You are on page 1of 53

“A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.” 1 Artillery at Monmouth Courthouse, 28 June 1778

John U. Rees

(Earlier version Published in Military Collector & Historian, vol. 60, no. 1 (Spring 2008), 38-39.)

& Historian , vol. 60, no. 1 (Spring 2008), 38-39.) 1. “Battery Fire” by Bryant White

1.

“Battery Fire” by Bryant White

Appendices

Col. Richard Butler’s 1778 Map of the Monmouth Battle (drawn by William Gray)

2. “The Company was sent to Eastown with the pieces taken at Saratoga …” Brig. Gen. William Maxwell’s Jersey Brigade Artillery at Monmouth.

3.

Recreations of late 18 th Century Cannons, Limbers, and Ammunition Wagons

4. Period Images of English Cannon and Ammunition/Powder Wagons

5. Images of German (mostly Hessian) Artillery, Limbers, and Ammunition Wagons during the Period of the War for American Independence

Artillery, Continental and British, played an important part in the 28 June 1778 Battle of Monmouth. The British gunslargest role was taking part in the lengthy, very impressive, but somewhat ineffectual afternoon cannonade. On the Whig side, artillery under Lt. Colonel Eleazer Oswald, did stellar service, beginning with at least one stand covering the retreat of Maj. Gen. Charles Lee’s Advance Force, to the defensive action at the Hedgerow. And, of course, ten field-pieces fired from Perrine Ridge during the late-day mutual bombardment, while four cannon stationed on Comb’s Hill enfiladed British troops stationed at and near the Hedgerow, in front of the Parsonage Farm complex. To gain some appreciation of the use of artillery that day, let us begin with the confrontation between Lee’s Advance Force and the British rearguard at Monmouth Courthouse, and the subsequent American retreat. Lee’s Continental troops moved that morning from their quarters at or near Englishtown towards the courthouse, where Gen. Sir Henry Clinton’s rearguard regiments were in the process of breaking camp. Spotting British forces formed on the plain, ready to march after their main column, Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne led three regiments against their van on the left, while Maj. Gen. Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette and three regiments advanced against the British rear on the right. Major General Lee recalled that the latter half of their advance was executed "with great rapidity

'till we emerged from the wood into the plain; the wood extended itself close on our left to a

point about 300 yards distant

extensive, and

column of artillery, with a strong covering party, both horse and foot, presented themselves, in the centre of the plain, another much larger appear'd directing their course towards the

Court-house on our right." Lee’s aide Lt. Col. John Brooks recalled, "After having passed the woods and coming out into the plain, about a mile below the Court-house, being at some

little distance from the front, I observed the head of General Lee's column filing to the right

towards the Court-house. The whole of the column

whole made a halt, which lasted about ten or fifteen minutes. A cannonade had now taken

place between us and the enemy, who at this time appeared to be gaining the Court-house and our right; at this time the column began its march, and I immediately rode to the left to see what position the troops were in.” After initial minor contact with the enemy General Wayne was ordered to "advance with the troops under his command [which consisted at this time of Colonel Henry Jackson's, Lt. Col. John Park's and Colonel Richard Butler's battalions] and attack the enemy in the rear; that all the General expected from his attack

was, to halt the enemy

they came up,] The three regiments in General Wayne's [original] detachment, Colonel [James] Wesson's, Colonel [Walter] Stewart's, and Colonel [Henry] Livingston's, were ordered to the right, and General Lee rode out to reconnoitre the enemy, who now

appeared in full view. He rode toward's Colonel Oswald's [two artillery] pieces, who had began a very sharp fire on the enemy, but a much severer was kept up from them,

as they had a great many more pieces

than General Lee expected

spectator to Lt Col: Oswalds [2 nd Continental Artillery] behaviour, who kept up a gallant fire from some pieces commanded by him, uncovered and unsupported …”) Captain Mercer blamed the premature withdrawal on Scott's detachment and Maxwell's

Arriving in view of the enemy …[t]he plain was

their force was considerably larger than I had been taught to expect; a

kept on in the same direction till the

[the aforesaid three regiments formed the left of the line and, after

they appeared in much greater numbers I believe

" (Lt. Col. Alexander Hamilton wrote later, “I was

brigade at the left of the line. After contact with the British near the Courthouse Wayne’s command was also forced to retreat, making their way back towards "the height occupied "

afterwards by Lord Stirling

After being ordered to retreat from in front of Monmouth Courthouse, the artillery

under Colonel Oswald "formed upon

which I suppose was about a quarter of a mile in the rear of where I was, [where] I

discovered on my left General Maxwell's brigade and General Scott's detachment coming out of the wood upon this eminence I had formed for action, and had taken two pieces from General Scott's detachment and two from General Maxwell's brigade, making in all ten. I heard some person behind me ask one of my officers what we were doing there with the pieces, and why we did not retreat. I turned my horse about and saw it was General Maxwell. I told him I had my orders; upon which he said, very

well, and went off

was General Scott's detachment and General Maxwell's brigade that you saw come out of the wood, or their artillery only?" Oswald answered that he was "not certain

that it was General Scott's detachment, but I got their artillery, and there was a body of men with the two pieces; but I am certain it was General Maxwell's brigade." Colonel Oswald remained on the hill for a short time and then retreated again at General Lee's order. "Just after I ascended the hill on the plain [after crossing the defile near Carr's house], Major Shaw [possibly John Shaw, 2 nd Continental Artillery] came up, and said it was General Knox's order that I should form my pieces there; but before this, I had ordered the two pieces I had taken from Scott's detachment, and the "

two that I had taken from General Maxwell's brigade, to join their brigade again The artillery did stellar service during the withdrawal, Brigadier-General Henry Knox stating that “The field pieces were repeatedly unlimbered and fired on the enemy, who advanced in our front in a scattered manner.” 3 Just east of the hedge-row position General Anthony Wayne's troops went into the Rhea Plantation woods. Mercer then told Wayne "that General Lee's orders were, that he

should defend that post

commenced in that wood; General Lee then sent me into the rear to Colonel Ogden's

I saw there the Commanding Officer, who I did not know, and told him that

General Lee's orders were, that he should defend that [Parsonage Farm] wood to the last extremity, and cover the retreat of the whole at the bridge; he replied, that the enemy had got upon his left, and they were very good men, and it would never do to have them sacrificed there. I mentioned to him, as I rode off, that they were not in more danger than those in front." Wayne’s fight in Rhea Plantation Woods, east of the hedge-row, was the first serious infantry action of the day, involving Stewart’s and Ramsey’s battalions, with a contingent of Virginians, against the Brigade of Guards. Shortly after Captain Mercer

returned to General Lee British troops forced Wayne’s regiments to retreat. 4 Anthony Wayne described the Point of Woods (West Rhea Plantation) fight to his wife, “the Enemy following in force … Rendered it very Difficult for the small force I had to gain the main body, being often hard pushed and frequently Surrounded after falling back about a mile we met His Excellency, who Surprised at our Retreat, knowing that Officers as well as men were in high Spirits and wished for Nothing more than to be faced about and meet the British fire he Accordingly Ordered me to keep post where he met us with Stewarts & [Ramsey’s] Regiments and a Virginia Regt [the

