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in (Summary) Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain is central figure in Indian history after death of Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣna and end of Yudhiṣṭhira rule in 3102 BC when Kali-yuga started. Vikramāditya revised calendar system with his Vikrama-samvat in 57 BC which is still the standard for all Indian festivals. The calendar of his grandson Śālivāhana-śaka is still used for calculations, so he was termed a foreign king Kaniṣka who was a king of Indian Gonanda clan in Kashmir in 1292 BC. All purāṇas, and smṛti texts (moral, legal codes) were revised in his era, so he was totally eliminated to destroy standards of Indian society. To destroy his samvat, Rāṣṭrīya-śaka was started by a calendar committee which had no idea of any calendar. No festival or govt order is able to follow this calendar. Another ploy is to use only solar months in pañchāngas calling it Indian or Oriya culture. From 57 BC till Prithviraj Chauhan and Bhoja of Malava-only his family has ruled till 1200 AD. After Rāma and Kṛṣṇa, maximum literature is about Vikramāditya only. Whatever literature is read by any Sanskrit student in any branch, it is by one of his 9 jewels. After reading them for whole life, scholars tell that there is no reference about him. Chandragupta-2 of Gupta period has been declared Vikramāditya about whom not a single word has been found in any inscription. Most of the monuments exist from his time only like Rāma-mandir of Ayodhyā or Yoginī-mandiras at 4 places including Odisha. Sole aim of British empire was to destroy Indian history, but even students taught in that pattern were having doubts. So a paper on historiography has been added in MA (history) to dupe them. This article describes various aspects and reasons of destroying any history related to Vikramāditya. **************** 1. Introduction-There are many wrong assumptions about inferiority of our country and superiority of invaders. It can be debated whether this was reason of long slavery or effect of that. Main concepts are(1) All invaders ruled India to educate and improve it-Megasthenes has written that India is only country which did not need to invade others as it was self sufficient in food etc. (2) There was no tradition of science in India, it started with invasion of Alexander. Actually first Yavana invasion was in 6777 BC. Dates of both Alexander & Dionysus were known from Indian calendar, not from Julian calendar which started much later. (3) All Indian texts like Purāṇas are false & fabricated at start of Islamic rule, when major population was running away to save life. However, mention of gold-digging ants (2 chapters), one eyed tribes in India and Pandyan girls giving birth at age of 6-all stated by Megasthenes, Herodotus are highly scientific.
(4) Indians did not have concept of history, They never gave dates. To prove it, date parts were broken from all copper plate inscriptions before publication in Mysore Antiquary, genealogies of Rajsthan kings were burnt in mass scale by Col. Todd to hide their Indian ancestry for showing them Huna descendants. All inscriptions of Bappa Raval of Mewar were burnt-copy of one could be recovered from commentary of Rana Kumbhakaran Singh on Gīta-Govinda. Compared to that, British period scholars like Suniti Chatterji in luxury of libraries & easy life only tried to prove that all greats were from own village or state. The errors due to such propaganda are-(1) All historians think that dates have come from Greek writers, e.g. historians of Alexander stated that Christ will be born 326 years after his invasion on India. (2) No historian knows that all dates and genealogy of kings have come solely from Purāṇas. Just to destroy major part of history and assigning arbitrary dates, they are denied and denigrated. Opposition of idol worship & Purāṇas found support from Dayanada Saraswati. (3) Vehemence against Purāṇas has prevented understanding of their, chronology, geography, astronomy etc. (4) Any king who had started any calendar is declared non-existent as it can give correct date. (5) Education & learning is not by self study and universities, but by attack of Greeks, Shakas. By that Aryabhata could learn Greek & Trigonometry, and calendar could be started by Shakas. No calendar had ever been started by and Shaka or Greek king even in his own country. Under this theory, all universities should be closed, only robbers are needed. (6) Map of country is by chance visit by invaders, not by surveying by finding longitude, latitude, direction. Even if this was done, Indians did not know that earth is spherical. (7) Astronomical distances were measures and eclipse was calculated by sacrifice of goats in Yajña (Narlikar & Rastogi), or just by meditation- any measurement by this method? (8) For trade & revenue purpose, script originated in west Asia. In India, it was not needed for much larger calculations of astronomy & survey of earth. All Greek writers state India as rectangular. All Purāṇas call it inverted triangle broader in north. (9) Indians were always weak & cowards, any king like Vikramāditya who had victories against invaders is denied. (10) No book in modern libraries gives date of birth of authors. But all astronomy texts give their accurate dates. So they are declared as fraud or dates of Vikramāditya period are calculated in terms of calendar starting more than 100 years after death of authors. (11) No good king can be Hindu-they can be Buddhist or Jain who are considered nonHindu. No inscription of Ashok including one at Dhauli indicates that he had become Bauddha to shun violence. Bauddha text Divyāvadān tells only that on victory over Kalinga,
he killed 12,000 Jain monks. Kharavel did Rājasūya-yajña in 11th year of his rule, he is made a Jain. He repaired Prachi canal of Nanda period after 803 years. The biggest engineering feet is ignored by changing figure to 103 years and making it revolt against Nanda. (12) Only research by Govt scholars on Vedas is that all Ṛṣis ate beef and nothing else. 2. Literature about Vikramāditya-(1) 15 chapters in Bhaviṣya purāṇa. (2) Kathā-sarit-sāgara, Bṛhat-kathā, Vetāla-pañchavimśati, Simhāsana-battisi. (3) Sāhasānka charita in 3 vols (3) All genealogies of Paramāra kings which survive after burning by British. (4) Literatures by Nava-ratnas of Vikramāditya. This system was copied by Akbar. (5) Description of Vikramāditya by Al-Biruni, Abul Fazal and by all Persian historians of India & Persia like Ferishta, Badauni. They were invaders but not forgeres of history like Oxford scholars whose Boden chair was set up for this purpose only. Records of half Vikramāditya-(1) Devī-Chandragupta-major fragments destroyed to deny his fight with Seleucus-making Alexander attack in Gupta period.. (3) Prabhāvatī Devī (Vakataka queen) inscription names her family from Ghaṭokacha Gupta to Samudragupta only. Ghaṭotkacha has been translated as barber by Megasthenes. (3) Allahabad pillar inscription is by Samudragupta-about Greek attacks, not Hunas. (4) Iron pillar at Mehrauli mentions ‘Chandra’ only. Even if it is assumed Chandragupta, it could be one of the famous 3-one in Maurya and 2 in Gupta period. But none had capital at Delhi. Kutub-minar has been indicated by Megasthene as Pillar of Hercules. Ibn-Batuta indicated it 1500 years before him (in 13th century). Sir Saiyad Ahmed in his book Kutub Minar (1911) also indicated it a Hindu monument of that period. It has nothing to do with Hindu religion or any Chandragupta, it indicated northern-most position of moon on earth surface. Central axis of Kutub Minar was perpendicular to Karka-rekhā (Tropic of Cancer) then. Its semi-vertical angle was difference between true & mean latitude of Delhi. This calculation of spheroidal shape of earth was not done till 1850. 3. Calendars of India-(1) Sṛṣṭi Samvat-Creation cycle is called a Kalpa or 1 day of Brahmā of 432 crore years. Out of that period 198 crore years have passed,, Since then, planets are moving in current orbit around sun. There are bigger periods like life of Brahm ā of 72000 such day-nights (his 100 years). His life is 1 day of Viṣṇu, Viṣṇu’s life is 1 day of Śiva. Largest period is Parā-śakti when elementary particles decay (called Proton decay now). Currently, 50 years of Brahmā have passed, in next year day (kalpa) 1 is running. Albiruni has quoted Viṣṇu-dharmottara purāṇa to indicate that his 8 years, 5 months, 4 days, 6 manvantaras, 7 samdhi, 27 caturyugas, and 3 yugas of the twenty-eighth caturyuga, and 10 divya-years had passed till Aśvamedha yajña of Vajra.
