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Importance of Vikramditya & his denial Arun Kumar Upadhyay, IPS, (M) 9437034172, arunupadhyay30@yahoo.

in (Summary) Paramra king Vikramditya of Ujjain is central figure in Indian history after death of Bhagavn r Kna and end of Yudhihira rule in 3102 BC when Kali-yuga started. Vikramditya revised calendar system with his Vikrama-samvat in 57 BC which is still the standard for all Indian festivals. The calendar of his grandson livhana-aka is still used for calculations, so he was termed a foreign king Kanika who was a king of Indian Gonanda clan in Kashmir in 1292 BC. All puras, and smti texts (moral, legal codes) were revised in his era, so he was totally eliminated to destroy standards of Indian society. To destroy his samvat, Rrya-aka was started by a calendar committee which had no idea of any calendar. No festival or govt order is able to follow this calendar. Another ploy is to use only solar months in pachngas calling it Indian or Oriya culture. From 57 BC till Prithviraj Chauhan and Bhoja of Malava-only his family has ruled till 1200 AD. After Rma and Ka, maximum literature is about Vikramditya only. Whatever literature is read by any Sanskrit student in any branch, it is by one of his 9 jewels. After reading them for whole life, scholars tell that there is no reference about him. Chandragupta-2 of Gupta period has been declared Vikramditya about whom not a single word has been found in any inscription. Most of the monuments exist from his time only like Rma-mandir of Ayodhy or Yogin-mandiras at 4 places including Odisha. Sole aim of British empire was to destroy Indian history, but even students taught in that pattern were having doubts. So a paper on historiography has been added in MA (history) to dupe them. This article describes various aspects and reasons of destroying any history related to Vikramditya. **************** 1. Introduction-There are many wrong assumptions about inferiority of our country and superiority of invaders. It can be debated whether this was reason of long slavery or effect of that. Main concepts are(1) All invaders ruled India to educate and improve it-Megasthenes has written that India is only country which did not need to invade others as it was self sufficient in food etc. (2) There was no tradition of science in India, it started with invasion of Alexander. Actually first Yavana invasion was in 6777 BC. Dates of both Alexander & Dionysus were known from Indian calendar, not from Julian calendar which started much later. (3) All Indian texts like Puras are false & fabricated at start of Islamic rule, when major population was running away to save life. However, mention of gold-digging ants (2 chapters), one eyed tribes in India and Pandyan girls giving birth at age of 6-all stated by Megasthenes, Herodotus are highly scientific.

(4) Indians did not have concept of history, They never gave dates. To prove it, date parts were broken from all copper plate inscriptions before publication in Mysore Antiquary, genealogies of Rajsthan kings were burnt in mass scale by Col. Todd to hide their Indian ancestry for showing them Huna descendants. All inscriptions of Bappa Raval of Mewar were burnt-copy of one could be recovered from commentary of Rana Kumbhakaran Singh on Gta-Govinda. Compared to that, British period scholars like Suniti Chatterji in luxury of libraries & easy life only tried to prove that all greats were from own village or state. The errors due to such propaganda are-(1) All historians think that dates have come from Greek writers, e.g. historians of Alexander stated that Christ will be born 326 years after his invasion on India. (2) No historian knows that all dates and genealogy of kings have come solely from Puras. Just to destroy major part of history and assigning arbitrary dates, they are denied and denigrated. Opposition of idol worship & Puras found support from Dayanada Saraswati. (3) Vehemence against Puras has prevented understanding of their, chronology, geography, astronomy etc. (4) Any king who had started any calendar is declared non-existent as it can give correct date. (5) Education & learning is not by self study and universities, but by attack of Greeks, Shakas. By that Aryabhata could learn Greek & Trigonometry, and calendar could be started by Shakas. No calendar had ever been started by and Shaka or Greek king even in his own country. Under this theory, all universities should be closed, only robbers are needed. (6) Map of country is by chance visit by invaders, not by surveying by finding longitude, latitude, direction. Even if this was done, Indians did not know that earth is spherical. (7) Astronomical distances were measures and eclipse was calculated by sacrifice of goats in Yaja (Narlikar & Rastogi), or just by meditation- any measurement by this method? (8) For trade & revenue purpose, script originated in west Asia. In India, it was not needed for much larger calculations of astronomy & survey of earth. All Greek writers state India as rectangular. All Puras call it inverted triangle broader in north. (9) Indians were always weak & cowards, any king like Vikramditya who had victories against invaders is denied. (10) No book in modern libraries gives date of birth of authors. But all astronomy texts give their accurate dates. So they are declared as fraud or dates of Vikramditya period are calculated in terms of calendar starting more than 100 years after death of authors. (11) No good king can be Hindu-they can be Buddhist or Jain who are considered nonHindu. No inscription of Ashok including one at Dhauli indicates that he had become Bauddha to shun violence. Bauddha text Divyvadn tells only that on victory over Kalinga,

he killed 12,000 Jain monks. Kharavel did Rjasya-yaja in 11th year of his rule, he is made a Jain. He repaired Prachi canal of Nanda period after 803 years. The biggest engineering feet is ignored by changing figure to 103 years and making it revolt against Nanda. (12) Only research by Govt scholars on Vedas is that all is ate beef and nothing else. 2. Literature about Vikramditya-(1) 15 chapters in Bhaviya pura. (2) Kath-sarit-sgara, Bhat-kath, Vetla-pachavimati, Simhsana-battisi. (3) Shasnka charita in 3 vols (3) All genealogies of Paramra kings which survive after burning by British. (4) Literatures by Nava-ratnas of Vikramditya. This system was copied by Akbar. (5) Description of Vikramditya by Al-Biruni, Abul Fazal and by all Persian historians of India & Persia like Ferishta, Badauni. They were invaders but not forgeres of history like Oxford scholars whose Boden chair was set up for this purpose only. Records of half Vikramditya-(1) Dev-Chandragupta-major fragments destroyed to deny his fight with Seleucus-making Alexander attack in Gupta period.. (3) Prabhvat Dev (Vakataka queen) inscription names her family from Ghaokacha Gupta to Samudragupta only. Ghaotkacha has been translated as barber by Megasthenes. (3) Allahabad pillar inscription is by Samudragupta-about Greek attacks, not Hunas. (4) Iron pillar at Mehrauli mentions Chandra only. Even if it is assumed Chandragupta, it could be one of the famous 3-one in Maurya and 2 in Gupta period. But none had capital at Delhi. Kutub-minar has been indicated by Megasthene as Pillar of Hercules. Ibn-Batuta indicated it 1500 years before him (in 13th century). Sir Saiyad Ahmed in his book Kutub Minar (1911) also indicated it a Hindu monument of that period. It has nothing to do with Hindu religion or any Chandragupta, it indicated northern-most position of moon on earth surface. Central axis of Kutub Minar was perpendicular to Karka-rekh (Tropic of Cancer) then. Its semi-vertical angle was difference between true & mean latitude of Delhi. This calculation of spheroidal shape of earth was not done till 1850. 3. Calendars of India-(1) Si Samvat-Creation cycle is called a Kalpa or 1 day of Brahm of 432 crore years. Out of that period 198 crore years have passed,, Since then, planets are moving in current orbit around sun. There are bigger periods like life of Brahm of 72000 such day-nights (his 100 years). His life is 1 day of Viu, Vius life is 1 day of iva. Largest period is Par-akti when elementary particles decay (called Proton decay now). Currently, 50 years of Brahm have passed, in next year day (kalpa) 1 is running. Albiruni has quoted Viu-dharmottara pura to indicate that his 8 years, 5 months, 4 days, 6 manvantaras, 7 samdhi, 27 caturyugas, and 3 yugas of the twenty-eighth caturyuga, and 10 divya-years had passed till Avamedha yaja of Vajra.