regiment

and [after a short discussion] the action immediately

" On being questioned later as to whether he was "certain that it

[an] eminence [near the Point of Woods],

2

consolidated 4th/8th/12th Virginia] then under my Command with two pieces of Artillery and to keep [the Enemy] in play until he had an [opportunity] of forming the Remainder of the Army and Restoring Order We had but just taken post when the Enemy began their attack with Horse, foot, & Artillery, the fire of their whole united force Obliged us after a Severe Conflict to give way …” 5 To the rear of the Rhea Plantation woods was a hedge-row (also called a hedge-fence or fence), where the next combat occurred. General Lee recalled, “I understood General Wayne took the command in the point of the wood on our left, where Colonel Stewart had been halted … On their right on the opposite side of the plain, I had ordered Colonel Oswald, with four pieces of artillery …” Being in an exposed position in front of the line, “I ordered [the artillery] into the rear of Livingston’s … which regiment, together with Varnum’s brigade [and supported by a party of militia light-horse] … lined the

fence [hedge-row] that stretch’d across the open field

Aid-de-Camp, to Colonel Ogden, who

rear, and ordered him to defend that post, to cover the retreat of the whole over the bridge.

… These battalions having sustain’d with gallantry, and return’d with vigour, a very considerable fire, were at length successively forced over the bridge" to General Washington’s position on Perrine Hill. 6 Colonel Laurens recalled the maddening withdrawal and the Continental troops’ first stand, “All this disgraceful retreating, passed without the firing of a musket, over ground which might have been disputed inch by inch. We passed a defile and arrived at an eminence beyond, which was defended on one side by an impenetrable fen, on the other by thick woods where our men would have fought to advantage. Here, fortunately for the honour of the army, and the welfare of America, Genl Washington met the troops retreating in disorder … [and] ordered some pieces of artillery to be brought up to defend the pass, and some troops to form and defend the pieces.” These were Captain David Cook’s and Captain Thomas Seward’s 3 rd Continental Artillery batteries of two cannon each. Lt. Col. Oswald, 2 nd Continental Artillery, asked later the whereabouts of Livingston’s Battalion “supposed he had gone into the woods on my left, where Colonel Stewart and Lieutenant-Colonel Ramsay were; but I afterwards understood he was at the hedge-row, where General Varnum’s brigade was.” Oswald then described the hedge-row fight, “I brought up the rear with Captain Cooke’s two pieces, and placed them on an eminence, just in rear of the hedge-row, where I found the troops formed. Through the breeches that had been made in the fence I discharged several grapes of shot at the enemy, the infantry being engaged with them.” Captain-Lieutenant John Cumpston, 3 rd Continental Artillery, served with Cook at the hedge-row. Cumpston related that, after stopping during the retreat to fire at the British, “we then limbered our pieces and retired a short distance, formed in the rear of a party of troops that were to cover our pieces. The enemy were then advancing; a very heavy fire began of musquetry in our front and left wing. General Knox gave us … orders to give the enemy a shot. I believe our people made a stand there about two minutes; after giving them two or three charges of grape shot, we were ordered to retire … across the morass. By the time we crossed it with our pieces, there began a cannonade from our army who were on the hill.” 7

I sent Captain Mercer, my

had drawn up in the wood nearest the bridge in our

(Previous page) Period map of Monmouth battlefield. The author has added several positions known to have been occupied by Continental artillery under Eleazer Oswald during the morning confrontation with the enemy, and during the withdrawal to Perrine Ridge. Manuscript 1778 map of the Monmouth battlefield. The original was drawn by Capt. William Gray, 4th Pennsylvania Regiment, and once owned by Col. Richard Butler. Long held (likely since 1863) in the collections of the New-York Historical Society, it lay hidden and was rediscovered in 1998.

Now let us turn to the 2 ½ to 3 hour artillery duel that punctuated the afternoon battle. Beginning about 2 o’clock, Brig. Gen. Henry Knox, American artillery commander, stated "The Army was drawn up on advantageous ground to receive the Enemy who advanced to the Attack with Considerable impetuosity and by a brisk Cannonade which was return'd with becoming spirit … the Cannonade lasted untill about Six in the Evening." Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling, recalled his troops massing on Perrine Hill, with a morass in front, “by the time they were well formed … the Batteries were all established; the Enemy appeared in the front of Wykoofs [Wicoff’s] house, I began a Cannonade on them with ten pieces, however they soon established a Strong Battery of Sixes and twelves and some Howitz[ers] … and endeavoured all they could to Discompose the left Wing; but with out the least Effect; this cannonade was briskly kept up for upwards of two hours …” 8 Lt. Col. Henry Dearborn described the action vividly,

we form.d & about 12 Peices of Artillery being brought on the hill with us: the Enimy at the same time advancing very Rappedly finding we had form.d, they form.d in our front on a Ridge & brought up their Artillery within about 60 Rods [330 yards] of our front. When the briske[s]t Cannonade Commenced on both sides that I Ever heard. Both Armies ware on Clear Ground & if any thing Can be Call.d Musical where there is so much Danger, I think that was the finest musick, I Ever heared. however the agreeableness of the musick was very often Lessen’d by the balls Coming too near Our men being very much beat out with Fateague & heat which was very intence, we order.d them to sit Down & Rest them Selves

9

Grenadier Lt. William Hale, 45 th Regiment, described the bombardment from the British side. After attacking Continental troops at the hedge-row,

With some difficulty we were brought under the hill we had gained, and the most terrible cannonade L[or]d. W[illiam]. Erskine [British quartermaster general, veteran of Fontenoy and the Seven Years’ War] says he ever heard ensued and lasted for above two hours, at the distance of 600 yards; on our side two medium twelves [12 pounder cannon], as many [5 ½ inch] howitzers and 6 six-pounders which were answered by fourteen pieces, long twelves and french nines; our shells [i.e., howitzers] and twelves, which were admirably conducted by a Capt. Williams, did most horrible execution among their line drawn up on the hill. 10

Lieutenant Hale told more of his experience under fire, as well as some of the casualties incurred.

The shattered remains of our Battalion being under cover of our hill suffered little [from the cannonade], but from thirst and heat of which several died, except some who

preferred the shade of some trees in the direct range of shot to the more horrid tortures of thirst. Capt. Powell of the 52 nd Grenadiers, one of these [seeking shade] had his arm shattered to pieces … At length finding we did not take possession of the hills [Combs Hill] on their right, they brought some cannon on them and obliged us to move through the wood to a hill at a greater distance, and some [British] brigades coming up both kept possession of their field from which they moved that evening, and we in the night. Our battalion lost 98, 11 officers killed and wounded, Major Gardner shot very badly through the foot … P.S. … our wounded left behind, among them [Captain Thomas] Wills [23 rd Regiment] of Plym[outh]. who was [formerly] in the 45 th , his thigh shattered by a cannon ball … I am told the General has expressed his approbation of the ridiculous behaviour of the four sub[altern]. officers I before mentioned who had got foremost, among these was my Bro[ther]. Officer who received a painful but not dangerous wound in the neck; the action happened at Freehold. All friends well. [Conway] Courtenay [lieutenant, 15 th Regiment] and myself lay under the hill together during the cannonade, and swallowed a canteen of water which a tempting dollar from my pocket prevailed on an artillery driver to creep on all fours through the fire to fetch …” 11