(2) Svāyambhuva Manu-29102 BC-26000 years before start of Kali (3102 BC). He was first Brahmā or Adam of Bible. This period has been called a Manvantara in Brahmāṇḍa purāṇaब्रह्माण्ड पुराण (१/२/९)-स्ाां तनुां स तदा ब्रह्मा समपोहत भास्राम्। ििधा कृ त््ा स्कां देहमर्द्धेन पुरुषोऽभ्त्॥३२॥ स ्ै स्ायम्भु्ाः पू्वम् पुरुषो मनुरुच्यते॥३६॥ तसयैक सप्तित युगां मन््न्तरिमहोच्यते॥३७॥ = Then Brahmā split his body into 2 and the half male part was Svāyambhva Manu, the first man. His 71 yugas are called 1 manvantara. ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण (१/२/२९)-षड्व्शित सहस्रािण ्षाविण मानुषािण तु। ्षावणाां युगां ज्ञेयां ददव्यो ह्येष ि्िधाः समृताः॥१९॥ = By Divya yugas (360 years, 71 of them) 26,000 Mānuṣa (human) years are yuga. (3) Kaśyapa (17500 BC)-another Brahmā, Fan of China, first Buddha. (4) Kārttikeya (15800 BC)-Year started from sun in Dhaniṣṭhā after north pole had moved away from Abhijit (Mahābhārata, Vana parva 230/8-10) (5) Vaivasvata Manu-13902 BC-start of year from spring equinox-Chaitra month. Glacial floods 10000-9500 BC. Yuga cycle started with satya yuga of 4800 years. (6) Ṛṣabhadeva-9500 BC (appr.). Revision of Sūrya siddhānta in 9233 BC by Maya Asura 900 west from Ujjain (alpa =131 years before end of Satya-yuga). (7) Ikṣvāku-1-11-8576 BC (Chaitra śukla pratipadā)-Dr. Mahālingam. (8) King Bāhu killed by Dionysus in 6777 BC. Paraśurāma (Kalamba = Kollam)-6177 BC (9) Yudhiṣṭhira śaka 17-12-3139 BC, Bhīṣma expired 5 days after that on start of Uttarāyaṇa on 22 December on Māgha śukla aṣṭamī. Kali era started on 17-2-3102 BC, Wednesday, Ujjain midnight on death of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Civil month from Chaitra śukla 1 started on 20 after 2 days 2-27-30 hms. It was Vijaya samvatsara by Sūrya siddhānta and Pramāthī by Pitāmaha siddhānta followed in south India. Jayābhyudaya śaka after 6 month 11 days (188 days on 24-8-3102 BC when Jaya samvatsara started (north system) and Pāṇḍavas went for abhyudaya. On death of Yudhiṣṭhira in kali year 25 (3076 BC), Laukika era started in Kashmir-when Saptarṣis left Maghā star. Refs in mahābhārata, Bhāgavata, all texts on astronomy, all Pañchāngas. Jayābhyudaya-Śaka has been used in inscriptions of Janamejaya about his Dāna-paṭṭas of 27-11-3014 BC on occasion of solar eclipse (Pauṣa amāvāsyā) after large murders in Sarpa-yajña. His words of proclamation were used by all Pāṇḍu vamśī kings of Orissa ruling after end of their rule in Hastinapur/ Kosambi. One of their branch was Mauryas of Murā-śāsana, later ruling as Mauryas. कलैगत व ैसावयक नेत्र (२५) ्षषाः युिधििराद्याििदद्ां प्रयातााः । = Yudhiṣṭhira etc ascended to heaven in kali year 25. This verse of Rājatarangiṇī, chapter 1 was removed from the book and claimed his own by George Buhler. (10) Jaina Yudhiṣṭira śaka from 2634 BC (sanyāsa or death of Pārśvanātha)-Used in Jinavijaya-mahākāvya..
(11) Nanda śaka-1634 BC (All puāṇas, Kharavela inscription of Prachi) या्त् परीिितो जन्म या्त् नन्दािभषेचनम् । ता्त् ्षव सहस्रां च ज्ञेयां पञ्चशतोत्तरम् ॥ (ि्ष्णु पुराण, ४/२४/१०४) = Between birth of Parīkṣita and coronation of Nanda, 1500 years passed. (12) Śūdraka śaka-756 BC (Jyotiṣa-darpaṇa of Yallaya, Bhaviṣya purāṇa, genealogy of Paramar, Chauhan kings) (14) Chāhamāna or Śākambharī śaka- 612 BC-destruction of Assyrian capital Nineve by Chāhamāna of Medes (Madhyadeśa) east of Sindhu. (BibleWiki-Media, Jewish Encyclopedia-Nineve, Bṛhat samhitā 13/3, Chaṇḍī pāṭha 11/38) ्राहिमिहर-बृहत् सांिहता (१३/३)ाअसन् मघासु मुनयाः शासित पृथ््ीं युिधििरे नृपतौ। षड् -ििक-पञ्च-िि (२५२६) युताः शककालसतसय राज्ञसय॥ (15) Vīra nirvāṇa-527 BC from death of Kālakāchārya (599-527 BC), guru of Kumārila Bhaṭṭa as per Jinavijaya mahākāvya. (16) Śrīharṣa śaka-456 BC-end of 300 year democracy starting with Śūdraka of Mālavā. Indicated by all Persian/Indian writers-Albiruni, Ferishta, AbulFazl etc. His epic NaiṣadhaCharita is in syllabus of most Universities. (17) Vikrama samvat by Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain-57 BC. From Chaitra at Paśupatinātha (Nepal) and from Kārttika at Somanātha (Gujrat). (18) Śālivāhana śaka-78 AD. (19) Kalachuri or Chedi śaka-248 AD (20) Valabhī (bhanga) śaka-319 AD-end of later Guptas in Gujrat-All the calendars from Harṣa to Valabhī have been described by Albiruni in his book India (2 vols) (21) Chālukya Vikrama-1075 AD from Kārttika. 4. Forgeries by historians-Even the obvious errors in British pattern history openly claimed as forged is believed only truth by slave Indians who maintain their hold till today. It started with manipulations by Herodotus who had studied for 3 years in India and Alexander who burnt libraries of Alexandria, Persipolice, Takṣa-śilā-so that all knowledge can be shown of western origin. . Greece was not a 'Civilized' society where any outsider could go for study. Outsider could go only as a slave who were majority of the population there. In addition to India Hipparchus, Euclid and Ptolemy had gone to Alexandria for study which is well recorded in their books. No Indian, Ezyptian or Sumerian has written that they had gone to Greece. Father of Greek science Pythagorus had studied in India as claimed by Appoloniushttp://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/aot/aot/aot04.htm Apollonius of Tyana, by G.R.S. Mead, , at sacred-texts.com SECTION III INDIA AND GREECE
There is, however, another reason why Apollonius is of importance to us. He was an enthusiastic admirer of the wisdom of India. Here again a subject of wide interest opens up. What influences, if any, had Brahmanism and Buddhism on Western thought in these early years? It is strongly asserted by some that they had great influence; It is plainly asserted by the ancient Greeks that Pythagoras went to India, but as the statement is made by Neo-Pythagorean and Neo-Platonic writers subsequent to the time of Apollonius, it is objected that the travels of the Tyanean suggested not only this item in the biography of the great Samian but several others, or even that Apollonius himself in his Life One of the comments of Berosus can be seen onhttp://www.angelfire.com/nt/Gilgamesh/classic.htmlBerosus derided the "Greek historians" who had so distorted the history of his country. He knew, for example, that it was not Semiramis who founded the city of Babylon, but he was himself the prisoner of his own environment and cannot have known more about the history of his land than was known in Babylonia itself in the 4th century BC. Al-Biruni-Chronology of Ancient Nations, page 44However, enemies are always eager to revile the patronage of people, to detract from their reputation, and to attack their deeds and merits, in same way as friends and partisans are eager to embellish that which is ugly, to cover up the weak parts, to proclaim publicly that which is noble, and to refer everything to great virtues, as the poet describes them in these words-“The eye of benevolence is blind to every fault, But the eyes of hatred discovers every vice” William Jones as Judge supervised brutal torture and killing of 10 million Indians in 1770 (called Bengal famine) for revenue collection was also the pioneer in distortion and fabrication of Indian History. Tortures and murders have been classified by Bankim Chandra in his book Ananda-matha and can be seen in British reports alsohttp://www.cambridgeforecast.org/MIDDLEEAST/BENGAL.html http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Bengal_famine_of_1770/id/1930405 http://www.worldhistoryblog.com/2006/04/famine-of-1770-in-bengal.html Summary of distortions is quoted fromhttp://www.encyclopediaofauthentichinduism.org/index.html Sir William Jones, 1784 (from Asiatic Researches Vol. 1. Published 1979, pages 234235. First published 1788). “As to the general extension of our pure faith in Hindustan there are at present many sad obstacles to it… We may assure ourselves, that… Hindus will never be converted by any mission from the church of Rome, or from any other church; and the only human mode, perhaps, of causing so great a revolution, will be to translate into Sanscrit… such chapters of
the Prophets, particularly of ISAIAH, as are indisputably evangelical, together with one of the gospels, and a plain prefatory discourse, containing full evidence of the very distant ages. British government continued the policy and added the removal of available literature to Europe and destruction by mis-information and false interpratations. This was symbolized by establishment of Boden chair at Oxford University in 1831 where Col. Boden donated his earnings from loot of India for the purpose of uprooting vedic culture from India for spread of Christianity. This has been stated by Prof. Monier Williams in his Sanskrit Dictionary, preface page ix, 1899 which has been reprinted by Rashtriya Sanskrita Sansthana at subsidized rates for spread in Indian Universities“I must draw attention to the fact that I am only the second occupant of the Boden Chair, and that its founder, Colonel Boden, stated most explicitly in his will (dated August 15, 1811 AD) that the special object of his munificent bequest was to promote the translation of scriptures into Sanskrita, so as to enable his countrymen to proceed in the conversion of the natives of India to the Christian religion.” Max Muller chaired the edition of oriental texts and omitted all Indian sources from which materials were stolen or looted or the Indian Pandits whose help was taken to understand the meaning. As per Oxford criteria of research, this itself makes the work untenable. To further the aim of Boden Chair for uprooting Vedas, he devoted his life, but Indian devotees of Oxford call him Mokṣamūlara-i.e. savoir of Vedas. His own statements oppose the view(1) History seems to teach that the whole human race required a gradual education before, in the fullness of time, it could be admitted to the truths of Christianity (History of Ancient Indian Literature). (2) Large number of Vedic Hymns are childish in the extreme; tedious, low, commonplace (Chips from a German Workshop, 2nd edition, 1966, page 27) (3) Nay, they (the vedas) contain, by the side of simple, natural, childish thoughts, many ideas which to us sound modern, or secondary and tertiary (India, what can it teach us). Life and Letters of Frederick Max Muller was published by Longman Geen & Co., 1902 in 2 vols. Some examples of his letters explain his purpose(1) Letter to his wife in 1866 AD-This edition of mine and the translation of the Veda will hereafter tell to a great extent on the fate of India.... it is the root of their religion and to show what the root is, I feel sure, is the only way of uprooting all that has sprung from it during the last three thousand years. (2) Letter to his son-Would you say that any one book is superior to all others in the world ?... I say the new Testament. After that, I should place the Koran, which in its moral teachings, is hardly more than a later edition of the New Testament. Then would follow ... the Old Testament, the Southern Buddhist Tripiṭaka, ... The Veda and the Avesta.
