and others. Winkler Formandenmg and Festigkeit gekruviucter : . Wien. S. etc. Classe der k. 1859. but this seems to me hardly probable although I am unable to give any reference to its earlier discussion. This was pointed out by V. r and s be different.
\ie can easily investigate an expression \\lnch result* fiom the at any point by a method akin to that We ibbume the cential lint ut tht BcinoulliEuleuaii theoiy be that ut the sj&tun link to he in one plane and this plane to ciobb bectioii of the link of applied force ind further to cut exch . both from the theoretical and practical standpoint.r. 1858 This is an important memoir. however. insbesond&re dei Ringe 23246. iv. like the same area as the I propose therefore to indicate the correct analysis and compare its results with those of Wmkler The importance of the subject will be sufficiently grasped memoir when I remind the reader that it is the only existing theory of of To investigate the strength of links chains the strength of the even links of such elasticity would involve by the complete theory in toroidal an for the case of anchor rings appalling investigation and allied functions. we the case of straight bars shown it to be m aie certainly going to put it to the very limit of its application. if we remember how close an approximation SaintVenant's researches on flexure have At the same time. S Korper. Bd. an element of uncertainty into the results of an undoubtedly important theory modification. seems inconceivable We in applying the BernoulliEulenan theory. if adjacent A\e crosssections our link only suppose them be approximately equally distorted (see oui foi the stretch Art 84). 1867. failing further expenmental confiimation. [619] Remembenng of bo that to we need not assume remain uudistorted.619] WINKLBE 423 Der Ciwhngemeu. of the crossnamely to curved bars in which the dimensions small as compared with either the length or section are not very It is nonfulfilment the radius of curvature of the central axis of the latter condition which renders Bresse's investigations for our Arts 514 and 519) inapplicable without curved rods (see and the former introduces. while for the oval chain links with studs in ordinary use any successful attempt at a general investigation shall have the less hesitation. Prag. although many of its results require correction and modification Some of these corrections have been made in Kap^tel treatise XL (Ringformige Korper) Die Lehre von of the author's wellknown dei Elasticitdt und but this tieatise does not cover anything Festigbeit. Freiberg.
being the couple which must be applied (taken positive when it increases <) for equilibrating the stresses line be cut away.. if there total longitudinal pull be one. [619 These crosssections will be supposed uniform. through the centroid perpendicular are axes neutral and straight lines lying in the plane of (Central neutral lines the loci of points in and central the crosssection. of length of half the major and minor axes b and a axes in directions of y and x respectively) of the link. distances from the central axis to the we shall simply use c for either. to the central line at any point makes with <T O . E= stretchmodulus = flexural /D of the material (not necessarily isotropic) in the rigidity of the link (no longer JW 2 ). s v = stretch at points on the central axis. <j> = elements of arc <r = angles the tangent axis of of central line before and after strain. each of area G> and swing radius K about a line (central axis) to the plane of the central line. = distance o the neutral axis from the direction of the central line. jP if the material beyond the length o of central = the c2 total traction (i.increments (i. if the link have one. ' Cj. R = unknown reaction of the stud of the link supposed to coincide with the axis of x. which those axes meet the plane of the link '. point. to the axes of of the link before strain. When we do not wish to particularise one or other of these. AOJ. taken to increase with A< =<<<. = radius of curvature of unstrained central line at any O = coordinates of a point on central line referred #o> 2/o symmetry x. doQ.e.) ' We shall use the following notation sv : = stretch in a direction perpendicular to the crosssection at distance v from the central axis. central axis. x before and after strain. Ab. y = the coordinates of the same point Ay = x . which axis is taken to coincide with the greater axis of symmetry of the link. in a principal axis. Q = the on the link . or what with an extension of terms we shall venture to call intrados and extrados. Clearly .424 WINKLER. this we shall suppose to be applied in the direction of the axis of ?/. = the extreme fibres'.e. negative thrust) at the same crosssection. d<r < .xOJ y .2/0 respectively. $f=the bending moment at any crosssection. after strain. Aa .
S types of hooks This is usefnl >n the cast of retain .LEE where n 425 is a quantity depending on the dimensions and materials of the stud and link Wmklei's result (39) S 236 is really the same as this.K. retaining only the first term in approximate to put For a rectangle. LI this on a L point foimed by the central line ABA'S. I find if 2c be its height Bresse's theory of arches) sufficiently (iv) 1 c 3 1 c 4 (T) which allows of easy calculation For a circle. although he puts it in a foirn apparently allowing fqr variation of the crosssection in the stud c&o = an element of the area of the crosssection Thus remembering the symmetry of the cross section we have (u). AOA' be the two principal cential hue. ^ 3089 Of Bach UuticMt u fesUg^t. if c be its radius The values of h for some otliei sections may be easily found 1 axes of the cune T620 1 Let BOB'.620] WINK. J f^Jl+'jl) \ Po/ d<a =Po (in) J Po * '^ Approximately "* In some cases ~" iC + 1 r l f "+ tfJ it is ptJ (eg h .
519. We shall m P m . Po Whence by (ii) and (iii) (vm).(ix). 270 of his treatise. ^o Po Po The usual respectively. 2 Winkler in his memoir adds the term /V/Po to (x) which I think is incorrect. Po From (viii) and (ix) we find to determine SQ and ^ ***' : M (x). V /J Po .426 the tangent there.. . their first terms and represent the righthand sides of (x) and (xi) by p and formulae for arched ribs replace p and by M: see our Art. Po PIP Ml? 2 . He has the form (x) on S. (vu). . cr : [620 then 0) we readily find on the . BemoulliEulerian hypothesis WINKLER..
we easily deduce and theiefoie Similarly fiom sm<^= dyjdo^ we find Thtfac equations agiec with Wmklei's (S 234). we . v K?\ P f (xv).621] Substituting in (vn) W1NKLER we find 427 Whence negative.J cos [621] < From (1 +5 ) dcrQ. if T be the maximum traction T2 the safe positive traction) in any section (5\ the safe <*>and 1* and IT must be given stiess while T is put equal to (xii) then? values at the section of maximum or to obtain the condition of safe l Q T T loading Further from we hnd foi the position of the neutral axis Po For appioximate values. wheie I have 2 in Thus I think his final See his pages 2346 the second bracket results cannot be depended upon to sv to the oidei (y/p ) x . which ought to ha\e the \ilues gntn the wiong values foi in out (x) aud (xi) They further igree A\ith Biesse's \ppiovimitt foi oui //* mdyy J/ aid equations (boe oui Ait 519) if we put The ibove theoiy is so fai peifectly genenl md not coiihucd to the now proceed to the case of a link b}ininetiicil about eabc of links m P We two axfts ind with i stud . the consideration that cos<l>=dx/do. have if we neglect terms of the order (v/p 3 ) . while in his formula coriesponding to (xvi) he has 1. evcept tint he hab ind p. but his appioximatioii seems to me wiong. V '' Winkler in his memoir does not give (xu) to (xiv) 4 He has (xv).
m . Let us first apply these results to the case of a circular link [623.428 ' WINKLER. (xxii). (xx). A< = at A and Z?. Further. Then axis of x : we be the unstrained length of the perimeter of the find if x be the angle the normal makes with the (xix). if the crosssection be as usual circular and of radius c. .] central line. We also find from (xvii). (xxi). 4v [622623 Let [622. 236). (xviii) and (xxii) : These values agree with those of Winkler's treatise but not with those of his memoir (S. by (vi) with p put equal to a. Here Ji 2 is constant and given. whence m aad T .] of radius a.
we T+T R = 0. tclos . Whlle P= Qa* 7r(a* + hy fl \ m =<?a( CO s x J Further from (xxm) and (xxiv) we have Qa? fl l\ Aa = .^5 + (] ns + C Putting 3 ">[ (xxvn) the 2 li ^ /c and neglecting the second terms as compared with the in (xxvii) agree with SaintVenant's of 1837 results first. ind m Ins Fig Tafel 33. This agrees with the result m the memoir.Cc tht foim m Fiij 6 the tiactions in extiaclos ind inti 5. Q (xxvi). Winklei's lesults in the memoir foi P and S 373 agiee to a first See his S 23740 approximation with our (xxvi) For the position of the neutial axis we have from (xiv) m M . ca if h be neglected in the denominator Lastly we find from (xui) for the ti action Qa 9 j Qa/ a 1 the upper sign rcfeirmg to the extiaclos and the lowei to the mtrados the memoii does not agree with this e\en to a fiist The icsult given ippioxunation m [G24 of tlit ] Winkloi tiaces il nt uti lino. (i) (=*> Then and we Suppose there to be no stud (eg an anchor ring) find from (xix) and (xx). (see our Art 1575*) the second terms from They differ by a factor J those of Wmkler's memoir even when h* is put equal to /r in the first and neglected in the second terms They agiee except in the sign of the nrst term in the value of Ab with those of Winklei's treatise. for a . (xix) and (xx).624] Finding I7A have WKTKLER 429 and substituting ^ in (xxii) V ' m from (xi). ^ (xxvm) ' .
For intrados T= for x = 52 25' (old formula 50 47') x 5*539. 47') .10142.75.27. 1 ' ' .29 cos x I : ^ =* x = 48 (7586.135.430 The WINKLER. Maximum positive traction (x = 90) = Maximum The negative traction (x= 0) =and  x 3414. stress is measured from the central axi plate. The fibrous character of wroughtiron causes bars of this material to hav a safe limit higher in tensile than in compressive stress.] and For wrough negative one and occurs in the intrados at iron. x 8660. ^ 636. .75 27' (old .35 cos x / 6727. For extrados T= for formula 50 x 6'727.60. where the The dotted lines are th from It will be seen to give results often very divergent from those calculate* The following are the numerical results for this case (xxix). of which the links of chains are usually made.12 cos x). along the radii in the scale: TujQ  curves obtained from the usual formula I have retraced* both figures in th latter are certainly incorrect.02. Maximum Maximum The positive traction (x = 0) = negative traction (x = 90) = .75 x 4413.75 V ~ = . : A2 =jx 1014. B B f . although for practice purposes they are frequently taken equal. old formula gives the same values of the traction for intrados as fo extrados with the signs reversed. accompanying = inch. [62. but there would have to bo ai investigation of the positive tractions in the case of cast iron.8660.27 + H'199. old formula gives  x 7 586. It may be shown that the absolutely greatest traction is [625.25 respectively. it would b sufficient to consider this traction 1 .620 cos ' x For extrados : For intrados Old formula : ~= .
Link without stud Link with stud lo t<n( Iit i p 1 JO .
.
ca? ti action in the intrados occurs Ca2 rr^ 3 nl IV J o) A The maximum at positive traction in the intrados occurs x = 0. I find that the cubic and in the This differs entiiely from the cubic given in the memoir.626] WINKLER The maximum negative and equals ^ J i o>7T (a ^ + #) l(a f 2 =r. . Qj . to a first appioximation. More aie not given in it. eg if a = 6c In wrought iron our condition for safety is thus (xxx). = (Q + S)  i (S n X^ . the diameter This value of 2c and a new approximation found The result (xxxi) agrees with that hut the other results of this article given on S 372 of the tieatise. neglecting only to determine the limiting value of c/a is may then be substituted in the small terms of (xxx). and \ Qtfc The maximum and equals ^ . (xx) cos P = J (R sm x + Q x) ( whence . term of second for the of instead has ft treatise (S 372) Wmkler the first bracket ^ [626 ] Case we (11) Then have fiom has a stud Suppose the circular link and (xxv). V or.  at positive traction in the extrados occurs =TT a fil x~90. Q? ^ . (xix). and are erroneously given in the memoir terms of the order exactly. Qct? 7^1: a + ca? The latter will "be greater than the former if which will geneially he the case.
....... (i) [627 From and (xxiii) we find : a2 /.. or Thus we must > 1 .. [627.. even when we take approximation..(xxxvii).. c) small. first is not given in the treatise ... J 1 + /tH Jf(ac)) 2/i. Aa=~ttf . A2 V where n 4J a? _ + A2 .432 WINKLER.. This value only the memoir.. or put x = 7r/2 or ^ as large as possible. accos W> .. Hence the maximum _^_ a2 + 2 A~ positive traction in the extrados = Crl co A V tf 1 TT The maximum negative so equals : traction in the extrados will be at x= e and t1  * maximum : For the intrados the putting x ? positive traction will be obtained a by an<^ so equals f^ Q to +I TT "2 2 A c \ .... (xxxix).. irrespective of sign. Let f = tan from (xiv) : then we easily find for the position of the neutral line sin (45 + c) h* Finally for the tractions in extrados and intrados from (xiii) we cos where the upper sign refers to the extrados..] Now the the first quadrant . it differs... ^3 a c li .... cos (^ maximum will be found to be an angle in hence cannot thus be negative and we shall get . the former generally holds.... < or according as e is < or > 45. from the \>alue given by Winkler in the From (xxiv) we have : while.as positive traction in the extrados by making cos (x e) is positive... ..
A* a rt' 372. the greatest Hence.813 = 5612. we have. if T* be the safe maximum compressive stress value . ' ^= a IEu x 4 534.098 Winkler elliptic link I find in Art 640.628] WI\KLER 433 % For the maximum negati\e traction in the intiados we must have as gieat as possible.295. then and we find = 676. from (xxxvm) and *?= a ^ x2 j&o 028. the second less than a half of the The total extension of i chain values for the same link without stud made of links having studs ^ould only be about y^ of the extension of a chain of the same length undei the same load haMiig the same links without studs We ( = 1 Aa a JEu ^ ( ^ / / w+ \ I m\y note that Ab oA t in geneial w Q a Q ) ) . h (ac)J of 27* ac This equation also gives us the proper ratio of c to a when the value is given Results (xxxvm) to (xki) differ \ery considerably from Wmkler's He makes the maximum stress to be tensile and not compressive Q [628 ] Let us suppose the link of our Art 624 to have a cast iron stud placed in it.677 The first is less than a fouith. for These agiee pietty clo^eK ^ith the numbers cho en IA an oval img with stud \S inkier in hi . but I ha\e not finds in his treatise ( 372) foi an oval link For a special verified his anthmetic link there may be Thus it appeal's that in the stud of a circular nearly double the stiess that theie is in. ' and Ab a =. that of an have elliptic link For the stretches in the two axes we (xxxiv). 1 has in general. 01 as a rule we Thus it equals put  e x^P \ Q fg+l I /. Ab. and let us take its modulus to be one half that of the wrought iron link and its mean cross section to be two thirds that of the link 1. = 359. legardless of sign. if the links be made of wrought uon for which the safe tensile and compressive sti esses may be taken as equal (see our Art 625). ^c These values definite material (a) (S) (8) A (ac)J* 2h ac *J must be calculated for any given link of V ^ c .
Finally for the tractions in extrados and intrados (T and T' say) we have: T = ^{11 276. found traced These curves are very interesting especially when compared with the curves in the upper figure.. as they show the influence of the stud. We find : T= {12716. and occurs case of when x=90. when . value being x4915.962.38 cos ( x )}. p.. see that the circular link The traction in the extrados vanishes for X= that in the intrados for H8'33" and 56 58' 57". but his analysis leading to a In the treatise the only case of a tensile limit is.34 3' 45".06 cos foe)}. For the neutral line from (xl) a and : =_ c QQ .434 WINKLER. also T is positive and occurs at x = 90. X=l56'8" The curves of on the righthand and 66 11' 22". its value The maximum its numerical value of T f is negative. 883. . Here he finds his maximum stress compressive and the ratio of strengths with and without stud = 2 088. [628 where are the stretches in the semiaxes of an equal link a without stud.31 12242. 2 2 T<a .34.14485. where . link with a stud which he works out is an oval link. The maximum value of being x 4419. F = ^{14515. . These simplify the calculations for a link with stud. In the Thus we wrought iron the latter gives the limit to strength.77 . and it passes to infinity x =61 56' 20" and 6 11' 14". The dotted curves give the values of the tractions calculated from the formula. I think. incorrect. with a stud of the above character in it is about 176 times as strong as the link without stud. Winkler in his memoir makes it 25 times as strong.* J/c/K where is given its value from (xxxiv) after 1i has been stress in extrados and intrados will be side of the lower figure of the plate.90 cos (x)}.44 + 17140. I have traced the neutral line in the lower figure of the plate. 430. 430. but the results of the treatise seem more probable than those of the memoir. I have not verified his arithmetic. M 2 put equal to * . p.13.cos (x .
referred to Arts 624 and 628. we ought to provide for the welded section able to sustain easily a traction equal to As being the greatest traction. but in the case of a in the case of a nng without a stud about 40 from this nng with a stud about 30 from the same section. which occurs in this case joint is the loaded section when is the welded dessen memoir Ring portion of Wmkler's zwei geraden und zw&i JiaXbLreisformigen Theilen The analysis of this as that of the previous besteht (S 2402) There is cases is incorrect it is not reproduced in the treatise [630 ] The next entitled Axe aus . also case which does not seem to have been difficulty about this the case of the noticed by Winkler and which also reappears in the discusses he which oval link foimed of four circular arcs a m treatise 1 The difficulty arises tractions at the section^ for from the discontinuity in the which there is an abrupt change of curvature . memon link with stiai^ht sides and the elliptic 1ml ot *tud but no attempt is made for specul numeiicil cabes \\ith and without a the tieatise to diaw stiess cunes a^ in the memoir m . of the taken be but it piobabl} may equal to the mean safely on eithei side I do not think this peculiarity imalidates ti actions of disconthe solution for sections at small distances from those tinuity difticult pioblem \\ould be interesting but I expect b\ the geneial to analyse the natuie of the stiess at such a section An theory of elasticity ovil link \thich itplaces the i I have not \erined Wmklei s analysis foi this It is Bulked out tht. p 430. conditions thus. section in the former case the ring can generally slip round so that the load may be applied at every section. indicate a useful lule for welding anchor rings m and others of The weld ought to be subjected to circular form the least positive traction. while to satisfy the statical we make a continuous change of bending moment and thrust at these sections. hence the proper place to \\eld them does not seem to be at the section to which load is applied. traction of o^ing to the application of there is an abiupt change exact distribution of the The the BernoulliEulenan hypothesis that on seems sections stress ovei such hypothesis to be arbitrary.629630] ^ Inch vanishes f01 \IINKLER 435 X = 527'10" and 62 40 20" 7 We see that the old formula gives results diverging considerably from the true ones [629] The diagrams on the plate.
.. whence m> = ^ '3* 1 + "a") ~C S { V X J ' . Q semicircular and straight parts. between = a + e* } parts. (xliii). I shall give flat sides [631 ends and my own analysis of the link wiih semicircular and compare the results with Winkler's. : refers to the straight and 2 to the circular We easily find : MI=M^ since p Pi = <2 wh = 3f Further .. where qe + a .. Q Let h* = qK z = qh 1 ^ where q is given by Equation Then from Equation (xxii) we have : (vi) of our Art. change in semidiameter of the bendingmoment at the joint of base of semicircular part.436 [631.. = oo for the straight parts. whence cos ...1 WINKLEE.. 619.Q '2' . 2e the length of each of the straight = change in semidiameter of the link. b the midpoints of the straight parts.(xlv). and let the rest of the notation be as A% M Aa^ before except that subscript parts. P!$. Let a be the radius of the semicircular ends.
632] WINKLLR tractions 437 For the we have from equation (xm). 01 . ^= K * T< =*= I I ( n> ac 2 ( cos x)\ for tne curved parts ) =  l ~ (  1)1 for the straight pails the gieatest positive traction negative traction at the same Hence for wrought iron this negative traction If T be the limit to safe com becomes the measure of safe loading occurs as a rule at % section is greater pressive stress. if we take h = h 3 . will therefore give a greater per if. be < which is ) ] given mseiting straight pieces at the sides pieces the = 1. since <1. till In fact the longe the weakness leaches a i = oc For the neutral 7 [632 ] line I find > foi the curved paits. for weaker the link. It may be shown that. but that the we must have * Eor a circular link without stud o A J o^c we have fiom (xxx) (a t"A" c } J ac" The latter. easily seen to be always true whatever e gam increased strength when we elongate jr T \Cb + il may be Hence we do not cnc iilQ ^ ~ v lw a . = 7r/2. 7 = !. a Furthei foi a foi the stiaight parts (4 the change in the semi axes \\e ha\e b} (xxiii) to whence JcoA Ah=Q + oe + [qe >  (^ > a + ^ g+ Vye ) ^e to put (1) J This result would agiee ^ith Winklei's A\eie k = K tin on ghout . missible value than the foimer for Q.
. Equation (xlix) shows us that the neutral axis for the curved part is similar to that for a circular link without stud. if q 1) (Hi) agrees with Winkler's result. . plate. he puts a/6 = '69 which allows jamming.. They present. (li). whence he finds a = 2*82c. or the length of the straight piece f of the diameter of the crosssection of the link. selects The following considerations by which Winkler numerical case will. Redtenbacher. .. Winkler takes a/6 = '71 and 6 = 4c.. elliptischer Ring Not only is Winkler's analysis links with and without studs. case of an elliptic link is not dealt with in the treatise.. easily find : [633 We or.. no novelty beyond those we have already dealt with.. we must have without stud. which are wrong owing to his erroneous formulae. ' straight pieces... whence a/6 > = 2c/a.. line parallel to the straight piece and outside the link... and the eccentricity a/6 > = '745.. links a in accept He argues that to prevent the for jamming of two we must have elliptic links (axes 2a. which would be better replaced by elliptic whose values could be found in Legendre's tables.438 WINKLER. (Hi).] The concluding pages are entitled: incorrect. but even as an approximation the terms he neglects He expands also are of equal importance with those he retains. In both casos. = For Ab we have : u& +q l . of the memoir (S... show the difficulty I feel ing his analysis.. 26) c of circular crosssection (diameter 2c) for a link =< j c. To a but = approximation (i. or He further takes for a link with stud 6 = 4c (whence a/6 should be > = '7l). perhaps. however. it is a straight first my value for is < 1. A% appears to be quite different from Ms. The integrals.e. however. certain expressions in terms of the eccentricity in very slowly converging series. [633. 2426) mit and deal with elliptic Axis. while for the straight piece.. 430. for the curved parts. Winkler traces the neutral line and stresscurves for the particular numerical case of a = f c and b = 4c. p. since The stress curves are thus similar to those of the upper figure on the and are straight lines for the I have not redrawn Winkler's curves.. says b should equal 3*6c.
en do not seem to a^iee *ith those he ha. but I propose to retain the term (c/p ) neglected by Wmkler so that even in the within very eccentric link chosen by him.634] WINKLER 1 439 e= 709. 22 Thus e is = verge very slowly Further his least radius of curvature a* 6=2c 2 2 = he But our & /e or nearly Equation (vi) puts thioughout by . (llll) a His values tor sin 6 a and cho. po = ^(lesm^.Jl Let x be the angle the normal at any point of the elliptic makes with the minor axis a. elliptic integrals to high powers of e are futile. toi ajb and 6/6 . we may hope to get two per cent of the true result. with the notation of the preuous ai tides tan x = r tan i/r. for his results on other grounds are not necessarily 4 To retain the term in (c/p ) correct to the first place of decimals in h* leads to enormous complexity of calculation. let an angle point of the auxiliary circle make iff a?/b* Then we eabily nnd. while for values of a fb large as with c we shall have all the accuracy requisite in 2 compared practice In what follows I indicate only the general outlines of my analysis [634 ] central axis corresponding e equal the eccentricity =. and let the radius to the with a. not a small quantity and bis seiies con c^ he neglects terms of the order J thus his expansions of the 5 or 1/8 of those he retains .
.%b sin ^ .. If there be a stud with resistance R= we have from (xix) and = where MQ y+ ~ (a . (These are the ordinary complete elliptic integrals.440 * WINKLER. The following integrals (A^= ^/l^e^sia^) will be of value in this discussion /} the 7 s are their values for the special case of our Arts. their usual symbols oeing discarded to avoid confusion with the elastic moduli.a cos (l 2 1 ? F4 + a ^a sin i/r + 1 cos ^1 2 . ( ) J Whence from (xxii) with the notation of the footnote below 1 we have + 1 K T74~g2 71279 ..a?) = ^ (qa $sin^r. [634 Q..644.. ' 7l = 1350.) 7s E and F = I J o 2 2e 4 . 63640 where ^=1/2 : yl = /2 A^.acos i "( /i \ ' Further from K (vi) since 2 = c 2/4 : i/v* (!** so that neglecting quantities of the order (c/p 4 ) we have : Further m=M fft 4 i r 2 Po ^r and therefore a2 ?ya : Po __Q " (W sin /r a cos .
thus Winkler retains only the he should have 77 hrst terms in the numerator = and denomi * = fTT 1 3 36 Jo (T 1). and we find 7745371279 I nator. 7 '=s 828.'= 732 619  = 11.(lO'l  7 '= ^0 OW .634] WINKLEE to put 441 For a link without stud we have only = 0.427 7i~7 h ' 7i6 = 2930476 Mi Jo T( eo 1 _ 7l9 '= 58o 786 = . 7.m . K.
o ilj ) 2 r>\ and the traction in extrados and intrados by !/s 9/. b siD i/^ cos C6 u^ A + /^ ) ( "V Sln  \ / \ Y T cos r A/ ) ( y . 6278. 625. Jf. and we confine ourselves to the consideration of a numerical example. (Iviii) + i(7i8 + 7i5) + 7i5 If there be and (Ix) enable us to completely solve the no stud we put = on the right and replace n (Ix). Po Po Po P. If there be a stud and give the values of and The following the value of A6 ab r a? (718 + \ 7JL5) a / (7l57 Further the neutral line 7 g . is given by TV \ "\ ljf)Q> .3\ 1 (Ixiii) . . : ~2 722 Equations problem. with it. for the extrados : We have then. and 631 may be aasumed to exist at the loaded sections. by (Iviii) V ~ on the & (Ix) is left of using (lix) 77.e2 o ( sin 3 \j/ cos > fe . of these quantities might be traced for a link either with or without stud as in the case of the circular link. 245 of Winkler's memoir even when we neglect c 2 /a'2 . . / \ tt K ~n>" ( 1 ~~ ^ sin" iA) . but the maximum maximorum after the investigations of Arts. but the discussion The values must be omitted here.442 [635.. i//= =t7r/2. if a c6/a bo small : for the intrados : Tw These do not appear to agree with the results on S. . . 1 The full discussion of these tractions would be complex.] WINKLER. and p being substituted from (liii)(lv). 3 \l/ H (1 ffl e 2 sin2 6 4 ij/)$ ' " / o ( . [635 from The second relation between f and v\ must now be found After some reductions we have since (xxiii).