Hale gave further details in a 14 July letter,

I escaped unhurt in the very hot action of the 28 th last month, allowed to be the severest that has happened, [in the hedge-row fight] the Rebel’s Cannon playing Grape and Case upon us at the distance of 40 yards and the small arms within little more than half that space; followed by a most incessant and terrible cannonade of near three hours continuance; you may judge from the circumstances of our battalion guns, 6 pounders, firing 160 rounds, and then desisting only lest ammunition should be wanting for Case shot; of the roar kept up by our twelves [12 pounder cannon] and howitzers, answered by near twenty pieces from their side on a hill 600 paces from ours … 12

It must be noted that Lieutenant Hale’s claims as to the size and number of American guns (“long twelves and French nines” and “near twenty pieces”) are exaggerated.

nines” and “near twenty pieces”) are exaggerated. Above: Cone of fire from a 3 or 4

Above: Cone of fire from a 3 or 4 pounder artillery piece on Perrine Ridge, likely belonging to Proctor’s Regiment. The target, fired on with grapeshot, was elements of the 2d Battalion, 42d Regiment, in Derek Sutfin’s cider orchard. Interspersed among the Continental batteries, as well as in the orchard and field, are fragments from British 5 ½ inch howitzer shells. (For further details see map on following page.) Garry Wheeler Stone, Daniel M. Sivilich, Mark Edward Lender, “A Deadly Minuet: The Advance of the New England ‘Picked Men’ against the Royal Highlanders at the Battle of Monmouth, 28 June 1778,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVI, no. 2 (Summer 1996), 2-18. (Image courtesy of Bravo [Battlefield Restoration & Archaeological Volunteer Organization] http://www.bravodigs.org/index.html )

From, Garry Wheeler Stone, Dani el M. Sivilich, Mark Edward Lender, “A Deadly Minuet: The

From, Garry Wheeler Stone, Daniel M. Sivilich, Mark Edward Lender, “A Deadly Minuet:

The Advance of the New England ‘Picked Men’ against the Royal Highlanders at the Battle of Monmouth, 28 June 1778,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVI, no. 2 (Summer 1996), 2-18.

Another Monmouth Battlefield study by BRAVO: “Using GIS [ Geographical Information Software] analysis of case

Another Monmouth Battlefield study by BRAVO: “Using GIS [Geographical Information Software] analysis of case shot at the Parsonage site to identify the original cannon locations of 4 French guns under the command of General Nathaniel Green.” “What is Battlefield Archaeology?” http://www.bravodigs.org/battlefield.html

Map of a portion of Monmouth battlefield, showing the afternoon artillery positions for both combatants.

Map of a portion of Monmouth battlefield, showing the afternoon artillery positions for both combatants. http://www.bravodigs.org/molly.html . Most pertinent landmarks are identified, except for: 2. Point of Woods, the first defensive position formed against the British advance; and 3. British artillery and troops at the Hedgerow.

Continental Army field artillery in action. Detail from William Mercer, “Battle of Princeton on 3rd

Continental Army field artillery in action. Detail from William Mercer, “Battle of Princeton on 3rd January 1777” (Historical Society of Pennsylvania)

All these descriptions are vague in certain crucial details. Of the ten or twelve Continental cannon involved (perhaps more if you count the pieces under Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene on the American right at Combs Hill), it is not certainly known which artillery companies took part, and how many and what type of cannon each company used in the action. 13 Here is what we do know. Before leaving Valley Forge a "Return of Continental & private property Horses Field peices Ammunition & Baggage Waggons, in the Brigade of Artillery commanded by Gen.l Knox," dated "Artillery Park, 28.th May 1778," listed 29 guns in the park, "26 of which have 4 horses" (a footnote states that "3 of the above guns have but three horses each, & one Howitzer with two ditto"), and 29 ammunition wagons with 4 horses per wagon, plus 6 spare ammunition wagons without horses. 14 Commissary of Military Stores Samuel Hodgdon’s letter from "Croton Bridge 19 July 1778" to John Ruddock, Deputy Quartermaster of Stores at Fishkill, gives some idea of cannon types via his account of ammunition expenditure:

Sir the great Consumption of Cannon Ammunition in the late Battle at Monmouth Renders it Necessary that a Supply be sent With all posable dispatch to Camp

200

six pound strap shott

200

four pound Ditto

100

three pound Ditto is Much Wanted also

100

Good Arms & Accutrements

I have sent by Mr. Giles QrM Stores five Load of Damaged Arms & Ammunition Who

Will Conduct the Above stores to Camp 15

We can surmise from Hodgdon’s accounting that the majority of Continental cannon at the Battle of Monmouth were four and six pound guns, and that perhaps four or five hundred artillery rounds were fired (or lost) during the course of the day. As for the units involved, part of Col. Thomas Proctor’s 4th Artillery Regiment was stationed on the left during the cannonade, elements of the 1st, 2d and 3d Regiments also took part, and all suffered casualties that day. Furthermore, the guns at the Combs Hill position have yet to be identified. 16 Despite the lack of some specific information, it is certain that Gen. George Washington’s artillery performed very well at Monmouth. Both in covering Maj. Gen. Charles Lee’s morning retreat and in the afternoon cannonade, described by one officer as “heavyer than Ever known on the field in America before," Col. Alexander Hamilton, a hard man to please, noted of the American batteries, “The Artillery acquitted themselves most charmingly.” 17

My thanks to Frank Cecala, Ed Magiera, John Mills, Princeton Battlefield Park, George Quintal, Robert A. Selig, and Garry W. Stone, Monmouth Battlefield Park, for providing information for this article, and to Bryant White and Pamela Patrick White for their artwork.

to Bryant White and Pamela Patrick White for their artwork. Image of artillery field piece and

Image of artillery field piece and two-horse limber, from a powder horn engraving. This drawing is from Harold L. Peterson, Round Shot and Rammers: An Introduction to Muzzle-loading Land Artillery in the United States (South Bend, In.: South Bend Replicas, 1969), 59. Also see photograph of powder horn in Harold L. Peterson, The Book of the Continental Soldier (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1968), 132.

Appendices

1. Col. Richard Butler’s 1778 Map of the Monmouth Battle (drawn by William Gray)

1778 Map of the Monmouth Battle (drawn by William Gray) Modern version of manuscript 1778 map

Modern version of manuscript 1778 map of the Monmouth battlefield. The original was drawn by Capt. William Gray, 4th Pennsylvania Regiment, and once owned by Col. Richard Butler. Long held (likely since 1863) in the collections of the New-York Historical Society, it lay hidden and was rediscovered in 1998. (See next page for more details.)

(Richard Butler Monmouth battlefield map, western half)

(Richard Butler Monmouth battlefield map, western half)

(Richard Butler Monmouth battlefield map, eastern half)

(Richard Butler Monmouth battlefield map, eastern half)

On Perrine Hill, during the cannonade, “General [George Washington] coolly standing in his stirrups, was

On Perrine Hill, during the cannonade, “General [George Washington] coolly standing in his stirrups, was said to say to the officers who urged that that was no place for him … ‘that he was admiring the manner in which Proctor [Col. Thomas Proctor, 4th Continental Artillery Regiment] was handling their right.’” “Reminiscences of Dr. William Read, Arranged From His Notes and Papers,” R.W. Gibbes, M.D., Documentary History of the American Revolution: Consisting of Letters and Papers Relating to the Contest for Liberty, Chiefly in South Carolina, From Originals in the Possession of the Editor, and Other Sources. 1776-1782 (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1857), 255-258. Early artwork by Don Troiani.