(3) His letter to Duke of Argyl, Minister of India, on 16-12-1868 in context of grant for Vedic publication-The ancient religion of India is doomed and if Christianity does not step in, whose fault will it be ? (4) Letter to Sri Bairamji Malabari on 29-1-1882-I wanted to tell ... what the true historical values of this ancient religion is, as looked upon, not from an exclusively European or Christian, but from a historic point of view. But discover it in steam engines and electricity and European philosophy and morality, and you deprive it of its true character. S. Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) was the biggest destroyer of Vedic culture for which he was rewarded with the highest post. As soon as he became President, he stopped publication of original texts in BHU and Tirupati and removed the scholars. In particular, he sold away Kauthumi Samhita whose 2 of 4 vols have been published by Harvard University now. Prof B.R Sharma was removed from his post as he had refused to sell the manuscript in Rs 1 crore offered to him. In BHU also, he removed key scholars. But fortunately, Justice M Hidayatulla was Chief Justice who struck down 3 ordnances for removing scholars commenting them as uncivilized and illiterate-They (traditional scholars) should be removed as soon as they fall sick or die for good (of Radhakrishnan). Supreme Court Cases 1961 AIR 1059 1961 SCR (3) 380 10/01/1961 HIDAYATULLAH, M. KAPUR, J.L. SHAH, J.C. Some quotes for destroying vedic culture are quoted from his books- Indian Philosophy Vol. I, first print 1923, reprint 1996. Indian Philosophy Vol. II, first print 1927, reprint 1996. The Bhagavadgita first print 1948, reprint 1994. The Principal Upanisads first print 1953, reprint 1995. About Bhagavat Gita, he was not aware that it is part of Mahabharata, and declared that Veda-vyasa as non existent. Instead of birthday of Vyasa as Guru-Purnima, birthday of Radhakrishnan is now observed as teacher’s day. (About the early Hindus of Vedic religion)-“Man’s never-ceasing effort to raise himself above the level of the beast to a moral and spiritual height finds a striking illustration in India.” (Indian Philosophy Vol. II, p. 766) (About the Rigved)-“The process of god-making in the factory of man’s mind cannot be seen so clearly anywhere else as in the Rg-Veda.” (Indian Philosophy, Vol. I, p. 73) (About the Atharvaved) “The religion of the Atharva-Veda is that of the primitive man, to whom the world is full of shapeless ghosts and spirits of death.” “The world becomes crowded with goblins and gods, and the catastrophes of the world are traced to dissatisfied spirits… The terrific powers could only be appeased by bloody sacrifices, human and animal… The religion of the Atharva-Veda is an amalgam of Aryan and non-Aryan ideals.” (Vol. I, pp. 119, 120) (About the Upnishads)-“The Upanisads contain the earliest records of Indian speculation… they contain much that is inconsistent and unscientific.” (Vol I, p. 138)
(About the Puranas)-“The Puranas are the religious poetry of the period of the schools, representing through myth and story, symbol and parable, the traditional view of God and man… They were composed with the purpose of undermining, if possible, the heretical doctrines of the times.” (Vol. II, p. 663) (About the Yog Darshan of Patanjali)-“The popular cult of magic is mixed up with the religious scheme of salvation in the Yoga.” … “Sometimes psychic powers are also attained by the use of drugs and anaesthetics. Narcotic intoxication and ecstatic state are confused by the popular mind. The use of drugs is not recommended in Patanjali’s Yoga, though it is mentioned as one of the ways of obtaining perfections. Thus the habit of drug intoxication prevalent in primitive tribes was …” 5. Distortions in Calendars-Before independence, all pañchāngas mentioned Vikramasamvat and Śālivāhana-Śaka, never Vikrama-Śaka or Śālivāhana-samvat. Difference between Śaka and Samvat was clear known. But now, a term is used Rāṣṭrīya-Śaka or Śaka-samvat, which have no meaning. So called Rāṣṭrīya-Śaka is not used by govt or public in this Rāṣṭra nor it is a Śaka used for calculating planetary positions and its epoch is also not known. Śaka is mathematical calendar based on solar months in which it is easier to calculate number of days since epoch. After fixing solar months, we decide about extra lunar months which are basis of our festivals. Society moves as per this, so it is called Samvatsara. Anniversary is called Samavasaraṇa in Jainism- a derivative of this word. Since all our pañchāngas start their calculation from start of Kali era, there is massive attempt to change that epoch since Baily (astronomer) and Brennand in 1865 (Harvard commentary on Sūrya-siddhānta). Calendar software of NASA has become a handy tool in hands of semi-literates. This software is not accurate for periods before 700 BC. For ancient periods, 10 models of corrections have been proposed, but still they reduce the error or 3000 BC from 68 hours to 26 hours, which is not accurate to specify the date. All the corrections do not take into account 2 fluctuations-temporary increase in radio-activity and increase in sea level after Mahābhārata war. That puts load n equator and slows down axial rotation, which is unit of our calculations. There is corresponding change in moon orbit which is not calculated. Eclipses recur in 18 days 10.5 days and are symmetric in half period of 3339 tithis indicated in Ṛgveda त्रीिण शतािन त्रीिण सहस्राण्यड्िं ड्त्रशच्च दे्ा न् चा सपयवन् । (ऋक् , १०/५२/६). Thus, it cannot be used to find very old dates, but it can confirm date determined otherwise. Thus NASA software recommends that its formula for ancient periods should be corrected from historical dates. But Indian slaves attempt to change the dates only. Difference in time due to slowing down of earth rotation by tidal friction is called ΔT (Delta T) and can be calculated with alternate correction models at website given belowhttp://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/deltat/deltat.htm