540 T? = 58 [638 ] 1 80.= l/2.83 ~&<t) ^ 2 252.461 (lxiv) 7 (Ixv). 49 276.z&a> (Ixviu) some leductions yields with considerable divergence from mine From axi).627 (Ixvii).656 1For the oval link in the tieatise Wmklei ho finds ^.392 (Ixvi) First suppose f = in (Ixiv). then a/b .5 ^ maximum positive L the i&tly for and negative ZVa ti actions \\e ha\e ^0)= 2 641 (2 to ine^uit is the greatei and may theiefoiebe taken Utter the which ot dimensions these of link uon UK stioiK'th of a wrought which appeals Winkle i 's numbcis give ^o = 5 204ft i result and = . we find (Iviii) rj 84 357. made up ot foiu i ov il img with a tieatise (p 37*>) tods his in Wiiiklu cuculai found toi the elliptic link which tends to confiim the lesult we have hy using (xui) arcs Foi ^^f^)^ .4c. I ha^e obtained the = 2 u b.551 + 55 813. n. or e. y= has 2 255.32 that 662 is very near the correct value I believe Putting ?i = ft and = in (Ixv) I find ^ =_ a Wmkler's result after 3 143.636638] [636 ] WINKLEH 443 case because his we put = e= a/b [637 a numeuoal example we cannot take exactly Winklei's numbers do not appear to be consistent Suppose n ca/bc and 6 = 4c.5.945 = 69 687. then we have for t\ TJ= 661.107 and a ] = to equations Applying these values and those of the footnote on pp 4401 and (Ix).G 050 Q much too small The fact is that for our the smcs in the footnote on p 442 of Hiipposiui? the valuo n neithei (Km) noi piesent case arc sufficient appioxiinatc Mlue aboxe to bo couect. 746) +2 6 315.= 2 134.3 and 49 276. the link be of wroughtiron and the stud of castiron of the same relative dimensions as in our Ait 628. if + 52 180. whence As 707.746 + 26 315.540 17 = (2 or.638 J .^92. while Winkler has for the corresponding quantity 670.
] extensions of three links. (lii) and Art. one elliptic.305 for tlie wise of the 055. that the elliptic link stretches about only one half of what the circular one does and weighs if less . Ab". w. . 638 maximum " : T w' : T w" Ab" : T" w"' :: 6'050 5 '4026 : 6159 1 6'2832 : 4'904 : : :: :: : : 51416 1'3085. stronger than either of the others. 372. a ' ^co' ^ (Ixi) : 1455. Thus such : is distinctly the best of the three forms considered.752 and lor the oval link in and 743. length. a longitudinal semiaxis 6 = 4c. w". f a= = J&. Suppose them all to have its longer axis. (xxix). ellipse in the memoir the treatise 1808. for Winkler has the numerical coefficients Ab actually < Aa (S.4401. 97 77= 958. and for the ellipse suppose = 1/V2 as above for the flatsided link suppose the curvature a/b of its circular ends equal to that of the ellipse at the ends of . weights and longitudinal [639. [639640 Let us compare the strengths. S.804. generalising from the results of these particular links. =359. Ab'" the semi. If T'.extensions we find from Equations (xxvii). 631. trusted beyond the third 2446) finds the very different values : decimal place.831 ' Eu . Ab' : : Ab'" 2'2557 : 4*9242 : it Whence. w the weights of the links.774. and in i same but that the link with flat sides and circular ends is. I think these cooJUcicnts in both For the oval link Winkler lias the memoir and treatise are incorrect. Then we find and from equations (Ixiv) and (Ixvi). but his approximations are very rough. the following values of Suppose the link to have a castiron stud. 97 = 1211. values certainly not to be Winkler (S.866.444 WINKLER. of the ^retches considerably less than the elliptic one. Ab'. T". one circular and the third with circular ends and flat sides. (xlviii).500.813. less heavy frequently adopted in practice. would appear that elliptic and circular links of the same length are not very different in strength. (Ix) 631. 376) and this seems extremely impiobablo for a by Winkler in 1 This value differs in the first place of decimals from that given his treatise.353 and 866. T'" be the compressive stresses. We have also from equations and b A _? = _ 1079. this involves in the notation of our Art.
I think. unless the dimensions of the crosssection are small This as compared with the radius of curvature of the link remark applies particularly to Wmkler's numerical example of an which with certain modifications we have followed elliptic link. luptmc is iciched set has changed the shape and the links pi ess upon and hold each other. still I believe that I have avoided some of the slips of Winkler The be can at and the six best. much too small finds (S 092.3 082. 376) ZW.472 is which differs moie widely than I should have result for the elliptic link with stud elliptic link link without stud anticipated from my It will be noticed that the strength of the more than 1 5 times as great as that of the [641 ] In the above articles I have corrected and developed Wmkler's theory as the best yet available for stress and strain The calculations have been laborious and I the links of chains m cannot hope they are even now absolutely free from error. only approximate theory places of decimals to which some of the results are calculated must not be supposed to suggest any real accuiacy beyond the first two or three figures.641] link with a stud WINKLER 445 "We notice that the effect of studs of the character considered above on elliptic links is to leduce the stretch of the chain to less than twothirds of the stretch in a chain made of ImVs without studs Finally for the maximum compressive stress I find from (xui) Winkler in his memoir has (S 246) Tu =*2 a value. till in some cases ibsolute stiength of a chain appears to be close upon the tin ibsoluit slu umi of this 01 even tensile strength of the mateml see Section 111 Oluptei . For the oval link of his treatise he Q. More accurate results would have been obtained by taking the eccentricity still = The formulae spungs \ve l/A/2.872 Q. but b equal to 6 or even 10 times c have given for the ellipse may be readily applied to centrally loaded elliptic arches as well as to complete elliptic The grt ttci absolute strength of chains will be found in reality to be mixmnim applied l>efoie thin would bo given by the above formulae for the Such formulae ought onlj to be coinpussivo stress to obtun the fail limit see our Arts 5 (e) and 169 (g) of the link.
of thicknesses see our The treatment of the flat ends. 325) traction perpendicular to the midpiano of our . 32562 and S. Dampfkessel und Der Civilingenieur. Winkler assumes that even with surface under a uniform surface pressure.. [644. or of circular plates (S. j. 1038* and 125. Freiberg."u~ cylindrical tubes ^.] The first section of the paper entitled: Allgemeines a general discussion of the resolution of (S. remarks on the value of the stretchsqueeze ratio (rj) which Winkler proposes to take either ^ or ^ according to the material. remarking that his hypotheses. 1087*S* : III. intelligible to It commences with a brief reference to Scheffler's memoir on tubes. S. there is nothing of real imyfcion which had not already been given by e Hum have not reproduced in a more general and SaintVenant see our Arts.] WINKLER. (S. 495* and 502*). 32638) contains stress and strain. 654. and the consideration of a stretch limit of strength. finally expressions for the stresses in terms of the shifts in the case of cylindrical coordinates and biconstant isotropy. far as its which so : see our Art. we may neglect tin. methods are concerned is more likely to be the mathematician than to the practical engineer. 329pressure (cf.446 [642. our Arts. [642644 E. our Art. VL. [643. and another problem very like it for plate of moderate thickness (2e) lias been considered in 30. This is a lengthy analytical memoir. The treatment of spherical shells presents no novelty and Winkler missed Lamp's method of fitting the cylindrical seems to have and spherical : parts of a boiler by a proper choice Arts.+c. Bd. 1012*. and that the maximum traction is the measure of strength. is 35562) based upon the assumption that lines in the plate perpendicular to the midplane before strain. Winkler: Festigkeit der Rohren. 1860. 34862) deals with the same form of tubes with closed ends either hemispherical or plane. that there is no longitudinal expansion resulting from lateral pressure. remain perpendicular to that plane after strain.] Section II.~~ 4~ (S. 33847) contains the theory of right with open ends. are both alike unacceptable 42762. This problem had already been fully worked out for a thin plate by Poisson (see our Arts. Schwungringe.
2 its bldn t m m m It ate lectangular n oss section (2e x 1) P its densiU \\inklti hudb toi tlif . w his results nor the inferences he draws from them as to the thickness for the plane ends of cylindrical boilers need further consideration It follows satisfy the body stress equations Thus neither aie all wrong JJ and for u. intelligible reasoning ~ = const 2 xr(e~s ). which he says is legitimate if 2e. i e the} would not be true for flues In the pait of the memoir which deals with the influence of the cut out of the a weight of the cylindrical tube. section of the memoir (S 42748) is der JEmftuss ISndflachen. S 430) 2 of d*u/dz* to d*u/ds? is of the order 1/Z \vhere I is the length of the cylinder hence for a cylinder in which I/a is great his results . whence as in Art 330 we ought have x ^ of the form deduces ^ "? = const Wrnklei by not very or. this leads to the equation "? dr r to =A 0. will not be correct. then he tales u to be independent of r. des Gewchts der Rohre und des Wasserdrucl. eZre > 447 = . and were it only for this assumption. or WINHKLER put in the notation of our Art 329. Wmklei supposes img its IMS at unit distance and to two planes perpendiculai cylinder by itself aftei calculates the effect of the weight of this ung in defoiming But I lia^e the ra inner of his memoir of 1858 (see our Ait 622) such ilscwheie given leisons (see om Aits 1547*.this he negkcts quantities thickntss siipi. i e the traction perpendicular to a meridian plane of the cylinder (mean radius a). in the nest place he assumes w to be of the form/^) +/2 (^)^. the thickness of the cylindrical wall.645] plate. 337) foi questioning it to soh e the pio a method of treatment might just as nth ipph We e^uies the cyhndiitil shell sub]ected to exttinal \ndmtei nil pi of etttct the is these \\eitjht piges All Wiulld i pally woik& out i %titicil phue of uuit Ineadth placed (hbtortmg a thm cucular belt the oulei of (tlntknesb diamttu) In domo.oed of th( i idms of the cnculu img. a value which does not that his values for "5r. be very small Lastly he n< o j2 1677 1 (L Ct2> as compared with fluids? on the ground that e /a' is On his own shoeing the ratio very small (Equation 119.es This investigation seems to me absoungleichen [645] The fourth entitled In lately unreliable and quite as nugatory as that of Scheffler the first place (with the notation of our footnote p 79) Wmkler neglects the traction 55.
These results are correct for a slender belt resting on lowest point terms. .448 WINKLER. or maximum bending moment point of support : is Further he has : Maximum . (Brix's formula with an exponential The two frequently give very divergent results. . have no (S. durch die Boden.) Winkler's further investigation by a similar process of the strain in a cylinder which is only partially filled with water and is thus subjected to different internal pressures in its lower and upper portions me equally questionable. sowie durch etwaige Bander. Squeeze of vertical diameter =~ a t) (% . Winkler reduces it to numbers and compares it with a formula which he says is usual in Prussia see Section III. is the steam pressure and P T Jfe tensile stress of the material. gives such large values that they have to be by arbitrary factors can hardly be considered satisfactory. and subjected only to the action of its own weight. and n is a factor (which Winkler puts the values calculated for the effects of the weights of the and of the water inside it.TT) 2 = Compression of vertical diameter 3 (8 7r ) ^^ its . 44246. They mate application to the case of a heavy cylindrical shell. welche man urn die Kessel legt und welche zur Erh5hung der Sicherheit sehr zu empfehlen die sind. corrected : A theory which 1 I find for Maximum bending moment such a ring of any crosssection w in the notation of this work a  = ^ 2 : . ) f which agree with Winkler's results for the special caso. of this Chapter). are neglected . M'. when whose legiti ratio to those retained equals fi /^ . The author says (S.e. geschwacht wird. which ' [645 found at the lowest point. 446) : Diese Werthe sind allerdings zu gross. ^ a constant added to allow for wear and tear (see Section = 3) taken Chapter). Stretch of horizontal diameter = p a \ (I  *\ f . compressive stress = 3JT =  Extension of horizontal diameter = 3 (4 . I give the result for what it may be worth. 2 2 1 i. da die Deformirung des Kessels durch Einmauenmg. 442. (S.) Allowing lor the weight of the cylinder and of the water in it.7. Winkler finally gives for the thickness 2e of a cylindrical boiler of internal radius rl9 cr being the density of water (S. 447): seems to 48 is *s T + n T + V + \8 T n T * ) 4nT +T J * >. but express no confidence whatever even in its approximate accuracy.
) r(i. Equations (x) and (\i)). except that he tieats fiist the case when the portion of the rim of the wheel between two spokes can be consideied as pivoted at the spokes "Winklei s lesults aie complex and not put into a foini which permits of easy citing I Ime not He takes the valuer of s and d (A<) dcrv given in his verified them inernoii of 1S5S (see oui Ait 620. it indeed the\ exibt [648] Heimann nebst / Schefflei Z<ncken ^. might be moie exact than Hesal's foi the case when Resal's r (see our Art 585) is not negligible It usually will be negligible in practice Tbe memoir is rather cumbersome and \\ bile containing some inteiestmg points is spoiled b\ a number of assumptions foi \\lnch no stiong leasous are gi\en. thus his lesults if his analysis be conect.64G 648] WINTKLER SCHEFFLER.) 7 ]' rx and r being the inner and outei radii of the run This theory for 77= 1/4 gives a result for an entne disc almost in agreement with that grven by the firbt theory (S 454) [647 ] Finally (S 45462) "Wmkler attempts to take into account the influence of the spokes He pi actically follow s the lines of Resal's investigation (see our Art 584)./ / U ntei sucliungen Tlieone dei Festigteit gegen das ubei die lei sclaedenea inneien ubei andei e gebogenei Koipei mid Pi obleme dei Bie yunystlieoiie nut pntktischen Anuenditngen Brian>ch\\ e ig 1S5S. S 11 3cS The authoi of this book a piictical aichitect bad ilu id\ published a \oluniL entitled Tlieone dei Geanlbe Fnttet jnanei // und eiseinen Bi ucl en (ste Section III ot oui pie^ent Chaptci) T F IT 20 . p the density of its material. and K the swing radius of the cioss section about an axis in its plane through its centioid and a the distance of that centioid from the axis of the wheel Winkler (S 450) goes e\en so fai as to apply this foirnula to mill and Compare our Art 590 grind stones and 17 = In a genaueie Theone (S 4514) Winklei puts I? = This appears to be really identical "with Maxwell's theoiy (see our Arts ' 1550*51*) that "Winkler finds. ^ + (8+. if T be the safe limit of tractive stiess :2 vp P [(!. 449 of the memoir is entitled SJtuitngnjige (S 448 [646 ] Section Winkler first gi\ es a theoi} of fl) wheels in \\ hich the influence 62) of the spokes is neglected He further supposes the traction perpen diculai to the mei idian plane uniform across the cross section whence he easily finds for its \alue V o) being the spin of the wheel.
958*9Gl*. and VK~ the moment of inertia of the crosssection about a line through its centroid Then if we take ns axes the direction perpendicular to the load plant*. but.450 SCHEFFLER. [649 of which he writes that the object present work and practical was identical \vith that of the more namely closely together the scientific The present volume deals with sides of the subject. In doing this he adopts a true eccentric position for the neutral axis. Let I be the length of the strut. the slide of beams under all flexure. this formula does not give absolute values agreeing vtith experiment. i. 67* and 74*). theory and experiment. as a result of the * compression. and led Lamarle to limit the theory to such struts as had not passed the elastic limit before the buckling load was reached: see our Arts. This fact caused Hodgkinson to entirely discard that theory in favour of an empirical formula. and the calculation of the stresses in continuous beams Two the much which have exercised problems practical engineer. the mathematical investigation failed to reach the hands of the technologists. Briefly the modification consists in the hypothesis that the longitudinal load on the terminal sections of the column or strut is not exactly central. which will be supposed doublypivoted. By this means he endeavours to explain the discrepancy between. P . 1258*. p. Lamarle' s limitation is He starts from Euler's formula for quite unrecognised by Scheffler. the buckling load P of a column (see Ai*ts. to bring S. [049. of these problems had received fairly complete theoretical solutions before 1858. results somewhat at length : We will examine one of Sckeiner's Let the longitudinal load applied at a distance b from the axis of the strut. as so often occurs. 2. the buckling load and strength of struts. so that Scheffier after citing one or two other semiempirical formulae by various authors.] strut problem. but assumes in comparing his theory with Hodgkinson's experiments that the proportionality of stress But and strain holds up to rupture. he thus obtains far ft doublypivoted strut the formula and shews that ' See Corrigeiida to our Vol. produce a deflection at the midpoint = a b. or He modifies the this does not agree with experiment. 158 of the work are devoted to the discussion of the We have already seen what erroneous results Euler's theory for the buckling load of struts gives when the length is not very much greater than the diameter of the crosssection. proceeds to propound a modified theory of his own. theory as given by Euler and Lagrange by placing. the neutral axis in an eccentric position.
then the stress m p +p h r =+ p. 4/r (3 If 6 = 0. gi\en b} Eulei'b theoiy.=0. we have to equate C to the maximum compressive stress vhich anses in the Let the distance of this fibre extieme nbie ' at the mid cioss section fiom the central axis be 7^. 451 of the vertical load (a:) and the perpendicular upon this from the mid point of the central line of the strut (y).. s in} tint b is i ind grses the Inmting sitt load At the s une time stiut p it pel unit SLttioii fui duubh juxotul pt must be noted . &ay at the value *. introducing the value of /?. Tins oqmtion (\ ) agueb sMtli bthelflei'js equition (53. we easily deduce foi the equation to the distoited central line where /? = (^  1J* The cm v iture at the mid section of the central line and the df flection (a  b) is obtained fiom a= b sec r (m) Equation (in) gnes a relation between the load and the deflection which. then A\e ha\e J \P 2* and p^ equal the value ^ / .\ C0b rT ( 1 ) i of the buckling load is i ^\ N 2"). this coincides with the value given for the buckling load on the hypothesis of the eccentric neutral axis To find the elastic stiength of the strut.649] SCHEPFLEE.= (Cu . leads to P. if the elastic limit be leached first compiessive stiess. < <t> ^^Uw^fUSubstituting foi ft 7 D & MQ P\ ft (C and lememberin^ that unit\ \v in all practical crises ma} be neglected as compared lib ith E C 01 Eu P ^ e find I Let us put P'<j^~p.
[650 is made regard to it (v) Till some hypothesis arbitrary constant. his 'coefficient of correction upon in (v) we have Substituting his value of b \ /* (C = _ 1 COt : W . which it must be confessed the eccentricity is not small as compared with the linear dimensions of the crosssection. It is quite true that only on the material and leads to a very complicated expression for. I 1 ( From this \* Po' formula he calculates the value of p.?. = b/h and therefore. if d= we have after 2h be the diameter and this be small as compared with some approximations : . not with the numbers of but with the results calculated from There is a general agreement. but does not indicate In this case. VrLl ) ^ of cast Cylindrical columns iron . to the value chosen for b with are MiVWMi experiments . cc Hence. n=6. Z. if < terminals mth hemispherical Seheffler supposes the and the direction of the load be the angle between the central line : dv b I Further ftaAajnfo find l whence we =h ^J I' is Scheffler takes 6 and says n = sin ^ a constant depending form of the end (S. 7 n as a function of the load p. to fail I compelled formula Scheffler takes. material. but formulae. ^=24. 26).452 SCHEFFLER. . ^^ regard : Scheffler makes the eccentricity of the load a function of the [650. compared. Supposing it were then we should have tan <=:< = sin < : and the ends truly hemispherical.] Further is difficult to understand.kinson's empirical >es not seem to me sufficient to overcome the difficulties I feel see S. wrought oak n = 6. of the thrust does influence noncentral that application only shews us the amount the value of p. 2939 of the book. but (vi) substituted in (v) the simpler why this is capable of being "replaced practically" by I am to look understand. or. putting for \p I n v/ /P\ ~" ) : ..
gives as i bCHEFFLER rule far too lai^e lesults. if the eceentiieity is to account for the observed far which diffeiences We may. it tollov\s JtL ^ b For vw ought 11 on v\e have instead of and foi timbti (tikmg E^ 10 b 2. C'.UUO.'C = cos Q gi eater For a ver} shoit strut pQ is immensely t than p. and would I think be not an unreasonable condition of things to assume as existing in a In this case long strut just befoie the limiting stress is reached k x bQ = KJ and therefore b (*?jh) (1bjo) Using (in) and (v) we have whence p.000. 6 *c*\vhcic u is have L= Foi casst non v\e a ceitun constant einpnicall} selected lb.bOU (iccoiduig to Rinkine). sav) alout the . howe\ei. however. perhaps.UOO. 453 le \alues of p exceed those gn en by Hodgkinson's experiments for rupture Thus we cannot suppose the load applied close to the centre of the terminil cioss section.000 and n= l.. hence the limiting position of the load point must correspond This would be the to the neutral axis just touching the section farthest distance of the load point from the centre. or we have as the cosine we should expect p C For a short strut in v\hich p p^ and we have after some i eductions is small we may expand Ait 469 This agiees very faiil} with the Goidon Rankme foimuk see our Foi example that formula in our piesent notation gives . \ve will assume the eccentricity b of the loading to be pioportional to the deflection (a~b). cuinot hi\e auy 'fibres' in Foi a veiy long strut b tension. E 1 1 hence 1/8. in whatever for a very long strut manner the load be distributed over it.000.*$. when the deflection is zero. obtain what is.650] This. theoretically a better formula than SchefHei's in the following in inner do not know what function b is ot the deflection. and thus ib insensible as compared with the deflection . but as we attempt to centre the We load.60.b) and therefore as compared with a Hence 6 is the value of 6 (a The teimmal section of such a strut.