2. “The Company was sent to Eastown with the pieces taken at Saratoga …” Brig. Gen. William Maxwell’s Jersey Brigade Artillery at Monmouth.

"The Cannonade was heavyer than Ever known on the field in America before Col. Israel Shreve describing the 28 June 1778 afternoon artillery duel. 12

"

Each brigade in Washington’s army had at least two cannon attached to it for field

service. Maj. Joseph Bloomfield, 3d New Jersey, identified the New Jersey brigade artillery:

"In 1776 two Companies of Artillery were raised in New Jersey for one Year & afterwards the Officers Commissioned for the War. the Company in West Jersey, was Commanded by Hugg-Westcoat & Dayton [Capt. John Westcott was captain, 2d Lt. Joseph Dayton; Samuel Hugg had commanded the company up to June 1777] - and arranged as one of the Companys of [Col. John] Lambs Artillery & in 1778 Attached to the Jersey Brigade with

two field Pieces

2d Continental Artillery Regiment, stated that his company "took winter quarters at Valley

forge and in the Spring of 1778 was detatched to the New Jersey troops under the Command

of General Maxfield [and was with him at the battle of Monmouth] served in the Jersey line the Campaign of 1778 and took Winter quarters at Elizabeth town, and in the Spring 1779 the Company was sent to Eastown with the pieces taken at Saratoga where they remained

until [Major] General [John] Sullivan returned from after the Indians

attached artillery is confused by Col. Israel Shreve’s 7 April 1778 letter to General Washington from Mount Holly, New Jersey: “If your Excy. should think proper to send more troops to this Quarter, with Artillery, I Beg for the Jersey Compy. Of Artillery, at

" Drummer Joseph Lummis, Capt. Thomas Randall’s company, Lamb's

" Identity of the

present Commanded by Capt. Lt. Seth Bowen [3d Continental Artillery] …” The brigade

artillery was correctly noted in an account of a 25 February 1779 British attack on Elizabethtown, New Jersey, General Maxwell noting, “A few well directed shot from Capt. Randolphs [Thomas Randall, 2d Continental] Artilery induced them to continue their retreat

leaving two killed on the ground Lt. Colonel Eleazer Oswald, 2d Continental Artillery, stated at Lee’s court martial stated that after being ordered to retreat from in front of Monmouth Courthouse his artillery

18

formed upon

where I was [previously], [where] I discovered on my left General Maxwell's brigade and General Scott's detachment coming out of the wood upon this eminence I had formed for action, and had taken two pieces from General Scott's detachment and two from General Maxwell's brigade, making in all ten. I heard some person behind me ask one of my officers what we were doing there with the pieces, and why we did not retreat. I turned my horse about and saw it was General Maxwell. I told him I had my orders; upon which he said, very well, and went off

[an] eminence, which I suppose was about a quarter of a mile in the rear of

19

On being questioned later as to whether he was "certain that it was General Scott's detachment and General Maxwell's brigade that you saw come out of the wood, or their artillery only?" Oswald answered that he was "not certain that it was General Scott's detachment, but I got their artillery, and there was a body of men with the two pieces; but I am certain it was General Maxwell's brigade." Colonel Oswald remained on the hill for a short time and then retreated again at General Lee's order. "Just after I ascended the hill on the plain [after crossing the defile near Carr's house], Major Shaw came up, and said it was General Knox's order that I should form my pieces there; but before this, I had ordered the two pieces I had taken from Scott's detachment, and the two that I had taken from General "

Caleb Fulkerson, 1st New Jersey fifer serving for nine months, stated with regard to the

[he] was attached was held as a reserve

artillery that at Monmouth "the Brigade to which

Maxwell's brigade, to join their brigade again

20

excepting their Artillery which was engaged." He refers to the action under Lt. Col. Oswald in the morning near the courthouse, and their role in the afternoon's heavy cannonading at the Perrine Hill position. 21

heavy cannonading at the Perrine Hill position. 2 1 Continental Army artillery crew and field piece.

Continental Army artillery crew and field piece. Artwork by Bryant White, http://www.whitehistoricart.com (Copyright 2004). Courtesy of the artist.

2. Recreations of late 18 th Century Cannons, Limbers, and Ammunition Wagons

18 t h Century Cannons, Limbers, and Ammunition Wagons 3-pound field gun and limber. Fort Dobbs

3-pound field gun and limber. Fort Dobbs State Historic Site, 438 Fort Dobbs Road, Statesville, N.C.

State Historic Site, 438 Fort Dobbs Road, Statesville, N.C. Iron 3-pounder and limber, 1st Continental Artillery

Iron 3-pounder and limber, 1st Continental Artillery (living history unit).

3-pounder grasshopper gun, New Windsor Cantonment State Historic Site New Windsor , N.Y. Grasshopper gun

3-pounder grasshopper gun, New Windsor Cantonment State Historic Site New Windsor , N.Y.

Windsor Cantonment State Historic Site New Windsor , N.Y. Grasshopper gun (Image courtesy of Jymm Hoffman)

Grasshopper gun (Image courtesy of Jymm Hoffman) ? Fort Ligonier, Ligonier, Pennsylvania. (http://fortligonier.org/ ) ?

(Above and below) 3-pounder, West Jersey artillery (living history unit).

(Above and below) 3-pounder, West Jersey artillery (living history unit).

(Above and below) 3-pounder, West Jersey artillery (living history unit).
Light 6-pounder and limber ? Fort Ligonier, Ligonier, Pennsylvania. ( http://fortligonier.org/ ) ? Powder cart,

Light 6-pounder and limber ? Fort Ligonier, Ligonier, Pennsylvania. (http://fortligonier.org/ ) ?

Ligonier, Pennsylvania. ( http://fortligonier.org/ ) ? Powder cart, Fort Ligonier, Ligonier, Pennsylvania. (
(Above and below) Recreated artillery limber. (Images courtesy of John Ruf)

(Above and below) Recreated artillery limber. (Images courtesy of John Ruf)

(Above and below) Recreated artillery limber. (Images courtesy of John Ruf)
Traces for recreated limber (see above). John Ruf notes, “ I made the traces from

Traces for recreated limber (see above). John Ruf notes, “I made the traces from hemp rope covered in deerhide at the eyes to the toggles (which I handmade from bar stock. The saddle and collar, however, are my mountain howitzer Artillery Grimsley harness, which is an anachronism.” (Images courtesy of John Ruf)

however, are my mountain howitzer Artillery Grimsley harness, which is an anachronism. ” (Image s courtesy

4. Period Images of English Cannon and Ammunition/Powder Wagons

Period Images of English Cannon and Ammunition/Powder Wagons Side and overhead views of British 6-pounder field

Side and overhead views of British 6-pounder field gun. Harold L. Peterson, The Book of the Continental Soldier (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1968), 116, 121.

field gun. Harold L. Peterson, The Book of the Continental Soldier (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1968),
“Gun” (circa 1747), by Thomas Sandby. Yale Centre for British Art, Hartford, Ct. Artillery piece

“Gun” (circa 1747), by Thomas Sandby. Yale Centre for British Art, Hartford, Ct.

by Thomas Sandby. Yale Centre for British Art, Hartford, Ct. Artillery piece on the move, attached

Artillery piece on the move, attached to limber and horse team. Detail from Phillippe Jacques de Loutherbourg (1740-1812), “Warley Camp: The Review” (1780), Oil on canvas 121.3 x 183.5 cm, Painted for George III, RCIN 406349, The Royal Collection. (See entire painting, following page.)

