Strain gauges

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Strain gauges

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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For measurements of pressure of the order of 10 -2 to 10 mm Hg such instruments must be placed on massive concrete foundations with vibration-absorbing lining. Autocompensated pressure gages are free from this defect and can be used for precision measurements both in laboratories and industry. LITERATURE CITED [1] V. I. Baldatin, Measurement Techniques, No. 2 (1958). [2] V. L Bakhtin, Measurement Techniques, No. 5 (1959). [3J V, I. Bakhtin, Measurement Techniques, No. 7 (1959).

APPLICATION Chen

OF S T R A I N G A G E S FOR M E A S U R I N G T O R Q U E

Ting-Chang

In the papers published on strain gages for measuring torque, insufficient attention is paid to the investigation of a rational placing of gages from the point of view of compensating for the effect of additional factors, such as temperature, shear force, axle load and in the first place the bending moment. When measuring torque the strain gage transducers are directed along the main tensions In rotation, I,e., at 45 or 135" to the axis of the flaaft (Fig. 1). Each wire is placed along a helical line on the surface of the shaft and its position in the x, y, z system of coordinates is determined by parameters ~ and e . Under the effect of bending, twisting and the shear force the shaft surface is in a complicated state of tension. For simplicity of calculations let us examine the middle wire ab of the transducer. The total change in its length can be expressed as

AL =~adle4so ; al = l/-2rd~ ;

5 L = r / ~ r S Sr

.

dq9.

(I)

Here r we obtain

is relative strain in the direction at 4b~ to the axisx, Using notations of Fig. I and integrating

AL._~_ALMb + ALMt+ALQ _

iVlt d 4.2Q r "~

(2)

Here ALMb is the change in length due to the bending moment; ALMt is the change in length due to twisting; ALQ is the change in length due to the shear force; M t is the torque; Q is the shear force; P is the load which produces the bending momentl

599

Ply

~

}YView from .~

d is the shaft diameter; ~ is the Poisson coefficient; E Is the modulus of elasticity of the 1st order;

"/I

I

order;

G is the modulus o f elasticity of the 2nd J is the moment of inertia of the shaft cross section I

o:~-<o,,t

Fig.

1

B AJo~

Wk is the moment o f resistance of the shaft cross section. In this analysis it is possible to ignore the variations in length due to temperature and axial load effects, since In the majority of cases these effects are compensated by means of a bridge circuit. Owing to the symmetry of stress curves with respect to the axis or the neutral plane of the shaft, the diametrically opposed transducers, for Instance, R1 and R2 (Fig. 1) will be subjected to strains equal in their absolute values (ALMbt = = [ ALMbz [ ). A similar conclusion can be arrived at with respect to the strains due to the shear force (ALQI = I A LQz ] ). Twisting on the other hand causes In the respective wires of the two pairs of transducers (R1, RB and Re, R~) strains with opposite signs, namely 4- ALMt and $ ALMt.

JRr8

, lZr-

'

R ~

tl

R,"~

~/~

~R~.~

~R,~

Gt-

fZ /f

'1

_~

When the shaft Is rotating and the bending and shear force remain in the same direction, each transducer is subjected to periodic tensile and compressive strains. On the basis of calculated -TR data, with a transducer 2.2 c m long, a shaft 2.7 em in diameter, P = 200 kg-wt and M t = 500 kgwt 9 cm,eurves of variations in resistance ZkR with position (Fig. 2) were plotted assuming that the transducer wire resistance is unky per unit length. All the curves are symmetrical with respect to oEo a the axis. It is interesting to note that in positions b I and V the following equalities hold ARIMb = Fig: s. = ARsMb = I AR~Mb [ = 1 At~Mbl If the bendIng moment varies linearly. This is due to the transducer being placed In this Instance symmetrically above and below the neutral plane.

Fig. 2.