4*54 SCHEFFLER. unless p = pQ Hence pjC is this case pn must be small. [651 652 is not small we must use (ix) as it stands. this. As in most practical cases bracing bars are subject to alternate stress.builtin and built. those for rods in under the action of three forces (S. y perpendicular to the plane of flexure and z in that plane. bars would as The calculation of the stresses in the bracing a rule be now dealt with graphically. 582 (c). 28 can be in tension. This is done much on the very lines of Jouravski and Bresse : see our references Art. Correspondof doubly. ~ 1 # we find small. 4849) are very interesting and would probably give accurate forms for metal ribbons under such loading. It is difficult to understand how any of the bracing bars in Fig. if correct. but some of them e. from the ordinary theory. 4358 Scheffler deals with a variety of cases [Col. 5873 deal with braced girders with parallel straight booms. In nearly. v^ A A ^c*ou CULOOHCLCJL buckling strength of wroughtiron struts is f the compressive strength and therefore very nearly equal to the tensile strength. As SaintVenant's great memoir ^ .nofinn ArM*o ^Q $QQjxL in the light of recent work leffler points out that for bracing ength not more than 24 times the of the crosssection. S. Hence for practical purposes the tensile strength can always be taken to determine the dimensions of a bar. and putting *Jp/p Whenjp/p Thus we deduce which gives the correction on p p for a large value of I.g. would give the convenient rule that the dimensions are to be determined from the maximum load without regard to its sign.in pivoted struts ing formulae for the cases (} are easily deduced. Scheffler next endeavours to introduce the conception of slide [652. TKo Ttrk/vio iTmof.] into the theory of beams under flexure.] which the terminal loads on the strut are inclined to its central His results are all fairly easy deductions line as well as eccentric.e. this theory fails because it deals with the shear 2 and omits to consider the shear it ^only likewise omits all consideration of S. I very large. but that for this ratio the vwuxv. If x be the direction of the central axis of the beam. yet I imagine the alternate ones ought to be. i. On S. .
and the position of the points of support. I think. the pomtb axis points of maximum 01 minunum curvatuie on the central Scheifipr obtains maximum and minimum foi the points of cuivature in the case of a uniformly loaded learn (S 103). he finds that for a rectangular cross section we must have * which equation leadb to + *F < s 120>> an absurdity when we combined it with the from (18') in the first equation of I ha\e not thought it ^orth while to follow (19') of the same article His first assumption that u is out the whole of Scheffier's analysis of error source fiuitful at least one is of y independent result of substituting the value of for dealing [653] On S 95109 we ha^e a method described with the pi obi em of continuous beams. 1859.053 of 6 54] SCHEFFLER 455 1854 laid sohed the pioblem. and the discovery of this remarkable fact is attributed to Laissle and jedem Schubler ' a beam under flexure discussion of the distribution of stiess is histoncally mteiesting as one of the eaily attempts in 8292) (S this duection. . Culmanii and Hitter or the ipplication of Clapeyion's Theoiem (see Three our Ait 60o) aie. ^vhich might find its TV ay into practical textbooks Foi anv general system of loading the graphical methods of Mohr. 01 beams passing o\er several in a vertical plane points of suppoit and having only trans\er&e loading The method depends upon certain fairly obvious lelations between the of inflexion. supenoi to what is heie suggested beam into a guen shape piesent pages (109111) on the bending of a an easy geometucal construction no novelt} and seem of cuticism of Schefflers \vork by Giashof will be found in the Dnttei Jahtqang. Zeihchi ijt d?s Veiei)it> deutwhei Inyemnup Uiashof i ejects bchefflei s theoiv of buckling and his S 33b43 On the othei hand he piaises tieatment of l>iaced bus (b ">b7o) ceitain of the latei poitions ot the \\oik A no practical inteiest Die Llat>tizttuti>ieihttltin&se dei Rchtfflti [b54] Dnicle au*ge*>et~t bind ot>tatischen welche einem hych 11 anddtcke de^elben Line //// da* Ingemeui det die Bestinunang uesen wirldiye Ei neitei tiny dei Bteyungstheui ie H  ^ le^biden. there is no need to entei into Scheffiei's It is characteristic of his method btiuggles of four years later dite that the equality ? = is announced as "die bemerkenswerthe That sache dass Pimkte des Balkens die honzontalen uwd terttkalen m Abschei ungski ajte pio Flachetmnheit etnander gleich swd" (S 79). and is quite as accurate as those which are still to be found in se\ eral English textbooks On S 112138 SchefSer retuins to the influence of slide in beams The m Thus undei flexuie His results here seem to be entirely erroneous in the notation of oui Art 83.
namely the strength of tubes subjected to internal them by belts pressure and the effect obtained by strengthening author's If the metal. So far as the results of the earlier portions of the memoir are concerned. pure traction. is curiously enough given quite correctly although the method of deducing it is entirely erroneous.. solution for the case Scheffler proposes requires the two types of BessePs functions of zero order. that we might well wish them . SCHEFFLEE. LX. n other words he puts the tractions equal to the stretches multiby the stretchmodulus although he is not dealing with a rod *!. See Comptea rend us. no strengthening reality the not determined present memoir for the analysis by certainly is vitiated by errors of a most vital kind.Tenant has completed the subject in.=tf___ =2 . With the notation of the footnote on our p. 1 4 ' . p. and then the conditions at a belt 1 will tax the powers of a very firstrate analyst . The algebra is prodigious. Heuce we are compelled to suppose # = 2/x. 79. He : $$ * ^ = M/ u rr and j ^ vr = ndu /  . or du/dr a constant. The memoir deals with a very important problem in hydraulics and gunnery. Compared with this it is a small matter that he considers it justifiable to neglect the shear *r. he concludes that such bands have in Whether they have or not is effect. to be true. he is really assuming [655.456 S. [655 167. but the results so pretty. Saint. but the writer is hopelessly at sea in his physical conceptions of elasticity. This is a reprint from the Organ fur die Fortschritte des Eisenbahnwesens for 1859. at crease it Accordingly. which erroneous. 060. T. 1865. to the paper by Blakely then shews why certain empirical formulae proposed by Barlow and Brix for the strength of an endless tube subjected to external and internal fluid pressure are He next proceeds to deduce the formula of Lame. His hypotheses lead in fact to ._ since _ _. so that I do not see any reason for supposing the results to be even approximately true.] The author begins by referring of this (see Section III. inelastic or bands of very analysis could be certain at the stress while belts trusted such points inreducing a stress limit takes as he instead others. This error he repeats. Chapter).  rl ___. his paper of 1860: The indestructibility of error is suggested by the fact that Virgile makes precisely the same mistakes five years later. of a stretch limit for safety. he supposes symmetry round the axis of the cylindrical tube. when he considers a tube surrounded by rigid belts. both incompatible with other results of the The real investigation.
therefore r I Pco </pw = co^7 (i) JO Oi. ind if we know then foim ^e tan deteiuiuiL the ciu\e \\luth by its revolution geneiates the foim of the column of 'e^ml lesi^tincc only condition Sir to = o> e (u) co = a> and therefoie we must ha\e equation (i). possible if ^e take tbe positne sign. CO = C/*. Now if P T) this cc = in is toi the mateinl being entuely in a condition obviously \ Thus equation (11) gi\cs us the aiea of the uosb of limiting ti action sections. supposing that the stretch each cross section. diffeientiatmg. = section at distance x fiom of the material. there is not only terminal traction but also weight as a bodyforce then investigates the proper form for a solid of equal resistance subject to terminal traction and gravitational bodyforce He does not notice that his method is one only of approximation. and of firstclass importance for the theoiy of ordnance eines Bestimmung des Querschmtts Anspruch genominen wird Schlomilchs Z&itschnft fur Mathematik u Physil. ^hich is ' Uebei die Festigleit einei am Ra/tde Schlvmilch* Zeihchnft ftn aufgelotheten li eisfoi migen Platte MathematiL u Plnjsik Bd \ S lt24 Leipzig [657] Gustav Zehfuss . the limit of safe elastic ti action.656 657] ZETZSCHE ZBHFiSb 457 The latter part of the mem on imolves pioblenis see our Arts 1302 hitherto still unsolved. wheie P^gp/F cc But hence = 0. (o = Tdwjdx. for in both his cases the crosssections no longer remain plane. and the first the sides of the prism no longer remain vertical see our Arts 10*70* and 74 He m We indicate all the contents of this article which are of any value is in the following lemaiks. which is obviously not the case Let w = terminal cross section to which a traction co uniform acioss . = CD O . 1859 The author apphes the theory of a uniform vertical prism under terminal traction to the case where [656] Eduard Zetzsche ZILT Rogers dessen absolute Festigleit in . gp = weight P is applied of unit let \olume o Jo gpvdx =t= Pco = co x Es Foi equal lesistance Esx must be a constant = T. BcL IV S 34152 Leipzig. . and sx = stretch across any cross section > then by resolving vertically we have [x I this terminal.
_ 3 Q K '*' : """IG/^A^ h d"z This gives for the stretches at the surface (see our Art. x.I^K'^ This seems to me the proper condition of safety. 2/j. 889 of our Vol. I. Jahrgang 36580. 887. when a body is strained beyond the elastic limits. If of our notation. There is is a statement at the commencement of the article not absolutely true. These results and had already been given by Cauchy in a somewhat different form. but my numbers do not agree with those of Zehtuss. I860. 22136. in itisbesondere auf relative Festigkeit Anspruchgenommener Korper. 1415 we have A = A. 93108. 441. S. I do not think the remarks of his concluding paragraph are correct. 398) Whence if s be the safe stretch limit proper thickness for a given load Q from : we have. ' a TDlate. + results of the following kind.] On S. to determine the A i V/^~n Is. the equation is not deduced from the general principles of elasticity. 2223 give the solution of the differential equation for [659. 398).] E. Winkler : Die inneren Spannungen deformirter.e. [658. I do not think anything in this investigation calls for special notice. namely: that. [660. its stretchmodulus varies with which the strain. : K' = A. an investigation of the equafor the elastic equilibrium of a plate on the hypotheses proposed by Kirchhoff in 1852.] suDDosinsr it to be uniformly loaded with a total load irPQ. then where is the stretch produced by unit traction (= \\E of our notation). The stretchmodulus of a body may remain sensibly constant and practically equal to its original value nearly up to rupture see pp. 1621. to s I and to be builtin at its The result edge.458 WIXKLER. mce r from the centre is (see our Art. Berlin. 0. . [658660 tion This paper involves. or is of any particular value. S. Erlkains Zeitschrift filr Bauwesen. i. S.. = the corresponding transverse squeeze (=rj/JS).
Scheffler. the form of the figure changing during the motion in any aibitiary manner At any given section he takes for axis of x the tangent to the plane curve. Laissle and Schubler He fuither states that Scheffler. and so he takes lefuge in hvpotheses almost ts in collect as those of the writers he has pieviouslv cited He hist assumes 7a to have the same value for all points on a line in the cioss section perpendiculai to the load plane (01 parallel to the axis of ::) He further takes 7l/ 01 the shear in the cioss section parallel to the load plane umfoini along the same line. although the breadth of the cross section changes continuously \v ith the height (i e %\ ith y) B beim lechteckigen unJ krtibfoirmgen Oueiathn tt Lei dein \vie z crsteicn miteihegt diese und die vuiige Annihmc ubeilnupt keinein Z\\oitol (b 223) It is pei haps needless to it mind the u idei tint Mint "\tnmt h\e th it tin se Inpu yeais btfoie the publication of this papei hid S!IO\MI theses which 'admit no doubt' ue ibsoluteh imtuiible tui the uoss constant Fiuthei foi a thin rib Wink lei takes sections in question ' T . which lies in the plane of &y and he supposes this plane to contain the direction of gravity and that of the load system He then says that the ordinary theory of flexure has neglected 5J and *zz or found eironeous values for them. a ~~ dx _fJ! ' =0 He then writes down the body suiface equations on the assumption that theie is a uniform suiface piessure^? (S 223) The equations thus obtained he cannot sohe.661] WINKLER fust pait of this 459 The as the body stress memou onlv leproduces general results such equations and the analysis of traction and she u The repubhcation at this given long befoie by Cauchy and Lame date may have been serviceable in Germany considering the ignorance of the geneial theory of elasticity manifested by Schem*er and by Laissle and Schubler. but neglected and 2T He declares that in general all these stresses differ fiom zero. and cites in this respect the researches of Poncelet. but it has not historical importance [661 ] oelatzven Festigkeit The second part of the memou Winkler takes as his is entitled T/teone der elastic would be generated by a plane body that \*hich closed figure \vhose centioid described a plane curve (cento al hne) so that the plane of the figure was perpen diculai to the plane of the curve. and Laissle and Schublei have attempted to take into account JT. but remarks that JT will usually be ^ quite negligible and pioceeds to neglect stiess equations to the foim it He thus reduces his body dx dy dy 4.
J . His reasoning in t. since ~ Ii MM EUK!P = (Imgl + IMyl) (\ + % ^3 approximately . 223). (i). [662663 die vorige [662. Then there ~uuifugal force J/T//J acting downward and consequently the reaction A* is given by : (i). . load. (ii). I doubt whether he has found even an approach to an approximate solution.. but I presume these to be misprints for a ^ and J s .(M V 5 . 22930). v the velocity the length and m the mass of the beam. can then be found from 1  and Winkler gives for the approximate (_..) . It that the modifications he introduces into the BernoulliEulerian theory do not tend to correct it in the case in which the crosssections are incapable of treatment by SaintVenant's method seems to me crosssections etc).] forthe whole length of the rib *Iu den iibrigi'n Theilen kann natiirlich Annahme beibehalten werden* (S. .. The work is inferior to what had been done several times previously and takes a tractive and not a stretch limit of strength (S. + . .] The second part of the memoir discusses principal tractions and applies them to the theory of rupture.460 WINKLER.+ .. I [663. .. lin)l\ ' J 1 Winkler has  . p the radius of curvature of the central line of /ely under the load supposed at the centre.hp this case is the following. Winkler applies this discussion of traction to several examples (S. while when the crosssections fall (T and under the cases treated by SaintTenant the true theory is not a bit more complex than Winkler's lengthy process (see our Arts. line and the crosssection varies. . ' null" s 4 /=si J Eton? . But the bending moment at the centre or whence . As for the case in which central line is not a straight 8798). i'oi the numerical coefficients..il + A /. Here he has to return to the He considers first an isolated BernoulliEulerian theory for a solution. It is needless to follow Winkler's analysis further.. central deflection .* T arid ^ ./ WK T Mai' i" 4 s J ] 4 I j&wic . mo vi no Suppose M the mass of the load.. 2303) and concludes this part by the consideration of the effect of a rapidly moving load on the deflection of a girder or beam.. is jDOJK" very small.
Winkler appht the formulae of his second part to various special cases Thus 1 finds (S 365) for a cantilever of rectangular cross section (h x b) unde and total shear Q that bending moment M Comparing these with SaintYenant's results (Art 95) we see tha they are incorrect I have again no confidence in the results Winkler gives foi beam with vaiying cross sections or with sections Thus I think the pape failed in achieving the purpose pioposed by its author I In conjunction with Wmklei's attempt to solve ai solved problem I may briefly refer to the following some already [666] what later memoir in this place 1 George Biddell Airy On the Stiams in the Intenoi of Beam This memoir ^as received 01 Phil Trans 1863. and presents no novelt Winkler's results agree with those previously obtained by Bresse. 1862 Bj 'stiains' the lat< Astronomer Eoyal here understands \\hat we no\\ term stres>se Having regard to the full and able treatment of the flexure o rectangulai beams by Saint. bi he does not refer to him Some numerical calculations are given show that the inciemenfc of bending moment and deflection due to tl velocity of the load are very small 1 [665 ] In the third and last part of his memoir.Venant in his memoii on fle\tue o 1854 (see oui Ait 69) it seems unnecessary to anal}se thib pape It may suffice to lemaik in this place that a sohc at any length rectangular of parallel beam cannot be still plates integer poweis of less considered as built up of a numbt can the stresses be expanded n in L and y (Cartesian cooidmates tht cio^s .664666] WINKLER AIRY 4 These results shew that Winkler was quite unaware of the laboi of Stokes and Phillips (see our Arts 1276*~91* and 3727. 552to say nothing of Homersham Cox. dass selbst bei hedeutend Lasten und sehr grossen Geschwmdigkeiten die Yermehrung der Beanspruc ausserst is ung nur genng ist (S 234) hardly however experimentally confirmed 1418* 1420* and 1375* This see our Ari [664 ifluss ] The eines bewegten last section of the second part (S 2346) is entitle* It deals with what we have term* Zuges Bresse's problem (see our Arts 382 and 540). pp 4980 Novembei 6 and read December 11. with the like inexact results He conclude Wirldiche numensche Berechnungen zeigen. who had proceeded on these "v<? see our Art 1433* lines.
667.Wirkungen zusammengenommen ein dreifaches. welche erfullt sein mxissen. wenu sich der elastische Korper unter der Einwirkung ausserer Krafte im Gleichgewicht beiinden soil. im ganzen Korper stattfindenden. S. welche ein einzelnes Moleciil cles Korpers von alien iibrigen Moleciilen empfangt. at the top. 315. The memoir [COS. 297. alien tibrigen Moleciilen ausgeubten "Wirkung. S. Berlin. S. but to obtain the fundamental equations of in a new way. 281318. h6 read 2j/. urn die fur das Gleichgewicht und die Bewegung eines elastischen Korpers geltenden DifFerentialGleichungen abzuleiten. dann durch Variation dieses Integrals in ahnlicher Weise also wie Gauss in der Theorie der Capillaritat zu den BedingimgsGleichungen. 294. 1860. for the first read H. equation (2G) : for : K . von denen die eine von Navier. The memoir consists of two parts in the elasticity : The first the ordinary equations referred to rectangular axes are obtained. The tables and memoir cannot be considered of value. Im vorliegenden Aufsatze gebe ich eine dritte Methode zur Ableitung ich bestimme zuerst das Potential der auf ein ^ui YUQ. which were first The Es first investigated by Lame. [667668 manner adopted by Airy in 14. . .462 section) in the a NEUMANN. in (55) : for  r u . f6. paragraph of the memoir explains its object : Methoden. S. Journal far Mathematik. in the second these are transformed so as to give the equations referred to a system of triple orthogonal surfaces. Molecular. die zweite von der Berechnung des Druckes. 2z/i 1 S. 57. Integral. 703. welch en ein FlacheuElement im Innern des Korpers erleidet. ^~xv~ ^^^as fur das Potential aller. Die erste geht von der Berechnung der Kraft aus. but fortuthe plaster models and tabulated numbers of SaintVenant nately effectually accomplish the objects Airy had in view when writing diagrams of the the paper. is a fine piece of mathematical analysis 1 . die existiren bekanntlieh zwei andere von Poisson herruhrt.] isotropic. Vol. C Neumann : Zur Theorie der Elasticitdt. following misprints may be noted 285 observe that Neumann assumes the result in Moigno's Statique. read in each ease a c auc 7 . und gelange iiber den Raum des Korpers ausgedehntes. He The On p. Neumann supposes his material homogeneous and Further he assumes uniconstant isotropy or he uses only one elastic constant in his results (Poisson's k 1 = our X). object of this memoir is not to add anything to the of theory elasticity.
1 u 1 The total potentnl eiui^ ot ot the elastic btiain pa unit ma^s the s\bteui . ^ of the present ^ork as lollops 11.?. I belie\e. I think. oder ob es ausserei Kiaffce bedtnft hatte. i . leally peifectly general \nd ha\e no i elation to any particular la\\ of molecular force. extremely good. u . \\hen we cannot sum over the whole of a sphere of molecular action These difficulties had been noticed by Jellett see our Arts 1532*3*. p^ the initial densit\. surmounts them and shows that surfaceforces can be really expiessed in terms of elastic constants having the same values as at points of the body lemote from the surface (S 28992) [669] as Neumann's work. Then Neumann's the total influence of all the othei molecules on in lesultb on S 2923 aie. or to any magni "\Ve may state them in the language and notation tude of strain Let u^u n u t^. 1. is of uniconstant isotropy. .^. uin die Molecule \*ahrend jener Lage festzuhalten. 1/V the determinant 01 . 1 + u . t. ! [670] It and Sir W \\ill not be without interest to compare Neumann's Thomson's methods of reaching the geneial equations of elasticity Let 2mF be tlie potential of the molecular foices on the molecule ?.. i 1 + t it 11 11 . but an initial r stress equualent to the of our Art 616* (see second set of arises formulae on our p 329} The following remark shows how it and why its value is taken to be the same in all directions Wahrend der primitrven Lage sollen die Molecule gleichforimg und ohne Bevorzugung irgend welcher Riclitungen duich den Raum hin vertheilt gewesen sein Ob damals Gleicbge\* icht herrschte.669670] starts indeed c \EUMAKN 463 force is from the assumption that intermodular a function onl} of the individual molecular distance thus he neglects aspect and modified action %hich The second constant K appears in his results is not an elastic constant.l ^2??j^ of the bod\ at m =ZmJ 01 lu the work . u n w> lepiesent the nine first fluxions of the shifts. mag dahm gestellt bleiben (S 282) an imestigation on the grounds only alas such an investigation has not much practical value now that more and more bodies are observed to be aeolotropic Perhaps the part which will best repay study is the method b} which he surmounts the difficulties attaching to the expression of the surfaceforces in terms of the strains. but Neumann. u. it.
.. 610. Se. 2c. c respectively.. Jt^ dF dF . Hl.. . ... w.. B^ B^ Bz Cx Cy . Qx be the component of the in equilibrium when it lies P ' W*~S d (dF\ \duj P ..1. obtained from (ii) : 4. nz the angles <it makes with the axes.. + dF 7 ' . "^ V/V*^ \Sj x tf d (dF\ d fdF\ . y. y + 0. + . + u^) A x ~ fdF r ^ + j.^ (1 v \c?w j . of our Art. while Px is the force per unit ea of the surface of the material In the course of his work Neumann be the displaced coordinates of the point x. z f w.. It must be noted that Q is the force per unit of mass of the aterial at the point x + u.. and x ie corresponding component when the molecule is near the surface of te body... Second Edition. dF dF ' x 7 (11). p. under what conditions we shall have j [671. a. + ^ . 7 ) "V Similar values hold for >onding quantities iterchanges. ~ . 2rjir 277^. f then . of the corre C~.. (0... work w Sir \V. ' a function of the six quantities Se. = pQ (Aj cos nZ + Ay cos ny + A z cos TIS) { here dF .. NEUMANN. ^2 ^ (u^l) ^ u... A~ are what are generally termed face perpendicular to the axis of x. or Thomson Natural Philosophy. 1619*" which lie represents by A I.. z lews that if 17.. n ~r (1 V + n >) + dF / u. Part II. then if n be the direction of the normal to the surface measured wards and ru*. ny. 1863.] id Tait's te 7. (?". dF du z . dw div div dF  .. 462) takes dA' dA' dA' s . here A . for Py Ps in terms . we have : t a.. Qy Qz and . A _ )V 7 by cyclical These results are deduced by assuming F a function of ie first nine shift fluxions and applying the method of virtual moments. .in wi notation..54 c.. Thomson (Phil Trans. He deduces the general equations for the equilibrium a body under no bodyforces and finds they are of the type . [671 force necessary to hold the molecule within the volume of the body. w. p.
. k are constants depending on the molecular summations is physically explained at once as the value of the stiess The value of K <$> A4 (or Bu or C?) Writing when the stiams are all = F+ AT. we may put as types __^ (d$\ ^ ^~ dx d dy (d$\ \</uy ) dd> > d /d$\ dz \duj > \duj <> ' P =p r deduced _. . We . . /f. . ^ where = ux + (u y . . whence the oidmary uni constant equations elasticity cm be at once [G7S] The Zweiter Abschmtt of Neumann's memoir is occupied by \ transformation of th( equations and lesults given above .673] c NEUMAiror 465 _ dF dux d^ dux dtiyy d^ dux Thus Thomson's equation given as (iv) above d_ becomes dy \du y ) dz \duj and is only a special case of Neumann's cited in our previous article (i) It seems more symmetrical and concise to write the quantities A'M A'v (A'x ) /dF\ d_ dx \duj d_ /dF\ /dF\ ~ ' Neumann B'x B'y as dF/dux dF/duy as dF/dvx dFldvy has done must be careful to note that these expressions are not the stresses.vu ) (vi). cos7?ic+ ~~cQ^ny\~. . Generally A x =(I+ux ) A'x A y = <M'* + (1 + whence we can at once express the stresses m Thomson's notation I believe that Neumann was the first to give these generalised equations and the generalised expressions for stress [672 ] Supposing the strain to be small and in particular urnconstant isotiopy to hold. Neumann shows (p 285) that we may express by F 2F=H+ ZK6 + (JST+ 3&) ff + (K+ k)T+ (2A + 4k) r F. = 4r 2 if r be the resultant twist. . 7 and //. . a5== = ^T aUff. . and neglecting zeio squares of small quantities. except for very small strains when . d<f> i lZ.cos?isl _ ~~~_ du of _ / x (vn).
Bd. T. v. e. may refer to G. sa theorie pas encore et6 e*tablie. [674] E. et c'est cette theorie qui fait 1'objet de ce M6moire Quelque important que I'avait p. railwaysprings. Paris. Phil Trans..o biconstant isotropy. ce principe est une consequence rigourcuse de a theorie mathematique de Telasticite (p. 315). see our Arts. Deuxi&me This memoir 1 was pre3&ie. lans le probleme actuel. for determining the Time* of Vibration of : * p. He thus supposes the flexure his as in memoir on 3ernoulliEulerian theory of flexure . 4558. Atwood Invest lyaTheory of Motion. The note referred to is printed in an extended version of the nemoir published in the Annales des mines. la forme essentiellement complexe de ce 'essorfc introduisant dans Fapplication de la theorie de J'elasticite des equations differentielles tellement cornpliquees. :urvilinear coordinates is hardly likely to be a short process. 1794. 1860. 1 As an earlier research in this direction I tlie ions. adopts the that is to say he puts the moment to the )ending equal product of the flexural rigidity jEW2 ) and the change in curvature. Phillips: Memoire sur le spiral rfylant des chro Journal de Mathdmatiques. Of this assumption he writes : me hate d'observer que. . sented to the Academy and was favourably reported on by Lame. . dans une Note place a la fin du Je^ ^Eemoire que j'ai pr^sente & TAcad&nie des Sciences. 119. 1860. je demontre quo. and ultimately as a limitation to orthogonal The deduction of the equations in jurvilinear coordinates. nvestigation of the uniconstant curvilinear equations (see our irt. NEUMANN. 76.o take place without slide. if it is to be adapted We have already referred to Bonnet's . Phillips introduces his memoir with the following remarks : soit le re*gulateur dont il s'agit. but at the same time )art of it requires considerable modification. pour vaincre ces difficult^ dans tout ce qui ww^jLts an probleme. and we shall have occasion to refer to others. . pp.g. [674 o anorthogonal. 1873.hat of Borchardt in Crelle's Journal der Mathematik. Phillips. laisoiis particulieres. 3. founded on Vatch Balances. 1241*). par des integrer. 6778. qu'il serait absolument ocible de les J'ai pourtant et6 assez heureux. 313366. 3U). Neumann's possesses an elegance which can hardly be postulated the latter >f Lamp's original investigation. VEathieu and Delaunay on May 28.. lom&tres et des montres.$6 C.