Other references can be seen onhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%94T http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_acceleration Astronomers of Vikramāditya period have used Chahman era of 612 BC-probably because it was by one of the Agni-vamśī kings of Delhi who had trounced Nineve-Assyrian capital in that year. However, this era is ignored or shifted to 550 BC in name of Cyrus of Persia. Cyrus and Darius were great kings, but their victories were only in west up to Arab and Syria, not in any part of India. Cyrus did not start his rule in this period. There was no system of a continuous calendar-years were counted from reign of each king, similar to Anka system of Orissa, So-called calendar of Cyrus was never started nor followed even in Persia. No Śaka king had ever started any calendar in his own country or in India. All chronologies of west & central Asia are discussed in detail by Al-Biruni-Chronology of Ancient Nations. Some persons have made double shift. One group has assumed it to be calendar of Śrīharṣa (456 BC). Complementary manipulation is by others who have changed Śrīharṣa to Harṣavardhana (605-646 AD), creating error of about 1200 years. This is after reading separate books of both in syllabus. Varāhamihira time has been accurately given at many places, but instead of epoch of 612 BC, it has been calculated in Śālivāhana-Śaka which started 90 years after his death. Similar error is about Brahmagupta. He was famous as son of Jiṣṇugupta, who himself was son of Amśuvarman, king of Nepal in (103-33 BC). In his kingdom, Vikramāditya stated his samvat in 57 BC at Paśupatinātha as recorded in Nepal history. ब्राह्मसफु टिसर्द्धान्त, मध्यमािधकार (१/२)ब्रह्मोक्तां ग्रहगिणतम् महताकालेन यत् ििलीभूतम्। ाऄिभधीयते सफु टां तििष्णुसुत ब्रह्मगुप्तेन॥ = The mathematics of planets told by Brahmā developed errors after long time. The same is explained by Brahmagupta, son of Jiṣṇugupta. Vaṭeśvara-siddhānta has a full chapter on examining (defects of) Brāhma-sphuṭa-siddhānta, where Brahmagupta has always been referred as son of Jiṣṇugupta, rather than his proper name. Some examples are given below्टेश्वर िसर्द्धान्त-ब्राह्म-सफु टिसर्द्धान्त परीिणाध्याय ददव्यशािमपहाय यदन्यत् प्राह िजष्णुतनयो िनज बुद्धध्या। तसय शािमिधकृ त्य ततोऽहां दूषणािन कितिचत् कथयािम ॥१॥ िजष्णुपुत्र किथतैयग ुव ािरििभाः िेचरो निह यताः स्पयवयम्। भुञ्जते सममतो युगारियाः श्रीमदायवभटकीर्तततासफु टााः॥२॥ पुिलशरोमकसूयविपतामहप्रकिथतैमवनुकल्पयुगािरििभाः। न िह समााः िलु िजष्णुसुतेररतााः कथमपीह यतो न तताः सफु टाः॥५॥ िजष्णु सुतोक्तां ब्रह्मोक्तसम्मतिमत्यसय िण्डनम्न ब्रह्मोक्तत्या घटते िजष्णुसुतोक्तां युगादद दकिञ्चदिप।यसमान्मृषै् तसमाद्धब्रह्मोक्तिमित यच्चकार तत् सांज्ञम्॥१३॥ युगपादान् िजष्णुसुतिीन् यातानाह किलयुगादौ यत्। तसय िापरादो युगगतयेये सफु टे जाताः॥१४॥ लरकासमयाम्योत्तररे िायाां भासकरोदये मध्यााः। िजष्णुसुतन े ोक्तां यन तत्सफु टां ि्षु्तोऽन्यत्र॥१५॥ न समा युगमनुकल्पााः कल्पाददगतां कृ ताददयातां च। ब्राह्मोक्तै र्तजष्णुसुतो नातो जानाित मध्यगितम्॥१९॥
भूपररिधिण्ड्गो देशान्तरयोजनैाः कृ तसतेन। तदती् गिणतजाड्यां प्रदर्तशतां िजष्णुतनयेन॥२५॥ नातोऽिसत ज्या िनयमाः शरसौक्ष्मम्यात्तिि्तवनां युक्तम्। सप्तक (७) शरे िन्ृित्तर्तजष्णुसुतसयै् युक्ततमा॥३१॥ प्राक् ििितजेऽपम्लयोदयमानां प्राङ् िनरूिपतां दृष्टम्। िजष्णुसुतन े ान्यत्र तु नातो जानाित तद् भ्रमणम्॥३६॥ ्ासत््ेधादन्यििष्णोसतनयसय भाि्नी भाऽिप। दूरभ्रष्टाऽरगुलकै रतोऽसफु टासतसय स्ेऽिप॥३७॥ नो ्ा गोलां नो लम्बनकां सांसथानां नो तथा िेत्रम्। नािप रि्ग्रहहृदयां िजष्णुसुतो गिणतगोलबाह्योऽयम्॥४०॥ ाईदयासतमयभानोररष्टे काले ग्रहसय दृक्कमव। कृ त्ान् िजष्णुसुतो यसत््ौदियके सुगिणतजाड्यां तत्॥४३॥ भानुभुजाि्िनयोगाच्चन्रे शुक्तलां प्रदर्तशतां तेन। नो लिंभुजानुगां ्ेित्त नु शुक्तलां सुतो िजष्णोाः॥४४॥ िजष्णुसुतदूषणानाां सांखयाां ्क्तुां न शक्तयते यसमात्। तसमादयमुद्देशो बुिर्द्धमताऽन्यािन योज्यािन॥४५॥ एकमिप न ्ेित्त िजष्णुसुतो गिणत गोलानाम्। न मया प्रोक्तािन तताः पृथक् पृथग् दूषणान्येषाम्॥४६॥ His time is indicated at end of his bookब्राह्मसफु टिसर्द्धान्त (२४/७-८) श्रीचाप्ांशितलके श्रीव्यािमुिे नृपे शकनृपाणाम्। पञ्चाशत् सांयक्त ु ै ्वषवशतैाः पञ्चिभरतीतैाः॥ ब्राह्माः सफु टिसर्द्धान्ताः सिनगिणतज्ञगोलि्त् प्रीत्यै। ड्त्रशिषेन कृ तो िजष्णुसुतब्रह्मगुप्तन े ॥ = Pride of Śrī-Chāpa (Śrī-Mālava) vamśa was head of Vyāghrapada gotra who started a Śaka (calender). In year 550 of that Śaka, Brahmagupta, son of Jiṣṇugupta wrote Brāhmasphuṭa-siddhānta at age of 30 for pleasure of scholars of Gaṇita (math) and Gola (spherical trigonometry). Here, year of a king of Chāpa-vamśa is followed who had started a śaka. Gotra of Bhīṣma and Pāṇḍavas was Vyāghrapada of Vasiṣṭha line and a seer of Ṛgveda. Main king in their line whose year was being followed is called Vyāghramukha (i.e head of that line). That was one of the 4 Agni-vamśas joining hand under king Śūdraka at Mount Abu in 756 BC (Śūdraka-śaka). They were Chapahāni, Pratihāra, Paramāra, Chālukya (Solanki, Sālunkhe). In Chapahāni clan, famous king Chāhamāna routed Assyria and its capital Nineve in 612 BC-which was marked by start of a śaka. Thereafter, it was famous as Chauhāna-the last king being Prithviraj Chauhan who was last independent king of Delhi. They were experts in archery or they were protectors of west border of India in shape of Chāpa (bow) called Mālvā-like a garland (mālā). So, they were called Chapahāni. भि्ष्य पुराण, प्रितसगव प्व (१/६)एतिसमिे्काले तु कान्यकु ब्जो ििजोत्तमाः। ाऄबुवदां िशिरां प्राप्य ब्रह्महोममथाकरोत्॥४५॥ ्ेदमन्त्रप्रभा्ाच्च जाताश्चत््ारर िित्रयााः। प्रमरससाम्ेदी च चपहािनयवजुर्त्दाः॥४६॥ ित्र्ेदी च तथा शुक्तलोऽथ्ाव स पररहारकाः॥४७॥ ाऄ्न्ते प्रमरो भूपश्चतुयोजन ि्सतृता।।४९॥ = At this time, the Kānyakubja Brāhmaṇa (Viṣṇu incarnation Buddha born as son of Ajina brāhmaṇa of Magadha) went to Arbuda top (mount Abu) and did Brahma-homa. By effect of Veda-mantras, 4 Kṣatriyas were born-Pramara (Paramāra) of Sāmaveda, Chapahāni (Chāhamāna = Chauhān) of Yajurveda, Śukla (Chālukya = Solanki, Sālunkhe) of three vedas, and Parihāraka of Atharva. Pramara became king of Avanti spread in 4 yojanas. प्रितसगव (१/७)-िचत्रकू टिगररदेशे पररहारो महीपिताः। काड्लजर पुरां रम्यमक्रोशायतनां समृतम्॥१॥ राजपुत्राखयदेशे च चपहािनमवहीपिताः॥२॥ ाऄजमेरपुरां रम्यां ि्िधशोभा समिन््तम्॥३॥ शुक्तलो नाम महीपालो गत ाअनतवमण्डले। िारकाां नाम नगरीमध्यासय सुििनोऽभ्त्॥४॥