,,~

The problem of an efficient placing of the transducers on the shaft Is solved according to manner in which the torque is varying (statically or dynamically). In the majority o f cases the following two versions of a bridge circuit are used (Fig. 8). Here n is the total number of transducers on the shaft, and this number must be even in order to obtain compensation; R is the transducer resistance which must be the same for all the transducers; r x is the variation in the resistance of the slip ring; and R' is the external resistance. In one of the versions two operating (and at the same time c o m pensating) arms are used (Fig. 3a);in the other all the four arms are operative (and at the same time compensating) (Fig. 3b). In the first version changes in the slip ring resistance r x have a considerable effect on the reading stability. If the bridge is constructed according to the circuit of Fig. 3b, and the minimum number of transducers is taken as four, the variations of the sIip ring resistance will produce a much smaller effect.

600

'

'd

Eo

L_4 ~ J

~ ( k ) at Pi

o~ [_.~ i i o

l // [~(1) at h7

Pz

o?_o

I // .~ (o)at

(m) at

Pz

~7

~r

L~'R8

0~

"~t

'

Z- - ~ X

l~ 1~

--~z2

[~

Scale ~ =13"S mm

~ = ~ = 6 = l#Okg

"'D --

g M't--37#kg: cm

~r Mt. 6e#kg. em

% oco.,~t

Fig. 4. In practice two, four or more transducers are used for measuring torque in a static, oscillating or rotating condition. In order to evaluate the effect o f associated phenomena on the value o f torque, let us examine an example when only one working transducer is used, although in practice this never happens since one transdueer alone cannot provide temperature error compensation. The total transducer resistance variation from all the extraneous factors is

where ARb is the resistance variation due to the bending moment; ~Q is the resistance variation due to shear force|

ARax is the resistance variation due to the axle load; zSRt is the resistance variation due to temperature.

601

The relative error in determining torque will then. be "A'AR 61-- AR~'

(3)

where ARk is the transducer resistance variation due to twisting. b For e x p e r i m e n t a l purposes an equipment was used which provided the shaft under test, on whose surface the transducers were glued, with a known torque and bending moment. The e x p e r i m e n t a l data shown in Fig. 4 confirm the t h e o r e t i c a l findings. The error due to bending either increases or decreases the measured value of torque by a h n and Ah 5. In position a ' the reading is zero, which means that the bending m o m e n t has c o m p l e t e l y balanced out the strain due to torque. Curve (k) shows a much smaller deviation since the middle point o f RA is in the neutral plane for bending from P1. The graph in Fig. 4 shows t y p i c a l ways o f using two transducers for the case when RA ; RB - R. The relative error due to extraneous factors in measuring torque with transducers in positions e , f , g and h End bridge connection b is expressed by the formula 6~= 0.5 (~'AR A-y.'ARB)

A Bic

e;

l I o

c

..... .....

e~ko ~

Eo

ff

Fig. 5.

I00 50 0

n] ii]

,~' if'

igg '

I,

.~ ~ ~-

z0 ,f' 0

(4)

By decreasing EI~RA - E'AR B the error is reduced; hence, both transducers RA and RB should be 9 ,.-4 ID p l a c e d near to each other on one side o f the shaft. O Graphs ~ , f , g and h show that the best results are o C a l c u l a t e d points obtained when the transducers are in position e and Measured points f and connected according to circuit b . In the ease Fig. 6. under consideration torque produces strains in RA and RB opposite in sign, thus precluding the use of bridge circu its e and d , since in circuit d we have E0 / E - - - AR~/(4R~ - AR~).-- 0 (where E0 is the bridge unbalance voltage and E is the supply voltage), and in circuit c the increments z3aR k produced in RA and RB b a l a n c e each other out, thus, reducing the signal due to torque p r a c t i c a l l y to zero. Graphs L, M and N show the effect of bending on the torque measurements when one or two transducers are used in the least favorable positions. Dividing (4) by (3) we have

N ~o

\I

6,, (1 51 - 0.5

E'ARE ). ~'AR A

It will be seen from this expression that in order to increase the accuracy of measurement it is necessary to connect into the bridge circuit a second transducer which is strained by E'ARB approaching in value E ' z ~ A. If the value in the brackets is less than one, 6 2 / 5 1 < 50%, i.e., the error of measurement with two transducers is only h a l f that with one transducer. For graphs L, M and N with lvlt = 625 kg-wt,, c m , 61 = 100%(in the case o f one transducer) and 6z = 35% (in the case o f two transducers).