675 676] NEUMANN PHILLIPS 467 Let Gr be the couple. and a con sideiable foi numbei of curves which are theoretically suitable fonns tho terminal of the spiral aic given By aid of these the . <j> is the Hence if we can angle through which the balance has turned put Yx Xy = 0.l/p be the change in curvature due to strain at the point x. s be the stretches in the balance' end thiough any given angle spiral. more interest for the histonan of mechanics than for the historian of elasticity < < < <jf> [675 ] On pp 352 4 an expression is deduced for the stiain energy of the spiral or the work required to displace its noimal at the If s. thus the influence on isochromsm of ttmpeiaturc and of friction in the balance are taken into account. where V is the volume This is an illus tiation of Young's theoiem in lesihence. see p 875 of Vol i and om Aits 1384*. Y the components of force applied to one end of the spiral spring taken as ongin of coordinates Let 1/p. we have the couple G = Eu (< )/^ or it is piopor tional to the angle through which the balance has turned Isochronism thus follows Phillips investigates at some length the conditions under which we may put Yx Xy = 0. pp 1107 the completer form of the memoir recom mended by a Commission of the eft Academy for publication in the Recueil des savants have already refened to the see our Art G74 and portion published in Liouville's Journal touched on those parts more closely associated with the theory of angers .Xy (i) Po/ (i) Suppose I the length of the spiral. however. y are the cooidmates of the centroid of the spiral If the force end of the spiral be fixed at a constant angle to the balance of the watch attached to the spring. y of the spring Then we easily see that we must have on the Bernoulli Eulenan hypothesis JW = ( ff \P ) + Yx. Mdmoire sur le spiral rfylant des chrono 18G1 This is Annales des mines. then integrating equation along the length we easily find where is the angle between the new and old positions of the tangent at the force end of the spung. We elasticity There is a good deal of additional mattei hue of a very interesting kind. 493 and 609 c [676 ] E Phillips metres et des montres Paris. Tome xx. X. then the work needful to cany it fiom the one state of stiaiu to the othei is ^F(s~5 2)/6. and x. foi example it would obviously be satisfied if the spiral so moved that its centioid remained at the fixed end of the spring He also deals with a number of pioblems bearing on watch and chronometei springs which have.
d'apms la . It couple: see the Legons de Navier. v perpendicular to the central line. pour le spiral cylindrique. 34 somewhat resembles the general treatment of the rod problem due to Kirchhoff : see our Chapter XII. The problem is how far are they true for a upon by a couple. 2 the central line remains unIt is obvious that these are the ordinary assumptions stretched. In addition to 1 and 2 above Phillips makes the further assumptions spiral acted involved in the following remarks : J'appelle ligne neutre le lieu ge"oinetrique des centres do gravitc do toutes les sections transversales. [677 centre of gravity of the spiral may be retained in the axis of the Ghapitre balance. 95107). knowof theoretical standard is an excellent example of a high ledge applied to an important practical problem. To the [677. entitled: Des experiences faites & Vappui de la thdorie pr&edente is remarkably interesting . 170. ct tout en satisfaisant aux conditions de position et d'inclinaison a assignees ses deux extremites. tresfaible mais que je suppose plane. la inclinaison des spires. J 'imagine que sans changer la longueur de la ligne neutro. when a couple is applied to its terminal the strain that: 1 all the points primitively in a crosssection remain ^osssection and that the strained crosssection remains uu. sont nonactuel. p. II. Phillips remarks in a footnote that his demonstration is an extension of that which SaintVenant has applied to the strain of a straight rod bent by a and our Art. J'admets que toutes les suctions transversales sont egales et qu'elles sont partagees symetriquement par un plan. ce lieu etant urie courbe quelconque. of the BernoulliEulerian theory extended to rods with an initially curved central axis. que j'appellerai plan horizontal.] a Note entitled Pour faire voir que. : memoir as it stands in the Annales is attached presente le probUme solution et que sur lesquels est fondle sa qui rentrent dans la thdorie de Tasce neutre. on deforme celleci dans son plan. Let us assume them to be true and investigate the resulting shifts and consequent stresses. les principes dans les circonstances seulement parfaitement d'accord avec I* experience. 7695) number of experiments on the isochronism of spirals with or The memoir without terminals curved to the theoretical forms. passant par la ligno neutro. one of the conditions for its efficient working. mais aveo la thtorie mattufmatique de V elasticity (pp. en negligeant.468 PHILLIPS.are that. it gives a very considerable (pp. The assumptions made by Phillips in his theory of the spiral snrinp.
but since the cioss sections lemam plaate any number of such portions can be put together. v.1/po) will The values 1 of u. v = i? To determine VQ and w he assumes that the three stresses are zero as in SaintYenant's theoiy of flexure This leads him to the values #J. its noimal as axis of z and the axis of y perpendicular to be Let u. which Fuithei the constant since (l/p l/p ) is assumed constant Thus if the force surface sti ess equations are satisfied at eveiy point .l/p ) cfa> be applied to each element du> of the cross given by Ez (l/p sections which bound a small portion of the spual. MO = h (if  ") (1/P . i e the Jo*" (l/p I/ft).Jo? (l/p .1/po). w = WQ . p et p etant les rayons de courbure en un 1//) quelconque de ses points le premier avant la deformation et le second On a vu pie*cedemment qu'il est possible de satisfaire geonigtri apies quement a cette condition en dormant aux courbes extremes une forme determined (pp 956) of the central line let its tangent be taken [678 ] At any point as axis of x. and w v WQ the shifts of the centroid of this . infinitely near to that through 0. lattei cross section Then Phillips shows by easy geometrical analysis that we must have . w are now completely known They and be found to satisfy the body shift equations. provided the teiimimls of his are acted upon by couples of the magnitude is spiril l/po) (PP 106 7) be noted that the above investigation is m no It the centidl line being nntiilly i spual on dependent would seem tint the above values of the shiftb would appl} to a [070 ] It will e wd ivith its cento al hue in the fonu of any plane CM vc wluitev< i .G7S loi 679] l/p PHILLIPS 469 = constants. there will be a zero total ti action stress over a cross section will be represented the neutral axis goes through the centroid of each and the total system of by the couple. 21 md 100) we see that Philhpb' cqiuvileiit solution on the basis of the Bernoulli Eulciian tliooiy is ictlly ngid on the complete mathematical theory. . w see our * and Art 77 v = .1/po) u^sas (l/p. this poition will be in elastic equihbimm. 2 to give MS yz zero values. v. P . and it is only necessary to ipply such foices to the teimmal cioss sections of any length of Thus by the pimcipk of the ehstic equipollence of statically spnal bids (see our Arts 89.W* (l/p  I/ft). the horizontal plane containing these and defined above  w the shifts parallel to these axes of a point on a cross section. and make Hence obviously bending moment if cioss section.
2538). This interesting paper unfolds a valuable method for the treatment of various mechanical problems involving the longitudinal corps. pp. AC and BD being two parallel revolving cranks of equal length r and The section. p. and transverse vibrations of rods. sont donnfes Von tient compte de Vinertie de toutes les o'ijb Paris. Tome ix. two chapters: the first To determine the relative shifts end of which is subjected to of the parts of a a given motion.. length and weight of the connecting having a spin a>. Journal de MatUmatiques. Phillips to simplify matters replaces the compound harmonic .at). 35. and the other (pp.at] +/(# . rod are given and the constant resistance Q is supposed to be applied at B tangentially to the circumference o/BD. solutions lies in their application to the stresses in various moving The mode of solution adopted is the portions of machines. dans lieu lesquels les d'dtre conditions imposes aux extrdmitds des des fonctions invariables. one is (i). 3845.170 PHILLIPS. The author deals with the solution of problems in which the shift at one end of the rod is a to a given function of the time. and Problem (ii).) Problem subjected to To find the stresses in a rod one end of which is (iii). To find the stresses in AB a connecting rod. Another interesting memoir by Phillips : may be not it belongs to a somewhat later unfitly considered here. free when each point of the rod moves parallel to its axis Phillips treats in detail the cases when the motion imposed on the end is uniformly accelerated (w when it is harmonic (u = a a cos at). 4555. au du temps. 1864. 2583. or in which the rod itself. [680681 when its Their effect terminals were acted upon by equal and opposite couples. determination of the special arbitrary functions involved in the general solution u = F (x 4. The memoir is divided into [681.] rigidly true. a harmonic motion. although Solution de divers probl&mes de Mfoanique. p. and the is BernoulliEulerian theory [680. is to produce a constant change of curvature. subject given system of load. It is entitled date. while the other is attached to a (pp. = ^ft z ).) piston under the action of steam. 29. (pp. The value of such is moving in space. et parties du systime.] deals with the following problems: Problem rod.
682] PHILLIPS 471 action of the steam. by a single harmonic term of the same period but of different phase from the harmonic motion of the other teimmal (difference equal to ?r/4) simply and approximately the mean He supposes this to represent action of the steam Problem (iv) crank turns uniformly round 0.. but he first breaks up his shift u into two components u = ul +U it causes the terms resulting are functions of the which from the special terminal conditions. for example that of steam. He makes howevci. acts upon the extremity fixed in a constant direction The law of this jforce beina qwen / & & A OM A M MO by a harmonic term of the same period as the rotation. the ordinary methods for evaluating the coefficients of Fourier's bcrics Thus in his Pioblcms (i) icsults ot his first chapter passes to somewhat different considerations (m) (pp 7179) In his last Problem to Phillips verifies (iv). U then be found by will his time. the sti am in the crank (pp 5 561) to determine Problem caused to (v) r to vibi ate One end of a cord being fixed and the other n Hi th harmonic motion. not however the most general possible [682] In the second chapter Phillips adopts the solution in Fourier's series of the partial differential equation for the longitudinal vibrations of rods.(Fit . to disappcat from equations and chooses ^ in such a mannei that . ho use of Poisson's solution for the tiansveise vibrations of a lod to solve the following problem The two terminals of a connecting tod motion peipendiculai (pp cSO3) illy this to its receive the same Jiai momc length It is iequwed to find the statin Analytic xmounts d*U to solving the equation . it is required < / m find the transverse vibrations of the string (pp 6165) This is the case for example of a string one end of which is fixed to a massive tuningfork set vibrating harmonically The following two problems (vi) and (vn) treat the same string when both ends are caused to vibrate in a certain manner. which is force.
425G1.] A. French and German translations of parts of Angstrom's paper There is an earlier memoir by Angstrom in the Upsala memoirs of tho previous year. Stockholm. 0^. It is an important contribution to a subject still very obscure. In addition Phillips supposes that initially. It belongs to the theory of light.erms from the terminal conditions. The form of the special integral. the thermal. pp. to the emoirs on the correlation of Elasticity properties of o other physical bodies. of electrical conductivity. This memoir was presented on March 7. 1851. notwithstanding the investigations of Plucker. which I have not examined. Its topic is the exact nature of the relation between the various axes of a crystal the axes of figure. GROUP r A. Angstrom : Om de monoklinoedriska kristallernas molekuldra konstanter. Physical Memoirs including those of Kupffer. Vol. of elasticity.(iii). Wiedemaun 1851. Equations SECTION II. ANGSTROM. 38. (iii) 1^ are determined from the give the constants of Poisson's bur equations solution. Section I. process (see )ur Art. (ii). . which removes the time . Wertheim and others. dujdt = cor for all points from x = 0. 1 . VetenskapsAkademiens Handlingar for dr 1850. 468*). [683 ubject to the conditions : u^rsmcot. or for t to x u = 0. d*u/da? = Q when gJ} (ii). Sdnarmont. and the magnetic axes. Sednare Afdelningen. [683. and endeavours to show that the optical properties of gypsum and of crystals of thu monoclinohedric system can only be explained by supposing the elasticity of the ether has relation to a system ot oblique axes. while A lt 5 X. J. . 1 and Angstrom : see the references in our Chapter XII. the optic.b72 PHILLIPS.. + G sinh (J&Jk #) + D cosh (Ja>jk #)} sin u~u +U'WG easily find U by Poisson's cot. = = z. is easily found to be u^ = [A t l l sin (Jo>jk #) + BI cos (Jco/k x) 1 Thus if. Kongl.
although veiy possibly they give is enough approximations to the acoustic axes The thud seetiou of the memoir (pp 44951) /<>/ entitled /" itsults. Angstrom takes rather arbitrary curves to icpruscnt the close lines. but the of part S&iarmont's tuthoi believes that the isothermals change with uaimct This confirms m clunge sii^ ])1 tempci ituie igi ill d(H noggnnhet man kundc onski. 1852 [684] Neumann's identification of the principal crystalline axes had been. vai \\IQ lebidtb diid detenuincb the absolute it oi gypsum shows th there is a direction in which gypsum The upiHiiLiitlij sin inks with ineieisnig teinpeidtuie (p 453) eiteb littli section entitled Gy>seut> hatdhet (pp 4535) . nemligen den ohka nktnwgen of de prwwipala 427) elaslicitetsaxlatne (p section of the memon is occupied with of the optic axes of gypsum (pp 42838) Angstrom shows like Neumann in his later work. pp 119127. sk( i it suniiid. som hos dessa ett nytt bestamningsekrnent framtradei. 1853. T 38. 1( d ooh ai tilhk i df ungcfirligen siniini stoihk tcinp( i som d( o)tiski c last ic i U ts ivldi ncs 1 viidmng vid en hka ituifoi indiing (p 1 )!) Tlie foui th scetion entitled (pp extension 4") I ]) eites Neumiuns It Gipt>enb (iiml'/ittt </ geuoni. tior dock toifilluui kuuu i slut i. at least for certain types of crystals. och att liihuiu foisokcu tckc 1 d(niii toi iiulunj. Section I The second section of the memoir (pp 43849) is entitled Klangjigwer hos gipseti and investigates the axes of acou&tic the coloui of the light symmetry by means of Chladni's figures The theory of the nodal hues for a substance of the elastic complexity of gypsum has not I think been worked out. (by Verdet) and Poggendorffs Annalen der Physik. that the optical axes of elasticity are not fixed but vary with the and [685] The first the determination temperature see our Chapter XII . Angstiom's investigations with regard Chapter to gypsum are some of the most impoitant in this direction Detta studmm bor dessutom for de khnoednska kristallerna bhfva sa mycket mera fruktbaiande. discovered in later researches to be inaccurate see our Aits 788*793* and I Section XII. itt isotlurmcina i (let symmctiiska UH I hos ippsi n v(jkli<jf(ii foi nidi i ig( mod tempciatinun.684085] will ANGbmoM 473 Chwm. Bd 86 pp' bo found in the Annales de 206237.
474 Frankenheim's results : ANGSTROM. 839. 1? I a certain have purposely refrained from translating the Swedish as there seems to amount of vagueness in the expressions used by Angstrom. in part modify Frankenheim's. is devoted to felspar (pp. 825*. Section I. som faller inomde bada genomgangarnes spetsiga vinkel : a Optiska axlarnes medellinie Minsta utvidgningea for varme Storsta hardheten omkring 14! 12 14 I Magnetisk attraktion omkring Storsta elasticitets axeln Storsta ledningsforaagan for varmet i akustiskt hanseende 14' 5 [ 53 ( Minsta ledningsformagan for elektricitet It will thus 62] distinct sets be seen that these axes group themselves in two which probably connotes some interrelation of the corresponding physical quantities. hvarvid a betecknar lutningen emellan den fibrosa genomgangen ocL den axeln. rejects as unsatisfactory : see our Art. see our Art. We have for the angle a between the given directions and the base of the fundamental prism of felspar : a Optiska polarisationsaxeln Diamagnctiska axeln Hardheten 1 4. 45860). Section VIII. bekommer foljande of versigt af de olika axelsystemernas lage i defc symmetriska planet. Se'narmont and Pliicker. 1 4. vi i det fdregaende erhallit. 4578). Angstrom's researches confirm Wiedemann's for electricity. [686 part confirm. me . but he could not confirm Pliicker's for magnetism. 4578) we have a r6sum6 of the 1 results for axes of all kinds : man Saimnanforas de resultater.: see our Chapter XII. In the seventh section (pp. partly on Angstrom's own experiments. 1 4. Angstrom makes some not very conclusive remarks on the reason for these groupings (pp. Wiedemann etc.] p. [686. 4556) and cites the results of Pliicker. for this crystal is given. partly On based 460 a system of results on the experiments of Brewster. Angstrom's results in Those of Franz he The sixth section is entitled: Gipseiis forhdllande till elektricitet och magnetism (pp.
hab of its note been bueily This me moil >p 7() i< fund ste our Ait 1333* and in the Philosophical foot \v is published Magazine.ende anser sig forfattaien hafva p.som hufvudresultat af det foreg. of Mtu/ucti'tin upon the die idy lumelythe memoir Dimensions of to I) ]846 OutheEffects on and Steel Bais. A (pp Mmsta ledmngsform&gan Thus the for elektucitet 63) like two groups recur Further discussion of results is given in Section ix as follows 4601). 7^/7>c>s. Vol \\x JSil 2 S7. konjugataxlar [687] The theoretical relation of three rectangular and unequal axes of elasticity supposing them to exist to the various physical vectors the position of which is given by Angstrom seems in the present state of our various branches of physics knowledge of the correlation of the somewhat obscure The planes of cleavage at any rate would probably take up a variety of positions relative to the three axes of elasticity depending on the exact magnitude of the constants of cohesion. Vol (s i. bo Hi 1 it he \v is K H J* (i) He lust investigate in thib field obtained the iollowmg results the illy sec oui Art M t i ujiu Usitioii I) [Mx low i cciUui ciitic il viluc] incrciscs the ti.687 688] ANGS1ROM JOULE 60) 530 475 Stoista ledningsformagan foi varmet Akustiska axeln. pp 225 2tl. thermiska och akustiska fenomener ovillkorhgen hantyda pa tillvaron af snedvink hga elasticitetsaxlar. och att tveitom ej blott fa istallm nas form it tan afven deras opfoska. but . while Section x (p 461) sums up Slutligen och sS. p 219). s& vidt nemligen satsen galler de monoklmoednska kiistallema . att knstaller hafva 3ne ratmnkkga elastwitetsoxlar. ind is lepimted in the Scientific 2 $5 2(>4 Joule commenced to experiment in tit HI </con\ Annul <> o/ Electncity t Vo\ 8. and we should haidly expect them to make any definite angle (such as 45 or 90) with these axes How fai Angstrom's opinion that it is impossible to admit throe i octangular axes of elasticity in crystals of the mouoclinohcdric system is correct must be left to the decision of those who have a wider knowledge of the properties and btiucturc of erystils than the picsent writer lelativc [GcSS] 3 unes Piescott Joule The fiist contribution of this physicist to OUT subject. experimental va.g bevisat owktigheten af det vanhga antagandet.
255). (iii) ilue] (iv) When iron wires are submitted to longitudinal tension and len magnetised. it will For the same reason. regard to the apparently diverse results (iii) and (vi). : oule remarks of the square of the magnetism will still indeed hold good /here the iron is sufficiently below the point of saturation.] In the case of hardened steel wire. fhereas the shortening effect still continues to be augmented with the ncrease of the intensity of the current (pp. mean 254. 2323. The elongation is p perhaps approximately below the critical in the duplicate ratio of the magnetic intensity of the bar. ation.] In a particular experiment with iron wire one foot long and a uarter of an inch in diameter the tension at which magnetisation rould produce no elongation for the electric currents employed in the xperiments was conjectured to be about 600 Ibs. Scientific Papers. ables. aeteris 'f No magnetic influence on strain could be found in the case (viii) copper wires. ndicated above) by . urrent. [Hardly warranted by Joule's wn experiments and scarcely confirmed by later investigators.re JOULE. By this I take Joule 3 . the increase of tension diminishes the elongation due > magnetism and with more than a certain tension increase of magneti produces a shortening effect. Yol. >. It does not perceptibly increase its bulk [ess (ii) owing to a lateral infraction.. the total tension With : see his p. I. on account the magnetism being in that case nearly proportional to the intensity f The law the current. These results of Joule's have been considerably modified (as more recent researches and now light has een thrown on the whole subject by Villari. The bars for which Joule deduced these results were of annealed id unannealed iron and of steel. [Scarcely proven. When iron bars are subjected to pressure the amount of the (v) ressure does not seem to sensibly affect the magnitude of the elongaon due to a given magnetic intensity. on examination of the previous be found that the elongation is. (vii) Shortening effects in the case of iron wire are proportional paribus to the square root of the tension. 232. the shortening effects fere found not to increase sensibly with increase of tension. Scientific Papers. however. ition (vi) The shortening effect when a wire is under tension is very early proportional to the product of the magnetic intensity in the wire ito the current traversing the coil. Cwing and others in memoirs to be discussed later. below the point of satu very nearly proportional to the magnetism multiplied by the The necessity of changing the law arises from the fact that he elongation ceases to increase after the iron is fully saturated . Shclford Bidwell.
like He thus }S2^~ $*) to usist extension only by torsion finds tint foi the steel win the 'foice of torsion is dcci cased 1 wm by heat He and on one of J Thomson (see 00041 by i c. pp 3556. t the absolute temperatuie. Scientific Papers. ment il verific itioiib of Thomson's thormoelastic theory He finds that for inctil pillars and cyhndcis of vulcanised indiarubber heat is evolved by compression and absorbed on removing comHis investigations lead him to detcimme how far prcssivc foice the "force of chshtity in inetals is impaired by heat. cast iron. . the particular formula applicable to the case in question The thermal identical being 11 = j* Pe. a result Joule found in accordance with experiment as well as theory [b90 oj Solids J On the The*) vial Effects of the Longitudinal Compression . and e the coefficient of expansion per 1 (p 355) P The same exactly reveised results occurred with guttapercha. while the iiinnbu foi coppt mil foi eoppei Msulls IK iivcn wiu 00047 OOObDl foi sec kupffci our Ait < found for steel wne 000471 754. 38 5*7. the weight applied. This paper records that experiments on the pp 4057 stretching of inetals showed a deciease of terapeiatuie in the nietal when the load was applied and an increase when it was removed The Joule experiments weie on iron wire. Pioc Royal Soc Vol vm. which was m heated by loading and cooled by unloading Sir William Thomson suggested that loaded vulcanised indiarubber would be found to be shortened when heated. Royal Society. Scientific I Vol pp 4078 In this paper Joule continues his experiPapeis. 1857. uh is device of tinipuatmc' (C).7 the mechanical equivalent of the thermal unit. copper and lead Effects the Thermal writes effects were in all these cases found to be almost with those deduced from Piofessor Thomson's 1 theoretical investigation. and on of stretching Solid Bodies Proceedings of Vol vm." or what in ly Le the effcet of in ikes cxpcmnents on tensile stress on expansion i heheal spiral of steel wire eoppc i our Ait ind he supposes such spirals.> 690] JOUIE 477 [689 entitled the ] The next paper On of Joule's touching on our subject is the The? moelectncity of Ferruginous Metals. where however. but they \\ere the case of vulcanised indiarubber. thcst a d( <H R . where H is the heat absorbed m a wue one foot long. pp 5646.