= Parihāra was king at beautiful town of Kālinjar in 1 Krośa (3 kms) in hills of Chitrakūṭa, Chapahāni was king of pleasant city Ajmer in country famous as Rājaputra (Rajsthan), Śukla happily ruled in Dwārakā in Ānarta. Jiṣṇugupta at time of Vikramāditya is given by Varāhamihira and Kālidāsa्राहिमिहर- बृहिातक सप्तमोऽध्यायाः- ाअयुदावय ि्ष्णु (िजष्णु) गुप्तोऽिप चै्ां दे् स्ामी िसर्द्धसेनश्च चक्रे | दोषश्चैषाां जायते ाऄष्टा्ररष्टां िहत््ा नायुर्व्शतेाः सयाद् ाऄधसतात् || ७|| = Bṛhat-jātaka of Varāhamihira, chapter 7 on longevity-Viṣṇu (Jiṣṇu)-gupta, Devasvāmī and Siddhasena also have explained infant death at age of 8. If these defects are removed, the person may live up to 20 years. कािलदास-ज्योितर्त्दाभरण-ाऄध्याय२२-ग्रन्थाध्यायिनरूपणम्श्लोकै श्चतुदश व शतै सिजनैमवयै् ज्योितर्त्दाभरणकाव्यि्धा नमेतत् ॥ﾠ२२.६ﾠ॥ = Chapter 22 of Jyotirvidābharaṇa of Kālidāsa-Description of chapters in book-by 1424 verses this Jyotirvidābharaṇa has been written by me. ि्क्रमाकव ्णवनम्-्षे श्रुितसमृिति्चारि््ेकरम्ये श्रीभारते िधृितसिम्मतदेशपीठे । मत्तोऽधुना कृ ितररयां सित माल्ेन्रे श्रीि्क्रमाकव नृपराज्रे समासीत् ॥ﾠ२२.७ﾠ॥ = Description of Vikramārka-This work by me is under patronage of great emperor ŚrīVikramārka of Mālavā who is ruling over 180 provinces of Śrī-Bhārata varṣa which is most habitable due to knowledge & conduct based on Śruti (Veda) & Smṛti (Dharma-śāstra). नृपसभायाां पिण्डत्गाव-शङ् कु सु्ाग््ररुिचमविणरङ् गुदत्तो िजष्णुििलोचनहरो घटिपवराखय। ाऄन्येऽिप सिन्त क्योऽमरड्सहपू्ाव यसयै् ि्क्रमनृपसय सभासदोऽमी ॥ﾠ२२.८ﾠ॥ सत्यो ्राहिमिहर श्रुतसेननामा श्रीबादरायणमिणत्थकु मारड्सहा। श्रीि्क्रमाकं नृपसांसदद सिन्त चैते श्रीकालतन्त्रक्यसत््परे मदाद्या ॥ﾠ२२.९ﾠ॥ = Scholars in assembly of king-Śanku, Vararuchi, Maṇi(ttha), Angudatta, Jiṣṇu(gupta), Trilochana, Hara, Ghaṭakharpara and many other poets like Amarasimha are in assembly of king Vikrama where I too live. In addition to myself as author of Kālatantra (Kālāmṛta in 2 parts by Kālidāsa), scholars in assembly of king Vikramārka are-Satya (āchārya), Varāhamihira, Śrutasena, Śrī Bādarāyaṇa (other than Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa of 3200 BCauthor of Vedas, Mahābhārata, Bhāgavata purāṇa, Brahma-sūtra and commentary on Yogasūta), Maṇittha, Kumāra-simha. न्रत्नािन-धन््न्तरर िपणकामरड्सहशङ् कु ्ेतालभट् टघटिपवरकािलदासा। खयातो ्राहिमिहरो नृपते सभायाां रत्नािन ्ै ्ररुिचनव् ि्क्रमसय ॥ﾠ२२.१०ﾠ॥ = 9 jewels-9 jewels in assembly of king Vikrama are-Dhanvantari, Kṣapaṇaka, Amarasimha, Śanku, Vetāla-Bhaṭṭa, Ghaṭa-kharpara, Kālidāsa, famous Varāhamihira, Vararuchi. As Vikrama samvat was started in period of Amśuvarman (101-33 BC), his earlier inscriptions are assumed in Śrīharṣa-śaka (456 BC) which is wrongly related to
Harṣavardhana of Thaneswar (605-646 AD) who had never started any era as per his own writings or as per his biographer Bāṇabhaṭṭa or Chinese traveller Huensang. Later inscriptions are in Vikrama-samvat. http://indepigr.narod.ru/licchavi/content81.htm (1) No. 69-Samvat 535-Śrāvaṇa śukla 7 (if it is in Śrīharṣa-śaka of 456 BC, year will be 79 AD-long after his rule. Thus, reference is Chāpa śaka of 612 BC giving date of 77 BC-after start of Amśuvarman rule and before Vikrama-samvat.) (2) No. 76-Samvat 29-Jyeṣṭha śukla 10. (Vikrama samvat now onwards) (3) No. 77-Samvat 30- Jyeṣṭha śukla 6. (4) No. 78-Samvat 31-Prathama (month name missing-Pauṣa as per next inscription) pañchamī-that year had adhika month. (5) No. 79-Samvat 31-Dvitīya Pauṣa śukla aṣṭamī. (6) No. 80-Samvat 31, Māgha śukla 13. (7) No. 81-Samvat 32, Āṣāḍha śukla 13. (8) No. 83-Samvat 34-Prathama Pauṣa śukla 2-year of extra month. (9) No. 84-Samvat 36- Āṣāḍha śukla 12. (10) No. 85-Samvat 37-Phālguna śukla 5. (11) No. 86-Samvat 39-Vaiśākha śukla 10. (12) No. 87-Samvat 43-Vyatīpāta- Jyeṣṭha kṛṣṇa (date missing). (13) No. 89-Samvat 45- Jyeṣṭha śukla (date missing) Jiṣṇugupta has 2 inscriptions in which dates are missing. His coins have been found. One is shown on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licchavi_(kingdom). Varāhamihira has given his date of birth as 8-3-95 BC (śaka, 3042, Chaitra śukla 8) in Kutūhala-mañjarī्राहिमिहर-कु तूहल मञ्जरी-स्िसत श्रीनृप सूयवसूनुज-शके याते िि-्ेदा-म्बर-त्रै (३०४२) मानाब्दिमते त््नेहिस जये ्षे ्सन्ताददके । चैत्रे श्वेतदले शुभे ्सुितथा्ाददत्यदासादभूद ् ्ेदारगे िनपुणो ्राहिमिहरो ि्प्रो र्ेराशीर्तभाः॥ = In the running year 3042 of son of Sun’s son (Dharma)= Yudhiṣṭhira śaka, in Jaya samvatsara starting with Vasanta (spring) in Chaitra bright half 8 date, Varāhamihira was born of Ādityadāsa by grace of Brāhmaṇas & sun. ्राहिमिहर-बृहत् सांिहता (१३/३)ाअसन् मघासु मुनयाः शासित पृथ््ीं युिधििरे नृपतौ। षड् -ििक-पञ्च-िि (२५२६) युताः शककालसतसय राज्ञसय॥ = When Yudhiṣṭhira ruled the earth, Saptarṣis were in Maghā star. To get śaka years of that king, add 2526 to the present śaka. He has indicated his birth in Kapitthaka and later life at Avantikā, then under Vikramāditya्राहिमिहर-बृहिातक, ाऄध्याय २८-ाईपसांहाराअददत्यदास तनयसतद्ाप्त बोधाः कािपत्थके सि्तृलब्ध्रप्रसादाः। ाअ्िन्तको मुिनमतान्लोक्तय सम्यग् घोराां ्राहिमिहरो रुिचराां चकार॥९॥
He has indicated start of north motion of sun from Makara sign in Bṛhat-samhitā and equivalent yoga calculation in Pañcha-siddhāntikā ्राहिमिहर-बृहत् सांिहता (३/१-२)-ाअश्लेषार्द्धावद्दििणमुत्तरमयनां र्ेधविनिाद्यम्। नूनां कदािचदासीद्येनोक्तां पू्वशािेषु॥१॥ साम्प्रतमयनां सि्तुाः ककव टकाद्यां मृगाददतश्चान्यत्। ाईक्ताभा्ो ि्कृ िताः प्रत्यिपरीिणैव्यविक्ताः॥२॥ = Earlier books stated south motion of sun from middle of Āśleṣā (113020’) and north motion from start of Dhaniṣṭhā. Now, it is from start of Karka (900) and Makara (2700) signs, which can be easily verified by observation. पञ्चिसर्द्धािन्तका, ाऄध्याय ३ (पौिलश िसर्द्धान्त)ाऄके न्दुयोगचक्रे ्ैधृतमुक्तां दशिव सिहते (तु) । यदद च(क्रां) व्यितपातो ्ेला मृग्या (युतैाः भोगैाः॥२०॥ ाअश्लेषाधावदासीद्यदा िन्ृित्ताः दकलोष्णदकरणसय। युक्तमयनां तदाऽऽसीत् साम्प्रतमयनां पुन्वसुताः॥२१॥ When sum of sun and moon sign/degrees is 3600, then it is Vaidhṛti yoga-when declination of sun and moon are same but in opposite directions (north-south). Adding 10 nakṣatras (133020’), it is Vyatīpāta yoga, when sun-moon have same declination, but on opposite ends of ecliptic. That is possible only when south motion of sun started from middle of Āśleṣā (113020’) which now starts from Punarvasu (Karka sign starts with its fourth quarter, 900). In his book Pañcha-siddhāntikā, he has taken reference year as 427 śaka (185 BC)पञ्चिसर्द्धािन्तका, ाऄध्याय १-सप्तािश्व्ेद (४२७) सांखयां शककालमपासय चैत्रशुक्तलादौ। ाऄधावसतिमते भानौ य्नपुरे सौम्य दद्साद्याः॥८॥ = On Śaka 427, Chaitra śukla 1 start when sun was half set at Yavanapur, it was day of Saumya (mercury, sun of Soma = moon). Thebaut has changed Saumya to Soma (Monday). S.B. Dixit made it Bhauma = Tuesday, so that it tallies with counting from Śālivāhana-śaka starting after death of Varāhamihira in 78 AD. Yavanapura is assumed to be Romakapattana of Sūrya-siddhānta, 900 west from Ujjain. Actually, Varāhamihira has indicated it to be 7/20 Ghaṭī west (440 longitude) of Ujjain (75043’E) and 9 Ghaṭī west of Vārāṇasī (830 E) in Pañcha-siddhāntikā (3/13). So, it should be near Alexandria (300E), 1043’E from it. पञ्च िसर्द्धािन्तका (३/१३)-पौिलश िसर्द्धान्तय्नान्तरजा नाड्याः सप्ताऽ्न्त्याां ित्रभाग सांयुक्तााः। ्ाराणसयाां ित्रकृ िताः साधनमत्र ्क्ष्मयािम॥१३॥ Sun is set from evening to sunrise, its middle point is midnight. When it is midnight there, it will be sunrise in Ujjain. This Śaka started in year 2526 of Yudhiṣṭhira Śaka. ्राहिमिहर-बृहत् सांिहता (१३/३)ाअसन् मघासु मुनयाः शासित पृथ््ीं युिधििरे नृपतौ। षड् -ििक-पञ्च-िि (२५२६) युताः शककालसतसय राज्ञसय॥ = Saptarṣis (muni) were in Maghā when Yudhiṣṭhira was ruling the world. To get Śaka of that king (Yudhiṣṭhira), add 2526 (to current Śaka). Calculation is being given for Śaka of 612 BC and other assumed Śaka as per JagannathHora software of Narasimha Rao-
(1) 612 BC-Epoch 18-2-185 BC- Chaitra śukla 1 started on 18 at 10-10-24 hrs. But sunrise at Ujjain was at 7-6-39 hrs. So date was 17-2-185 BC, Wednesday. (2) 550 BC of Darius -Epoch 5-3-124 BC- Chaitra śukla 1 from 6-44-24. Sunrise at 6-53-44 on 4 March, Thursday. (3) Vikrama Samvat of 57 BC-This is samvat, not a Śaka, still calculation is done for that as the different is not understood. Chaitra śukla 1 of 427 year on 4-3-371 AD at 2-13-54. Sunrise on 3 March Thursday at 6-51-51. (4) Śālivāhana Śaka of 78 AD-(a) 427 current (gamya) year- Chaitra śukla 1 on 20-2-505, at 8-8-08 hrs. Sunday. As sunrise was at 7-0-22 hrs, Pratipadā will be counted on next daymonday. (b) 427 lapsed (gata)- Chaitra śukla 1 on 11-3-506 at 3-14-54. Friday on 12, sunrise at 6-4349 on 10th. Thus, the Śaka of Varāhamihira does not fit with any other year except 612 BC. 6. Books of Vikramāditya period-(1) All purāṇas- Purāṇas were updated under guidance of Vetāla Bhaṭṭa, one of his 9 gems. The places where this was arranged were called Viśālā, like mahāśālā of Śaunaka. There are 3 places known as Viśālā, one is Ujjayinī itself, capital of Vikramāditya (Meghadūta 1/32 of Kālidāsa), Vaiśālī in Bihar (famous as place of Bhagwan Mahavir), and Badarī-viśāla, where Ādi-Śankara had written Brahma-sūtra-bhāṣya in 494 BC. There could be a fourth in south India also. भि्ष्य पुराण, प्रितसगव प्व ४, ाऄध्याय १ए्ां िापरसन्ध्याया ाऄन्ते सूतेन ्र्तणतम्। सूयवचन्रान््याखयानां तन्मया किथतम् त्॥१॥ ि्शालायाां पुनगवत््ा ्ैतालेन ि्िनर्तमतम्। कथियष्यित सूतसतिमितहाससमुच्चयम्॥२॥ = Bhaviṣya purāṇa, Pratisarga parva 4, chapter 1-Thus at the end of Dvāpara sandhyā, history of Sūrya and Chandra vamśas was told by Sūta, which has been told to you. Again, in Viśālā town, Vaitāla will be told the complete history by Sūta (another purāṇa teller). तन्मया किथतां स्ं हृषीकोत्तम पुण्यदम्। पुनर्त्क्रमभूपेन भि्ष्यित समाह््याः॥३॥ नैिमषारण्यमासाद्य श्रा्ियष्यित ्ै कथाम्। पुनरुक्तािन यान्ये् पुराणाष्टादशािन ्ै।।४॥ तािन चोपपुराणािन भि्ष्यिन्त कलौ युगे। तेषाां चोपपुराणानाां िादशाध्यायमुत्तमम्॥५॥ = All that has been told by me (Sūta-1). Again in time of king Vikrama, there will be gathering (for this purpose). The stories told at Naimiṣāraṇya will be retold whatever is in 18 purāṇas. There will be 18 upa-purāṇas also in kali yuga. Of them 12 chapters will be Uttama (original). सारभूतश्च किथत ाआितहाससमुच्चयाः। यसते मया च किथतो हृषीकोत्तम ते मुदा॥६॥ तत्कथाां भग्ान् सूतो नैिमषारण्यमािसथताः। ाऄष्टाशीित सहस्रािण श्रा्ियष्यित ्ै मुनीन्॥८॥ = I am telling the essense of same history which was told by Sūta before 88,000 munis at Naimiṣāraṇya. शौनको ह ्ै महाशालोऽिरगरसां ि्िध्दुपसिाः पप्रच्छ ॥३॥-मुण्डक ाईपिनषद् (१/१/२-३) = Śaunaka was mahāśāla (head of highest institute of learning). Āngirasa formally approached him and asked (Muṇḍaka upaniṣad, 1/1/2-3).
(2) Harisvāmī commentary on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa-at end of each chapter, Harisvāmī has called himself as Dharmādhyakṣa under Vikramāditya. (3) Many smṛti texts. (4) Tantra texts by Ghaṭakharpara-no earlier texts are available on tantra. (5) Jaina āgamas by Kṣapaṇaka (= Śramaṇa or Jaina Muni). (6) Suśruta-samhitā by Dhanvantari (3rd), his nava-ratna. (7) Epics of Kālidāsa (second) indicated in Jyotirvidābharaṇa. (8) Astronomy astrology texts of Varāhamihira-Bṛhat-samhitā, Bṛhat-jātaka, Pañchasiddhāntikā, of Brahmagupta-Brāhma-sphuṭa-siddhānta, Khaṇḍa-khādyaka. Many others by Vararuchi (Vākya-karaṇa), Satyacharya, Maṇittha etc. (9) Revenue records by Śanku-revived by Akbar who copied Nava-ratna system also. Śanku is the instrument used for surveying described in Sūrya-siddhānta and other texts on astronomy. (10) Amara-koṣa by Amara Simha, grammer by Vararuchi etc. There are many others. Main feature was that till the time of Vikramāditya, Sanskrit was standard language. From time of his grandson Śālivāhana, literature in local languages started which flourished under Gorakhanātha in 800 AD. (Sarasvatī-kaṇṭhābharaṇa-alankāra of Bhoja, verse 32). 7. Reasons of opposing Vikramāditya-(1) James Ussher (sometimes spelled Usher) (4 January 1581 – 21 March 1656) was Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625–1656. He published a chronology that purported to establish the time and date of the creation as the night preceding 26 October 4004 BC, according to the proleptic Julian calendar. Till today, western historians are not free from this date and twist all findings of archeology, geology to bring them after this date. That is partly due to pressure of Church and partly due to own belief. Actually, 7 days creation in Bible means 7 manvantaras. When sun, moon, earth did not exist, day meant axial rotation of earth. (2) Indian history was to be made of still later period to show it after Ezypt or Sumer civilizations. In addition to all Indian texts, all Greek texts of Homer, Herodotus, Arian, Megasthenese also were denied. Megasthenes had indicated 2 periods-15,500 BC when India captured foreign country, 6777 BC when Dyonisus attacked India, 154 generations of Indian kings before Alexander. (3) To destroy chronology, Maurya period was shifted from 1534 BC to 326 BC to make it in time of attack by Alexander. For that, all kings of Mālava-gaṇa were omitted and all major kings of 4 Agni-vamśīs from Vikramāditya to Prithviraj Chauhan and last Bhoja of Malava were ignored.