(2) Svyambhuva Manu-29102 BC-26000 years before start of Kali (3102 BC). He was first Brahm or Adam of Bible. This period has been called a Manvantara in Brahma pura (//)- = Then Brahm split his body into 2 and the half male part was Svyambhva Manu, the first man. His 71 yugas are called 1 manvantara. (//)- = By Divya yugas (360 years, 71 of them) 26,000 Mnua (human) years are yuga. (3) Kayapa (17500 BC)-another Brahm, Fan of China, first Buddha. (4) Krttikeya (15800 BC)-Year started from sun in Dhanih after north pole had moved away from Abhijit (Mahbhrata, Vana parva 230/8-10) (5) Vaivasvata Manu-13902 BC-start of year from spring equinox-Chaitra month. Glacial floods 10000-9500 BC. Yuga cycle started with satya yuga of 4800 years. (6) abhadeva-9500 BC (appr.). Revision of Srya siddhnta in 9233 BC by Maya Asura 900 west from Ujjain (alpa =131 years before end of Satya-yuga). (7) Ikvku-1-11-8576 BC (Chaitra ukla pratipad)-Dr. Mahlingam. (8) King Bhu killed by Dionysus in 6777 BC. Paraurma (Kalamba = Kollam)-6177 BC (9) Yudhihira aka 17-12-3139 BC, Bhma expired 5 days after that on start of Uttaryaa on 22 December on Mgha ukla aam. Kali era started on 17-2-3102 BC, Wednesday, Ujjain midnight on death of r Ka. Civil month from Chaitra ukla 1 started on 20 after 2 days 2-27-30 hms. It was Vijaya samvatsara by Srya siddhnta and Pramth by Pitmaha siddhnta followed in south India. Jaybhyudaya aka after 6 month 11 days (188 days on 24-8-3102 BC when Jaya samvatsara started (north system) and Pavas went for abhyudaya. On death of Yudhihira in kali year 25 (3076 BC), Laukika era started in Kashmir-when Saptaris left Magh star. Refs in mahbhrata, Bhgavata, all texts on astronomy, all Pachngas. Jaybhyudaya-aka has been used in inscriptions of Janamejaya about his Dna-paas of 27-11-3014 BC on occasion of solar eclipse (Paua amvsy) after large murders in Sarpa-yaja. His words of proclamation were used by all Pu vam kings of Orissa ruling after end of their rule in Hastinapur/ Kosambi. One of their branch was Mauryas of Mur-sana, later ruling as Mauryas. () = Yudhihira etc ascended to heaven in kali year 25. This verse of Rjatarangi, chapter 1 was removed from the book and claimed his own by George Buhler. (10) Jaina Yudhiira aka from 2634 BC (sanysa or death of Prvantha)-Used in Jinavijaya-mahkvya..

(11) Nanda aka-1634 BC (All puas, Kharavela inscription of Prachi) ( , //) = Between birth of Parkita and coronation of Nanda, 1500 years passed. (12) draka aka-756 BC (Jyotia-darpaa of Yallaya, Bhaviya pura, genealogy of Paramar, Chauhan kings) (14) Chhamna or kambhar aka- 612 BC-destruction of Assyrian capital Nineve by Chhamna of Medes (Madhyadea) east of Sindhu. (BibleWiki-Media, Jewish Encyclopedia-Nineve, Bhat samhit 13/3, Cha pha 11/38) - (/) --- () (15) Vra nirva-527 BC from death of Klakchrya (599-527 BC), guru of Kumrila Bhaa as per Jinavijaya mahkvya. (16) rhara aka-456 BC-end of 300 year democracy starting with draka of Mlav. Indicated by all Persian/Indian writers-Albiruni, Ferishta, AbulFazl etc. His epic NaiadhaCharita is in syllabus of most Universities. (17) Vikrama samvat by Paramra king Vikramditya of Ujjain-57 BC. From Chaitra at Paupatintha (Nepal) and from Krttika at Somantha (Gujrat). (18) livhana aka-78 AD. (19) Kalachuri or Chedi aka-248 AD (20) Valabh (bhanga) aka-319 AD-end of later Guptas in Gujrat-All the calendars from Hara to Valabh have been described by Albiruni in his book India (2 vols) (21) Chlukya Vikrama-1075 AD from Krttika. 4. Forgeries by historians-Even the obvious errors in British pattern history openly claimed as forged is believed only truth by slave Indians who maintain their hold till today. It started with manipulations by Herodotus who had studied for 3 years in India and Alexander who burnt libraries of Alexandria, Persipolice, Taka-il-so that all knowledge can be shown of western origin. . Greece was not a 'Civilized' society where any outsider could go for study. Outsider could go only as a slave who were majority of the population there. In addition to India Hipparchus, Euclid and Ptolemy had gone to Alexandria for study which is well recorded in their books. No Indian, Ezyptian or Sumerian has written that they had gone to Greece. Father of Greek science Pythagorus had studied in India as claimed by Appoloniushttp://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/aot/aot/aot04.htm Apollonius of Tyana, by G.R.S. Mead, [1901], at sacred-texts.com SECTION III INDIA AND GREECE

There is, however, another reason why Apollonius is of importance to us. He was an enthusiastic admirer of the wisdom of India. Here again a subject of wide interest opens up. What influences, if any, had Brahmanism and Buddhism on Western thought in these early years? It is strongly asserted by some that they had great influence; It is plainly asserted by the ancient Greeks that Pythagoras went to India, but as the statement is made by Neo-Pythagorean and Neo-Platonic writers subsequent to the time of Apollonius, it is objected that the travels of the Tyanean suggested not only this item in the biography of the great Samian but several others, or even that Apollonius himself in his Life One of the comments of Berosus can be seen onhttp://www.angelfire.com/nt/Gilgamesh/classic.htmlBerosus derided the "Greek historians" who had so distorted the history of his country. He knew, for example, that it was not Semiramis who founded the city of Babylon, but he was himself the prisoner of his own environment and cannot have known more about the history of his land than was known in Babylonia itself in the 4th century BC. Al-Biruni-Chronology of Ancient Nations, page 44However, enemies are always eager to revile the patronage of people, to detract from their reputation, and to attack their deeds and merits, in same way as friends and partisans are eager to embellish that which is ugly, to cover up the weak parts, to proclaim publicly that which is noble, and to refer everything to great virtues, as the poet describes them in these words-The eye of benevolence is blind to every fault, But the eyes of hatred discovers every vice William Jones as Judge supervised brutal torture and killing of 10 million Indians in 1770 (called Bengal famine) for revenue collection was also the pioneer in distortion and fabrication of Indian History. Tortures and murders have been classified by Bankim Chandra in his book Ananda-matha and can be seen in British reports alsohttp://www.cambridgeforecast.org/MIDDLEEAST/BENGAL.html http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Bengal_famine_of_1770/id/1930405 http://www.worldhistoryblog.com/2006/04/famine-of-1770-in-bengal.html Summary of distortions is quoted fromhttp://www.encyclopediaofauthentichinduism.org/index.html Sir William Jones, 1784 (from Asiatic Researches Vol. 1. Published 1979, pages 234235. First published 1788). As to the general extension of our pure faith in Hindustan there are at present many sad obstacles to it We may assure ourselves, that Hindus will never be converted by any mission from the church of Rome, or from any other church; and the only human mode, perhaps, of causing so great a revolution, will be to translate into Sanscrit such chapters of

the Prophets, particularly of ISAIAH, as are indisputably evangelical, together with one of the gospels, and a plain prefatory discourse, containing full evidence of the very distant ages. British government continued the policy and added the removal of available literature to Europe and destruction by mis-information and false interpratations. This was symbolized by establishment of Boden chair at Oxford University in 1831 where Col. Boden donated his earnings from loot of India for the purpose of uprooting vedic culture from India for spread of Christianity. This has been stated by Prof. Monier Williams in his Sanskrit Dictionary, preface page ix, 1899 which has been reprinted by Rashtriya Sanskrita Sansthana at subsidized rates for spread in Indian UniversitiesI must draw attention to the fact that I am only the second occupant of the Boden Chair, and that its founder, Colonel Boden, stated most explicitly in his will (dated August 15, 1811 AD) that the special object of his munificent bequest was to promote the translation of scriptures into Sanskrita, so as to enable his countrymen to proceed in the conversion of the natives of India to the Christian religion. Max Muller chaired the edition of oriental texts and omitted all Indian sources from which materials were stolen or looted or the Indian Pandits whose help was taken to understand the meaning. As per Oxford criteria of research, this itself makes the work untenable. To further the aim of Boden Chair for uprooting Vedas, he devoted his life, but Indian devotees of Oxford call him Mokamlara-i.e. savoir of Vedas. His own statements oppose the view(1) History seems to teach that the whole human race required a gradual education before, in the fullness of time, it could be admitted to the truths of Christianity (History of Ancient Indian Literature). (2) Large number of Vedic Hymns are childish in the extreme; tedious, low, commonplace (Chips from a German Workshop, 2nd edition, 1966, page 27) (3) Nay, they (the vedas) contain, by the side of simple, natural, childish thoughts, many ideas which to us sound modern, or secondary and tertiary (India, what can it teach us). Life and Letters of Frederick Max Muller was published by Longman Geen & Co., 1902 in 2 vols. Some examples of his letters explain his purpose(1) Letter to his wife in 1866 AD-This edition of mine and the translation of the Veda will hereafter tell to a great extent on the fate of India.... it is the root of their religion and to show what the root is, I feel sure, is the only way of uprooting all that has sprung from it during the last three thousand years. (2) Letter to his son-Would you say that any one book is superior to all others in the world ?... I say the new Testament. After that, I should place the Koran, which in its moral teachings, is hardly more than a later edition of the New Testament. Then would follow ... the Old Testament, the Southern Buddhist Tripiaka, ... The Veda and the Avesta.

