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THERMODYNAMICS & KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 1. Heat added to a system is equal to a) a change in its internal kinetic energy c) workdone by it 2. The area inside a closed curve on P-V diagram represents a) the condition of a system c) workdone in a cyclic process

b) a change in its internal potential energy d) sum of above all the three. b) work done on the system d) a thermodynamic process

3. In the diagrams (i) to (iv) of figure, variation of volume by changing pressure is shown. A gas is taken along the path ABCD. The change in internal energy of the gas will be

a) positive in all the cases (i) to (iv) c) negative in cases (i), (ii) and (iii) but zero in case (iv) 4. The second law of thermodynamics implies a) whole of the heat can be converted into mechanical energy c) every heat engine has an efficiency of 100%

b) positive in cases (i), (ii) and (iii) but zero in case (iv) d) zero in all the four cases. b) no heat engine can be 100% efficient d) a refrigerator can reduce the temperature to absolute zero.

5. The maximum amount of heat that can be converted into mechanical energy in any process a) is 100% b) depends upon the temperatures of intake and exhaust c) depends upon the amount of friction present d) is the same for reversible and irreversible cycles. 6. A Carnot engine works between a source and a sink maintained at constant temperatures T1 and T2. For efficiency to be the greatest a) T1 and T2 should be high c) T1 should be low and T2 should be high 7. b) T1 and T2 should be low d) T1 should be high and T2 should be low.

In a thermodynamic process, pressure of a fixed mass of gas is changed in such a manner that the gas release 20 joule of heat and 8 joule of work was done on the gas. If the initial internal energy of the gas was 30 joule, then the final internal energy will be a) 2 joule b) 18 joule c) 42 joule d) 58 joule During an adiabatic expansion of 2 moles of a gas, the change in internal energy was found to be equal to -100 J. The workdone during the process will be equal to a) zero b) -100 joule c) 200 joule d) 100 joule A Carnot engine working between 300 K and 600 K has a work output of 800 J per cycle. The amount of heat energy supplied to the engine from the source in each cycle is a) 800 J b) 1600 J C) 3200 J d) 6400 J



10. The temperature of the sink of a Carnot engine is 27C. If the efficiency of the engine is 25%, the temperature of the source is a) 227C b) 327C c) 127C d) 27C 11. The efficiency of a Carnot cycle is 1/6. If in reducing the temperature of sink by 65K, the efficiency becomes 1/3. The initial and final temperatures between which the cycle is working are a) 52C , 13C b) 217C, 52C c) 317C, 52C d) 17C, 52C

12. The temperature of inside and outside of a refrigerator are 273 K and 303 K respectively. Assuming that the refrigerator cycle is reversible, for every joule of workdone, the heat delivered to the surrounding will be nearly a) 10 J b) 20 J c) 30 J d) 50 J 13. An ideal non-atomic gas is taken round the cycle ABCDA in the P-V diagram where the coordinates of the points are : A ( P1, V1 ) ; B ( 2P1, V1 ) ; C ( 2P1, 2V1 ) and D ( P1, 2V1 ). The work done during the cycle is : a) P 1 V1 c) b) d)

2 P1 V1

1 PV 2 1 1

14. From what minimum height, a block of ice has to be dropped in order that it may melt completely on hitting the ground ? ( L is the latent heat of ice and J is Joule's constant ) a) mgh b) mgh / J c) JL / g

d) J/Lg

15. An ideal gas is taken around the cycle ABCA as shown in P-V diagram. The net workdone by the gas during the cycle is equal to a) 12 P1 V1 c) 3 P1 V1 b) d) 6 P1 V1 P1 V1


A (O,O) V1

C 3V1

16. When an ideal diatomic gas is heated at constant pressure, the fraction of the heat energy supplied which increases the internal energy of the gas is a) 2 / 5 b) 3 / 5 c) 3 / 7

d) 5 / 7

17. A thermodynamical system goes from state (i) P1, V to 2P1, V. Another system goes from state (ii) P1, V to P1, 2V . Then the wokdone in the two cases is a) (i) zero (ii) zero b) (i) zero (ii) P1 V c) (i) P1 V (ii) zero d) (i) P1 V (ii) P1 V 18. The pressure exerted by a gas on the walls of a container is given by a) P =

1M 2 v 3V



1V 2 v 3M



1 M v2 3


P = 3 M v2

19. The absolute temperature of a gas is determines a) the average momentum of the molecule b) the velocity of sound in the gas c) the number of molecules in the gas d) the mean square velocity of the molecules 20. Two vessels having equal volume contains molecular hydrogen at one atmosphere and helium at two atmospheres respectively. If both samples are at the same temperature, the mean velocity of hydrogen molecules is a) equal to that of helium helium b) twice that of helium c) half that of helium d)