(4) Ujjain had been time reference of world since very ancient era, so it is place of Mahākāla. Kings controlling that region only had started important calendars. After studying all kings of that region, Pargiter & Wliiam Jones suddenly denied their existence. Naturally, all major calendars and their kings were denied. (6) For arbitrary manipulation of dates, no calendar can be admitted. After study of all calenders by George Buhler, Sewel and their obedient student Lawrence Dominique (named Swami Kannu Pillai), they denied their existence. Buhler removed one verse of Rājatarangiṇī to remove evidence of Laukika era used in whole book. On this pattern, Sudhakara Dwiwedi under guidance of Geaorge Thebaut shifted Mahābhārata was from 36 years before Kali to 653 Kali. This was to make Chāhmāna śaka of 612 BC as Śālivāhana śaka of 78 AD. Rājatarangiṇī manipulation was done to show that 43rd Gonanda king Kanishka (1292-1262 BC) of Kashmir was a Śaka king of 78 AD who started this Śaka. Āryabhaṭa date was shifted from 360 Kali to 3600 kali (499 AD) and dates of Varāhamihira who quoted him was shown after that. (7) Śrīharṣa (456 BC) was the first king to assume title of Vikramāditya. His elder brother Bhartṛhari became sanyāsī and wrote 3 famous Śatakas (Nīti, Śṛngāra, vairāgya) and Vākyapadīyam (philosophy of grammer). Rājatarangiṇī indicates that he is confused with Paramāra king Vikramāditya whose name itself was that, not a title. Śrīharṣa had deputed Mātṛgupta (Title Kālidāsa) for 5 years to rule Kashmir in absence of any king there. 8. Special reasons of denying Vikramāditya -(1) His samvat, purāṇa and smṛti texts are still followed. So, his denial is most important for destroying Indian civilizatiom. (2) Slavery is so deep rooted that after reading all literature about Vikramāditya or of his nava-ratnas, his existence is denied. Professor N.R. Joshi taught Sanskrit for 25 years in USA, Canada but denied existence of Śūdraka, Śrīharṣa after teaching their books Mṛcchhakaṭikam and Naiṣadha charita, as I showed from syllabus of his universities. (3) Indians are to be projected as permanent slaves and cowards. So, massive efforts were made to destroy Chāhamāna śaka of 612 BC started after destruction of Assyrian capital Nineve, indicated in Bible at 5 places. This was used in time of Vikramāditya before his own samvat. (4) Vikramāditya was most powerful king having permanent influence in west Asia and even in Roman empire. His astrologers from Magi (Magadha) declared that Jesus would be a great man, which was a major factor in accepting him as a Prophet. (5) Defeat and capture of Caesar by Vikramādiya of Ujjain (82 BC-19 AD)- Defeat of Caesar is noted in many places, e.g. at http://www.heritagehistory.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=wars&FileName=wars_romanpersian.php
The first Roman contact with the Parthian Empire came during the Mithridatic Wars which lasted from 82 to 63 B.C. The Kingdom of Pontus was an independent Kingdom that bordered on Parthian territory. By the third Mithridatic War, the Romans pursued Mithridates and his ally, Tigranes, deep into Armenia, and conquered most of the Armenian Empire, including Syria and Judea for Rome. From this point on, the Eastern border of Rome's territory bordered on Parthia. Rome recognized that Parthia, far from being barbaric was a highly civilized country with rich booty. The lure of conquest was behind most of Rome's incursions into Parthian territory in the following centuries. Soon after Pompey had conquered Syria and Judea for Rome, Crassus, already one of the richest men in Rome, launched a campaign against Parthia in Mesopotamia. He was defeated however, with great slaughter at Carrhae (53 B.C.). Caesar was planning a campaign of retribution when he was assassinated so the task fell to his successor in the east Mark Antony. www.livius.org/caa-can/caesar/caesar_t01.htmIn 75 BC, Julius Caesar was captured by Cilician pirates, who infested the Mediterranean sea. The Romans had never sent a navy against them, because the ... Vikramāditya has become most hated by Oxford because his calendar is still followed for all festivals surviving attempts to change it. Jyotirvidābharaṇa of Kālidāsa has been declared fake as it describes arrest of Caesar by him. But 3 epics indicated here are not considered fake and studied widely-Raghuvamśa, Meghadūta, Kumārasambhava. These books do not indicate Kālidāsa as author, it is known only from Jyotirvidābharaṇa. ज्योितर्त्दाभरण, ग्रन्थाध्यायिनरूपणम् २२, ि्क्रमाकव ्णवनम््षे श्रुितसमृिति्चारि््ेकरम्ये श्रीभारते िधृितसिम्मतदेशपीठे । मत्तोऽधुना कृ ितररयां सित माल्ेन्रे श्रीि्क्रमाकव नृपराज्रे समासीत् ॥ २२.७ ॥ = Chapter 22-Description of Vikramārka (Vikramāditya)-I (Kālidāsa) am writing this book under patronage of the great king Vikramārka of Mālavā ruling over 180 deśa (Provinces) of Bhāratavarṣa famous of its pious conduct based on Śruti (veda) and Smṛti (dharma-śāstra). सैन्य्णवनम्- यसयाष्टादशयोजनािन कटके पादाितकोरटत्रयां ्ाहानामयुतायुतां च न्ितििघ्ना कृ ितहविसतनाम्। नौकालिचतुष्टयां ि्जियनो यसय प्रयाणे भ्त् सोऽयां ि्क्रमभूपितर्त्जयते नान्यो धररत्रीधराः ॥ २२.१२ ॥ Description of his army- There is no king equal to Vikrama whose 3 crore army camp is spread over 18 yojanas, has million vehicles, 903 = 162,000 elephants, 4 lakh ships and whose march always ends in victory. शाकप्र्ृित्तकालयेनािसमन््सुधातले शकगणान्स्ाव ददशाः सरगरे हत््ा पञ्चन्प्रमान्किलयुगे शाकप्र्ृित्ताः कृ ता। श्रीमििक्रमभूभुजा प्रितददनां मुक्तामिणस्णवगो सप्तीभाद्यप्जवनेन ि्िहतो धमवाः सु्णावननाः ॥ २२.१३ ॥ = Starting of Śaka-Great king Vikrama donates pearls gold & jewels daily and has established rule of Dharma after killing 99,999 Śakas in wars in all directions.