(3) His letter to Duke of Argyl, Minister of India, on 16-12-1868 in context of grant for Vedic publication-The ancient religion of India is doomed and if Christianity does not step in, whose fault will it be ? (4) Letter to Sri Bairamji Malabari on 29-1-1882-I wanted to tell ... what the true historical values of this ancient religion is, as looked upon, not from an exclusively European or Christian, but from a historic point of view. But discover it in steam engines and electricity and European philosophy and morality, and you deprive it of its true character. S. Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) was the biggest destroyer of Vedic culture for which he was rewarded with the highest post. As soon as he became President, he stopped publication of original texts in BHU and Tirupati and removed the scholars. In particular, he sold away Kauthumi Samhita whose 2 of 4 vols have been published by Harvard University now. Prof B.R Sharma was removed from his post as he had refused to sell the manuscript in Rs 1 crore offered to him. In BHU also, he removed key scholars. But fortunately, Justice M Hidayatulla was Chief Justice who struck down 3 ordnances for removing scholars commenting them as uncivilized and illiterate-They (traditional scholars) should be removed as soon as they fall sick or die for good (of Radhakrishnan). Supreme Court Cases 1961 AIR 1059 1961 SCR (3) 380 10/01/1961 HIDAYATULLAH, M. KAPUR, J.L. SHAH, J.C. Some quotes for destroying vedic culture are quoted from his books- Indian Philosophy Vol. I, first print 1923, reprint 1996. Indian Philosophy Vol. II, first print 1927, reprint 1996. The Bhagavadgita first print 1948, reprint 1994. The Principal Upanisads first print 1953, reprint 1995. About Bhagavat Gita, he was not aware that it is part of Mahabharata, and declared that Veda-vyasa as non existent. Instead of birthday of Vyasa as Guru-Purnima, birthday of Radhakrishnan is now observed as teachers day. (About the early Hindus of Vedic religion)-Mans never-ceasing effort to raise himself above the level of the beast to a moral and spiritual height finds a striking illustration in India. (Indian Philosophy Vol. II, p. 766) (About the Rigved)-The process of god-making in the factory of mans mind cannot be seen so clearly anywhere else as in the Rg-Veda. (Indian Philosophy, Vol. I, p. 73) (About the Atharvaved) The religion of the Atharva-Veda is that of the primitive man, to whom the world is full of shapeless ghosts and spirits of death. The world becomes crowded with goblins and gods, and the catastrophes of the world are traced to dissatisfied spirits The terrific powers could only be appeased by bloody sacrifices, human and animal The religion of the Atharva-Veda is an amalgam of Aryan and non-Aryan ideals. (Vol. I, pp. 119, 120) (About the Upnishads)-The Upanisads contain the earliest records of Indian speculation they contain much that is inconsistent and unscientific. (Vol I, p. 138)

(About the Puranas)-The Puranas are the religious poetry of the period of the schools, representing through myth and story, symbol and parable, the traditional view of God and man They were composed with the purpose of undermining, if possible, the heretical doctrines of the times. (Vol. II, p. 663) (About the Yog Darshan of Patanjali)-The popular cult of magic is mixed up with the religious scheme of salvation in the Yoga. Sometimes psychic powers are also attained by the use of drugs and anaesthetics. Narcotic intoxication and ecstatic state are confused by the popular mind. The use of drugs is not recommended in Patanjalis Yoga, though it is mentioned as one of the ways of obtaining perfections. Thus the habit of drug intoxication prevalent in primitive tribes was 5. Distortions in Calendars-Before independence, all pachngas mentioned Vikramasamvat and livhana-aka, never Vikrama-aka or livhana-samvat. Difference between aka and Samvat was clear known. But now, a term is used Rrya-aka or aka-samvat, which have no meaning. So called Rrya-aka is not used by govt or public in this Rra nor it is a aka used for calculating planetary positions and its epoch is also not known. aka is mathematical calendar based on solar months in which it is easier to calculate number of days since epoch. After fixing solar months, we decide about extra lunar months which are basis of our festivals. Society moves as per this, so it is called Samvatsara. Anniversary is called Samavasaraa in Jainism- a derivative of this word. Since all our pachngas start their calculation from start of Kali era, there is massive attempt to change that epoch since Baily (astronomer) and Brennand in 1865 (Harvard commentary on Srya-siddhnta). Calendar software of NASA has become a handy tool in hands of semi-literates. This software is not accurate for periods before 700 BC. For ancient periods, 10 models of corrections have been proposed, but still they reduce the error or 3000 BC from 68 hours to 26 hours, which is not accurate to specify the date. All the corrections do not take into account 2 fluctuations-temporary increase in radio-activity and increase in sea level after Mahbhrata war. That puts load n equator and slows down axial rotation, which is unit of our calculations. There is corresponding change in moon orbit which is not calculated. Eclipses recur in 18 days 10.5 days and are symmetric in half period of 3339 tithis indicated in gveda ( , //). Thus, it cannot be used to find very old dates, but it can confirm date determined otherwise. Thus NASA software recommends that its formula for ancient periods should be corrected from historical dates. But Indian slaves attempt to change the dates only. Difference in time due to slowing down of earth rotation by tidal friction is called T (Delta T) and can be calculated with alternate correction models at website given belowhttp://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/deltat/deltat.htm

Other references can be seen onhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%94T http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_acceleration Astronomers of Vikramditya period have used Chahman era of 612 BC-probably because it was by one of the Agni-vam kings of Delhi who had trounced Nineve-Assyrian capital in that year. However, this era is ignored or shifted to 550 BC in name of Cyrus of Persia. Cyrus and Darius were great kings, but their victories were only in west up to Arab and Syria, not in any part of India. Cyrus did not start his rule in this period. There was no system of a continuous calendar-years were counted from reign of each king, similar to Anka system of Orissa, So-called calendar of Cyrus was never started nor followed even in Persia. No aka king had ever started any calendar in his own country or in India. All chronologies of west & central Asia are discussed in detail by Al-Biruni-Chronology of Ancient Nations. Some persons have made double shift. One group has assumed it to be calendar of rhara (456 BC). Complementary manipulation is by others who have changed rhara to Haravardhana (605-646 AD), creating error of about 1200 years. This is after reading separate books of both in syllabus. Varhamihira time has been accurately given at many places, but instead of epoch of 612 BC, it has been calculated in livhana-aka which started 90 years after his death. Similar error is about Brahmagupta. He was famous as son of Jiugupta, who himself was son of Amuvarman, king of Nepal in (103-33 BC). In his kingdom, Vikramditya stated his samvat in 57 BC at Paupatintha as recorded in Nepal history. , (/) = The mathematics of planets told by Brahm developed errors after long time. The same is explained by Brahmagupta, son of Jiugupta. Vaevara-siddhnta has a full chapter on examining (defects of) Brhma-sphua-siddhnta, where Brahmagupta has always been referred as son of Jiugupta, rather than his proper name. Some examples are given below --