English "Powder Cart," circa 1757. Overall length is approximately 13 1/2 feet. In January 1777

English "Powder Cart," circa 1757. Overall length is approximately 13 1/2 feet. In January 1777 General Washington recommended for the Continental army "Chaises marine [two- "

wheeled carts] made for the Artillery and Regimental amunition, light, strong and covered

It is not known if such vehicles were adopted. Muller, Treatise of Artillery, plate XIX. Washington to Thomas Mifflin, 31 January 1777, Fitzpatrick, WGW, vol. 7 (1932), 83 (see also

pagenote).

English ammunition wagon, circa 1757. Overall length is 26 feet; the cargo-carrying body is 14

English ammunition wagon, circa 1757. Overall length is 26 feet; the cargo-carrying body is 14 feet long by 4 feet wide. Most Continental army ammunition wagons were likely made with four wheels. Muller, Treatise of Artillery, plate XX.

5. Images of German (mostly Hessian) Artillery, Limbers, and Ammunition Wagons during the Period of the War for American Independence

during the Period of the War for American Independence (Above and below) Hessian 3-pounder gun with

(Above and below) Hessian 3-pounder gun with limber, circa 1770. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/15) Image 15 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819 http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&prev=search&sl=de&u=http://digam.net/them

af543.html%3Flpt%3D177&sandbox=0&usg=ALkJrhjkzsnPdiFxh99jn7nP5DLsNzgk5g

Wilhelmshöher Kriegskarten collection WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

(Description of Collection) Wilhelmshöher War Card The Hessian State Archives Marburg (StAM) is one of the three archives of the Hessian State Archive and is based in Marburg

The Wilhelmshöher war maps is a collection of nearly 3,000 tickets in the Hessisches Staatsarchiv Marburg, which covers a period of 150 years. It was in 1700 by Landgrave Karl created and led to the early 19th century; individual cards were added later. The cards are bound in 44 volumes, of which most have the format 100x65 cm. The Wilhelmshöher war maps documenting theaters in Europe and North America since the Thirty Years' War to the American liberation wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The quality is very different from leaves that have been marked for training purposes in the cartographers-training, to fully elaborated maps. Mostly it is hand-drawn, but in addition also to woodcuts, colored and non-colored engravings and lithographs. The individual sheets show geographical maps, battle maps and course maneuvers plans, gun drawings, bearing drawings and orders of battle. You can be accompanied by descriptions, siege diaries, commands and surrender documents. A special feature about 200 maps from the American War of Independence from 1775, in the English side on mercenaries from various German territories were used. The Hessian corps presented by far the largest contingent of troops and also came the only its own maps Officer. Can be on the cards as the state of New York read about 1776 or follow the military operations in the War of Independence. Another example is maneuvering plans from around Berlin, where the urban development of Berlin can be traced. All Wilhelmshöher war maps are available on the Internet. http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelmsh

Hessian 3-pounder gun with limber, 1789. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/18) Image 18.0 of

Hessian 3-pounder gun with limber, 1789. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/18) Image 18.0 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

Carriage and limber for a Hessian 4-pounder cannon, n.d. [no

Carriage and limber for a Hessian 4-pounder cannon, n.d. [no date] (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/19). Image 19 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery,

1737-1819

Prussian 6-pounder cannon with carriage and limber, 1768. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/21). Image

Prussian 6-pounder cannon with carriage and limber, 1768. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards

WHK 43/21). Image 21 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-

1819

6-pounder cannon with carriage and limber, n.d. (Inventory

6-pounder cannon with carriage and limber, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/22). Image 22 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

Hessian 6-pounder cannon with carriage, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/23c). Image 23.3 of

Hessian 6-pounder cannon with carriage, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/23c). Image 23.3 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

Hessian 6-pounder cannon with carriage, 1786. (Inventory ID,

Hessian 6-pounder cannon with carriage, 1786. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/23d). Image 23.4 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

Drawing of a 12-pounder cannon, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/24). Image 24 of

Drawing of a 12-pounder cannon, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/24). Image 24 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

Hessian 12-pounder cannon, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards

Hessian 12-pounder cannon, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/26). Image 26 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

Drawing a howitzer with carriage, circa 1770 . (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/13a). Image

Drawing a howitzer with carriage, circa 1770. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK

43/13a). Image 13.1 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

Drawing a 1-pounder Amusette from the armory in Kassel, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK

Drawing a 1-pounder Amusette from the armory in Kassel, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM

cards WHK 43/28). Image 28.0 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery,

1737-1819

Drawings of 1-pounder Amusette, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/29). Image 29 of WHK

Drawings of 1-pounder Amusette, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/29). Image 29 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

Ammunition wagon, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK

Ammunition wagon, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/41h). Image 41.9 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

Drawing a planned ammunition for artillery wagon, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/33a). Image

Drawing a planned ammunition for artillery wagon, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/33a). Image 33.1 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

Ammunition wagon for the guns of the Hessian artillery, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK

Ammunition wagon for the guns of the Hessian artillery, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/35c). Image 35.2 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-

1819

Drawings of an ammunition wagon, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/37). Image 37 of

Drawings of an ammunition wagon, n.d. (Inventory ID, HStAM cards WHK 43/37). Image 37 of WHK Wilhelmshöher War Card Vol. 43: Plans of Artillery, 1737-1819

(Images from Swann Auction Gallery Webpage)

(Images from Swann Auction Gallery Webpage) The image above and those following were brought to my

The image above and those following were brought to my attention by Robert A. Selig. They were offered for sale by Swann Auction Galleries with the appended description:

Sale 2384 Lot 254 (CANNONS AND MORTARS.) Collection of 11 large and exquisite watercolor drawings of fieldpieces, folio or double elephant folio sheets, 650x980 mm largest sheet size. Watercolor, ink, and pencil on watermarked laid paper. One of the sheets is stained, a few of the others have small edge nicks, overall they are in very good condition, suitable for framing. [German-speaking Europe, second-half 18th century] Estimate $12,000 - 18,000

AN EXTREMELY IMPRESSIVE GROUP OF RENDERINGS.