2 times that of

21. A gas at a pressure P0 is contained in a vessel. If the masses of all the molecules are halved and their velocities doubled, the resulting pressure P would be equal to a) 4 P0 b) 2 P0 c) P0 d) P0/2 22. We have a jar A filled with gas characterised by parameters P, V and T and another jar B filled with a gas with parameters 2P, V/4 and 2T, where the symbols have the usual meanings. The ratio of the number of molecules of jar A to those of jar B is a) 1 : 1 b) 1 : 2 c) 2 : 1 d) 4 : 1

23. A gas in a container A is in thermal equilibrium with another gas (having same no.of moles) in container B. If we denote the corresponding pressures and volumes by the suffixes A and B, then which of the following statement is most likely to be true. a) PA = PB , V A VB b)

PA PB , V A = VB


PA / V A = PB / VB



24. The speed of sound in a gas is v. The r.m.s velocity of the gas molecules is C. The ratio of v to C is a) 3 / b)



(3 / )


( / 3)

25. Two gases are at absolute temperatures 300K and 350K respectively. The ratio of average kinetic energy of their molecules is a) 7 : 6 b) 6 : 7 c) 36 : 49 d) 49 : 36 26. A sealed container with negligible thermal coefficient of expansion contains helium (a monatomic gas ). When it is heated from 300 to 600 K, the average kinetic energy of the helium atom is a) halved b) left unchanged c) doubled d) becomes

2 times.

27. A fixed mass of gas at constant pressure occupies a volume V. The gas undergoes a rise in temperature so that the root mean square velocity of its molecules is doubled. The new volume will be a) V / 2 b)

V/ 2

c) 2V

d) 4V

28. A sample of oxygen gas and a sample of H2 gas both have the same mass, the same volume and the same pressure. The ratio of their absolute temperature is a) 1 : 4 b) 4:1 c) 1 : 16 d) 16 : 1

29. If a system is caused to change reversibly from an initial state to a final state by adiabatic means only, then a) the work done is the same for all adiabatic paths connecting the two states. b) the work done is different for different adiabatic paths connecting the two states c) the total internal energy of the system will change according to different paths. d) there is no work done since there is no transfer of heat energy. 30. When a gas expands adiabatically a) no energy is required for expansion b) energy is required and it comes from the wall of the container of the gas c) internal energy of the gas is used in doing work d) law of conservation of energy does not hold. 31. During an adiabatic process, the pressure P of a fixed mass of an ideal gas changes by P and its volume V changes by V . The value of V / V is given by a)

P / P


. P / P


1 P . P


1 P . 2 P

32. The work done in an isothermal expansion of a gas depends upon (a) temperature only c) both temperature and expansion ratio

b) expansion ratio only d) neither temperature nor expansion ratio.

33. Two samples A and B of a gas initially of the same temperature and pressure are compressed from a volume V to a volume V/2 such that A is compressed isothermally and B adiabatically. The final pressure of a) A is greater than that of B b) A is equal to that of B c) A is less than that of B d) A is twice the pressure of B. 34. A monoatomic ideal gas initially at 17C is suddenly compressed to one-eight of its original volume. The temperature after compression is a) 17C b) 136C c) 887C d) none of these

35. Four curves A, B, C and D are drawn in figure for a given amount of gas. The curves which represent adiabatic and isothermal changes are a) C and D respectively c) A and B respectively b) D and C respectively d) B and A respectively

36. If a gas has 'n' degrees of freedom, the ratio of the specific heats of the gas is a)

1+ n 2 2 n



n 2

c) 1 +

1 n

d) 1 +

37. The root mean square speed of a group of n gas molecules, having speed v1 , v2 , v3 , ...., vn is a)

1 ( v1 + v2 + v3 +....+ vn ) 2 n


1 2 2 2 ( v12 + v2 ) + v3 +....+ vn n


1 2 2 2 2 (v1 + v2 + v3 +....+ vn ) n


LM (v + v + v +....+v ) OP n N Q
2 1 2 3 n

38. The pressure and density of a diatomic gas ( = 7 / 5) change adiabatically from ( P, ) to ( P' , ' ) . If (' / ) = 32 , then ( P' / P) is a) 128 b) 1/128 c) 32 d) none of the above 39. 1/2 mole of helium gas is contained in a container at S.T.P. The heat energy needed to double the pressure of the gas, keeping the volume constant (heat capacity of the gas = 3J g 1K 1 ) a) 3276 J b) 1638 J c) 819 J d) 409.5 J

Answers 1. 7. 13. 19. 25. 31. 37. d b a d b c c 2. 8. 14. 20. 26. 32. 38. c d c a c c a 3. 9. 15. 21. 27. 33. 39. d b c b d c b 4. 10. 16. 22. 28. 34. b c d d d c 5. 11. 17. 23. 29. 35. b a b d a c 6. 12. 18. 24. 30. 36. d a a d c d