() His time is indicated at end of his book (/-) = Pride of r-Chpa (r-Mlava) vama was head of Vyghrapada gotra who started a aka (calender). In year 550 of that aka, Brahmagupta, son of Jiugupta wrote Brhmasphua-siddhnta at age of 30 for pleasure of scholars of Gaita (math) and Gola (spherical trigonometry). Here, year of a king of Chpa-vama is followed who had started a aka. Gotra of Bhma and Pavas was Vyghrapada of Vasiha line and a seer of gveda. Main king in their line whose year was being followed is called Vyghramukha (i.e head of that line). That was one of the 4 Agni-vamas joining hand under king draka at Mount Abu in 756 BC (draka-aka). They were Chapahni, Pratihra, Paramra, Chlukya (Solanki, Slunkhe). In Chapahni clan, famous king Chhamna routed Assyria and its capital Nineve in 612 BC-which was marked by start of a aka. Thereafter, it was famous as Chauhna-the last king being Prithviraj Chauhan who was last independent king of Delhi. They were experts in archery or they were protectors of west border of India in shape of Chpa (bow) called Mlv-like a garland (ml). So, they were called Chapahni. , (/) = At this time, the Knyakubja Brhmaa (Viu incarnation Buddha born as son of Ajina brhmaa of Magadha) went to Arbuda top (mount Abu) and did Brahma-homa. By effect of Veda-mantras, 4 Katriyas were born-Pramara (Paramra) of Smaveda, Chapahni (Chhamna = Chauhn) of Yajurveda, ukla (Chlukya = Solanki, Slunkhe) of three vedas, and Parihraka of Atharva. Pramara became king of Avanti spread in 4 yojanas. (/)-

= Parihra was king at beautiful town of Klinjar in 1 Kroa (3 kms) in hills of Chitraka, Chapahni was king of pleasant city Ajmer in country famous as Rjaputra (Rajsthan), ukla happily ruled in Dwrak in narta. Jiugupta at time of Vikramditya is given by Varhamihira and Klidsa- - () | || || = Bhat-jtaka of Varhamihira, chapter 7 on longevity-Viu (Jiu)-gupta, Devasvm and Siddhasena also have explained infant death at age of 8. If these defects are removed, the person may live up to 20 years. --- . = Chapter 22 of Jyotirvidbharaa of Klidsa-Description of chapters in book-by 1424 verses this Jyotirvidbharaa has been written by me. - . = Description of Vikramrka-This work by me is under patronage of great emperor rVikramrka of Mlav who is ruling over 180 provinces of r-Bhrata vara which is most habitable due to knowledge & conduct based on ruti (Veda) & Smti (Dharma-stra). - . . = Scholars in assembly of king-anku, Vararuchi, Mai(ttha), Angudatta, Jiu(gupta), Trilochana, Hara, Ghaakharpara and many other poets like Amarasimha are in assembly of king Vikrama where I too live. In addition to myself as author of Klatantra (Klmta in 2 parts by Klidsa), scholars in assembly of king Vikramrka are-Satya (chrya), Varhamihira, rutasena, r Bdaryaa (other than Ka Dvaipyana Vysa of 3200 BCauthor of Vedas, Mahbhrata, Bhgavata pura, Brahma-stra and commentary on Yogasta), Maittha, Kumra-simha. - . = 9 jewels-9 jewels in assembly of king Vikrama are-Dhanvantari, Kapaaka, Amarasimha, anku, Vetla-Bhaa, Ghaa-kharpara, Klidsa, famous Varhamihira, Vararuchi. As Vikrama samvat was started in period of Amuvarman (101-33 BC), his earlier inscriptions are assumed in rhara-aka (456 BC) which is wrongly related to

Haravardhana of Thaneswar (605-646 AD) who had never started any era as per his own writings or as per his biographer Babhaa or Chinese traveller Huensang. Later inscriptions are in Vikrama-samvat. http://indepigr.narod.ru/licchavi/content81.htm (1) No. 69-Samvat 535-rvaa ukla 7 (if it is in rhara-aka of 456 BC, year will be 79 AD-long after his rule. Thus, reference is Chpa aka of 612 BC giving date of 77 BC-after start of Amuvarman rule and before Vikrama-samvat.) (2) No. 76-Samvat 29-Jyeha ukla 10. (Vikrama samvat now onwards) (3) No. 77-Samvat 30- Jyeha ukla 6. (4) No. 78-Samvat 31-Prathama (month name missing-Paua as per next inscription) pacham-that year had adhika month. (5) No. 79-Samvat 31-Dvitya Paua ukla aam. (6) No. 80-Samvat 31, Mgha ukla 13. (7) No. 81-Samvat 32, ha ukla 13. (8) No. 83-Samvat 34-Prathama Paua ukla 2-year of extra month. (9) No. 84-Samvat 36- ha ukla 12. (10) No. 85-Samvat 37-Phlguna ukla 5. (11) No. 86-Samvat 39-Vaikha ukla 10. (12) No. 87-Samvat 43-Vyatpta- Jyeha ka (date missing). (13) No. 89-Samvat 45- Jyeha ukla (date missing) Jiugupta has 2 inscriptions in which dates are missing. His coins have been found. One is shown on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licchavi_(kingdom). Varhamihira has given his date of birth as 8-3-95 BC (aka, 3042, Chaitra ukla 8) in Kuthala-majar- - - --- () = In the running year 3042 of son of Suns son (Dharma)= Yudhihira aka, in Jaya samvatsara starting with Vasanta (spring) in Chaitra bright half 8 date, Varhamihira was born of dityadsa by grace of Brhmaas & sun. - (/) --- () = When Yudhihira ruled the earth, Saptaris were in Magh star. To get aka years of that king, add 2526 to the present aka. He has indicated his birth in Kapitthaka and later life at Avantik, then under Vikramditya-, -

He has indicated start of north motion of sun from Makara sign in Bhat-samhit and equivalent yoga calculation in Pacha-siddhntik - (/-)- = Earlier books stated south motion of sun from middle of le (113020) and north motion from start of Dhanih. Now, it is from start of Karka (900) and Makara (2700) signs, which can be easily verified by observation. , ( ) () () ( When sum of sun and moon sign/degrees is 3600, then it is Vaidhti yoga-when declination of sun and moon are same but in opposite directions (north-south). Adding 10 nakatras (133020), it is Vyatpta yoga, when sun-moon have same declination, but on opposite ends of ecliptic. That is possible only when south motion of sun started from middle of le (113020) which now starts from Punarvasu (Karka sign starts with its fourth quarter, 900). In his book Pacha-siddhntik, he has taken reference year as 427 aka (185 BC), - () = On aka 427, Chaitra ukla 1 start when sun was half set at Yavanapur, it was day of Saumya (mercury, sun of Soma = moon). Thebaut has changed Saumya to Soma (Monday). S.B. Dixit made it Bhauma = Tuesday, so that it tallies with counting from livhana-aka starting after death of Varhamihira in 78 AD. Yavanapura is assumed to be Romakapattana of Srya-siddhnta, 900 west from Ujjain. Actually, Varhamihira has indicated it to be 7/20 Gha west (440 longitude) of Ujjain (75043E) and 9 Gha west of Vras (830 E) in Pacha-siddhntik (3/13). So, it should be near Alexandria (300E), 1043E from it. (/)- Sun is set from evening to sunrise, its middle point is midnight. When it is midnight there, it will be sunrise in Ujjain. This aka started in year 2526 of Yudhihira aka. - (/) --- () = Saptaris (muni) were in Magh when Yudhihira was ruling the world. To get aka of that king (Yudhihira), add 2526 (to current aka). Calculation is being given for aka of 612 BC and other assumed aka as per JagannathHora software of Narasimha Rao-