Sub-groups within this collection focus on specific fieldpieces and show them from multiple angles. One group is dated 1764; a new generation of cannon was issued by Great Britain in that year, and this may be related to that change. Large-calibre cannons are well represented. This school of drawing flourished in German-speaking Europe in the 18th and very early 19th centuries. The work was often done by accomplished cadets or officers, and, as with this group and the few other collections we have seen, multiple artists are usually represented. For similar (albeit somewhat less accomplished) drawings, look to the Hessian artillery section in the Wilhelmshöher Kriegskarten collection. In all likelihood the artillery depicted here are either Hessian or Prussian, and similar pieces would have been deployed in the French and Indian War and the American Revolution. (Swann Auction Galleries

Hesse-Kassel 3-pdr "Regiments' Canon", plate created by Christian Rogge. The accompanying scale drawings are

Hesse-Kassel 3-pdr "Regiments' Canon", plate created by Christian Rogge. The accompanying scale drawings are tentative reconstructions based on the material provided, for most part by the (Kassel) Wilhelmshöher ‘Kriegskarten’ (‘war maps’) available from the Hessisches Staatsarchiv Marburg, Germany (DigAM). They are based on the M1770 piece found there. This reconstruction is based on the assumption that earlier pieces fielded from 1741 were of similar design, the M1770 pieces including only minor modifications. Note: all feet and inches are expressed in Cassel foot (1' = 28.77 cm). Basic scale for the proportions of the barrel was the calibre (i.e. the bore diameter), rather than the shot. Metal strength of the tube walls were of solid design 1 calibre at the breech descending to 0,5 calibre at the face of the muzzle. Wheel diameter was Cassel 51ꞌꞌ. For aiming the piece, a machinery based on an elevating screw had been introduced in 1742. Its looks are unknown, therefore this machinery is only indicated, rather than illustrated in detail.

Endnotes

1. Sgt. Ebenezer Wild, 1 st Massachusetts Regiment, 28 June 1778 journal entry. The full passage is

as follows: “28 June [1778]. This morning about 6 o’clk the General beat; in about an hour afterwards the Troop beat. We fell in & marched off. Went about 4 miles, & made a little halt to sarch [search] our arms and ammunition. Every man was compleated with 40 rounds apiece. We left all our packs and blankets, and marched on in pursuit of the enemy as far as we could. About 2 o’clk came up with them. Our Division formed a line on the eminence about a half a mile in the front of the enemy, and our artillery in our front. A very smart cannonading ensued from both

sides. We stayed here till several of our officers & men were killed and wounded. Seeing that it was of no service to stand here, we went back a little ways into the woods; but the cannonading still continued very smart on both sides about two hours, when the enemy retreated and we marched up & took possession of their ground. This place is called Monmouth. It has been very hot all day. Numbers of our men had fainted and given out with the heat before we came up to the enemy. We lay here all night in the field.” "Journal of Ebenezer Wild," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2nd series, vol. VI (Boston, Ma., 1891), 108-111.

2. "Proceedings of a General Court Martial

for the Trial of Major General Lee. July 4th, 1778

,"

The Lee Papers, vol. III, 1778-1782, Collections of the New-York Historical Society for the

Year 1873 (New York, 1874), testimony of: Captain Mercer, 102-114; Charles Lee, 174-189; Lt. Col. Brooks, 143-156. Alexander Hamilton to Elias Boudinot, 5 July 1778, Harold C. Syrett, ed., The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. I (New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1961), 513. This and the following excerpts are the result of my study of the battle, “`What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth,”

3. Lee Court Martial Proceedings, testimony of Lt. Col. Oswald, 134-138; Brigadier-General

Knox, 157.

4. Anthony Wayne to his wife, 1 July 1778, Lee Papers, Collections of the New-York Historical

Society, 448-449.

5. Lee Court Martial Proceedings, testimony of Charles Lee, 188-189.

6. John Laurens to Henry Laurens, 30 June 1778, Lee Papers, vol. II, Collections of the New-York

Historical Society, 431-434. Lee Court Martial Proceedings, testimony of: Lt. Col. Tilghman, 79- 82; Lt. Col. Oswald, 136, 139; Capt. Cumpiton, 142 (John Cumpston, captain-lieutenant, 3 rd Continental Artillery); Brigadier-General Knox, 157-158; Capt. Stewart, 160 (Thomas Seward,

captain, 3 rd Continental Artillery).

7. Henry Knox to his brother, 3 July 1778, Henry Knox Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society

(microfilm edition), reel 4, vol. 4, item 117. Major General William Alexander, Lord Stirling, to William H. Drayton, South Carolina Congressman, from “Camp Whiteplains August 15 th : 1778,” “Letters of William Alexander, Lord Stirling,” Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, vol, 60, no. 3 (July 1942), 173-174.

8. Lloyd A. Brown and Howard H. Peckham, eds., Revolutionary War Journals of Henry Dearborn,

1775-1783 (Chicago: The Caxton Club, 1939; reprinted Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, Inc., 1994),

127.

9. William Hale letter, 4 July 1778, Walter Harold Wilkin, Some British Soldiers in

America (London, Hugh Rees, Ltd., 1914), 257-260. Mark M. Boatner III, Encyclopedia of

the American Revolution (New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1966), 349.

10. Hale letter, 4 July 1778, Wilkin, Some British Soldiers in America, 257-260.

11. Hale letter, 14 July 1778, ibid.

12. Lt. Col. John Laurens, of General George Washington’s staff, stated that in the afternoon,

“The General ordered Woodford’s brigade [of Major-General Greene’s wing] with some artillery to take possession of an eminence [Comb’s Hill] on the enemy’s left and cannonade from thence.

This produced an excellent effect. The enemy were prevented from advancing on us, and confined themselves to cannonade with a show of turning our left flank. Our artillery answered theirs with the greatest vigour.” John Laurens to Henry Laurens, 30 June 1778, The Lee Papers, vol. II, 1776-1778, Collections of the New-York Historical Society for the Year 1872 (New York, 1873), 431-434 (hereafter cited as Lee Papers, vol. II, Collections of the New-York Historical Society). 13. "A Return of Continental & private property Horses Field peices Ammunition & Baggage Waggons, in the Brigade of Artillery commanded by Gen.l Knox." It is dated "Artillery Park, 28.th May 1778," The Papers of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, National Archives Microfilm Publications M247, (Washington, DC, 1958), reel 192, vol. 1, p. 249. The two 1777 letters below give some indication regarding the state and nature of Washington’s field artillery later that year and in 1778:

General Washington to the Board of War:

Head Quarters, Middle Brook, June 30, 1777. Sir: I yesterday received your favor of the 28th Instant with the Inclosures. Every proper measure has been already taken with respect to the Artillery, imported in the Amphitrite. The whole 52 Pieces have been brought to Springfield, and the 31 of the Swedish light construction are ordered on thence to Litchfield, from which place they will be forwarded to Camp, as fast as circumstances will permit. The other 21 are made upon an old plan exceedingly heavy and unmanageable, intended to be used principally in embrazures, and requiring so large a Number of Horses to carry them, and Men to manoeuvre them, as must render them very inconvenient for Field Service, and the more liable to be lost in an unsuccessful action. For these reasons, it has been judged expedient, to have them cast over and constructed upon a lighter plan, which, besides making them more portable and convenient for use, will be attended with the advantage of increasing the number. Each of those heavy four Pounders, will nearly make three Six pounders, Sufficiently Substantial for any purpose whatever. Congress have directed the Council of Massachusetts to establish a Foundery, and have them new Cast; and Springfield is the Place designed for the purpose. It were to be wished, that a matter of such importance may meet with no delays, that can be avoided. The Light pieces will all join the Army, as fast as the repairs they want can be completed; The necessary Horses and tackling provided to convey them, and the Ammunition and Men to serve them, prepared and collected. It will answer no good end to bring them forward, faster than all these necessary matters can be adjusted. On the contrary, they would only be an incumbrance. General Knox informs me, that a part of them will be shortly at Camp properly equipped and manned. The rest will be on as expeditiously as they can come, in the same condition. I have given orders, not to send on the Twelve pieces, demanded by General Schuyler for the Northern Department. As he is in a Garrison, and has a Sufficient quantity of garrison Artillery, I see not the propriety of his requesting such a number of field pieces, in addition to those he already has. They cannot be wanted in the garrison, and in case of any accident, would in all probability be lost. I should not wish to have them hazarded with so little chance as there is of their answering any valuable end, to compensate for the risk, and when we have the greatest occasion for them in this Quarter. I have however promised him a part of the next importation. When we have a great plenty, a few may be spared, and exposed, even where they are not essentially required; but in the present Scarcity, the good of the Service will by no means permit it. I could wish, that there was some uniform channel ascertained, through which applications of this nature should always come. The present practice is productive of much confusion and embarrassment; and the Service will be very likely to suffer, while Officers in the different departments can send orders, to procure what articles and in what