. 41373.] ivith : m H sphere t = temperature J p= e = longitudinal expansion per degree Centigrade. and w = mass in Ibs. Scientific Papers. Vol.] Frans. etc. constants from Dulong and Values of H in degrees Centigrade. . 91131. pp. [691. On some Thermodynamic Chis contains a detailed 1859. account of experiments similar to those eferred to in the two previous memoirs (see our Arts. s = specific heat. welt to cite the following results." :o " The portion of the memoir which really concerns us begins 18 and is entitled Experiments on the Thermal Effects of Tension Joule made careful experiments to measure the thermal Solids. Thomson [692. total load in Ibs. others he ascertained experimentally for his own specimens. noting that Joule took some of his Petit. pp.1.. As a measure of the coincidence of experiment and theory I think it Centigrade from absolute zero. (negative of coui'se for a tension). heat developed by longitudinal investigate independently the compression and that absorbed on the application of tensile force.78 JOULE. mechanical equivalent of the thermal unit in footpounds. Foule had found that a helical spring showed no sensible thermal changes when compressed. in degrees centigrade due to the stress. Phil. and he compared his ncrease 1 experimental results with the formula of Sir W. and he attributed this to the equal and in its compressed and extended jpposite thermal effects produced At the suggestion of Sir William Thomson. of a foot length of the bar. [691692 Properties of Solids. he undertook Dortions. Lavoisier and Laplace. 68990) >earing on the thermoelastic relations of metals arid indiarubber. CXLIX.
but a few days i est at a tempeiature corisideiably above the freezing point will cause it to become rigid (b) (c) A large amount of elastic after strain exists in india rubbei Moderate stretching weights produce little heat or even a but after a certain weight is reached theie is a i apid increase of heating effect "When by keeping mdiarubbei at lest at a low tempeiatuie foi (d) some time it has become rigid. which might be deduced from Thomson's formula by These conclusions are in accordance with those supposing e negative Besides Gough's con pieviously noted by Joule see our Ait 690 elusions Joule deduces from. as Gough supposed to Joule's (Vol i p 386 ftn (4)). on the contraiy. appears to be exactly contrary expenence. his experiments the following lesults . wlu n undu tension cithei to un md from expand its tanpa ituie wis i used.693694] JOULE 479 Joule next turns to the curious therrno elastic phenomena [693 ] 3358 (Scientific Papers. as the ciso might lx. p 434) (/) The slight cooling effect refeired to in (d) pioduced by weak tensile forces disappears foi vulcanised india lubber when the tempei i ture of the thong is a few degiees higher thin 7 8 C (g) The effect of heat on a thong of india rubbei under tension measured ^ 5058 (Scien predicted by Thomson was expei mentally 43340) and the numbers (p 438) agieed with theoiy tific Papers. a cooling effect takes place as in the metals and gutta percha alight cooling effect. For vulcanised india lubbei lesults similar to (d) hold. pp 429440). pp with a matenal of this kind perhaps as closely as could be expected rise of tcmpeiature lemoves from vulcanised indu iubl>er sot (Ji) od need by caihei expeiiments at high tensions A pi For vulcanised mdiaiubbei // (see om Ait 692) =+137 l>y (i) r of rubbei by use' to + 15 )). but that (e) the specific gravity is increased by stretching it. and hcie agan that wu( gnat diflauiu s . presented by indiarubber which he discusses at considerable length He refers to the discoveries of Gough see our footnote. ind experiment (collected 4oi elongation + 114 by cilculation [694 ] rem ukable sisUnt The sti Joule next turns his ittention to wood which piesents some and leads him to lathei incon the i mo clastic piopeitics ic suits from considoi iblc chstic aftoi discicpincics nose appaiently the effects of moistme on the wood in altering its chstic Ihus different hygioinetnc conditions could ciusc tin \\ood condition 01 contrict. may be exposed to (a) an houi or more without losing its pliability. 45 (Scientific Papers. Yol i p 386 Joule confirms Gough's conclusions. it ceases to be heated when stretched by a weight. for Fahr India rubber softened by warmth. and.
or sec our . volved in degrees Centigrade with that calculated by Thomson's ormula. Evidently the experimental results are somewhat in excess of the Joule attributes this discrepancy to "experimental error r to the incorrectness of the various coefficients which make up the [696. pp. where we omit those or vulcanised indiarubber and wood. . Vol. f a hundred experiments on compression and then of a Jiundred . Scientific paragraphs of the memoir ( an experimental verification of : principle of Thomson's namely that a spring be such that a slight elevation of temperature weakens it. p. 450).^80 JOULE. He also considers that elastic afterstrain 120). last Capers. 690).eneral results are stated in Removal of set by heating and also elastic afterstrain were observed in ohalebone as well as wood 845 (Scientific Papers. heoretical.eel spring ought to be to cool it By taking the mean slightly.. Vol.] The next portion I. 4*713) contain 1226. of Joule's memoir ( 94122. : nd the Now Joule had f found a diminution in the slidemodulus of steel ( '00041 per degree Centigrade 120 of the memoir.] The I.. Scientific pp. i. 45971) is devoted to the Thermal Effects of L'ongi Here again Joule compares the heat udinal Compression on Solids.re analysed : Values of H in degrees Centigrade. but that his is too small to be capable of measurement in his experiments heoretical results" 121). ( rould introduce a small error into the thermoelastic formula. Vol. Capers. Vol. [695.. I. . and he finds the following mean results. pp. [695696 or across the grain. 4546). the apparent agreement in the ase of wood cut across the grain disappearing if the individual results .. full strength is recovered again with the primitive temperature. rork done against that spring by bending or working in whatever way lust cause a cooling effect. Joule's According as the wood was strained with 75 (Scientific Papers.rt. hence the effect of compressing or stretching a helical .
1861 the strength of the materials of the boilers tested and published in the Manchester Proceedings. although falling into a later period On a Method of Testing the Strength of Steam Boilers Memoirs (a) of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. Joule added (pp 579583) some account of experiments on the stiength of These experiments show the silk and spider filaments made in 1870 that silk and large influence of elastic after strain. shall obtain our largest accessions of new facts by reasoning i deductively fiom fundamental principles ( 126. but he found in these numbers sufficient evidence of the truth of the theory and concludes his memoir with the words Thus even m the above delicate case is the formula of Professor Thomson completely verified The mathematical investigation of the thermo metals has enabled my illustrious friend to class of highly interesting phenomena with a whole predict certainty To him especially do we owe the important ad\ance which has been recently made to a new era in the history of science. theoretically it should have been 00403 The threethousandth part of one degree Centigrade as measured by Joule is rather a small quantity to draw definite conclusions from. The effect of moisture tends to obscure if the temperature be raised Numerous expenmental both after strain and tempeiature effects measurements are given On the Alleged Action of Cold in ? endet ing Ii on and Steel bi ittle (c) Manchester Proceedings. become shoiter spidei filaments. 3rd Series. elastic qualities of we when. p 171. Yol x pp 914. Yol p 472) [697] One or two other memoirs of Joule's may be just referred to here. Yol I p 575.697] JOULE 481 on extension Joule was able to measure this slight cooling effect He found it 00306. This contains nothing with regard to Yol I pp 175 and 233. part of steel buttle from (i) Expeiiments which weie in contact with i freezing mixture and pait at about 50 P The wires broke outride the freezing mixtuie These were puie ti \cti\o Ilia Flexuie experiments on steel daimng needles (11) txpeiiments found to be slightly wei sticngth of the metal at 12 F was (b) On a new Magnetic Dip Circle A memoir of this title was md ige . Scientific Papers. Futther Observation* on the Strength of Garden Yol i pp G07610 Nad* will be found on pp 1278 and 1312 of the same volume of the Proceedings. and fuither prove ^hen under tension. when it was lepublished in the Scientific Papers. when the famous and philosophical system of Bacon will be to a great extent superseded. instead of arriving at discovery by induction from experiment. Vol vni 1869. 01 on pp 61013 of the Scientific Papei* Joule bim^s evidence agun&t the hypothesis that cold renders iron on iion and steel wiies. like caoutchouc. 1871. Scientific Papers.
There was a sensible although hardly measurable interval (vi) between the instant of closing the circuit and the instant at which the. in this case the maximum rotation is equal to or less than that produced upon the uncompressed glass. pp. the other the one being twice to thrice the other. Other glasses such as flint and crown exhibit the like pheno mena. He finds the right or to the ]eft Before compression the rotations to (i) are the same for the same intensity according to the sense of the current After compression the one rotation is much greater than of current. 786 and 797 (d). xxvni. The greater rotation is always that which is produced by the 1 the current which acts in the same sense as the compression of passage The maximum rotation of the compressed glass is sometimes (iii) that which occurs when the glass is not greater. 1 The ' rotation due to the compression alone seems to have been measured by the angle through which the NicoPs prism of a biquartz analyse! had to be turned in order that the two halves of the image should have the siiino uoloitr. (iii) Impact experiments on of a steel chisel falling upon blunt the broken edge warden nails. prism (presented to the author by Faraday) A heavy glass field rotated the plane of placed in a strong electromagnetic Matteucci records somewhat vaguely in this polarised light. magnet on the compressed glass is equal to or greater than the electromagnet produces in the uncompressed glass .482 MATTEUCCI. Paris. then the maximum rotation due to the action of (ii) ./* v 8sed glass is equal to or greater than that produced by the compression.] 0. 4939. castiron brittle. by These experiments were the middle of the nail terminally supported.. when the rotation produced by the compression much greater than that which the electromagnet produces in the uncompressed glass. sur ^influence du magn&is'me et sur les phdnombnes diamagn&iques en gMral Annales de Qhimie. (iv) 1 '. sometimes less than is very compressed. note the effect produced on this power of rotation by compressthat ing the glass. Mattexicci holds that this last result will explain to some extent But the why crystals do not exhibit rotatory power in the magnetic field. T. the ^curs when the rotation produced by the electromagnet in the Uuwu . [698 warm and cold castiron than at 55 F. electromagnetic field produces no sensible rotatory action on pieces of crown glass subjected only to slight compression. : . 1850. makes frost that the of favour in not hypothesis [698. ' . The electromagnet further produced no rotatory power in compressed laminae of quartz and annealed glass: see Wertheirn's results cited in our Arts. Matteucci : Swr la rotation de la lumiere polarisfe. When the compression was removed the glass resumed its (v) previous magnetic rotatory power.
quelle que soit la est suspendue horizontalement . elle se dinge dans la ligne des p61es quand les faces comprimees sont verticales. son pouvoir diamagntique face qm eonsid&ablement augmente par la compression Si Taiguille de bismuth a e"te comprimee perpendiculanement a son axe. se dirige toujours 6quatorialement.699701] maximum glass MATTEUCOI This interval was greater it 483 rotation was attained was compressed than when when the was uncompressed [699 ] Matteucci further records some experiments in which he placed vibrating square plates of glass. T Lin pp 385417. et dans la ligne e"quatoriale si les faces comprimees sont honzontales Oette propriete persiste apres avoir chauffe Taiguille de bismuth jusqu'a une temperature pen inferieure a la fusion du metal est Suifenomeni elettromagnetici sviluppati Tomo vn pp 6697. Paris. 1858 Parte I of this memoir is entitled Di un nuovo caso d\n[701] dalla torsione II miovo Gwiento. 1858 Annales de Ghimie. 1853 of the account us which concerns is entitled part Compression du 'bismuth and occurs on p 742 Matteucci writes sur les 7404 of the le sens J'ai trouve* qu'une aiguille pnsmatique de bismuth. brass and iron between the poles of an electro magnet He found that the Chladm figures or system of nodal lines were the same whether the current was passing or not. Gomptes rendus. Matteucci physicist entitled Sur account of a memoir by this ^influence de la chaleur. T xxxvi. C Matteucci duzwne eletti omagnetica (pp 6781) Matteucci begins by Briefly an describing his apparatus and mode of experimenting iron rod supported perpendicular to the magnetic meridian was pKccd in circuit with a galvanometer and to this rod any amount of torsion in Round the rod was either sense could be given four turns of or of three a coil ^ire. whence he aigues that very different groups of atoms (groupes cFatomes) must be affected by the action of magnetism and by the influence of acoustic vibrations (p 499) [700] sion. 1858. Pans. comprime'e dans de son axe. Pisa. de la compres Some phdnomenes diamagndtiques will be found on pp The only Oomptes rendus. Parib. then at the moment when it was stirtcd a small deflection of . T XLVI pp 10214. thiough which a current placed could be sent in either direction and this served to magnetise the rod When a current from two to foui Giove elements was sent lound the coil magnetising a bai of halfhaid iron (Jet i o seimdm o).
484 J to \ a scale division MATTEUCOL [*701 of the secondary circuit. in the reversed sense. che k quella fissata nel centro della ruota. Reversing the magnetising current. After the primary circuit has been opened and closed several times. the phenomena were the same in closes the 1 1 Termed by Mattencci the demngneti*tihon. o 25 gradi secondo la qualita del ferro. Matteucci further notices that when he first twists the bar and then primary circuit he likewise obtains an induced current. we have secondary currents The phenomena repeat themselves so long od is subjected only to elastic torsion. and that its magnitude is more constant for the same torsion than that obtained by reversing the order of proceeding. e tin polo nord air quella estremita estremita opposta. ma diretta in senso Anclie in questo caso la detorsione sviluppa una corrente che e in senso contrario della corrente prodotta dalla torsione corrispondente (pp. the bar reaches a definite permanent magnetisation and the induced currents at closing and opening become the same (p. si ha di nuovo una corrente della stessa intensita di quella ottenuta colla torsione a contrario cioe dal nord al sud nella verga. . however. 71). Like all induced j& the secondary currents vary in intensity with the time in JLL a given torsion is produced. Experiments were also made on steel rods with a greater or less degree of hardness. was exhibited by the galvanometer needle But the result was quite different when a sudden torsion was given to the bar: Perche non vi sia difficolta alcuna a concepire il risultato dell' che per P azione della spirale magesperienza principals. supporremo netizzante si formi un polo sud (o attratto dal polo nord della terra) in della verga che e volta verso T est. and Matteucci attributes this to the residual magnetism (p. zata certa torsione elastica che pub essere di 5 fino a 20. and he supposes that the magnetising coil has greater induction on this bundle of spirals than on the bundle of fibres parallel to its axis. sinistra. P ago del galvanonietro e spinto a 10 o 20 o 30 gradi o piu. 75). 6SV9). L' guardi ago e se allora si fa cessare bruscamente la torsione. Ripetendo la stessa torsione in senso contrario. cio& verso la destra delP osservatore. Matteucci develops in this earlier part of his memoir (p. Opening the primary circuit when the bar is twisted gives a less induced current. in modo che lo zero della ruota giri alia siniatra del? osservatore. P ago indica una nuova corrente in sen so contrario della prima. than the process of magnetising. 713). indicando una corrente diretta nella verga dalP estremita sud all' j torna subito allo zero o al suo pun to d equilibrio estremita nord. SupV osservatore che deve torcere la verga magnetizporremo finalmente che Nel momento in cui & applicata alia verga una la ruota. 70) the theory (rejected by Wiedemann) that the iron bar may be looked upon as a bundle of conducting fibres which are converted into spirals by the torsion (see our Art.
702703] MATTETJCCI 485 geneial character as for the iron rods. have to be drawn from a rather confused mass of experimental statements ' ' m mm . on the latter page are also some statements with Matteucci found that regard to the influence of torsional set or tort foi rods of haid and half hard iron of 4 in length and of diameters of 4 and upwards the current was proportional to the angle of torsion. but the results are not stated with the clearness and precision of Wiedemann's see our Art 714 Indeed the memoir suffers fiom the want of a general statement of results. [703 ] Parte II of the nello stato magnet^co di memoir is entitled Delle vawa. 813 steel et seq) Wertheim had not obtained for rods of cast any diminution of the magnetisation by elastic torsion (see oui Art 814s (ix)). colla detoisione la forza magnetica e ristabilita come prima 2 Dalle relaziom che esistono fra le vauazioni detei inmate dalla torsione e detoisione nella foiza magnetica di una veiga e le coiienti indotte nella spirale esteina. but the induced currents were much less in magnitude On pp 767 we have various experimental results con[702 ] necting the induced current with the length. diameter and angle of torsion of the rod . e dimostiato che quelle variaziom sono la cagione delle corienti stesbe (pp b78) Stc Wiedemmns lesults cited in out Art 714 J Mitteucci says in ignctisation of the rod which he eiioneously takes to be curient piopoitional to the stiength of the prnnaiy Comptib Kwfus T xxiv p 307 . are given on pp 7981. la quale per&iste per tutto il tempo in cui la toisione dura . and the legg^ determinate to which Matteucci lefers on p 81. to be compaied with Wiedemann's results in our Arts 7134 Matteucci found that the induced currents due to twisting did not inciease in proportion to the strength of the primary curient 1 but began to dimmish after this reached a certain intensity (cf Wiedemann in our Art 714) Further conclusions as to the difference in magnitude of the currents induced. see his p 77. but Matteucci asserts (p 83) that he has found a variety of small variations of the magnetisation with torsion m caststeel bars He sums up the conclusions to be drawn from the bcaicely sufficient experiments recorded in this part as follows La torsione ela&tica di una verga magnetizzata a satuiazione 1 deteimma una diminuzione nella sua foiza magnetica. and he further concluded that set had not the power of developing a current. according as untwisting was followed by the opening of the primary circuit or the reverse older was adopted.zio?ii una verga di fen o prodotte dalla torsione (PP 828) Matteucci opens this Parte with an historical rdsumd of his own 2 and Wertheim's earlier investigations (see our Arts 812 and 811.
957 of the memoir Matteucci records [705. This portion of the memoir. diameter.] When Ewing and others.] Parte zione deifenomeni descritti. These results become more intelligible in the light of tho later researches of Villari. not seem to meet the objections which vague reasoning which does Wiedemann has raised against it see our Art. The memoirs of Wertheim and Wiedemaan are models of physical research. described in the second part of the memoir. proceeds only be produced in iron 'bundle of fibres' theory. (pp. netisation of annealed and increase that of hard iron wire. but we must confess to broken by a symbol or a formula finding Matteucci's letterpress. magnetising circuit) the currents obtained by stretching or unstretching the iron wire were much stronger than when the magnetising current was flowing. 168247. had not that relating to the influence : facts and clearly stating the power of marshalling his experimental conclusions to be drawn from them which is characteristic of both his French and German rivals in the same field. uo trace of a current along the wire was observed at the moment when it was stretched or unstrctclied. one in circuit with a galvanometer. a stretch indicated an increase of magnetisation for annealed in the same way as for hard iron wire. the changes in the magnetisation of the wire due to the stretch. These phenomena were most marked in annealed iron wire. Verhandlungen der naturforscliendeu Uesellschaft in Basel. die Bieyuny mid den Magnetisms. [704706 : III.. n. namely: that each develop a second fibre is a separate iron rod and that these rods after being converted into magnets are then twisted by the torsion round the current in the This theory is supported by rather direction of the axis of the bundle. 713. Matteucci measured by means of a certain astatic system. wearisome reading. [706. 8897) of the memoir is entitled tipiega[704. while doubtless the first to discover many of stress upon magnetism. Basel. 1860. and the other used for magnetising j on the stretching or unstretching of the wire when magnetised an induced current was observed in the galvanometer. circuit A an iron wire magnetised by a surrounding coil was put in with a galvanometer.486 MATTBUOOL WIEDEMANN. On the whole Matteucci. after a remark that the phenomena of induction described in the preceding parts can to and some other magnetic bodies. . G. of two spiral coils. Wiedemann: Ueber die Torsion. but the induced currents were in the opposite sense to those in the Thus stretching appeared to diminish the magcase of hard iron wire. points some In a footnote on pp. never and only occasionally relieved by a thin scattering of experimental numbers. S. and he found induced currents corresponding After demagnetisation (? opening the to the changes in magnetisation. If the current in the magnetising coil were however broken. Vol.] earlier results as to the effect of stretching three magnetised iron wire was placed along the common axis wires of 1 '5 mm.
1859 S 235244. 1859 S 183201. taltigst jedc Jiibcliuttuung deb Apparateb T b 174) This passage enables us without of apparatus to giasp his method describing Wiedemann's The mteivalb which proceduie . 1859 S 174183. deren die Eme Resultate ich im Folgenden mitzutheilen mu erlaube (S is 169) [708] The first section of the memoir a. dieses Appaiates welche stets so lauge wiikten. cvi. S 439448. cvi. Stoffe wurden mit Hulfe L toidirt. cvn. occupies S 16984 The section opens with . cvi. ung der inagnetischen Metalle von den dieselbe bewirkenden magnetisiienden Baal ten Ich habe deshalb die Gesetze dei Torsion und Biegung der Koiper emeiseits ebenso wie die der Magnetisirung des Eisens und Stahles anderseits in dieser Beziehuiig einer neuen Untersuchung unteiworfen. a. apparatus employed (S 16972 mann continues Diahte von verschiedenem duich aufsteigende Gewichte bis der and an account of the S 1614). 1859 cm. 1859 cvi. S 170174.707 708] WIEDEMANN 487 This important paper was lepioduced a lather fragmentary manner in various volumes of Poggendorfs Annalen The following scheme shows the corresponding pages and will enable the reader to whom only the Annalen aie accessible to identify our quotations m VerhcMidlungen S S S S S S S S 169172 172184 184193 193196 and S 2017 197201 207223 223227 227247 cite the = Bd = Bd =Bd =Bd = Bd =Bd =Bd = Bd Poggendorff 1855 S 161164. 1857 c. 1858 S 563577. Die diesei Diaht eme constante Torsion angenommen hatte JBeUstuiig L eutsprechende tempoiait Toision L des Diahtes wuide au Nach dem Heben der drehenden Gewichte dei Kreistheiluiig abgeltsen wuidc wiedeium emigc /eit gewaitet. (a) (a) () (y) (a) (S) (a) (a) We shall [707 ] account of pages of the Annalen by the Greek letters his Wiedemann commences its memoir with the following object Eeihe von Beobachtungen hatte mich vermuthen lassen. cvi. S 164168. wie die Magnetisu. dass durch mechanische Mittel hervorgebiachten Aenderungen der Gestalt der Korper nach ganz ahnlichen Gesetzen von den dieselben bedmgenden ELratten abhangen. and then Wiedeentitled Toision. wieder toidiit u b f vermieden (S 1723. bis die ziuuckbleibende peima ^cunittelst dei Spiegel ibltsung be&timmt wurde neutc Torbion Q N icli dti Torsion deb Diahtes wuide ei allmahlig chuch entgegengesetzt Dabei wurde soig diehtiide Gewiohte detuitlirt.
anticipate so much of Bauschinger's later work that we cite them here : unbent be bent by a series of increasing which the rod exhibits while subjected to these loads increase more rapidly than the loads. The bent duo to the maximum load decreases gradually to a definite limit after On the repeated loadings. torsion and general statement of conclusions for considering the sixth section of the memoir. being greater for small loads than in the first case. 183). as we shall return to a (a.488 elapsed between the WIEDEMANN. shows that results and occupies S. [709 experiments served to remove as far as Wiedemann's experiments were upon possible elastic afterstrain. annealed iron and brass wires the numerical results of his experi.] magnetism when The second section of the memoir It is entitled : Biegung. 43948). are given on S. certain clusions for torsion including temperature effects. 17884 quellen behafteten Versuche. ments are given on 1757) and they are in part His general conhis Plate I. 4446). then the bents do not increase so much more rapidly than the loads as is the case in the first bending . 1845 mann's apparatus is described on S. 43940). S. Wiedesimilar to those holding for torsion hold S. its If the rod after the first bending and (iv) unbending is repeatedly bent and unbent. on the contrary they become more and more nearly proportional to the loads. 4424) and the general conclusions on These are of such great interest and S. S. [709. S. His experiments were made on annealed brass rods builtin at one end and bent in a horizontal plane. 18991 (A S. Wilkins ot a *au obstinate heart. the elastic flexures After removal of the loads the rod exhibits flexural sets or these begin with the smallest loads and increase in a far more rapid ratio than the corresponding loads. other hand the load necessary for unbending the rod increases with 1 Isaac Walton uses Hooker for the set of this word of a fishing rod. (i) If a rod previously loads. S. (ii) 1 bents j (iii) If a bent rod have tion of reversed loads. The numerical details are given on S. of 3 represented graphically in Fig. for flexure also. which are methods based on less careful experimental (mit manchen FehlerS. 1747 (a. then the bent decreases somewhat than the loads increase.' bow and Kichard . 17783). I do not cite them here. To produce complete unbending a smaller load is bent removed (entboyen) by the applicamore slowly considerably necessary than that which produced bending. 1879 (/3. 18493 (& S. (13.
then to bung the rod again to the bent B' the load L will be again needful (vn) B U If a rod be shaken while subjected to a bending load. ditstlbe d i ansetzt. wo ebon fin bestimmte Beobithtun^inttliotlen sofcru die peimuicntcn (Jestiltvei uideiungen dei Jvoipci siohtbn wtidcn (b 192. and an unbending load of 211 left a bent of only 1. if it be shaken after the lemoval of the If a rod be bent and then deprived load.L depnves a rod of bent. the other series being carried on continuously and theiefore their results were probably somewhat affected by aftei strain see S 188 (ft S 443) of the memoir It is obvious that if a definite load . fe 4478) foi and 767 both toision and flexuie Wiedemann leniarks that it depends meiely on the sensibility of our apparatus \\hethei we are able or not to measuie the bet of the smallest loads (see our Ait 1296*) x gcwolmlich _ wioniinihn Begrift dei sogeninntcn T nui flu die Pi IMS willkuLiilich uugefulutci. by by opposed brought to L be brought to a bent B" which lies between B and B'. shaking produces anew a bent in the sense of the initial bent These toision The temperatuie see our results are at least qualitatively the same as for torsion effect is not so gieat in the case of flexure as in that of Art 754 practical value of [710] The these results has only been fully by the more elaborate experiments of Bauschinger on laiger masses of matenal. Dcmmcli ist dei A mm fisst. but after repeated operations the same bending and unbending loads produced a bent of only 44 8 and left a bent of 24 4 If a lod has been so often bent and unbent that the same (v) bending load always produces the same bent.710] WIEDEMANN 489 now repeated loading and unloading the load which lemoved the first bent leaving a residual bent Thus in one set of experiments with Wiedemann's units a bending load of 240 produced a bent of 89. dm dims em m ftb 447) . this decreases the bent of bent by reversed load. which possesses a bent (which may be 0) be B' a and then load bent load a to another Z. then when the rod is left to rest for awhile. (vi) neither this load nor any less load repeated in the same direction as L will gi\ e the rod a bent in the direction opposite to that of the But the load + L on the contrary will pioduce a greatei hrst bent or less bent of the rod = If a rod. it returns a little towards its primitive condition This result was onlv based on one expeiiment Indeed in these experiments on flexuie upon only one occasion was 15 hours left between two series. this (vui) increases the elastic flexure . but Wiedemann certainly diaws fiom his rnoie limited range of expenments conclusions which to some extent anticipate bi ought out those of the caieful Munich technical elastician see also our Aits 740 These aie given on S 1913 of the memoii (ft.