(1) 612 BC-Epoch 18-2-185 BC- Chaitra ukla 1 started on 18 at 10-10-24 hrs. But sunrise at Ujjain was at 7-6-39 hrs. So date was 17-2-185 BC, Wednesday. (2) 550 BC of Darius -Epoch 5-3-124 BC- Chaitra ukla 1 from 6-44-24. Sunrise at 6-53-44 on 4 March, Thursday. (3) Vikrama Samvat of 57 BC-This is samvat, not a aka, still calculation is done for that as the different is not understood. Chaitra ukla 1 of 427 year on 4-3-371 AD at 2-13-54. Sunrise on 3 March Thursday at 6-51-51. (4) livhana aka of 78 AD-(a) 427 current (gamya) year- Chaitra ukla 1 on 20-2-505, at 8-8-08 hrs. Sunday. As sunrise was at 7-0-22 hrs, Pratipad will be counted on next daymonday. (b) 427 lapsed (gata)- Chaitra ukla 1 on 11-3-506 at 3-14-54. Friday on 12, sunrise at 6-4349 on 10th. Thus, the aka of Varhamihira does not fit with any other year except 612 BC. 6. Books of Vikramditya period-(1) All puras- Puras were updated under guidance of Vetla Bhaa, one of his 9 gems. The places where this was arranged were called Vil, like mahl of aunaka. There are 3 places known as Vil, one is Ujjayin itself, capital of Vikramditya (Meghadta 1/32 of Klidsa), Vail in Bihar (famous as place of Bhagwan Mahavir), and Badar-vila, where di-ankara had written Brahma-stra-bhya in 494 BC. There could be a fourth in south India also. , , = Bhaviya pura, Pratisarga parva 4, chapter 1-Thus at the end of Dvpara sandhy, history of Srya and Chandra vamas was told by Sta, which has been told to you. Again, in Vil town, Vaitla will be told the complete history by Sta (another pura teller). = All that has been told by me (Sta-1). Again in time of king Vikrama, there will be gathering (for this purpose). The stories told at Naimiraya will be retold whatever is in 18 puras. There will be 18 upa-puras also in kali yuga. Of them 12 chapters will be Uttama (original). = I am telling the essense of same history which was told by Sta before 88,000 munis at Naimiraya. - (//-) = aunaka was mahla (head of highest institute of learning). ngirasa formally approached him and asked (Muaka upaniad, 1/1/2-3).

(2) Harisvm commentary on atapatha Brhmaa-at end of each chapter, Harisvm has called himself as Dharmdhyaka under Vikramditya. (3) Many smti texts. (4) Tantra texts by Ghaakharpara-no earlier texts are available on tantra. (5) Jaina gamas by Kapaaka (= ramaa or Jaina Muni). (6) Suruta-samhit by Dhanvantari (3rd), his nava-ratna. (7) Epics of Klidsa (second) indicated in Jyotirvidbharaa. (8) Astronomy astrology texts of Varhamihira-Bhat-samhit, Bhat-jtaka, Pachasiddhntik, of Brahmagupta-Brhma-sphua-siddhnta, Khaa-khdyaka. Many others by Vararuchi (Vkya-karaa), Satyacharya, Maittha etc. (9) Revenue records by anku-revived by Akbar who copied Nava-ratna system also. anku is the instrument used for surveying described in Srya-siddhnta and other texts on astronomy. (10) Amara-koa by Amara Simha, grammer by Vararuchi etc. There are many others. Main feature was that till the time of Vikramditya, Sanskrit was standard language. From time of his grandson livhana, literature in local languages started which flourished under Gorakhantha in 800 AD. (Sarasvat-kahbharaa-alankra of Bhoja, verse 32). 7. Reasons of opposing Vikramditya-(1) James Ussher (sometimes spelled Usher) (4 January 1581 21 March 1656) was Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 16251656. He published a chronology that purported to establish the time and date of the creation as the night preceding 26 October 4004 BC, according to the proleptic Julian calendar. Till today, western historians are not free from this date and twist all findings of archeology, geology to bring them after this date. That is partly due to pressure of Church and partly due to own belief. Actually, 7 days creation in Bible means 7 manvantaras. When sun, moon, earth did not exist, day meant axial rotation of earth. (2) Indian history was to be made of still later period to show it after Ezypt or Sumer civilizations. In addition to all Indian texts, all Greek texts of Homer, Herodotus, Arian, Megasthenese also were denied. Megasthenes had indicated 2 periods-15,500 BC when India captured foreign country, 6777 BC when Dyonisus attacked India, 154 generations of Indian kings before Alexander. (3) To destroy chronology, Maurya period was shifted from 1534 BC to 326 BC to make it in time of attack by Alexander. For that, all kings of Mlava-gaa were omitted and all major kings of 4 Agni-vams from Vikramditya to Prithviraj Chauhan and last Bhoja of Malava were ignored.

(4) Ujjain had been time reference of world since very ancient era, so it is place of Mahkla. Kings controlling that region only had started important calendars. After studying all kings of that region, Pargiter & Wliiam Jones suddenly denied their existence. Naturally, all major calendars and their kings were denied. (6) For arbitrary manipulation of dates, no calendar can be admitted. After study of all calenders by George Buhler, Sewel and their obedient student Lawrence Dominique (named Swami Kannu Pillai), they denied their existence. Buhler removed one verse of Rjatarangi to remove evidence of Laukika era used in whole book. On this pattern, Sudhakara Dwiwedi under guidance of Geaorge Thebaut shifted Mahbhrata was from 36 years before Kali to 653 Kali. This was to make Chhmna aka of 612 BC as livhana aka of 78 AD. Rjatarangi manipulation was done to show that 43rd Gonanda king Kanishka (1292-1262 BC) of Kashmir was a aka king of 78 AD who started this aka. ryabhaa date was shifted from 360 Kali to 3600 kali (499 AD) and dates of Varhamihira who quoted him was shown after that. (7) rhara (456 BC) was the first king to assume title of Vikramditya. His elder brother Bharthari became sanys and wrote 3 famous atakas (Nti, ngra, vairgya) and Vkyapadyam (philosophy of grammer). Rjatarangi indicates that he is confused with Paramra king Vikramditya whose name itself was that, not a title. rhara had deputed Mtgupta (Title Klidsa) for 5 years to rule Kashmir in absence of any king there. 8. Special reasons of denying Vikramditya -(1) His samvat, pura and smti texts are still followed. So, his denial is most important for destroying Indian civilizatiom. (2) Slavery is so deep rooted that after reading all literature about Vikramditya or of his nava-ratnas, his existence is denied. Professor N.R. Joshi taught Sanskrit for 25 years in USA, Canada but denied existence of draka, rhara after teaching their books Mcchhakaikam and Naiadha charita, as I showed from syllabus of his universities. (3) Indians are to be projected as permanent slaves and cowards. So, massive efforts were made to destroy Chhamna aka of 612 BC started after destruction of Assyrian capital Nineve, indicated in Bible at 5 places. This was used in time of Vikramditya before his own samvat. (4) Vikramditya was most powerful king having permanent influence in west Asia and even in Roman empire. His astrologers from Magi (Magadha) declared that Jesus would be a great man, which was a major factor in accepting him as a Prophet. (5) Defeat and capture of Caesar by Vikramdiya of Ujjain (82 BC-19 AD)- Defeat of Caesar is noted in many places, e.g. at http://www.heritagehistory.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=wars&FileName=wars_romanpersian.php

The first Roman contact with the Parthian Empire came during the Mithridatic Wars which lasted from 82 to 63 B.C. The Kingdom of Pontus was an independent Kingdom that bordered on Parthian territory. By the third Mithridatic War, the Romans pursued Mithridates and his ally, Tigranes, deep into Armenia, and conquered most of the Armenian Empire, including Syria and Judea for Rome. From this point on, the Eastern border of Rome's territory bordered on Parthia. Rome recognized that Parthia, far from being barbaric was a highly civilized country with rich booty. The lure of conquest was behind most of Rome's incursions into Parthian territory in the following centuries. Soon after Pompey had conquered Syria and Judea for Rome, Crassus, already one of the richest men in Rome, launched a campaign against Parthia in Mesopotamia. He was defeated however, with great slaughter at Carrhae (53 B.C.). Caesar was planning a campaign of retribution when he was assassinated so the task fell to his successor in the east Mark Antony. www.livius.org/caa-can/caesar/caesar_t01.htmIn 75 BC, Julius Caesar was captured by Cilician pirates, who infested the Mediterranean sea. The Romans had never sent a navy against them, because the ... Vikramditya has become most hated by Oxford because his calendar is still followed for all festivals surviving attempts to change it. Jyotirvidbharaa of Klidsa has been declared fake as it describes arrest of Caesar by him. But 3 epics indicated here are not considered fake and studied widely-Raghuvama, Meghadta, Kumrasambhava. These books do not indicate Klidsa as author, it is known only from Jyotirvidbharaa. , , . = Chapter 22-Description of Vikramrka (Vikramditya)-I (Klidsa) am writing this book under patronage of the great king Vikramrka of Mlav ruling over 180 dea (Provinces) of Bhratavara famous of its pious conduct based on ruti (veda) and Smti (dharma-stra). - . Description of his army- There is no king equal to Vikrama whose 3 crore army camp is spread over 18 yojanas, has million vehicles, 903 = 162,000 elephants, 4 lakh ships and whose march always ends in victory. . = Starting of aka-Great king Vikrama donates pearls gold & jewels daily and has established rule of Dharma after killing 99,999 akas in wars in all directions.