proportion they think necessary. Unless there is some general regulating hand to make the distribution, it may often happen, that articles may be drawn away to places where there is little need of them; when there is an absolute call for them at others, and the worst effects may result from the not having them. This was very near happening in a late instance with respect to Tents. General Gates sent to me to request a supply of two thousand for the Northern Army. Every appearance convinced me that the Army under me would be greatly Straitened in this important Article, having sustained so considerable a loss at Danbury; And as the Northern Troops were in a Stationary post, provided with Barracks, and might easily raise comfortable huts, to make good any deficiency of covering, which was not practicable to us, in the desultory State in which we must necessarily be. It was not in my power to comply with his request in its extent; but I assured him that he should have as many as could possibly be spared after the indespensible demand for this Army had been answered. I afterwards found, that besides the application to me, he had solicited the Council of the State of Massachusetts to send him 2000 from that State, having heard of a quantity being arrived in the Amphitrite, tho' the number required was more than double the number arrived. The Council referred the request to General Heath, who suspended a compliance with it, till my consent could be obtained; Had he not done this, and had the Tents gone on agreeable to Genl. Gates requisition, very great inconveniences would have followed; for all we have been able to collect, have not been equivalent to our wants. General Schuyler has proceeded in a Similar manner. Not contenting himself with barely applying to me, he has sent an order to the Commanding Officer of Artillery at Springfield, desiring him to send the 12 Pieces on immediately. You will easily perceive the ill consequences that must flow from such an irregular indefinite mode of drawing supplies; I am not so solicitous, where the power of dispensing them is vested; but I should be glad to see it fixed somewhere, that when any demands are made, a knowledge of all circumstances, may enable those to whom they are made, to form a right judgment of their propriety and expediency.. Washington to Maj. Gen. Philip Schuyler:

Head Quarters, Ramapough, July 24, 1777. Dear Sir: Your two favours of the 21st. and 22d. instant with their inclosures are come to hand … You seem to apprehend, that the Artillery sent up to you will be useless, for the want of a Sufficient number of hands to manage them; but I see no reason to imagine this will be the case, as by your last return, including non commissioned Officers, you will have nearly twelve Men to each piece, which are as many as we make use of here, and are Sufficient for the purpose. Not more than six Artillerists are required to load and fire a piece, in action and you will have Six others to each, to make good any loss that may happen. For the dragg-ropes and for any thing else, besides loading and firing, active men drafted from the Battalions will answer extremely well; and a very few days are necessary, if diligence is used, to make men, tolerably intelligent, capable of performing every part of the duty of a private Artillerest.

George Washington to the Board of War, 30 June 1777, and to Philip Schuyler, 24 July 1777, John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources 17451799, 8 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1933), 318-320, 456-459. 14. Samuel Hodgdon to John Ruddock, 19 July 1778, Letters sent by Commissary General of

Military Stores and Assistant Quartermaster Samuel Hodgdon

Numbered Record Books Concerning Military Operations and Service, Pay and Settlement of Accounts, and Supplies in the War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records, Record Group 93, National Archives Microfilm Publication M853, reel 33, vol. 111, p. 96. “Strap shott” was more commonly called “fixed ammunition.” In his work British Artillery Ammunition, 1780 Adrian B, Caruana notes, “Fixed ammunition was reserved exclusively for field pieces, and was in

July 19, 1778-May 24, 1784,

1780 considered to mean either round or case shot fixed to wooden bottoms which were in turn attached to flannel cartridges filled with powder. This implied a fixed quantity of powder in the

cartridge since only by detaching it from the remainder of the load could the amount of powder be altered. Semi-fixed ammunition consisted of the projectile fixed to a wooden bottom, but with no cartridge attached. This could be later completed into fixed ammunition by the addition of a cartridge …” A British return of artillery “employed in Germany in the Campaign of 1762” included “Round Shot fixt to Wood Bottoms with Flannel Cartridges filled with Powder,” while an “Extract of a Proportion of Ordnance … for a Battering and Field Train proposed for an Expedition to Canada 1776” lists “Round Shot fixed to Wood Bottoms with filled Flannel Cartridges,” and “Case Shot fixed to Wood Bottoms with filled Flannel Cartridges” for 6 and 12 pounder cannon. Adrian B, Caruana, British Artillery Ammunition, 1780 (Bloomfield, Ontario; Museum Restoration Service, 1979), 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 43-44.

15. Georgian Dr. William Read was traveling to join Washington’s army that June, and left a

compelling account of the cannonade and its aftermath (Read wrote his narrative in the third

person). At one point in the action Read saw “General [Washington] coolly standing in his stirrups, [and] was said to say to the officers who urged that that was no place for him, he being observed by the enemy, ‘that he was admiring the manner in which Proctor [Colonel Thomas Proctor, 4 th Artillery Regiment] was handling their right.’ Dr. Read was near enough to hear the word Proctor, and was told what the General said.” “Reminiscences of Dr. William Read, Arranged From His Notes and Papers,” R.W. Gibbes, M.D., Documentary History of the American Revolution: Consisting of Letters and Papers Relating to the Contest for Liberty, Chiefly in South Carolina, From Originals in the Possession of the Editor, and Other Sources. 1776-1782 (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1857), 255-258 (Courtesy of Joseph Lee Boyle and Garry Stone). More information on artillery units and officers can be found in John U. Rees, "’What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth” (World Wide Web), http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthToc.htm

16. Alexander Hamilton to Elias Boudinot, 5 July 1778, Syrett, The Papers of Alexander Hamilton,

513. Israel Shreve to his wife, Mary (Polly), from Englishtown, 29 June 1778, Israel Shreve Papers,

Buxton Collection, Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, La.

17. Ibid.

18. Index of Revolutionary War Pension Applications in the National Archives (Washington,

D.C., 1976). the actual applications themselves and related materials may be found in National Archives Microfilm Publication M804 (2,670 reels), Joseph Lummis deposition (S41784), a drummer in the company of Captain "Randal" of Lambs 2d Continental

Artillery); Joseph Bloomfield’s deposition is in Lummis’s file. Maxwell to Washington, 27 February 1779, The Papers of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, National Archives Microfilm Publications M247 (Washington, DC, 1958), reel 169, p. 139.