Magnetismus been considered Wertheim had our Arts. magnetism and the effect of temperature on magnetism.490 WIEDEMANN. 714. and this accordingly may be noted here . been reduced to a vanishingly small range. : IV. and embraces ease. S. already (see by problem [712. [711 712 Thus if a body be bent to set and afterwards deprived of bent. be a sensible set.] Section : 81118). as we have frequently To obtain a state of noted. of Wiedemann's memoir is entitled: Magneti[711. 1 or torted to set and afterwards deprived of tort. in S. Wiedemann confirms and extends Wertheim's conclusions. Thus although we return to a state of no torsion or flexure. (S. changed in character. and this process be on the bending or torting by any less load there will always then repeated. This deals with the problems of temporary and residual 5636). of no apparent strain. : as to the 1 I use the noun tort for torsional set processes of twisting and untwisting part of the strain produced. measuring the changes in magnetisation by direct magnetometric means and not as Wertheim by induced currents in a coil surrounding the rod. and results Wiedemann commences by quoting Wertheim's : torsions in iron magnetic equilibrium produced by repeated and steel bars see our Art. no load less than in the same sense will produce any set. 56671). but to discuss them here would lead us beyond our limits see our Art. S. other hand if a set has been produced by a load L. 235244 and 8. 21016. The only result of this section which is not citud in the Lut v. general results of the sixth section is iv. for one ' ' On the sense of loading. What we term the state of ease has. S. L L s in the opposite sense to Zx and then a load z which just undoes the bent or tort produced L we have taken results will be still more apparent as in the course of our History to further experimental investigations bearing on the state of ease. The results obtained are very similar to those obtained for elastic strain and set in the previous sections of the memoir. y. L marks the elastic limit or state of ease. is entitled Einfluss der Torsion auf den der Stahlstdbe This (S. 814.] sirung von Msen und Stahl (S. that the elastic condition of the material has quite is. which starts from the position of no apparent strain a load L we must proceed as follows L : lt First apply a load in the same sense as by La) thus L^ by (vii) will not produce any set provided jL2 so great that Ls is greater than L^. 216 S. S. 193210. 571). The suggestiveness of these we come Section m. and the verbs to tort and to detort for the when it seems advisable to emphasiwe th toit . which becomes more nearly proportional to the load as the process ticity. There is here then no limit of elasis more often repeated. Thus.
we shall not specially cite them now . gives in grammes weight a meabiue b 1678) the detoitmg . S. S 183201) magnetism and torsion which. S 1648) The influence of magnetism Iron reducing torsional set or tort is here noted and measured wires which have no tort do not appear to be twisted by magnetism As most of the results of this section are restated in the following [713] Section m section. howcareful attention from those interested in the mutual relaevei. and a. but at the same time he notes the great difficulties which stand m the way of experimental investigation (S [714] 227) The sixth and final section of the memoir is entitled Vergleichung der Resultate und Versuck einer Theorie (S 22747. S 5717. We first find a comparison of the properties of a. S 5767) At the conclusion of the section the author promises in a future paper to deal with the influence of bending on magnetism. 8. contains a good deal of matter novel at the time I reproduce it heie Torsion 1 The temporal y toisions of a 1 Magnetism The temporary magneti&a wne twisted foi the hrst tune by increasing loads increase more rap idly than these loads 2 The torsional &etb or torts of the wire mciease still more rapidly tions of a bar magnetised for the first time by increasing galvanic cuiientb mcieabe moie lapidly than the intensity of those cunents 2 i tions of the bai increase ipidly oi The peimanent magnetisa btill moie 1 On S 227 Wiedemanu torce ot magnetism m a special ca&e (a. they deserve. although pressed rather far. pioduced by a rise of temperature within those limits is lestoied when the bar is again cooled to the previous temperature v of the memoir is entitled Emflusg der Magnetisirwng auf die Torsion der Eisen. magnetism and set 1 Wiedemann gives cogent reasons for Matteucci's rejecting hypothesis that an iron wire may be looked a as of bundle upon parallel fibres.und Stahldrahte (S 21727. which are converted by torsion tions of into spirals and which magnetisation by producing mutual repulsion again straightens He also rejects the see our Art 704 can be due to the heat the observed that hypothesis phenomena produced in the wiie by magnetisation (S 2223.713714] WD3DEMANN 491 If by torsion more magnetism be withdrawn from a steel bai than could be withdrawn by lepeated changes of temperature within definite limits (in the experiments to 100 then any loss of magnetism ).
and load b. magnetism B B and afterwards be brought to any other magnetisation C. 192200 (a. These statements are thus very far from representing accurately the complete results of his purely magnetic experiments. to obtain the magnetisation B again we have only to apply the name current b.J cannot by repetition of tensity this current be magnetised in a sense opposite to that of the initial magnetisation. it. By and repeated tortings torts of the wire approach nearer and nearer prothe corresponding portionality with The torts are greater than loads. By repeated application of the same torting and detorting L' the maximum of loads L and tort reached by the torting sinks and the minimum reached by the detorting rises to a certain definite limit. then to obtain the torsion again we have only to apply the same Here A can be zero. torted wire. if magnetised beyond the limits of the repeated magnetisations and demagnetisa The wire. and afterwards be brought to any other torsion C. will be found on S. which lies between A and B^ then. 8. . and />' greater or less than A\ 1 Important qualifications of the above statements as to magnetisation. than. To completely detort [714 the 3. the load L. B greater or less than A. tions are greater By at the first torting. 6. if mag A 7. S. the permanent magnetisations approach nearer and nearer proportionality with the intensity of the magnetising currents. The current + J mag A netises it. tions. if torted beyond 6. ever. By repeated application of the same magnetising and demagJ' the netising currents J and maximum of magnetisation reached by the magnetising sinks and the minimum reached by the demagnetising rises to a certain definite limit. cannot by repetition of this load be torted in a sense opposite to that of the initial tortThe load + L torts it. conducts itself as netised for the first time. detorted by 7. however. which is demagnetised by a current of in. in the first sense. required than to magnetise 4. especially Wiedemann apparently omits of 14. which lies between A and /?. The bar. 1723). magnetised bar. wire a much less load is required the bar a To completely demagnetise much weaker current is it. the limits of the repeated tortings and detortings. in the first sense. detortings the repeated magnetisations and demagnetisations of a bar. WIEDEMANN. 5. conducts itself as if torted for the first time. howing. Here A can be zero. to tort 4. them in this resume as he wishes only to emphasise the correspondences between torsion and magnetisation.492 3. If a wire having the tort be brought by the load b to the torsion 5. A If a bar having permanent A be brought by the current b to the magnetisation 8. The magnetisathan at the first magnetising. 5.
slight it exhibits magnetisation rises at fiist by an increase demagnetised.714] WIEDEMANN 493 9 Shaking (Erschuttwung) during the application of a twisting load increases the torsion of a wire 9 Shaking during the application of a magnetising current increases the magnetisation of a bar 10 shaking The tort of a wire after release of the load is lessened by 10 The residual magnetisation in a bar aftei cessation of the current is lessened by shaking 11 11 torted and then partially detorted bar loses part of its tort by shaking or gams toit afresh according to the magnitude of the detoiting A A partially magnetised and demagnetised bar then loses still more of its magnetisation by shaking or gains magnetism afiesh accoiding to the magnitude of the demagnetisation 12 creases Tort in an iron wire de 12 Residual magnetisation in a but to its magnetisation. by the opposite sense a of residual magnetisa toited wne which has 15 been slightly detorted loses by mag netisation A 15 magnetised bai which has been slightly demagnetised loses A much less of its toit by torsion much less of its mag one winch has only been If the wire be further toited than netism than one winch has only been magnetised If the bai be fuithei at hist of ci detorted. pio duces afiesh a large decrease of the A posite sense. in a ratio decreasing with in owing owing to torsion. but in a ratio decreasing with increasing tor&ion steel bar decreases creasing magnetisation 13 Repeated magnetisations in the same sense scaicely continue to deciease sensibly the tort of a wire magnetisation in the op A 13 Repeated torsions in the same sense scarcely continue to decrease sensibly the residual magnetisation of a steel bar torsion in the opposite sense. this l>y in easing toision uses to a mixi and then decreases The moic the bai his been dc . then by toision in one sense torsion it in minimum tion sho^vs a maximum. it exhibits by slight toi sion an increase of toit. then by magnetisation in one sense the wire shows a maximum and by magnetisation in the opposite sense a minimum of toit 14 14 If a bar by i epeated torsion and detorsion is so fai demag netised as is possible by the given range of tor&ion. howevei. howevei. this netis ition by increasing mag to i maximum The more the ind tlun dcci eases wire h is 1>< n detort< d the < mum its mignetis ition. produces afresh a large decrease of the tort magnetisation If a wne by repeated mag netisation in opposite senses is so far detorted as is possible by the given range of magnetisation.
ordinary temperature loses residual magnetisation by heating and regains a part of its loss on cooling. If the wire has been very much detorted. The changes increase with increasing tort.494 WIEDEMANtf. After repeated changes of temperature the bar reaches a stable condition in which a definite residual magnetisation corresponds to each temperature. Its tort on cooling is less than before if the detorting has been slight. then magnetisation increases even on the application of very great its maximum. If the wire is shaken before the first cooling. A wire torted at the or A dinary temperature and then partly detorted. its and decreases again magnetisations. to reach this then its tort increases even on the application tisation. bar magnetised at the 17. ( )n a second warming it loses still further and only by the second cooling re If the l>ai gains a part of its loss. it gains at once in tort. ised the greater torsion in order [714 the reach this If the bar has been to must be the magnetisation in order must be maximum. very much torsions. 18. still further and only by the second cooling regains a part of its loss. Its on cooling is less wire torted at a higher 19. After repeated changes of tem perature the wire reaches a stable condition in which a definite tort corresponds to each temperature. for greater increases for slight magnetbut decreases again for greater tor 17. decreasing as the temperature rises. . The changes are proportional to the magnetisation. of very great magne demagnetised. it gains at once in magnetisation. A bar magnetised at a higher temperature loses residual magnetisation on cooling. while subject to the twisting load. A 19. demagnetised. then its torsion increases for slight If a steel bar be twisted 16. it is greater if the detorting has been large. ordinary temperature. loses by heating so much the less of its tort the more it has been detorted. A wire torted at the or dinary temperature loses tort heating and regains a part of loss by its on cooling. decreasing as the temperature rises. If a wire be magnetised 16. while under the influence of a magnetising current. isation sions. bar magnetised at the and then partly demagnetised loses by heating so much the less of its residual magnetisation the more it has been magnetisation than before if the demagnetisation has been slight. it is greater if tho demagnetisation has been large. is shaken before the iirst cooling. A 18. temperature loses tort on coolOn a second warming it loses ing.
a. one of which portions. the most important previous investigators in this field see our Arts 7015 and 8118 especially comparing 12 and 13 above with (u). (vi) and (vii) of Arts 8134 It will be seen that the laws of torsi onal set (tort) which is what Wiedemann lefers to when he speaks generally of a wire being "torted" in the above analysis are similar to those of flexural set (bent). of this type of descuptive (as distinguished from quanti tative) reasoning leaves the mind almost as unsatisfied after as before. he supposes the ultimate magnetic element to be a polar molecule. S 201) They do not. erne Abnahme der pennanenten Torsionen und Magnetisirungen bewirken (S 239 a. and Wiedemann himself freely acknowledges that his theoietical con The perusal siderations do not fully explain all the observed phenomena (S 247. und es mussen Erschutterungen eine Zunahme der temporaren. die Reibung der Euhe zwischen ihnen wird gewissermassen erne Reibung der Bewegung verwandelt Daher werden in alien Fallen die Theilchen mehr den gerade auf sie wirkenden Kraften folgen konnen.716] WIEDEMANN RESAL 495 A conception of the advance made by Wiedemann may be formed by comparing the above statements with those of Matteucci and Wertheim. The object of the memoir is the discoveiy of an expresp 450) sion for the littu A\oik in the cast of homogeneous bodies . T LI pp 44950. i educe in the least the value of the experimental part of this important memoir Recherches sw les eftets mfoamques produits [716] Eesal dans les cotps par la chaleur Comptes rendus. 1860 Pans. howevei. two The heat expended is then divisible into pressure to be heated does work against the uniform piessure. a. the other does internal work (travail que Von peut consideiei comme le resulted dn developpement OIL de I mtt oduction dans le si/steme matenel de nouvelles foices violecidaw es essentiellement tepuhwes. S 189201) Weber. This is an abstract from a memoir presented to the Academy The author supposes a body which is submitted to a uniform surface . S 193) m . and their investigation constitutes a wide field for reseaich which is only in the present decade being thoroughly explored [715] On the basis of these analogies Wiedemann attempts a mechanical as distinguished from a hydromechamcal or aetker^al ex Like planation of magnetisation (S 23347. and the axes of these molecules to be initially turned in all conceivable directions He then attempts by general descriptive reasoning to account foi the above relations and analogies between As a type of the general reasoning I quote the magnetism and strain W following paragraph Erschutterungen setzen die Theilchen der Korper in Bewegung.
ticitdtsmoduls S. wie ihre Dehnungsquotienton (S.] Hermann Vogel: Ueber vom Atomgewicht. These two sets of ratios will not necessarily be equal unless we presuppose uniconstant isotropy. in demaelben Verhaltnisse xu einander stehen. in der Richtung der Lange wirkende. and even if there wore no heat expended in raising the temperature. Yogel denotes by Dehnungsquotient the reciprocal of our stretchmodulus. for the amount of heat communicated not only dilates the body but also raises its temperature. cine constante Grosse. 230). to and in unit quantity therefore an extension a.. but neither the theoretical reasoning nor the numerical results are satisfactory. 1st nun die Arbeit. the extensions which different metals receive from unit quantity of heat ought to be as the reciprocals of their dilatationmoduli rather than as those of their stretch inorlnli. w specific weight. Bd. welcho verschiedeno Metallc durch die Warmeeinheit erfahren. heat of a volume of water equal to that of the rod being unity. so werden die Ausdehnungen. Leipzig. die Abhangigkeit des ElasCXI. nor do I understand how [717. VOGEL. then This amount of heat the amount of heat in the metal rod equals cw. der Gewichtseinheit gleiche Kraft eine Ausdehnung. I860. welche die Warmeeinheit zu leisten vermag. 229239. heat and The quantity of unit crosssection and unit (1 absolute) temperature. w Yogel then continues : Derselbe Stab erleidet durch eine. die man den Dehnungsquotienten nennt. is dilatation. c = specific heat. Let a be the coefficient of linear thermal expansion. Tt is possible of course if the amount of heat used in [718. Annalen der Physik. and the first paragraph is intelligible. c the specific the specific weight of a prismatic metal rod of unit length.496 RESAL. No it is proof deduced.] raising temperature be proportional to the total amount of heat applied to a . given of this formula. dehnende. but I do not understand the second. length equal produces of heat produces an extension equal to a/(cw). This is an endeavour to find a relation between the stretchmodulus and the coefficient of thermal expansion. it [717718 in solids : Resal gives the following expression for ' STTC where a = coefficient of linear = E stretchmodulus.
7 namely that the pioduct of the reciprocal of the stretch modulus (coefficient d'elasticite) and the atomic weight 01 a This would only be tiue multiple of the atomic weight is a constant to in our the latios of the accoiding to Yogel's theoiy on the assumption that 2 As a matter values of aE /w for the metals weie as whole numbers 5 3 foi iron. the product of the stretch modulus. a relation a Ea. . the mean value being 7 716. A ausgenommen. which may be due to error in the theory. mnerhalb gewisser Granzen schwanken und noch dazu von verschiedenen Beobachtern an verschiedenen Metallstucken be stimmt worden smd. exactly The minimum is 1 85 for lead and agreeing with its value for silver the maximum 3 18 for zinc Below zinc stands iron with 2 79. to the fact that the quantities were not determined from the same specimens of metal. (i) then the pioduct of the stretch modulus and the atomic weight or a multiple of it is constant . Hence. silver and tin 15 of fact they aie neaily as 30 follow Yogel diaws as easy corollaries from his foimula the (S 235) ing statements If the values of a/w are in a veiy simple ratio to each other. the coefficient of thermal expansion. (11) Or. if A be the Ac = & constant . a constant . 01. Art 1184*. dass alle in der Formel EaAjw enthaltenen Werthe. the atomic weight and the reciprocal of the specihc weight is a constant The The exactitude of (11) seems even less than that of (i) constant is 6 03 for lead. ist eine solche Ueberemstimmung immerhm merkwurdig genug(S 233) [720 ] Yogel then draws attention to a result of Masson's referred .719720] form VOGEL 497 of the body that we may have. copper. on the uni constant hypothesis. rising to 10 22 for zinc. which is not very diffeient from that for tin (7 69) Yogel remarks of these results In Anbetracht des Umstandes. [719 ] atomic weight. it must follow that w MaA = . a (i) ' cw =a constant worth while noting what numerical results Yogel gives the metals the mean value of JZa/(cw) = 2 44. or to the need of replacing the stretchmodulus by the dilatation modulus it is Hence finds He for According to Dulong and Petit and Regnault. and above lead aie platinum with 2 01 and gold with 2 10 Thus the presumed constant has a rather wide range.
in the case of copper and silver. 1299*) that E /A\s J ( is approximately constant for metals. Yogel wj (A\% silver. } . T.] will be found accounts of the researches in elasticity carried on by In 1860 he published the first volume of a Kupffer. Thus arose the Compte rendu annuel of the Observatoire physique Tn these Comptes rendus for the years 1850 to 1801 central. the values of a/w are = 397391 for copper. If for different metals Ea is constant.498 VOGEL. great work entitled: Reclierches exp6rimentales Hiir Velastidte den mdbuw i . 238). still the numerical results of his paper are sufficient to show that careful experimental investigation in this field might lead to the discovery of results of great value. sondern nur von annahernder Uebereinstimmung der Werthe von A/w und von Ea die Rede seyn (S. Kupffcr as Director.1 Vogel in conclusion refers to Wertheim's result (see our Art. Memoirs with Zoppritzs of Kupffers theoretical Discussion Results. while the values of Ea are 2458 and 2157 respectively. in the case of iron and copper. A/w =3*6. According to the rules the Director had to furnish a yearly report on the experiments conducted in the Observatory as well as on other matters to the Minister of Finances. 1388*. 236). faites a V observatoire physique central de Ruwie. kann hier nicht von absoluter. and = 409482 very nearly equal. [721 722 For example. KUPFFER. While Vogel's theory is wanting in accuracy. which are in some respects akin to his own see our Art. In 1849 the Russian government established a Central Physical Observatory in St Petersburg and appointed A. and for this reason the paper has been more fully referred to here than He : at first sight it appears to deserve. then their specific (ii) volumes (or the values of A/w) are equal. does not refer to Person's results. and he himself admits that his formulae must not be pressed too far. and we have EA for silver. Natiirlich [721. GROUP Kupffer's B. For example. [722. He shows that for iron and cadmium there is some approach to this law (S. Tome St .
01 that 8 mciei&es If this be so. will be found in the above mentioned Oomptes rendus up to 1861 see also our Art 1389* After this date in ceased and died 1865 they Kupffer Separate memoirs by to the 185060 are also considered in Kupffer belonging period our Arts 74557 His researches are among the most elaborate and careful that have ever been made on the elasticity of metals shall commence our consideration of them by noting points in the Gomptes rendus not embraced in the volume of 1860 We Annie 1850 (St Petersburg. 1851) Cotnpte rendu annuel aie occupied with a description of the apparatus recently erected and of the experiments made on the elasticity of metals at the new obscivatory The toisional experiments referred to are chiefly The experiments on those of the memoir of 1848 see our Art 1389* flexure are the earliest of the series descubed in the woik of 1860. where E is the stietch Elsewhere in the Recherche* he uses 8 01 irS' and terms it modulus On p 299 of the RpcheiJie* the dilatation elastique (pp xv and xxxi) he & lys let /3 = V accroi^sement du coefficient de dilatation elattique. and such fashion that he evidently then uses a foimuh involving ft and 8 His expenments means 8 to bo the coefficient de dilatation da^tique modulus (and piesumably the slide leally go to show tint the stietch modulus) d( creases with increase of the tempeiature. namely the determination of the stietch modulus by the tiansverse One or two points may be noted oscillations of a clamped fiee icd [723 ] Pp 111 (a) Kupffer as a lule uses in his experiments the symbol 8 (some8') times for the extension of a lod of unit length and unit ladius On p 9 of the cross section) under the traction of unit force (circulai ou 8 designe le coefficient Compte rendu for 1850 he gives a formula On p 19 of the Rechetche* expw nnentales he d'elasticite du metal' ' coefficient d'elasticite* que Ton appelle ordmairement le = l/(7r#). and partly that of the proposed succeeding volumes. ground of this volume. he must in the in with incieise of tempeiature i our Ait 1395* mean by coefficient of the memoir of 1&48 cited writes 'on designe pai 1/8' ce Heie 8 or 8' m 1 m *2 2 . KUPFFEK 1860 of 499 is This first volume devoted to the ex flexure and the transverse vibrations of perimental study elastic laminae with a view to the discovery of the elastic A second volume was to be devoted properties of metals especially to metals prepared in Russia and a third to torsion and torsional oscillations Further Kupffer promised to consider the resistance of metals strained beyond their elastic limit and also up to rupture Only the first volume of this important work was ever published experiments partly covering the .723] Petersburg.
to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat from the force necessary to produce a given stretch. [724 the quantity 8. it is occasionally difficult to understand what Kupffer 4 * means by In the present notice of his experiments (p. 5). puisque la Societe Royale des Sciences de Gottingue en a fait une question de prix les . 1395* the words slidemodulus increases' and 'is probably increased' should be reslidemodulus decreases' and 'is probably decreased' placed by This confusion in terms is not confined to the coefficient respectively. avec une tr6s grande precision. n'estce i)as dvaluer en poids la force mecanique de la chaleur ? (p. Nous avons vu dans mme . lorsque avaient dej'k signaie Les experiences de M.e. second point worth noting is a suggestion. 4) he refers in the results on the relation of temperature to following words to Wertheim's the elastic moduli (see our Arts. but I fail to see that it is properly applicable to the present problem. In the first place Kupffer makes an appeal to the theorem. et la loi qu'il a trouvee n'est pas aussi simple que celle que je viens d'enoncer mais comme nos valeurs ont ete obtenues par des methodes d'obelles ne sont pas exactement comparables.500 d'elasticite KUPFFER. summing up la force elastique his results. M. et le sera assure'ment. 5) : Ces mmes experiences [i. question a encore besoin d'etre traitee a fond. Cette servation tres differences. This is easily proved on the uniconstant hypothesis. by which Kupffer deduces the mechanical equivalent of heat seems to me very doubtful. where it would seem we ought to deal with equal quantities of work spent in those : . due to Poisson. however. The reasoning. The same numerical results as are here given are repeated in a paper in the Bulletin. a term which he freely uses in pour 1'annee 1852. although both in that memoir and in the This really Eecherches he defines this coefficient as either 1/8 or 1/8'. d'elasticit^ . and the agreement of his value for it with Joule's must I think be looked upon as a happy coincidence.] believe for the first time. . 745. Wertheim est arrive a des resultats fort differents des miens. la dilatation qu'un fil eprouve par Faction d'un poidw ovaluer fil ensuite la dilatation de ce par la chaleur. mes experiences cette influence pour de grands interyalles de temperature etaient assez rigoureuses pour la preciser pour les differences de temperature de 10 & 15 R. Hence in follows from the results in our Arts. qui augmente. that the same traction applied to the terminal sections of a bar produces double the stretch that it would do if applied all over* the surface. 1298* and 1301*. du metal. made I (6) [724. Wertheim et reciproquement. elastique des fils m^fcalliques. but the reasoning there is somewhat different see our Art. those on torsion^ of 1848] m'ont fait voir que changements de temperature exercent une influence sensible sur la force la temperature diminue. the remarks following the citation in our Art. It is contained in the following words : A ce qui precede qu'on peut determiner. 1392* and 1396*.
b 3737 Helmholtz demur in 1852 icmarks that the argument of the famous bt Petersburg physicist is too biiet to be open to intelligent criticism and he shows that Kupffer s foimula is He doe& not identical with any ot the known equations of Thermodynamics not howevei. specifique et d la densitd du nous aurons done 1'expression wmd/(2ad ) pour et corps elastique. qu'il faut pour elever de cylindre d'eau. S 01 just as they were cited the Philobopluud Magazine PogyendoiJ}* Amialcn and othei journals without In the I ot tochnttt. d'apres 1'hypothese cette Un m6me umt mme R que nous avons adopted plus haut. qui produit cet allongement est e*gal & wmd/d ou w est la a 80 E la temperature d'un quantity de chaleur. f . dont la longueur et le rayon sont e'gaux & Fumte'. comme lorsque les effets sont ^gaux. and in doing so let H' be the amount ol heat communicated to the refrigerator. for in the case of a pure elastic strain we have the body at tomperatuie say. nous aurons eVidemment p=wnidl(%ad'} nous avons aussi p 1/5 (p 6) * J'appelle densit6 le poids de I'umt6 de d est la densite de 1'eau* la quantity de chaleur. est allonge* de (c'est k dire d'un pouce). dont la hauteur et le rayon sont e'gaux & I'umte'. Die Lelue von dir 1 nexjie. m la chaleur . then the heat equivalent to the mechanical strain would Theie is. and k the amount of heat the body would give off in being stiamed at constant temperature zero up to the same expansion. but in the application of heat we have the same strain together with the body at a tempeia the quantity of heat given to the body and ture of 80 Suppose let it be held at the strain produced by this amount of heat and cooled down to tempeiature . indeed Kupfei's lesult seems to indicate (since he has diopped the i) that H' h = appioximately in his case. il s'allongerait de la quantit^ 2a. . ou. par un poids p=l/.725] KUPFFER of stiain rather than 501 Kupffer then two forms continues with equal tractions cyhndre. he finds a magnitude for w agreeing closely with Joule's In the But Kupffer obtains this lesult by a compensation of eirors ] nrst place the elastic work corresponding to p and unit extension not p And further it is not evident that ' the ought to be ^p and 7 effects aie equal (les effets sont egaux). Mais r volume ou d'un pouce cube Hence KupfFer reaches as his final equation and by substituting the numerical values of the quantities involved. distinctly state that it cannot be tiue Gornpaie Vogel s papei m discubfaed in oui Aits 71721 . r oti produirait un allorigement d'un pouce. si 1'effet de la chaleur n'avait lieu que dans une seule direction comme la traction la quantit^ de chaleur. I H' + h and not II as Kupffer assumes seem to be [725 R H H h indefinitely small as cornpaied think. en disant qu'elle eleve le poids p k la hauteur d'un pouce En e'chauffant ce m&me cylindre de a 80 . do PhyuK toi 1853. otherwise his enors \H would not compensate each other as they appear to do 1 1 Kupffer's results are quoted without any apparent questioning in sortie modem works e ^ Gr Helm. no reason for assuming H' with H. il s'allonge de la quantite a. qui les causes doivent tre egales. on peut done eValuer la force elastique du cylindre. ou 8 de'signe Tallongement que ce cylnidre eprouve par la traction de I'mute' de poids (c'est k. dire d'une hvre.