, , . = Digvijaya (conquering all directions)-King Vikramrka is always victorious who is axe for forest of brave Dravias, fire to burn the forest of powerful La, Garua for the snakes of Vanga, Agastya to drink ocean of Gauas, roaring elephant in Gurjara, Aryam to remove darkness of earth and moon for the lotus of Kmboja. , , . = Power-King Vikrama conquered all difficult forts, defeated all kings and returned back their kingdoms, protected all people like Indra does for Devas and is moon for blooming of lotus like people of world. . . = Description of Ujjayin-King Vikramrka is always victorious who is shelter and provider of all people and whose capital Ujjayin is great city where Mahkla Mahea always remains. Valour of Vikrama is unsurpassed who conquered the aka king of Rukma-dea (Julius Caesar of Rome) in great war, brought him to Ujjayin, paraded him and then let off. . As long as great king Vikrama is in Avantik, there is prosperity, happiness and well of all people and Vedic rights are followed. . = 3 epics including Raghuvama were written before this book after getting Sumati = knowledge, and another on effects of karma as per vedas (astrology work Klmta in 2 parts).Then poet Klidsa wrote Jyotirvidbharaa on Kla-vidhna (auspicious times). Note-Klidsa was illiterate and by deceit married to scholar princess Vidyottam. In anger after knowing this fool, she expelled. He became senseless in Kl temple. On asking by Kl, he stated Vidy (name of princess) = knowledge and got boon for Vidy. On return, he was asked- = is there any learning?. He wrote 3 epics starting with 3 words and from Viea wrote astrology book. (1) - ( , /)

(2) - , , ( /) (3) - - ( /) (3068 Kali) , - . = In kali year 3068 (34 BC) this work on Kla-vidhna was started in month of Mgha and completed in Krttika month for pleasure of respected astrologers (6) Julian calendar changed to tally with Vikrama samvat-Calendar Committee report-part 3 (CSIR publication) also mentions that Vikrama samvat has influenced start of Julian calendar in 46 BC after delay of 7 days. He intended to start year from winter solstice, but people started 7 days later with new moon. It is assumed that 7 days after winter solstice of 46 BC was new moon-actually it was full moon of Paua after which Mgha Ka month started in Vikrama year 10 (lapsed). Vikrama samvat is only luni solar year in world which month starts with dark half. All our texts of astronomy and puras still calculate adhika-msa on basis of lunar month starting with bright half or new moon. To start a system opposed to general worldwide rule, it needs a powerful logic (shift of seasons by 45 days after start of kali) and a powerful king Vikramditya who influenced India and Roman empire under Julius Caesar. That is why, no oriental scholar since British rule wants to admit existence of Vikramditya and inserts fake stories in his name. It has also indicated that Hizra era started with start of Vikrama year 679. Quoted from History of the Calendar, by M.N. Saha and N. C. Lahiri (part C of the Report of The Calendar Reforms Committee under Prof. M. N. Saha with Sri N.C. Lahiri as secretary in November 1952-Published by Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Rafi Marg, New Delhi-110001, 1955, Second Edition 1992. Page, 168-last para-Caesar wanted to start the new year on the 25th December, the winter solstice day. But people resisted that choice because a new moon was due on January 1, 45 BC. And some people considered that the new moon was lucky. Caesar had to go along with them in their desire to start the new reckoning on a traditional lunar landmark. Importance of winter solstice was ancient and Bhma Pitmaha departed on that very day in year 3139 BC-36 years before death of r Ka. Now that day is called Christmas, though it was intended to be new year day. It has been assumed that the start was from new moon day. Actually, it was from start of Mgha month of Vikrama year 11 lapsed. Vikrama samvat is only year which starts with dark half-all other lunar years start from bright half starting with new moon. Strong following of Vikrama samvat, just 10 years after its inception in Rome against wishes of Caesar shows influence of Vikramditya.

(7) Hizra era based on Vikrama-samvat- Page 180-It has been shown by Dr. Hashim Amir Ali of the Osmania University, Hyderabad, that the Mohammedan calendar was originally luni-solar in which intercalation was made when necessary, and not purely lunar. . According to this view, proper intercalation was applied in all years where necessary up to A.H. 10 and consequently the year A.H. 11 which started on March 29, 632 A.D. (Footnote)-Initial epoch of the Hejira era thus arrived at is the evening of March 19, 622 A.D., Friday, the day following the vernal equinox. Thus, Hejira era also started with start of year in India-it was start of Vikrama year 679. Vedic ROOTS of pre-Islamic Arabia and the Kaaba (8) Respect of Vikramditya till Islam-The text of the crucial Vikramditya inscription, found inscribed on a gold dish hung inside the Kaaba shrine in Mecca, is found recorded on page 315 of a volume known as Sayar-ul-Okul treasured in the Makhtab-e-Sultania library in Istanbul, Turkey. Rendered in free English the inscription says: "Fortunate are those who were born (and lived) during king Vikrams reign. He was a noble, generous dutiful ruler, devoted to the welfare of his subjects. But at that time we Arabs, oblivious of God, were lost in sensual pleasures. Plotting and torture were rampant. The darkness of ignorance had enveloped our country. Like the lamb struggling for her life in the cruel paws of a wolf we Arabs were caught up in ignorance. The entire country was enveloped in a darkness so intense as on a new moon night. But the present dawn and pleasant sunshine of education is the result of the favour of the noble king Vikramaditya whose benevolent supervision did not lose sight of us- foreigners as we were. He spread his sacred religion amongst us and sent scholars whose brilliance shone like that of the sun from his country to ours. These scholars and preceptors through whose benevolence we were once again made cognizant of the presence of God, introduced to His sacred existence and put on the road of Truth, had come to our country to preach their religion and impart education at king Vikramadityas behest." http://www.guardiansofdarkness.com/GoD/muslims.pdf (9) Al-Biruni-Chronology of Ancient Nations at page 39Epoch of the Ancient Arabs-Ishmaelite Arabs used to date from the construction of the Kaba by Abraham and Ismael. . After a long course of time they dated from year of Amr ben Yahya. Afterwards they dated from death of Kab ben Luay till the Year of Treason, in which the Banu-Yarbu stole certain garments which some of the kings of Himyar (Himavat =Bhrata) sent to Kaba. Then they dated from Year of the Elephants, when Ethiopians came to destroy Kaba. Lord annihilated them. Then they dated from era of Hijra. Gift from India and repulsing Ethiopian attack were in period of Vikramditya.

Page 73 of same book-Intercalation of the Ancient Arabs-They learnt the system of intercalation from Jews, about 200 years before the Hijra. Their intercalators, called Kalamis rose after pilgrimage had been finished.. and intercalated the month. Arabs adopted the decision of the Kalammas. (Prophet Mohammad also was a Kalamma). One of their poets has saidWe have an intercalator, under whose banner we march; He declares the months profane or sacred as he likes 9. Text of Bhaviya pura - , , = (Bhaviya pura, pratisarga parva 1, chapter 6)-At this time, the great Knyakubja brhmaa did Brahma-homa at mount Arbuda (Abu). By effect of Veda-mantras 4 Katriyas were born-Pramara of Smaveda, Chapahni of Yajurveda, ukla of three vedas (including k) and Parihra of Atharva. - = Chapter 7-Sta stated that in 2710 Kali, Pramara beame king and ruled for 6 years. after him Mahmara, Devpi, Devadta ruled for same periods. Then Gandharvasena ruled for 50 years and went to forest after coronating his son ankha. ankha expired after ruling for 30 years. Then Gandharvasena had to return from forest and married Vramat sent by Indra. From her a son was born and Devas showerd flowers, beat drums, pleasant wind flowed etc. He went to forest with a saint named ivadi and his disciples = He became iva after doing 20 types of Karma (Kriy) yoga. On completion of 3000 years of Kali, he had been born by orders of iva to destroy akas and for growth of rya-dharma. He was named Vikramditya and even as a child give happiness to parents. He went to forest at age of 5 and did Tapa for 12 years. Then he came to Ambvat (Ujain) with divine powers and with Vaitla created by Prvat for his protection.