19. "Proceedings of a General Court Martial

for the Trial of Major General Lee. July

4th, 1778

York, 1874), Lt. Col. Oswald testimony, 134-138.

20. Ibid.

21. Revolutionary War Pension Applications, Caleb Fulkerson deposition (W17935).

,"

Collections of the New-York Historical Society for the Year 1873 (New

For more on the Monmouth campaign and battle see:

“’Reach Coryels ferry. Encamp on the Pennsylvania side.’: The March from Valley Forge to Monmouth Courthouse, 18 to 28 June 1778”

Endnotes:

Contents

1.

“We struck our tents and loaded our baggage.”: Leaving Valley Forge

2.

Progress, June 18, 1778.

3.

Progress, June 19, 1778.

4.

“Crost the dilliware

pushed on about 5 milds …”: June 20, 1778: Progress and a River Crossing

5.

“4 Wagons & Horses, and 1000 Men at a Try.”: The Mechanics of Ferrying an Army

6.

“Halt on the first strong ground after passing the Delaware

”:

June 20 th River Crossing

7.

“The number of boats … will render the passage of the troops very expeditious.”:

June 21st Ferry Operation

8.

“The Troops are passing the River … and are mostly over.”: June 22d Crossing

9.

“The Army will march off …”: June 22d and 23d, Camp at Amwell Meeting

10. “Just after we halted we sent out a large detachment …”: Camp and Council: Hopewell

Township, 23 to 24 June

11. “Giving the Enemy a stroke is a very desireable event …”: Advancing to Englishtown, 24 to 28 June

a. Progress, June 25, 1778.

b. Progress, June 26, 1778.

c. Progress, June 27, 1778.

d. Forward to Battle, June 28, 1778.

12. “Our advanced Corps … took post in the evening on the Monmouth Road …”:

Movements of Continental Detachments Followng the British, 24 to 28 June 1778

a. The Advance Force: Scott’s, Wayne’s, Lafayette’s, and Lee’s Detachments.

b. Daily Movements of Detachments Later Incorporated into Lee’s Advanced Corps.

13. Echoes of 1778, Three Years After.

Addendum

1. Driving Directions, Continental Army Route from Valley Forge to Englishtown

2. Day by Day Recap of Route

3. The Road to Hopewell.

4. The Bungtown Road Controversy.

5. Weather During the Monmouth Campaign

6. Selected Accounts of the March from Valley Forge to Englishtown

a. Fifteen-year-old Sally Wister

b. Surgeon Samuel Adams, 3 rd Continental Artillery

c. Henry Dearborn, lt. colonel, 3 rd New Hampshire Regiment

d. Captain Paul Brigham, 8 th Connecticut Regiment

e. Sergeant Ebenezer Wild, 1 st Massachusetts Regiment

f. Sgt. Jeremiah Greenman, 2d Rhode Island Regiment

g. Dr. James McHenry, assistant secretary to General Washington

7. List of Related works by the author on military material culture and the Continental Army

Endnotes contain:

1.

Army General and Brigade Orders, June 1778.

a.

Orders Regulating the Army on the March from Valley Forge.

b. Orders Issued During the Movement from Valley Forge to Englishtown.

2.

Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army to 22 June 1778

3.

Washington’s army vehicle allotment for the march to Coryell’s Ferry,

4.

Wheeled Transportation (a primer on the vehicles and artillery on the road to Monmouth, including twenty-one illustrations)

5.

Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army after 22 June 1778

“`What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth,” http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthToc.htm

Narrative

1.

Introduction

2.

"In readiness to march at a moment's warning

":

Pre-Battle Dispositions and Plans

3.

"To get up with the enemy": Major General Charles Lee's Force Sets Off

4.

"I found the whole of the troops upon my right retreating Monmouth Courthouse

":

Morning Confrontation at

5.

"The day was so excessively hot

":

Lee’s Retreat

 

6.

“They answered him with three cheers

”:

Washington Recovers the Day

7.

“The Action was Exceedingly warm and well Maintained …”: Infantry Fighting at the Point of Woods, Hedge-row, and Parsonage

8.

"The finest musick, I Ever heared.": Afternoon Artillery Duel, and Cilley’s Attack on the 42 nd Regiment

9.

“Detached to assist in burying the dead …”: Battle’s Aftermath

 

10. “The March has proved salutory to the troops.”: Post-Battle: The Continental Army Moves North

11.“A very irregular & ill managed Embarkation.”: Post-Battle British March to Sandy Hook

12. "The defective constitution of our army

13. Battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778: Event Synopsis

Appendices

":

Casting Blame for the Morning Debacle

A. “Beware of being Burgoyned.”: Marching Toward Monmouth, Delaware River to Freehold, 18

to 27 June 1778

B. “The whole army moved towards the Delaware …”: Continental Army March from Valley Forge to Englishtown, N.J., 18 to 27 June 1778

C. “General Lee being detached with the advanced Corps …”: Composition of Charles Lee’s Force

D. “Our Division formed a line on the eminence …”:Washington’s Main Army Order of Battle, 28 June 1778

E. “A large Number of troops …”: Continental and British Army Field Returns, 28 June 1778

F.“I resolved nevertheless to attack them …”: American Monmouth Battle Accounts

G. “Charge, Grenadiers, never heed forming”: British Accounts of the Monmouth Battle

H. "More Glorious to America than at first Supposed Monmouth

I. "They answered him with three cheers

J. “A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.”: Maxwell’s Jersey Brigade Artillery and the Afternoon Cannonade at Monmouth

K. “Jun 29 th , Buried the Dead …”: Casualties in the Battle of Monmouth

L. “We are informed by several persons …: Contemporary Newspaper Accounts

M. “That damned blue Regiment …”: Continental Army Clothing during the Monmouth Campaign

N. “General Wayne's detachment is almost starving.”: Provisioning Washington’s Army on the

":

New Jersey Officers Describe the Battle of

":

New Jersey Common Soldiers' Pension Depositions

March, June 1778

O. “The canopy of heaven for our tent”: Soldiers' Shelter on Campaign, June 1778

P. “Be pleased to fill up the vacancy with the eldest Captain in the line …”: Field Officers, Commissioned

Officers, and Staff of the 2 nd New Jersey Regiment December 1777 to May 1779

Q. “Exceeding Hot & water is scarce …”: Monmouth Campaign Weather, 15 June to 7 July, 1778

Monmouth Campaign and Battle” (article list)

Resource File: Examples of Continental Army Camp Equipage and Vehicle Returns, 1775-1781 (John U. Rees) http://www.scribd.com/doc/223095304/Resource-

1781-John-U-Rees This archaeological map illustrates the distribution of 2

This archaeological map illustrates the distribution of 2 ounce grape or case shot in and near Derick Sutfin’s cider orchard, as well as the location of one of Proctor’s artillery pieces. At the upper left of the map, four pieces of 2-ounce grapeshot appear to be the remains of a round broken by the Continental artillerists. (Daniel M. Sivilich and Garry Wheeler Stone) “Where was Molly Hays During the Battle of Monmouth?” http://www.bravodigs.org/molly.html