as obtained by the method of transverse vibrations of a bar (pp. aussitdt que le poids a e'te' 6t. set combined with after Compte r&ndu annuel. augments avec le tenths. = l/(?r8) is defined as la partly by statical methods. qu'elle revient exactement & sa premiere position. J . 1402* and 474). so far as I am aware. Annee 1851 (St Petersburg. Annee 1852 (St Petersburg. Compte rendu annuel. Une verge fle'chie par un poids. Pp. annealing etc.to the stretchmodulus the same for brass and for iron wire. The experiments were made partly by oscillatory. ce n'est (ii) qu'apr&s un intervalle de temps plus ou moins long. This would be an argument against uniconstancy. 9 of the Compte' rcndu for 1H50 or p. The last strain arising statement shows the possibility of from instantaneous loading. but d' = vd = llJ^ in the l/7i' memoir of 1848 and the Comptes rendiix. 11). 185:5). suspendue & son extre*mit libre. but no physicist had distinctly seen and measured its effect. mais cela n'a lieu que jusqu'a. if we could assume Kupffer's wires to have been isotropic (pp.une certaine limite . (iii) revient tout de suite et exactement k sa premiere position.] (c) KUPFFER [726728 The last point to be noted in the present paper is the Both Seebeck and of afterstrain in metals. 111 give an account of experiments to determine the elastic constants of iron and brass by different methods.] Pp. 6 of that for 1852 i. have on the stretchmodulus. discovery experimental Clausius had suggested its existence (see our Arts.502 [726. 1 d and 5' exactly change meanings in the Comptes rcndits and the Jtec/u'rcliex compare pp. pendant un instant seulement. and then he deals with the influence of the resistance of the air on torsional vibrations (pp. Nor is the ratio of the slide. 119 furnish a further account of flexure experiments to determine the stretch modulus. l/S' coefficient 1 d'elasticite du metal With regard to experiments by these (p. ! ( . These 710). Kupffer next refers to the various effects which strain. 6). before ELupfFer. 1852). la verge ne revient plus tout de suite & sa premiere position j elle n'y revient qu'apres longtemps ou pas du tout (p. quelquefois apres plusieurs jours seulement. [728. 5 = 7r5' = in the Recherche*. 15). Kupffer finds that for brass pure traction and flexure experiments give practically the same value for the stretchmodulus. his conclusions : The following sentences give (i) La flexion qu'une verge encastre'e par une extre"mit6 et libre de 1'autre e*prouve par une charge quelconque. et ne s'arrte qu'apres un temps plus ou moins long. but that this value differs con siderably from the value deduced on the uniconstant hypothesis from the slidemodulus as determined by the method of torsional vibrations. 1 J and 183 of the latter work with p. 57). lorsque le poids d^passe cette limite. Lorsqu'une verge est rested fle"ehie pendant quelque temps. matters will be more fully dealt with in our discussion of Kupffer's great work of 1860.e.
W . Hence Kupffer's results will not allow (pp 11121) make E^JE8 <1 us to assert that the kinetic method always gives larger sti etch moduli than the static.728] different KUPFFEK methods J&upffei 01 IjE finds (pp 503 13 and 19) in Russian measure the following results So far as steel lamina. Yol in p 71) and also among themselves. EKJES = 1 0214 These latios are less than those obtained by Weber and Weitheim (see our Aits 705* and 1403*. and theiefoie the stretchmodulus E is less when calculated by the statical method The diffei ences are small The exception in the case of one kind of except in the case of iron steel agrees with the difference found by Kennedy and Wullner (see ftn p 702 of our Vol i where obviously the conclusion should say in favour of and not opposed to Wertheim's result) The numbers given foi the steel lamina No 6 and fop platinum in the Recherches vary a good deal (see pp 219229. 76. so enormously from those calculated by Sir Elasticity in the Encyclopaedia JBritannica. . 4 ' ' ' For platinum. but the "values he gives for such lods in the Recherche*. for platinum 1 21 and for copper 1 09) Kesults like these diffei. aud that the differences are too gieat to be explained Even if we could allow for influence of solely bv theimal action 1402* and 474) the extreme difhculty of iitei strain (see oui Aits dett i mining the modulus accurately to six places of figures would render any evaluation of the ratio of specihc heats by Kupffcr's piocess impossible modulus Kupffer himself attubutes the diffei ence between the values of the as obtained by the two methods to the iact that in the case of . but an examination of the individual experiments shows that these three figures vaiy very greatly fiom one experiment to another Kupffei gives no value of 8' foi the brass lod in the Compte ieiidu. Ek/E8 = 1 00045. Weber's numbers give for iion 1 072. Thomson however. Foi iron. Thermo (Article dynamic Table II 01 Mathematical and Physical Papers. that but little faith can be placed in In fact they depend in ELupffei's case on the last three hguies them of his values. aud 2645) and therefore aie If E8 be the static and E^ the kinetic stretch perhaps not veiy exact modulus we have 8' this table goes is we see that with the exception of the first gi eater .
762 x 653. T expan1J between 25 Jt. : This number incorrectly given in the Compte renda sue the R<>chvnhcs. not see why it should be true see as to other difficulties our Art. . = . but increase more rapidly than the loads.860 31bs. and I do the oscillations (ftn. x 601. 19).. 87. x636. x 589. 7 7*124: and '130 of we have and specific respectively gravities (ii) (i) A (8' = 10* x = = . Kupffer notes that the static flexural method gives results more in les accordance with themselves than the kinetic (on voit encore ici. (i) I ( . x 620.980. = 10. supSrieure & celle. que valeurs de 8'.980 [730. For this bar 8' = 559. described on pp.137 from transverse oscillations 1 These and similar results are in general conformity with Hodgkinson's experiments: see our Arts. [729. 67..590 S' 1125 1375 Ibs.] In this year Kupffer also began a series of experiments on the dilatation by heat of the same metal bars as he had been experimenting on elastically.288 from transverse oscillations.650 21bs. p. These bars were taken from the same casting but one had been vigorously hammered. x 636. .024. sont d'une exactitude bien des oscillations transversales. ["729730 oscillations the rods oscillate elliptically and never in a he holds that this tends to diminish slightly the duration of and plane.504 transverse KUPFFJBH. The coefficients of linear sion We were measured for an increment of have . and conclusively show the want of exact meaning in the term stretchmodulus for the case of castiron. Cast brass 000. qu'on pent obtenir par series of experiments on the static flexure of castiron is p.. Ibs. = . The observations were made by taking each bar as a pendulum. brass is Hammered 1 '000. 622.. 1854). 821 : and footnote. For this bar 8' = 10~ 13 x 13 10~~ x 564. Compte rendu annuel. 969* and 141 1*. the bob being so attached to tho bar that the distance of its centre of gravity from the axis of oscillation depended The results of experiments on two brass only on the length of the bar.100 for a total load of 1 Ib. 17.. obtenues par la flexion.. Coefficient.. and that when this is subtracted from the total flexure due to the load the deflections are still not proportional to the Thus for two bars loads.724 for a total load of 1 Ib. 41bs. p..727. and 30 K.13 = . Anne*e 1853 (St Petersburg. bars only are given.] The continuation o experiments on the determination of the stretchmodulus by static and kinetic methods is described on pp.. He does not demonstrate this.025. Kupffer remarks that Hexural set always occurs with this kind of iron. 4)..
subsequent numbers of the Gomptes rendus The piogramme is drawn up with a view to the industrial use of metals. Kupffer's programme would still. of impulsive and long continued stiess on As a scheme for further physico all of these properties are dealt with technical researches in elasticity. but tar more exact than that used for the expeuments An account of descubed in the memoir of 1848 see oui Art 1389* the Compte rendu for 1850 and it is this apparatus will be found The appaiatus involves an oscillatory method repeated here (pp 45) of expenment. what they were we can only gather from.731 733] ' KUPFFER 505 Thus the ratio = 1 030 1 about. but one used by Kupffer with extieme accmicy and m The careful detei mmation of all the possible sources of disturbance real slidemodulus p is to be obtained fiom Kupffer'b 8 fy the i elation &ce oiu Art 1390* Kupffei's ju. with a few modifications in the light It occupies pp of more recent discoveries. and I only regret that our space does not permit of as those of set its leproduction heie and ruptuie. 1'ecrouiSbage et en passant par " la nliere By an augmentation of the elasticity is to be undei (p 3) stood a smaller value of 8' 01 a greater value of the stretch modulus [733 ] The majoi portion of this report is occupied with experi These weie made with an appaiatus ments on torsion (pp 428) similar to. (p 6) is not our slide l/8=[7Tjui I it is the moment of the force nectssuy to turn i e J modulus. as well furthei . the influence of the various processes of manufacture. be of very great value 1114 of the Compte rendu annuel Annee 1854 (St Petersbuig. are taken into full consideration Elastic propeities. but TT/X through unit ingle i cylindci of unit radius and unit length . 1855) [732 ] Compte rendu annuel It commences The account of elastical leseaiches occupies pp 128 with some further remarks on flexural measuiements chiefly directed to Kupfier concludes investigate the effect of 'woiking' on the metals that "1'elasticite des metaux est considezablement augmented pai le travail qu ils subissent dans le lammage. 01 the coefficients of expansion were nearly inversely proportional to the specific gravities for [731 ] The Compte rendu for this yeai also contains a scheme an extensive series of experiments on the entire elastic life of materials This scheme is perhaps the most complete ever prepared in Russia drawn up for a detailed investigation of the cohesive and elastic pio The commission proposed in it would have achieved perties of metals on a moie catholic and moie scientific (physical as distinct from empiricotechmcal) basis for many metals what the English commission Such experiments as Kupffer did for iron only see our Art 1406* made in this direction would have occupied the second volume of his Recherches. or for a treatise on the subject. The ratio of the specific gravities was 1 1 035. of one and temperatureeffect. of working.
ni une consequence de la loi gdndrale de Masticate*. quelle qu'elle soit d'ailleurs (que 1'elasticitd soit proportionnelle aux accroissements de la Ik il De suit distance entre les molecules. en produisant une rdsistancc proportionnelle aux ecarts. mais aussi toutes les observa le le fil de fer d'acier + = 000616. il a ('to trouvu egal & '000284. Sir to (see our property corresponding and as it appears to be the first Chapter devoted to that physicist). . tudes. . fluides je la nommerais done volonticrs la fluiditc des corps solidos lo c< efficient ^ pourrait ^tre appeie coefficient de fluidito la mallcabilito dos niotaux parait en dependre. que la dure'e des oscillations e*prouve lorsque les amplitudes augmentent. K. dont le rayon otait cgal a 0807 on a on ^ = 000930. Les observations prece'dentes donnent pour pour C'estadire la valeur Facier. now of the material and the depends largely on the nature This quantity ty is termed by to. d'exposer et qui se rapportent tions qui vont suivre. Pour un fil de cuivre jauiio de 'OD51H do rayon. pour un autro. has been subjected ' ' 7 : \jr d'un fil a une valeur constante pour chaque fil. douv autres fils de fer de 04801 et de 08091) de rayon ont donno \^^()()03!):} ot \Lr '000494.\ un limit ilugr6 par los produire aucun effort. fil de ^ est 17 fois plus que pour que 1'accroissement. . cette resistance la fait seulement diminuor plus rapidemont. par des experiences rapportdes dans mon Compte rendu do que 1'amplitude des oscillations diminue aussi bien dans le vide. [734 result (see our Art. et peut 6tre aussi leur dureto dos ox]>orienuc ul tori euros nous apprendront jusqu'ou va cette analogic. que dans 1'air.IIS Cette propriety ost possoduo . non seulement de s'ecarter les unes des autrcs. k laquelle il faut rapporter toutes les forces. selon le travail mme qu'il a subi. position d'equilibre. grande pour le fer. real consideration of the matter. I quote p. Mais il varie surtout d'un metal t\ 1'autre :\m a . Le coefficient de fluidite peut vanor bcaucoup dans le memo metal.] to the law connecting the duration of the oscillations with the ampliHe finds that a/P8 (in the notation of our article referred to). 1391*) as Kupffer confirms his former [734. mais varie considdrablement h 1'autre.M. 15 of Kupffer's remarks written it \l/. qui est celle du fil complctcmcnt revenu au II paralt que les molecules des coi*ps solidew posnudcnt la proprio'tc repos. ^ = 000300. on qu'eUe suive une autre loi relativement k ces distances) . ^='00003736. Thomson's 'viscosity W. J'ai fait voir. working Kupffer's fluidity of metals is a Kupffer the coefficient of fluidity. cette diminution ne peut done pas etre non plus un effet de la resistance de 1'air. . qui font un fil metallique. ne peut 6tre un effet de la resistance de Pair. La autour d'une position moyenne. se deplace continuellement ct toujours dans le sens des oscillations de sorte que cette position d'equilibre oscillc nvoc le fil rnOmc osciller . mais auswi do glisMcr lew lines sur lc3H autrcw.506 KUPFFER. pour 1'argent pour 1'or ^= 1)0030. pour le i)latme \js= 000137(5. 1'annee 1851.00. . comme le prouvent non seulement les experiences que je vieus au fer et k 1'acier. cela doit tee une propriete inhtSrente aux corps elastiques. qui varie d'un metal k 1'autre. qui varie pour le m6me metal.
as the lesult of a mathe matical investigation in which it is not assumed that the elastic coefficients are altered or the piopoitionality ol stress and strain The investigation is not given. a property which has much exercised physicists upon its frequent rediscoveries since Kupffer's investigations of 184S1854 [735 ] But Kupffer's torsion expenments led him to consid<*i several other points connected with torsional vibrations which have been largely dealt with in recent years Thus On pp 1623 he shows how the resistance of the air (i) taken into account and eliminated may be On p 23 he refers to the reduction of the observations to a (n) constant temperature see our Arts. but to then being really leolotropic result also due to Frinz Neumann and lecoided b) He says that Neumann a note on p 24 deserves notice hid shown by fixing small minors to a rectangular bai undei flexuie [736] Kupffer m A J lu/ulity of a wiit unit an^le oi toibion ifa a convenient term loi the toisional moment pu . In ass and steel. but it is easy to leplace it abrogated Let f\ be the stietch squeeze ratio.* to foi bi Ait 169 Hence Neumann's statement follows constant isotiopy see That Kupffei's foi his wires. then we have for the toisional rigidity without ti action M= and with ti action Now oiu t\ can take (d) all values from . where e can vary between the limits 1 and 3.735736] Here we have a very KUPFFER 507 clear description of the action of viscosity in metals.&). I experiments gave 1+4^ 3 01 r] attribute. 1392* and 1396* (m) On pp 2328 he discusses what effect the traction of a wire has on its torsional lesistance This is important as it is necessary to allow for the weight of the vibrator Kupffer had in the Compte rendu for 1851 given the following result. not to the fact that thobe wuts had Inconstant isotiopy approaching its limit. where M and M' are respectively the torsional Neumann of rigidities of the s wire wire 1 without and with a traction which produces a stretch in the sent Kupffer lemarks that him the result Komg&berg (the great Franz) had M' = M (1 . and let the wire be of length I and ladms r.
723) was the subject of a prize offered by It was awarded to Kupffer in the Royal Society of Gottingen. according to Poisson. but that if it is stretched beyond this limit. Changes produced by an increase of temperature on elasticity Of these he writes : verra dans le cours de ces recherches. tan ^ =. lasting (i) only while this temperature is maintained. elles peuvcnt mOino etro opposdes lorsque la temperature d'un corps dlastique augmcnte. Neumann had also shown experimentally that the value of the stretchsqueeze modulus is not constant (e. Pfa . On . This as we have seen (Art. the volume remains constant. [737. approximately to . (n). Kupffer points out that the elasticity of metals can be easily iu1 Turning to our Art. it would be turned through an angle given by tlio same ^ a . mais elle a souvcnt changtS considurablcmcut . and also the Legons de Wavier.g. Hence tan ^ = ^ . According to Kupffer. (ii) after the thermal influence has ceased. sou dlasticitu no rovicut pas toujours t\ la m6me valeur. que cea deux actions de la chalour sur les corps elastiques sont tres diffe'rentes.] This report deals with the influence of heat on the elasticity of metals. Compterendu annuel Annee 1855 (St Petersburg. Clark for set and it is a physical confirmation of SaintVenant's Art. tautot on la trouve augmented. tantCt on la trouve diuimudo (p. : experimentally demonunder traction up to the elastic limit.tan ^. 1855. that set is unaccompanied by change in volume. and we have what appears It ho a practical optical method of determining the stretchsqueeze ratio 77^ in (i). our 1485*). This had been previously shown by E. 2).e. i. directly the value of E might also he found by substituting . theory so well exhibited in his plastermodels 92 and 95. Kupffer does not state what was the method used in Neumann's experiments (experiences egalement ingenieuses et Kupffer further n'otices that Neumann had strated that the volume of a wire increases prGdses). He divides his researches under two heads : Influence of an increase of temperature on elasticity. November. p. (see of flexure see our Arts. [737 that a crosssection perpendicular to the axis is no longer a rectangle 1 but a trapezium . HOII dltisticito dirninuo toujours mais lorsque Faction de la chaleur cesse ct lorsque le corps olawtiquc est revenu a sa temperature initiale.. 1856). or  according to Wertheimj but varies with the nature of the metal. 95 we obtain for the tangent of the angle through which a small mirror would be turned if fixed at the middle of a veitieal wide of a cantilever at a distance f from the loaded end \f/ " If Ptlt (') a small mirror were fixed to the middle of the top of the bourn at distance. 34. .508 KUPFFER. .
where These values aie determined by transverse and toi sional vibrations 1 1 Kupffer neither here nor in his memoir clearly states whethei he has attempted to eliminate the effect of heat in lengthening his wire and so affecting If he has not then by oui Ait 735 (111) the toi sional the toi sional vibrations moment is altoied and thus the slide modulus will appear to be alteied The alteration would be given by a formula of the foim // = ^ (1 . p to E' p. temperature be raised from t to if and the stietch and shd^ moduli change from E. Yol i W [739 ] Returning to the formula of our Arts 1391* and 734.' lespectively. Torsion al Yibrations Statical Torsion [738 affected ] He points out how the investigations in these directions are by secondary after strain He now properties. I its length and v a constant coefficient which depends on the elastic properties of the material.738740] KUPFFER all 509 these vestigated in three different ways and the effects of heat on These are ought to he considered Statical Traction Statical Flexure Longitudinal Vibrations. then " We Kupffer terms v the true coefficient of fluidity or ductility term it the "after sti am (or viscosity) coefficient foi tor may perhaps " sional vibrations see om Art 751 (d) " [740 ] the gieat The rest of the memoir is occupied with details taken fioin If the memoir on thermo elasticity see our Aits 74857 '.e*) wheic & is the thermal stietch =a(t't). or we note that Kupffer now states that he how $ vanes with the size of his wire If has found more accurately r be the radius of the wire. but p r foi the like bia&s Thus the purely lengthening effect of change of tempoiatuie on the wnc would only account toi about I/') of the change in fj. then Kupffer gives the values of /3 f and /3r for vanous metals.000077 181 (t t)}. hence // = /*{!. a being the coefficient of linear theimal dilatation Now for biass Kupffer has found (sec our Ait 7^0) a= 000025727 and e = 3 = 0006982 neaily. Transverse Yibrations. which he had found in torsional oscillations to vary as the square root of the amplitude see our Art 1391* In other words he supposes elastic after strain to be the origin of the Sir property he has termed fluidity. more particularly by elastic attributes to this property the augmentation of elastic the duiation of the oscillations. or of our more modern viscosity Thomson seems to think also that the viscosity may be due wholly 01 partially to elastic after strain see our ftn p 390. .
510 KUPFFER. be noted : (a) the first Three laminae were formed from the same piece of cast brass. Anne"e 1856 (St Petersburg. 1396*. voit par ce qui precede.] Compte rendu annueL : Annee 1857 (St Petersburg. : [742. although this would in fact not necessarily indicate anything more than aeolotropy see our Art. to his assumption that wires possess isotropy. On du martelage et du laminage The result is important if only approximate. [741 742 The It should be noted tliat fir here is twice the /3 of our Art. Compte rendu annuel. the second was vigorously rolled laming) (fortement and the third vigorously hammered (fortement It was found that their stretcJimoduli were nearly in the martelfy. remained as originally cast. He gives the results of some experiments on the value of e when successive setstretches are given to a wire under torsion e begins by being as great as 6 and diminishes to about 3*4 as the sets arc convalues of : . 735 (iii)). steel . 772. 7524. 759 (e)). The report concludes with the results of a number of Kupder's (c) experiments giving the elastic moduli in kilogramme. largely due. I think. The effect also on v of changes in temperature are noted as in the memoir above referred to. 1392* and 1396*. 1858). [741.iron (com pare Art. 5962) from a very insufficient theoretical the effect of a stretch produced by heat or load on the value of the elastic constants as obtained by experiment.] Pp. wants (p. ELupffer regards (pp. (see He considerable difficulties with Neumann's formula seems to have our Art. 1857). 62) to reject the formula He as an explanation of the effect of traction on torsion when he finds greater than 3. This contains Values of the stretchmoduli for various kinds of Russian (a) and comparison with the values for English steel (pp. nearly true for specimens of English and Swedish wrought. 308 (6). 58). f>5G). 5766 give an account of the elastical researches carried out during One or two points may the year in the Observatowe physique central.millimetre units see our Art. The same result was very ratio of the squares of their densities. tinued. combien 1'influence sur I'e*lasticit6 des me'taux est grande (p. merely note now that the values of fir are given for higher ranges of temperature We than in the memoir of 1848: see our Arts. results are considered at length in our Arts.
743745] KUPFFER 511 (6) Proposals to measure the value of gravitation at different the periods of transverse vibra points of the earth by the difference tion of an elastic rod clamped vertically and with a weight attached to m its upper or free extremity (pp [743 ] 601) Annee 1858 (p A lew results Compte rendu annuel French measure (St Petersbuig. d isb JCIH W . die em Diath erleidet. 1860) for the stretchmodulus of copper. d is Woiten. S 31014. and fuither when it is raised from A Then freezing to boiling point of water let its extension be a if be the specific heat of the metal and S its specific gravity. St Petersburg. den angewandten Kriitcn piopoitional kind. 1862) 4548 numerical values are given of the inverse of the stretchmoduli and of the specific giavities of various metals. promises destined never to be fulfilled We now turn to the memoirs Kupffer published during this [744 ] decade and note first two shorter ones which are printed in the Bulletin shall then pass to the long memoir on thermo elasticity and conclude with an analysis of the ^Recherches We [745] A F Kupffer Bemerkungen uber das mechanische Bulletin de la Classe physicomathjAequivalent der Warme matique de VAcademie Imptfriale des Sciences. so sieht man gleich. then we have cmS for the woik done Kupffer now continues D\ nun die Au&dehmmgen. 1861) This Compte rendu cmnuel contains nothing concerning elasticity but a notice of the completion of the printing of the first volume of the Recherches (p 41) pp On Compte rendu annuel Anne*e 1861 (St Petersburg. principally different kinds of Russian and Austrian iron and steel The Comptes rendus for the yeais 18624 give promises of further experiments on elasticity. steel. 1853 Suppose a cylinder of unit length and unit radius to receive extension S under unit tractive load. T x cols 1937 . m it will take to 100 c times the heat to raise the metal cylinder from that it takes to raise a cylinder of water of the same mS rxdius and height through the same range Let be the latter quantity m of temperature mechanical units. Bd 86. 1852 reprint of this paper will be found in the Annalen der Physik. oder mit andein tithe uns un Mittel an die Hind gobeii. dass die Wei the von a und 8 uns cine Vei gloichung der ausdelmenden Kraft der Wai me nut dei delmenden Kuft ernes G(wichts darbieten. aluminium and tin are given in 51) Anne*e 1859 (St Petersburg.