= Once that king went to place of Mahklevara and worshipped him. He made his great assemly there decorated with jewels etc and set up a throne with 23 idols. He ascended throne after worshipping with blessings of Brhmaas. Then Vaitla also came in guise of a brhmaa and blessed him. He stated history to king Vikramditya. , , , = When Vikramditya went to heaven, many kings took charge and the kingdom was split into 18 parts-listen to their names. West boundary was end of Sindhu river, in south was Setubandha (Sea bridge by Rma at Rmevaram), in north upto Badarsthna and upto Kaplintaka in east. Within this, 18 kingomes arose-(1) Indraprastha, (2) Pchla, (3) Kuruketra, (4) Kpila, (5) Antarved, (6) Braja, (7) Ajamer, (8) Marudhanva, (9) Gurjara, (10) Mahrra, (11) Dravia, (12) Kalinga, (13) Avanti (14) Uupa (Ura = Odisha), (15) Vanga (Bengal), (16) Gaua (East Bengal, Asam), (17) Magadha (Bihar, Chhotanagpur), (18) Kosala. Each part was under a separate king, separate languages and many sects. This way 100 years passed. Then akas came. = Hearing decline of Dharma, invaders came in many hordes. Some entered rya-dea by crossing Sindhu river. Othercs came by Himlaya and Sindh also. After winning and ruining rya-dea, invaders returned to their country. They were very happy after kidnapping many women. At this stage, livhaan became king. = He was grandson of Vikramditya and took over the kingdom from his father. He conquered the terrible akas and invaders from China, Taittiri (Tatars), Bhlka (Balkha in Iran), Kmarpa (East & north border beyond Asam), Romaja (of Roman empire), and crooks of Khuraja (Born of Khura of Kmadhenu = wish giving cow, Kurda. Turkey plateau is

in shape of Bull, its foothills are places of Kurds. King of Turkey was called Vaparv = lord of Taurus mountain in time of Yayti of Bhrata). He punished all the invaders and imposed fines on them. He set up limits for Mlecchha invaders beyond west of Sindhu river. Bh rata to wards east of Sindhu river was named as Sindhu-sthna (Hindustan). Once this conquerer of akas went to Himlayas. = Within that Ha-dea, the powerful king saw a pious man with white robe in hills and asked-who are you. He replied-Know me as son of a (God) born from a virgin mother. I am preacher of Mlecchha dharma and follow the path of truth. Hearing this, the king asked-What is Dharma according to you? Hearing this, he replied-After decline of truth, I came as Messiah in Mlecchha dea which has no norms. Among these terrible robbers, I have come as -Mas (ha), and achieved status of Messiah among Mlecchhas. Listen to the Dharma set up by me among Mlecchhas. There may be dirt in body, but mind should be pure on path of trurh & justice. With single minded devotion, one should recite mantras and worship the a in the sun who is eternal and attracts all elements like sun. O king! I merged into Messiah by such act (of recitation). As the eternal form of a is within my heart, I am called Masha. Hearing this, the king saluted and settled that Mlecchha worshipper in that place. = On returning to his place, the king performed Avamedha-yaja. After ruling for 60 yeas, he went to heavens. Listen about kings who followed him. , , , - = In the family of livhana, 10 kings followed who ruled for 500 years. Social norms gradually declined on earth. The 10th king was known as Bhojarja. Seeing decline of Dharma, the powerful king proceeded on Dig-vijaya. With army of 10,000, he went beyond Sindhu river accompanied by Klidsa and many other Brhmaas. He vanquished the

Mlecchhas of Gandhar, Kashmir and Arab, imposed heavy fine on them and punished. After this, a Mlecchha guru came. = He was famous as Mah-mada (man with great arrogance) and was accompanied with many followers. King also worshipped Mahdeva residing in desert. He bathed Hara (Mahdeva) with Ganga water mixed with 5 products of cow, sandal paste etc. - - = Bhojarja said-O Girijntha living in desert! You had destroyed the geart Asura with 3 puras (towns of gold, silver & iron) and have created many forms of My (delusion). You are protected here by Mlecchhas and are Sat-chit-nanda. I seek your shelter as a servant. Sta (teller of this pura) stated-Hearing this prayer the Lord replied to king-You must visit the place of Mahklevara of Vhka region (Mecca) which has been spoilt by Mlecchhas. rya-dharma has vanished from that terrible country. The Asura of 3 cities who had been burnt earlier by me is born again sent by Asura king Bali. He is without pedigree and called Mah-mada (Mohammad) growing Daityas with works of Pichas. = You should not go to that country of crooked Pichas. You will be freed of sins by my grace. Hearing this, the king retuned to his countr. With him, Mahmada also came to Sindhu river. That exponent on My & Mada (deceit & arrogance) told-your God has become my slave. Mind of the king was attracted towards terrible mleccha dharma. = Hearing this, Klidsa told Mahmada with anger-You have created llusion to foolthe king. I will kill your bad conduct of Vhka country. Then he recited 10,000 repetitions of Navra mantra and did homa with 1/10th of the number. That fake god created by mlechha was burnt. Being afraid, they returned to Vhka and lost arrogance by ashes of their Guru.

= That ash was placed in their town by the disciples puffed with arogance (mada). Then the pura became Mada-hna (Madina) = without arrogance. In night, the exponent of My entered body of Picha and told to Bhojarja. Your rya-dharma is best, but I will spread terrible dhama of Pichas by direction of God. My people will be with pierced penis, without ikh (puff of hair at top) and with goat like beard. These degraded will be loud & eat all food. Without any Kaula (tantrika act), they will eat animals. Their penis will be made like Kua (reeds) by samskra by Musala, so they will be called Musalman, born as degraders of Dharma. Such will be Picha dharma created by me. = Saying this, that god went away and king returned home. The learned king established Samskta language among 3 varas and Prkta among dras. He went to heaven after ruling for 50 years. He set up standard of Dharma respected by all gods in the sacred land ryvartta between Vindhya & Himlaya. Vara-sankara (mixed races) were at ends of Vindhya mountains. Muslims were restricted to west of Sindhu river. Dharma of -masha was in Barbar, Tua dea and in many islands like kingdom of gods. - - = Chapter 4-Sta told-After Bhojarja went to heavens. 7 kings fllowed with short lives and they died within 300 years. THe land was divided among many kings. Seventh king was Vrasimha. He was followed by 3 kings who expired within 200 years. Tenth king was Gangsimha. , , , =Translated earlier. - - = is told-We have heard life of Ka stated by you. Now we wish to hear about the kings born in theeir families. Four families born from Agni (fire) are also peculiar. Hari (God) is

called Tri-yug, how He was born in kaliyuga? Sta stated-You have put a good question. Now listen about the kings of Agni vama in detail. = Pramara was king in south direction in divine city made by Amb. The king strong like Smaveda resided there. He ruled for 6 years, then Mahmara was born. He ruled for 3 years, then his son Devpi ruled like father. His son was Devadta. Like his father, he ruled (for short period). Iisten to the reason. = On murder of powerful Bauddha king Ashoka, Bauddhas (of central Asia) worshipped Sun god and in 5 years, a man named aka was born and kali gave him Taittira (Tatar) town. There, he united robbers and repeatedly attacked and destroyed ryadea. Many kings were killed in attacks, so they were short lived. = Son of Devadta was powerful Gandharvasena who went to forest after ruling 50 years. He had to come back (on death of his son ankha). By geace of iva, his son Vikrama was born who ruled for 100 years. His son Devabhakta was killed by akas after ruling for 10 years. His son livhana conquered akas and ruled for 60 years. = His son lihotra ruled for 50 years. His son livarddhana ruled like his father, then his son akahant (killer of akas) ruled like father. His son Suhotra, then Havirhotra, Indrapla, ruled likewise. He built a town Indrvat as his capital. After him Mlyavn ruled likewise and built a town Mlyavat. = There was no rains for 4 years and hungry king washed grains impure with faeces and offered it to God in form of ligrma. Being pleased, the god said-there will be no period without rains as long as your family rules.