602

Graph O in Fig. 4 shows a considerable effect of bending on torque measurements and graph Q shows that deviations Z' AR are close to zero, since theoretically E'ARA = E ' z ~ B in this position and 63 = 0. This characteristic can be utilized tn static measurements. The last row (4t) shows that in tumtng it is impossible to use circuit b since ARIrA = ARkB. If measurements are made with circuit d the bending effect will be EriE = - s Graph (P) in Fig. 4 clearly Illustrates this condition, but in it temperature and axial, loading wI!l effect the readings of M k. In our case at a temperature o f t ~ ; const, Mt ; 500 k g - w t , cm and axial loading force Pax - 300 kg-wt, the error amounts to 10%; tf the temperature remains constant and the axial force is small or absent, the placing of transducers in positions t and connecting them according to circuit d will produce more accurate results than the remaining versions in static and oscillatory conditions of measurements, when slip rings are not used. Positioningt with connections c provides the same accuracy as ford, but the sensitivity is smaller s!nc~ In rotation, only one arm of the bridge Is operative. Different ways of placing transducers Rl = R2 -- R3 = i~ = R are shown in Fig. 5. The formula for determining the relatlve error due to extraneous factors in measuring torque with the bridge circuit shown In d is

4R2

- ~ .... ~ "

Here E'AR~ = ] E'AR~ E'ARa] ; E'AR~ = [ E'AR1 E'AR2[ . In our example with Mt = 500 kg-wt" cm and P = 200 kg-wt the calculated value o f 84 = 0.014% as it is shown in Fig. 2. If the light spot In an oscillograph is defleeted for Mt = 500 kg-wt" c m by 30 mm, deflection due to bending will only amount to 30 x 0.014% = = 0.0042 mm, I.e., 4.2/11 it Is difficult to notice such a deflection In practice. Figure 5g shows the curve for P = 150 kg-wt in any direction, obtained experimentally with the arrangement of Fig. 2. Here the error due to bending is quite small, but nevertheless larger than the calculated value. This can be explained by the effect of the mechanical hysteresIs, inaccuracy o f setting, dIstortions of the electrical circuit, etc. It can be considered in practice that 64 is equal to zero, Hence, any one of the arrangements shown in Fig. 5 ~ , b o r c ) can be used, but from the operational point o f view those shown in b and c are more convenient, since they occupy a smaller space along the shaft axis. With a shaft of a small diameter and a long transducer it is more convenient to use arrangement a , since there willbe insufficient tpace in arrangements b and c. Circuit_e Is unsuitable for measuring torque, since the values of ARk balance out in neighboring arms of the bridge. Such a circuit does not register torque, but only the bending moment. In order to check the theoretical considerations, we have plotted for above circuit calculated and experimental curves, which represent the effect of bending when the shaft is rotated. (Fig. 6). The curves only differ by their phase shift due to distortion in the electrical circuit. It is possible therefore to assert that the theoretical calculations provide qualitatively correct results. In circuit f of Fig. 5 the extraneous effects are completely balanced out, i.e., 54 ; 0, but In rotational measurements the contact resistance o f the slip rings has a large effect on the stability of operations. In such instances research workers avoided using slip rings in order to eliminate the e ffect of contact resistances on the stability of operation, but this Introduces considerable difficulties of operation. It is advisable to use circuit d which practically eliminates errors due to extraneous factors in measming torque and greatly reduces the effect o f the Instability of slip-ring contact resistances. The use o f a set o f many transducers made o f foil for measuring torque is mentioned in technical literature; this Is, however, only a variation of circuits with 2 or 4 transducers. From the point o f view of accurate measurements this arrangement does not provide any advantages; it sometimes reduces the sensitivity owing to the mismatching o f the amplifier.

603

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