Kupffer Untersuchungen uber die Fleodon elast[747. although problem somewhat different. T.512 mechanische Aequivalent der niclit vergessen.. so wie auch ihre Ausdehnung durch die Warme kennen (Col. 7(>0~2. xii. annuel. [746. den specifischen Warmestoff und das specifische Gewicht. 1 C. 1617. cols. results he reduces to English and French units and finds /=9921 inchpounds for 1 = 453 kilogramm&tres for F. brass. . : nun hat um Wir haben also 2a/$ als das Verhaltniss der mechanischen Wirkung derbezeichneten Warmetnenge zur mechanischen Wirkung eines Pfundes TJm dieses Verhaltniss in Zahlen auszudriicken. darf man anzusehen. and cols. : Ibid. Man muss hier Warme gleichmassig nacli alien Seiten wirkt. 740) (sec 7701). 74857) partially Gcmipte the and Recherches our Arts. 194). no clearer than that in the Oompte rendu in Art. Kupffer then gives the equation : cmS = and calculates c in 2a/S. EinJluM der This contains 18527 (see our Arts.. F. platinum and silver wires. T. 28999. burg. ischer : I'Acaddmie Imperiale des Sciences. Russian units for the results he has found for The mean value of these iron. nur fiir irgend eine Substanz die elastische Constante. dass ein Gewicht welches 8 ausdehnt. 27384. 725. xiv.] Bulletin de la Classe physicomathtfmatique de Metallstabe. wie ein Druck einen Drath augewandt. and in the rendu annuel (sec our Art. Temperatur auf die Elasticitdt der festeti matter which reappears in the memoir of Korper. St Peters This contains matter which reappears in Kupffer's great woik. I do not follow Kupffer's reasoning. [746 74*7 dass die Warme z\i bestirnmen.] Putting aside the fact that he assumes the wires to possess uniconstant isotropy. culties I feel on this occasion to equate a quantity of I have already alluded to the diffi with regard to Kupffer's method of treating this and his argument here seems to me. notably the erroneous formulae for flexion see our Arts. cols. he seems to me heat or energy to a force. aber Poisson gezeigt. 1854. so that we need it not discuss further here. KUPFFER. als nach alien Seiten gleichmassiger Druck eine lineare Ausdehnung von 8 hervorbringen wtirde.. A.
mit dei und mit Erhohimg der Tempeiatur emtretende. physiques et naturelles. Sianeme S6ne. St Petersburg. wemgstens Elasticitatscoefficient als fui die bestimmt worden ist (S 399) Thus Kupffer's discovery of viscosity and afterstrain m metals The coefficient of fluidity ceitainly dates at least from 1852 of 1848 (see our Art 1391*). wai es mteressant nachzuweisen. memoir the in appeared implicitly that date clearly separated its at had think not do I but Kupffer effect from that due to the resistance of the air The Vorwort goes on to state that all the experiments on temperature have been made by vibration al as distinguished from statical methods in this case by means of transverse and [749 ] . torsional oscillations Ich habe auch Yersucbe ubei statische cleu Einfhiss dei Temperatiu auf das aber sie smd vollstandig war die bleibende Aendei nnsslungen bei foitdauernder Erwarmung voiubei des Flexions odei des Torsionswinkelb so stark. den ich den Flussigkeitscoefecienten voi mir noch mcht die genannt habe. pp 397494 (separate This memoir. und die zu ihrei Ich habe emstweilen in dei Zeit wird bekannt gemacht werden aus Einleitung einige allgememe und noch nicht bekannte Thatsachen der grosseren Schnffc mittheilen zu mussen geglaubt. dass der Einfluss der Tempe ratur bei Torsionsschwingungen em anderer sem kann als bei Trans dass auch dei veisalschwingungen. T vi . 1852 It commences with a Vorwort describing its scope. Sciences mathdmatiques et physiques. Sciences Premiere Partie mathtfmatiques. dei en f E IT ^ . die noch mcht beendigt ist. ung geheiide. und bestimmt hat. of which m m the first paragraph may be cited here Die nachstehende Abhandlung ist aus emer grosseren Albeit uber Elasticitat entnommen. fur die Torsionsschwingungen ein andeier ist. urn den Leser zu derselben Metalle sehi zeigen. Diese Mittheilungen fuhiten zui Trans versalschwingungen Erwahnung des Ooefficienten v.748749] [748 ] KUPFFER 513 elastische Kupffer Uebev den Einfluss de? Warme auf die der Metalle der festen Korper und ins besondere Kraft Mdmoires de VAcadtmie de St Ptiersbourg. und von dem memes Wissens mir noch mcht genau \or Werth dessen odei Kede war. fur welche in diesei der Emfluss der Temperatur auf diese Ooefficienten bestimmt woiden ist Indem ich durch Versuche erwies. T A T vm . dass die Moment dei Elasticitat gemacht. written pagination 198). wie man die Elasticitatscoefficienten Schiift genau bestimmen konne. received the prize of the Royal Society of Gottmgen It was apparently read before the 1855 see our Art 723 St Petersburg Academy on December 3. 1857 German.
514 KUPFFEB. occu.strain in silk threads. defines the stress that can be called into play in a body by external pressure its elasticity. 72. pies S. dass um die Einwirkungen der Warme auf das statische Moment der Elasticitat zu finden. 3968) on the influence which rise of temperature has upon the torsional elasticity of silk threads. den ist wohl in diesem Augenblick keine vollig abgeschlossene Arbeit iiber irgend eine Eigenschaft der elastischen Korper moglich (S. and are referred to by him in an article on an electrometer His remarks amount in Poggendorffs Annalen. the existence of 1 Kupffer. die Nachwirkung brachte noch mehr Yerwirrung in die Eesultate The tion of full by Kupffer and complexity of elastic problems was fully appreciated lie foreshadows in the following words the direcof the research taken later much by Bauschinger : Ich sah daraus. . [750. and upon the effect which boiling them in soapy water has on ' : : their elastic afterstrain. werden noch viele Arbeiten fiber die Granze der Elasticitat und iiber die Nachwirkung erforderlich sein. and finds that it is manifested also in the torsion He makes. to little more than the assertions that he has confirmed Weber's discoveiy of after. Verminderung sicb. 2 Between Weber and Kupffer a few experiments on afterstrain wore made by E. of glass threads. some not very conclusive statements (S. die Einwirkung derselben Warme auf die Verrtickung der Granzen der Elasticitat und auf die Nachwirkung von ihrer Einwirkung auf die Elasticitat selbst zu trennen . the same words may almost be used of the science of elasticity today. Kohlrausch.' This is another instance of his tendency to see our Arts. 399). man vor alien Dingen ein Mittel haben miisste. 7*28 (a). 1847 see S. [750 elastische (8. um ein solches Mittel zu finden. termed Einl&itung. 402. further. 400). je Bei solchen Umstanweiter man vorgeht. so dass die Losung dieses Problems mir noch sehr ins Unbestimmte hinaus geriickt zu sein scheint. desto mehr Verwickelung. It contains details of the methods of experiment 1 Several points here deserve notice: and of the formulae adopted (a) On S. bei jedem Schritte stosst man in diesen TJntersuchungen auf neue Eigenschaften der elastischen Korper. ganz darin verschwand . 4047 we have the details of the first scientific experiments on the elastic afterstrain of metals*. wieder vermindernde. Notwithstanding our great increase in knowledge. Man hat aber erst angefangen die Gesetze der Elasticitat in ihrem ganzen Umfange zu studiren .] The next portion of the memoir. Bd. 393G. S. The fact is that to grasp thoroughly the bearing and mutual relations of the secondary elastic properties we must know what is the real kinship between the various branches of physics when viewed from the standpoint of the molecule and this is very far from being understood even forty years after Kupffer wrote. rather vague definition to which I have previously referred 728 and footnote. 401427.
to be justified by its but T cannot see that agieement \\ith the data of KupfFer s experiments. wie die Friction beim Widerstande der Luffc. [7ol ] (r) The next portion of the versahchwingungeu elastischer Stabe. als in einem mit Friction verbundenem Ghtschen der Theile uber einander nur ist nicht Eaum) zu ubersehen. diese Erschemung setzt offenbar erne gewisse Kraft voraus. which I shall have It must occasion xgiin to icfer to when dealing with the RptheiJiek be looked upon. is an empirical formal i. nach Aufhe bung der ablenkenden Kraft. and I between the parts of think destroys the force of the comparison of a solid frictional action and any It is a strong reason body's elastic afterstrain with fluid action for not allowing elastic afterstrain to be masked under the term 6 viscosity' (b) see the footnote p 390 of our Vo] i to the load Kupffer shows that elastic aftei strain is not proportional and that accordingly the vibrations are not truly isochronous (see his S 4078) He further adds that working temperature etc have all great influence on the elastic iftei strain as well as on the elastic forestrain (S 409) Mnleitung is termed Trans This and occupies S 409419 vibrations. wenn die Abweichung von der ursprung hchen Gleichge wichtslage nicht gar zu gross gewesen ist (S 4078) This passage seems to me to mark off the real distinction between afterstrain a body. selbst wenn er durch Aenderung seiner Form in andere Gleichgewichtsbedingungen versetzt worden ist. warum der Stab oder der Draht.751] KUPFFEE 515 which had been doubted even by Wertheim and Saint. dass die Schwingungsweiten elastischer Korper in luftleerem R/aum allmaalicli abnehmen wurden. wieder zu seinem ursprunglichen Gleichgewichtszustande zuruckkehrt . wesnalb auch schon Weber vorausgesehen hat. dass die Friction der Theilchen unter einander nicht zu erklaren im Stande ist. dennoch immer wieder in langerer oder kuizerer Zeit zu seiner ursprunglichen Form (oder zu seiner uisprunglichen Gleichge wichtsbedingung) zuruckfuhrt.Venant see our Arts 819 The experiments (noting Art 803) and 197 were made on the flexure of a cylindrical bar of steel and the after the continual decrease of the deflections for a period of several days removal of the load was clearly marked The influence of elastic afterstrain on the redaction of the amplitude and penod of torsional vibrations in vacuo is also referred to on S 4078 Die allmahlige Abnahme der Schwmgungsweiten (selbst im luftleeien lasst sich sehr gut durch die Kaclrwirkung erklaren. und besteht wohl auch in Nichts anderem. I suppose. wie ich spater durch Yersuche bewiesen habe Die Nachwirkung bringt hier dieselbe Wirkung hervor. contains the foimula for transveise . welche jeden festen Korper.
7r) and from transverse vibrations = \j(trE\ but any want of uniconstant isotropy in the copper wire would not allow of our assuming JS=5p. 427). however. be noted that the discrepancy he finds between the values of 8 = I/(TT/) as found by transversal and torsional vibrations for copper wire need not be solely due to the influence of elastic afterstrain. we have according to Kupffer E where t'>t and fy is a constant. 41927) is occupied (d) The method is that due to with the formulae for torsional vibrations. Kohlrausch takes the effect of temperature to be represented by an expression involving also the square . On the other hand the fact that steel wire with a very small v (see above) gave for S almost the same values when determined by torsional and by transverse vibrations may only point to a nearer approach to uniconstant isotropy in that material. 7636. If }>e the t stretchmodulus at temperature t. The first series of investigations as to (i) was upon the transverse vibrations of a rod clamped at one end so as to be vertical. Some interesting experiments as to the exactness of this formula are Kupffer finds that for given on S. A notably the equation : P =P 8 Q ( 1 +vr . Kupffer's 8 as obtained from torsional vibrations is = 2/(5/x. It should. C Pper steel (unannealed. 739. { annealed. The remainder of the Einleitung (S. /) is use<* for tlle reduction of the periods see our Art. and the old temperature has been restored. (ii) during the time the temperature is raised. [752 I shall return to see our Arts. The next portion of the memoir is entitled Einfluss [752. 423426. v= v= 04302 (to 04828). the good results obtainable from this theoretically questionable formula are given in this part of the Einleitung. He shows that the coefficient v of elastic afterstrain is capable of immensely modifying the value of the elasticmodulus as determined by the method of torsional vibrations (S./2 or these values of S to be equal. Kupffer divides the effects of heat into two main groups : : (i) Change of elasticity the elasticity returning to its old state to its first value. v=2365 0071 22. (to 2450). Gauss and presents some variations on that of the memoir of 1848. when the temperature is lowered Change of elasticity remaining after the heating has ceased.516 : KUPFFER. the free end being loaded with weights of different magnitudes.] der Temperatur auf die elastische Kraft der festen Korper. theory at all justifies its form series of experiments intended to show this point more fully later.
but if t' degree of approximation. .1) so that the factor is then of the cases is In most Kupffer's first series for the difference between external and internal winter temperatures The values of fa were amounting to from 13 to 25 degrees Reaumur obtained from what I have spoken of as the questionable formula for transverse vibrations (see our Art 751 (c)). but as the stretch modulus probably appears as a factor of the correct formula at least to a close y might be sensible very small. serious eiror would hardly be introduced by the use of the formula Kupffei neglects the effect of heat in expanding the rods. the ftn.ft (t . however. 1 n nut rmf nf Wlfl+<i WAV cmrli/nl*n fn Mi mi nf milmo .t) .y (tf .1)*} 2 t be large the term in (t' t) of experiments were only made 1 (t .15 R and 15 R the changes being not much more than 20. remarking that the changes of temperature only altered their dimensions insensibly At the same time he notes that see. on our p 509 the least change in the distance from the point of clamping to the centre of gravity of the vibiatmg load would have made an important alteraHe does not seem tion in the period of oscillation (S 430 and f bn ) to have noted that the dimensions of the rod would also have been the weight and the clamped end slightly different in the positions when were respectively uppermost Both these causes might somewhat effect the values of fa he gives for the different metals They are reproduced S 43151 are occupied with in the Table I below from his S 451 numerical details of the obseivations I Values of ft for one degree Reaumur found from changes of temperatuie lying between .752] of f KUPFFER 517 form {1 .
] KUPFFEB. so that not much stress can be laid on the result. Da die Warme den Agregatzustand des gchammorten. . 4648 of his work : [754. I have placed the some of the results of Kupffer's experiments included in the following section of his memoir (S. Without this assumption. The change in temperature was produced by heating the rods with a Berzelius' spirit The stretchmodulus lamp. where /v=^ {(1 (' *) r Thus. ebenfalls 469). In all cases except those of Swedish wroughtiron where there appears to be a reduction. oder gcwalxten. however. It occupies S. The next section of the memoir is entitled /faobftv/ [755. and of castbrass where there is no sensible change fif appears to be >/5f/ in the former case the experiments do not seem to have been made on the same specimens. the changes being about 65. sometimes to incandescence. 752.. [753755 mean In the third column of the above Table I. to 79 R. then they agree fairly closely for this metal. Kupffer's result for copper differs widely from that of Kohlrausch. (i) was a rise from about 14 R.] uber den JEinfluss vorubergehender Temper aturerhohimy en auf t/ie Ehisticitat der Metallstabe.518 [753. so iat zu vcrinuthon. we can compare the materials of these wires with those we see that fi' r for copper and steel with the greater than p'f) or that the slidemodulus for these metals diminishes rise of temperature more rapidly than the stretchmodulus. . oder geha'rteten Metalls bleibend iindert.] Our author next ((ii) Bei Torsionsschwingungen) determines II.) 2 with & positive value of y would be in accordance with Kupffer's results. class der Elasticitatscoefncient sich (S. we may gather the following results from S. 469492. Values of j8V for one degree Reaumur found for changes of temperatures between 15 R. and 79 R. Assuming in his memoir uniconstant isotropy KupfFer speaks of this effect as an alteration in the stretchmodulus. )8/ of . Temperatur auf die Masticitat The change in temperature here Bei Transversalschwingungen. the effect of a like Iwrge change in temperature on the slidemodulus. 55163) entitled: Einflusa der der Metalle bei hohern Temperaturen. but supposing Kohlrausch's brass wire to have been of the sort that KupfFcr terms very hard. so far as is of the bars in the previous article. durch vorubergohondo Tcinpcraturan derung bleibend andert The experiments were made by means of the transverse vibrations of rods exactly as in the method referred to in our Art. We see therefore that the introduction of Kohlrausch's term y (t' .
if not its absolute value in either case.756] [756 ] JTCJPFFER 519 Kupffer concludes his memoir by an investigation of the on elastic afterstrain (Emfluss der Temperatur auf die elastwche Nachunrkung S 4924) We have already seen that Kupffer attributes to elastic after strain a considerable portion of the reduction of the amplitudes of torsional oscillations Hence if the wiie be subjected to any thermal process the effect of this on its after strain property will be shown by the difference. if any. could be ascertained without the need of experimenting in vacua Details of the experiments on the various metals in the case of both elasticity (see the previous article) and after strain are given in the memoir . in the number of oscillations made between the same amplitudes before and after the thermal process the resistance of the air being the same in both cases Thus the change in the after strain coefficient. we summarise them in the following Table effect of heat III Temperatwre Effect on Metals .
or slidemodulus according as his diminished. Tome plates. iix. T.] Kupffer's is thoroughly we may remark that this memoir of of very considerable value although we cannot feel satisfied with his use of the experimental method of In conclusion transverse vibrations.) Eussian pounds. method was that of transverse or torsional vibrations. The experiments seem to have been conducted with extreme accuracy. 1860. It also states the relation between Russian. pp. which we have to record in this period. while the absolute measurements of the thermal coefficients are at least valuable for comparison. in order that there may be no assumption that even in questions of thermal influence these necessarily exhibit the same tendencies. This work contains some of the most carefully made experiments on the stretchmoduli of different metals and the effect of temperature upon them. [757 759 The general law thus seems to be that processes which increase the coefficient of afterstrain or 'viscosity decrease the elasticconstants and viceversd. 1 kilogramme A Eussian foot = an English foot a Russian inch = an English inch = 25'l() A Eussian pound = 9 English pounds nearly = 40 .520 KUPFFEE. English and French measures It 1 . ( = 62 F.] citt A. [759. and could have wished a more complete T for a greater variety of temperatures. occupies pp. and it may be questioned whether very useful labour might not still be spent in revising Kupffer's numbers with the aid of a more accurate elastic theory. 722. ixxxii and 1430. The preface to the work explains its scope and the contents of the projected remaining volumes: see our Art. but there are exceptions to this rule.)512 grammes (or = 2442 Eussian pounds). (all physique central de Russie. investigation of fy and Still to have demonstrated the existence of afterstrain in metals @ and indicated its changes with temperature is no small service. . Kupffer: Recherches eocpdrimentales <l stir I'elasti des inetaux faites X. [758. I'olservatoire St Petersburg. xixxx.] remarks 1 may The Introduction be made here. ( For comparison of specific gravities we the normal temperature 13& E. 7 [75*7. with nine published). may and note: a cubic inch of water at in vacuo weighs very nearly 01 . One or two brief centimetres. occupies pp. the 'elasticity' as being increased or Kupffer speaks simply of I have put stretch. unfortunately the formulae used by Kupfifer do not appear equally accurate. folio.
qu'un e"tablissernent special. of cubes of the densities (compare Art 741 (a)) hnding any geneial law connecting modulus and density is even to day He further notes the effect of working pioduciug a very small difference in the stietch modulus foi different directions (p xxvm) m . mais contribuerait aussi puissamment au perfectionnement des ine'thodes de fabrication. a cause de cette incertitude.759] KUPFFER 521 (a) On p xii Kupffei remarks that the formula of Eulei for the tians verse vibrations of a rod clamped at one end and loaded at the other does not give accuiate results He seems to think the foimula It is only an approxitheoretically correct. but this is not the fact mation which neglects the inertia of the rod (b) The author insists upon the importance of a national institution for experiments on the resistance of materials This importance is no less today than in 1860. and to which I shall return in Arts 7606. que la confiance pubhque accorde a j certauies usines anciennes et connues. in 729 and 767. the moduli were as the Our hope. que nous n'avons pas ici affaire & une autre loi des dilatations et des compressions. but we have his published woik (See our Arts Remarks on the relation of the stietch modulus to the density (e) In the case of brass KupfFer shows that. n a pas d'autre source que Te'preuve du tre conside*rablement abie*gee par des experiences pr temps. greater also in a manufacturing country like England than in Russia Je crois. avec laquelle la dilatation elastique de la fonte augmente a\ec la charge. semble prouver. et si. ne pre*senterait pas seulement des donne'es certames pour la rectification des devis de con resistance des mat&iaux entre struction. I think. qu'ils soientbons ou mauvais L'eleVation aes prix. mais & une autre proprie*te des corps me olastiques que quelques loi (p xix) metaux seulement possedent et qui cache la veritable He no latei trace of it. avant et a mesure qu'elles sont livrees au commerce. howevei ) promises to leturn to this matter in a latei volume. aftei aie given on p xxvii working diffeient specimens of the same piece. howevei. oil Ton pourra mettre a Pe'preuve les productions me'talliques de toutes les usines du pays. puisque chaque fabncant de*sirera que ses productions fussent note'es le plus haut possible Rien n'entrave les perfectionnements dans la fabrication des me'taux. ils sont toujours taxe's de la mime mamere. comme Pincertitude ou le gouverne ment ou le public se trouvent relativement a leur quahte". consacre a des experiences sur la et hors des limites de Pelasticite. are given on pp xvxvu and pp xxxxiv (d) result On p xvin Kupffer cites experiments confirming Hodgkmson's castiron decreases rapidly namely that the stretch modulus of with the load Of this he remarks La rapidit^. qui pourrait limmaires (p xin) The doubtful formulae foi flexure and tiansverse vibiations to (c) which I have referred in Arts 747 and 751.
. d = fL tan where : for both.522 [760.) can be measured by the angle between the reflected and incident rays of light on a small mirror attached to the free end of the bar. p the radius of curvature at ds and the flexual rigidity of the bar: see our Art. f is the horizontal distance of the element ds of the central axis of the rod from the builtin end. : ~\> ) ^or a rectangular section.  A.. 736. b the vertical side of the rectangular cross section. end is is is the load at the free end. for a circular section. ......... 19.. he had noticed the fact of the distortion of the contour of the This had already been observed excrosssections by flexure.. : Kupffer then turns to the formula for flexure which he states as follows for the case of a horizontal cantilever 1/23=1 72 r /s <jf>. I is L p p a r is the length of the bar. ... the angle the tangent at the free end makes with the horizontal.. and we have now to ask how far they are as accurate as his measurements < The angle really require... ... 45. 144. 11. (iii). [760 761 The first portion of the text of Kupffer's work deals the with preliminary experiments and the theory of the statical He remarks (p. The formulae above occur frequently in his works on elasticity.. 79..... (See pp. deflection of bars.. for elastic Thus a by SaintVenant rectangular contour becomes a trapezium with slightly curved sides see our Art. the horizontal. (ii). 1485*) and theoretically perimentally by strain (see our Art..... 170).. d < is is the total deflection of the free end. [761...] thesis Neglecting slide we have ou the BeriioulliEulerian hypoL =p'(Lx)+ where x ] ~ L [ Jx f? & (' . and thus the stretchmodulus E can be determined. This KupfFer did with very great caution and accuracy.. for set Clark (see our Art. the horizontal distance of the free end from the builtin after flexure. the weight of the bar... 50 etc... xvi.sc) dx . r the radius of the circular crosssection.] KUPFFEB. xvii. 2) that It occupies pp...
that to a second approximation \ we must W Hence d = $L tan * {1 . and that many of his rods were so flexible that L could from I very considerably without the elastic limit being passed Suppose then the difference between I and L to be so considerable that take it into account Then we ought to solve the equation (in) above to at least a second approximation. and if we f  ) .761] KUPFFEE 523 First suppose the deflections so small that we may neglect (dy/dxf or put 1/p = ^y/c&c2 and ds = dx Then we easily find and TT Hence A= d ^ tan 2 ^ L <^> 1 . we cannot neglect slide unless (*/)* \J&<DK J For these reasons I do not think small as compared with p jEu> aie necessarily so accurate as his attempted Kupffer's values of distinction between I and L would le id us to believe E 1 loi exampk /^2800d 1=27685 (pp 1718) / = 139607. so that the values of d denved from this formula would have an error of 2 or 3 per cent Fuithei it is to be noted that Kupffer In replaces differ I by L. it is suffi results cient to take the case when p = We then find. I and L is so considerable 1 that he does not feel able to neglect therefore hib numerical results are still liable to as if he had replaced L by I in his formulae in these cases the same 01 der of error Fuithei the deflection due to slide include terms of the order is is of the order ^ . if x^2 or p'L*l(]$un?) be a small quantity. is not true even for small flexuies unless be very small several of the experiments p' and p were about the same order of magnitude.fifc (ylff\ (n) 2 see that Kxipffei's formula neglects the term in (x^ 2) > but Thus his this is just the order of the difference between I and L results would have been as satisfactory. but this leads to very complex To test the accuracy of Kupffer's formulae however. if he had always taken I for We thus L But in some of his observations the difference between it . L = 137985 (pp 3940) . x (iv) Thus we see that ELupffer's formula (u) cited above .
[762 763 value to a second degree of approximation of the stretch[762. I do not see why the second term on the is only approximate. first with the weight p 1 . further in his equation. 126135. footnote.] adopted for the transverse vibrations of a loaded clastic rod clamped at one end. we easily find from (v) but # Hence X= 2 tan*{l f ^ tan 2 <#>}. is really admissible to the right. p. of which the weight was p. He further replaces tan by </> tan 1'. 11). bar set vibrating about a vertical position. made in the following manner.524 KUPFFEB. the other end was then firmly clamped and the. 82 (at uniformly along the top of the footnote). of the vibrating part A Kupfter's experiments were bar. 84. < We next turn to the formula which Kupfter has [763.] modulus obtained from flexure is given by SaintVenant in his Legons He supposes however. that p is distributed de Navier. It will be found discussed in his volume on pp. This formula has been largely used in his researches. wa