= Son of Mlyavn was Harapriya, then the sons in order were Bhaumarja, Vatsarja, Bhojarja (in time of Mohammad), ambhudatta, Bindupla ruled for similar periods. Bindupla made a kingdom named Bindu-khaa (Bundela-khaa). = After Bindupla, their sons ruled likewise-Rjapla, Mahnara, Somavarm, Kmavarm, Bhmipla, who dug Bhsara and built a town there. = His son Rangapla ruled like father. His son Bhmipla defeated many kings. His son Vrasimha was famous and went to forest by making Rangapla a king. His son Kalpasimha was without son. = Once he went to banks of Jhnav (Gang) for bath and gave grants to Brhmaas. By their grace, he got Kalpa-ketra where famous town Kalpa was built. While ruling there, his son Gangsimha was born. He was without son and went to Kuruketra for war at age of 90. He ws killed there (second war of Tarain in 1192 AD). Thus the great family of Pramara brhmaa ended. 10. Agnivam kings-The four Agnivam or Brahmakatra kings(1) Pramara or Panwr Dynasty (2) Chapahni or Chauhn Dynasty (a) Tomara, (b) Samaladeva Dynasties were its branches. (3) ukla or Chlukya Dynasty (Solanki in Gujrat, Rajsthan, Salunkhe in Maharashtra, Karnataka). (4) Parihra or Pratihra dynasty. Paramra Dynasty-1. Pramara (392-386 BC), 2. Mahmara (386-383 BC), 3. Devpi (383380 BC), 4. Devadatta (380-377 BC). 5. For 195 years from 377-195 BC, aka kings captured Ujjain and they went to railam.

6. Gandharvasena (182-132 BC), 7. ankharja (132-102) went to forest from meditation and died issueless. Gandharvasena returned from forest and had second son named Vikramditya (102-82 BC). 8. Vikramditya (82 BC-19 AD), 9. Devabhakta (19-29 AD) 10. Anarchy from 29-78 AD 11. livhana (78-138 AD)-settled Jesus Christ in Kashmir. 12. lihotra, 13. livardhana, 14 Suhotra, 15. Havirhotra, 16 Indrapla, 17. Mlyavn, 18. ambhudatta, 19. Bhaumarja, 20. Vatsarja-9 kings for 500 years (138-638 AD). 21-Bhojarja (638-693 AD)-Met Prophet Mohammad. 22. ambhudatta-2, 23. Bindupla, 24. Rjapla, 25. Mahinara. 26. Somavarm, 27. Kmavarm, 28. Bhmipla or Vrasimha-7 kings for 300 years (693-994 AD) 29. Rangapla, 30. Kalpasimha, 31. Gangsimha (issueless)-200 years (993-1192 AD) Last king died in war on side of Prithviraja Chauhn in 1192 AD at Taraeadi, called Kuruketra here. Chhmna kings-(1)Chhmna, (2) Smantadeva, (3) Mahdeva, (4) Kubera, (5) Bindusra, (6) Sudhanv - He set up 4 Phas of ankarchryas for which an order was issued on copper plate dated 2663 Yudhihira aka (485 BC) on vina ukla 15. (7) Vradhanv, (8) Jayadhanv, (9) Vrasimha, (10) Varasimha, (11) Vradaa, (12) Arimantra, (13) Mikyarja, (14) Pukara, (15) Asamajasa, (16) Premapura, (17) Bhnurja, (18) Mnasimha, (19) Hanumn, (20) Chitrasena, (21) ambhu, (22) Mahsena, (23) Suratha, (24) Rudradatta, (25) Hemaratha, (26) Chitrngada, (27) Chandrasena, (28) Vatsarja, (29) Dhadyumna, (30) Uttama, (31) Sunka, (32) Subhu, (33) Suratha, (34) Bharata, (35) Styaki, (36) atrujita, (37) Vikrama, (38) Sahadeva, (39) Vradeva, (4) Vasudeva, (41) Vsudeva (king in 551 AD)-his 2 branches started kingdoms. One branch ended with last king of Delhi-Pthvrja-3 killed in 1192 AD. The other branch had Vra Gogdeva who fought with Mahmud Gazanavi in desert. Delhi-Ajmer branch-(42) Smanta, (43) Naradeva or Npa, (44) Vigraharja-1, (45) Chandrarja-1, (46) Gopendra-rja or Gopendraka, (47) Durlabha-rja, (48) Govinda-rja or Guvaka-1-in time of Pratihra king Ngabhaa-2. (49) Chandra-rja-2 (843-868 AD), (50) Govinda-rja or Guvaka-2 (868-893 AD), (51) Chandana- Govinda-rja (893-918 AD), (52) Vkpati-rja-1 (Vappayarai) (918-943 AD), (53 A) Vindhya-rja-very short period followed by his brother. (53 B) Simha- rja. He had 4 sons-Vigraha-rja-2, Durlabha-rja-2, Chandrarja, Govinda-rja. (54A) Vigraha-rja-2 (from 973 AD)-He had defeated Mlarja of Gujrat and made pur temple in Bhgu-kacchha. He had sent army in 997 AD to help Lahore king against Subuktagin. (54B) Durlabha-rja-2 (998 AD), (55) Govinda-rja-3 (999 AD), (56A) Vkpati-rja-2 (999-1018 AD), (56B) Vrya-rja (1018-1038), (56C) Chmua-rja

(1038-1063 AD)-these 2 were brothers of 56A. (57A) Simhala-eldest son of 56C. (57B) Durlabha-rja-3 (1063-1079 AD)-son of 56C. (57C) Vigraharja-3 (1079-1098 AD)-brother of 57B. (58) Pthvrja-1 (1098-1105 AD), (59) Ajaya- rja (Ajayadeva or Salhana)-(1105-1132 AD)-built Ajmer. (60) Arorja (Analdeva, Anna, Anaka)-(1132-1151 AD), (61A) Jagadeva (1151 AD)- He had killed his father Arorja for which he was killed by his brother Vigraharja-4 (61B) Vigraharja-4 (Viladeva)-(1151-1167 AD)-he had defeated Chlukyas. (61C) Somevaradeva (1169-1177 AD)-Brother of 61B, as Pthvrja-2-son of 61A had no son. (62A) Apara-Gngeya or Amara-Gngeya-son of 61B. (62B) Pthvrja-2son of 61A. He defeated 61A and died issueless in 1169 AD. (62C) Pthvrja-3 (1177-1192 AD)-last Hindu king of Delhi. He defeated Mohammad Ghori in 1191, but was defeated in 1192 AD due to Jayachanda of Kannauj. ukla or Chlukya (at Dwrak Rra) 27 kings (392 BC-1192 AD) 1. ukla or Chlukya, 2. Vivaksena, 3. Jayasena, 4. Visen, 5. Madasimha, 6. Sindhuvarm, 7. Sindhudvpa, 8. rpati, 9. Bhujavarm, 10. Raavarm, 11. Chitravarm, 12. Dharmavarm, 13. Kavarm, 14. Udaya, 15. Vpyakarma, 16. Guhila, 17. Klabhoja, 18. Rrapla, 19. Jayapla, 20. Veuka, 21. Yaovigraha, 22. Mahichandra, 23. Chandradeva, 24. Mandapla, 25. Kumbhapla or Vaiyapla, 26. Devapla-Son-in-law of Anagapla, Tomara king of Delhi. 27. Jayachandra-His daughter Samyukt married to Prithvrja Chauhn, last hindu king of Delhi. He died in war with Ghori in 1193. Pratihra Dynasty (Kalinjar) 35 kings (392 BC-1193 AD). 1. Parihra, 2. Gauravarm, 3. Ghoravarm, 4. Supara, 5. Rpana, 6. Kravarm, 7. Bhogavarm, 8. Kalivarm, 9. Kauika, 10. Ktyyana, 11. Hemavarm, 12. ivavarm, 13. Bhvavarm, 14. Rudravarm, 15. Bhojavarm, 16. Gavavarm, 17. Vindhyavarm, 18. Sukhasena, 19. Balka, 20. Lakmaa, 21. Mdhava, 22. Keava, 23. Surasena, 24. Nryaa, 25. ntivarm, 26. Nadivarm (conquered Gaua and ruled there), 27. Srangadeva, 28. Gangadeva, 29. Ananga Bhpati, 30. Mahipati-1, 31. Rjevara, 32. Nsimha, 33. Kalivarm-2, 34. Dhtivarm, 35. Mahipati-Died in Kuruketra war with Ghori in 1193.