ददिग््जय्णवनम्ाईद्दामरि्डरुमैकपरशुलावटाट्ीपा्को, ्ेल्लिरगभुजरगराजगरुडो गौडािब्धकु म्भोद्भ्ाः। गजवद ् गुजवरराजड्सधुरहररधावरान्धकारायवमााः, काम्बोजाम्बुजचन्रमा ि्जयते श्रीि्क्रमाको नृपाः ॥ २२.१४ ॥ = Digvijaya (conquering all directions)-King Vikramārka is always victorious who is axe for forest of brave Draviḍas, fire to burn the forest of powerful Lāṭa, Garuḍa for the snakes of Vanga, Agastya to drink ocean of Gauḍas, roaring elephant in Gurjara, Aryamā to remove darkness of earth and moon for the lotus of Kāmboja. प्रभुत्््णवनम्येनाप्युग्रमहीधराग्रि्षये दुगावण्यसह्यान्यहो, नीत््ा यािन नतीकृ तासतदिधपााः दत्तािन तेषाां पुनाः। ाआन्राम्भोध्यमररुमसमरसुरक्ष्ममाभृद ् गणेनाञ्जसा, श्रीमििक्रमभूभृताििलजनाम्भोजेन्दुना मण्डले ॥ २२.१५ ॥ = Power-King Vikrama conquered all difficult forts, defeated all kings and returned back their kingdoms, protected all people like Indra does for Devas and is moon for blooming of lotus like people of world. ाईिियनी्णवनम्यराजघान्युिियनी महापुरी सदा महाकालमहेशयोिगनी। समाश्रियप्राण्यप्गवदाियनी श्रीि्क्रमाकोऽ्िनपो जयत्यिप ॥ २२.१६ ॥ यो रुक्तमदेशािधपड्त शके श्वरां िजत््ा गृहीत््ोिियनीं महाह्े। ाअनीय सम्भ्राम्य मुमोच यत्त््हो स ि्क्रमाकव ाः समसह्यि्क्रमाः ॥ २२.१७ ॥ = Description of Ujjayinī-King Vikramārka is always victorious who is shelter and provider of all people and whose capital Ujjayinī is great city where Mahākāla Maheśa always remains. Valour of Vikrama is unsurpassed who conquered the Śaka king of Rukma-deśa (Julius Caesar of Rome) in great war, brought him to Ujjayinī, paraded him and then let off. तिसमन् सदाि्क्रममेददनीशे ि्राजमाने सम्िन्तकायाम्। स्वप्रजामरगलसौखयसम्पद् बभू् स्वत्र च ्ेदकमव ॥ २२.१८ ॥ As long as great king Vikrama is in Avantikā, there is prosperity, happiness and well of all people and Vedic rights are followed. काव्यत्रयां सुमितकृ रघु्श ां पू्ं पू्ं ततो ननु दकयच्ुितकमव्ादाः। ज्योितर्त्दाभरणकालि्धानशािां श्रीकािलदासकि्तो िह ततो बभू् ॥ २२.२० ॥ = 3 epics including Raghuvamśa were written before this book after getting Sumati = knowledge, and another on effects of karma as per vedas (astrology work Kālāmṛta in 2 parts).Then poet Kālidāsa wrote Jyotirvidābharaṇa on Kāla-vidhāna (auspicious times). Note-Kālidāsa was illiterate and by deceit married to scholar princess Vidyottamā. In anger after knowing this fool, she expelled. He became senseless in Kālī temple. On asking by Kālī, he stated Vidyā (name of princess) = knowledge and got boon for Vidyā. On return, he was asked- ाऄिसत किश्चद् ्ािग््शेषाः = is there any learning?. He wrote 3 epics starting with 3 words and from Viśeṣa wrote astrology book. (1) ाऄिसत-ाऄसत्युत्तरसयाां ददिश दे्तात्मा िहमालयो नाम नगािधराजाः। पू्ावपरौ तोयिनधी् ग्राह्याः िसथताः पृिथव्या ाआ् मानदण्डाः। (कु मारसम्भ्, १/१)
(2) किश्चत्-किश्चत् कान्ता ि्रह गुरुणा स्ािधकारात् प्रमत्ताः, शापेनासतांगिमत मिहमा ्षव भोग्येन भतुवाः। यिश्चक्रे जनकतनयास्नानपुण्योदके षु, िस्नग्धश्छायातरुषु ्सड्त रामिगयावश्रमेषु। (मेघदूत १/१) (3) ्ाग्-्ागथावि््सम्पृक्तौ ्ागथव प्रितपत्तये। जगताः िपतरौ ्न्दे पा्वती-परमेश्वरौ॥ (रघु्श ां १/१) ्षषाः िसन्धुरदशवनाम्बरगुणैयावते कलौ (3068 Kali) सिम्मते, मासे माध्सांिज्ञके च ि्िहतो ग्रन्थदक्रयोपक्रमाः। नानाकालि्धानशािगददतज्ञानां ि्लोक्तयादरा-दूजे ग्रन्थसमािप्तरत्र ि्िहता ज्योितर्त्दाां प्रीतये ॥ २२.२१ ॥ = In kali year 3068 (34 BC) this work on Kāla-vidhāna was started in month of Māgha and completed in Kārttika month for pleasure of respected astrologers ाआित श्रीकि्कािलदासोददते ज्योितर्त्दाभरणे ग्रन्थाध्यायिनरूपणक्रमनृपि्क्रम्ीर्णवनाध्यायो िाड््शिततमाः॥२२॥ (6) Julian calendar changed to tally with Vikrama samvat-Calendar Committee report-part 3 (CSIR publication) also mentions that Vikrama samvat has influenced start of Julian calendar in 46 BC after delay of 7 days. He intended to start year from winter solstice, but people started 7 days later with new moon. It is assumed that 7 days after winter solstice of 46 BC was new moon-actually it was full moon of Pauṣa after which Māgha Kṛṣṇa month started in Vikrama year 10 (lapsed). Vikrama samvat is only luni solar year in world which month starts with dark half. All our texts of astronomy and purāṇas still calculate adhika-māsa on basis of lunar month starting with bright half or new moon. To start a system opposed to general worldwide rule, it needs a powerful logic (shift of seasons by 45 days after start of kali) and a powerful king Vikramāditya who influenced India and Roman empire under Julius Caesar. That is why, no oriental scholar since British rule wants to admit existence of Vikramāditya and inserts fake stories in his name. It has also indicated that Hizra era started with start of Vikrama year 679. Quoted from History of the Calendar, by M.N. Saha and N. C. Lahiri (part C of the Report of The Calendar Reforms Committee under Prof. M. N. Saha with Sri N.C. Lahiri as secretary in November 1952-Published by Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Rafi Marg, New Delhi-110001, 1955, Second Edition 1992. Page, 168-last para-“Caesar wanted to start the new year on the 25th December, the winter solstice day. But people resisted that choice because a new moon was due on January 1, 45 BC. And some people considered that the new moon was lucky. Caesar had to go along with them in their desire to start the new reckoning on a traditional lunar landmark.” Importance of winter solstice was ancient and Bhīṣma Pitāmaha departed on that very day in year 3139 BC-36 years before death of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Now that day is called Christmas, though it was intended to be new year day. It has been assumed that the start was from new moon day. Actually, it was from start of Māgha month of Vikrama year 11 lapsed. Vikrama samvat is only year which starts with dark half-all other lunar years start from bright half starting with new moon. Strong following of Vikrama samvat, just 10 years after its inception in Rome against wishes of Caesar shows influence of Vikramāditya.
(7) Hizra era based on Vikrama-samvat- Page 180-“It has been shown by Dr. Hashim Amir Ali of the Osmania University, Hyderabad, that the Mohammedan calendar was originally luni-solar in which intercalation was made when necessary, and not purely lunar. …. According to this view, proper intercalation was applied in all years where necessary up to A.H. 10 and consequently the year A.H. 11 which started on March 29, 632 A.D. (Footnote)-Initial epoch of the Hejira era thus arrived at is the evening of March 19, 622 A.D., Friday, the day following the vernal equinox.” Thus, Hejira era also started with start of year in India-it was start of Vikrama year 679. Vedic ROOTS of pre-Islamic Arabia and the Kaaba (8) Respect of Vikramāditya till Islam-The text of the crucial Vikramāditya inscription, found inscribed on a gold dish hung inside the Kaaba shrine in Mecca, is found recorded on page 315 of a volume known as ‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ treasured in the Makhtab-e-Sultania library in Istanbul, Turkey. Rendered in free English the inscription says: "Fortunate are those who were born (and lived) during king Vikram’s reign. He was a noble, generous dutiful ruler, devoted to the welfare of his subjects. But at that time we Arabs, oblivious of God, were lost in sensual pleasures. Plotting and torture were rampant. The darkness of ignorance had enveloped our country. Like the lamb struggling for her life in the cruel paws of a wolf we Arabs were caught up in ignorance. The entire country was enveloped in a darkness so intense as on a new moon night. But the present dawn and pleasant sunshine of education is the result of the favour of the noble king Vikramaditya whose benevolent supervision did not lose sight of us- foreigners as we were. He spread his sacred religion amongst us and sent scholars whose brilliance shone like that of the sun from his country to ours. These scholars and preceptors through whose benevolence we were once again made cognizant of the presence of God, introduced to His sacred existence and put on the road of Truth, had come to our country to preach their religion and impart education at king Vikramaditya’s behest." http://www.guardiansofdarkness.com/GoD/muslims.pdf (9) Al-Biruni-Chronology of Ancient Nations at page 39Epoch of the Ancient Arabs-Ishmaelite Arabs… used to date from the construction of the Ka’ba by Abraham and Ismael. …. After a long course of time they dated from year of Amr ben Yahya. … Afterwards they dated from death of Ka’b ben Lu’ay till the Year of Treason, in which the Banu-Yarbu stole certain garments which some of the kings of Himyar (Himavat =Bhārata) sent to Ka’ba. Then they dated from Year of the Elephants, when Ethiopians came to destroy Ka’ba. Lord annihilated them. Then they dated from era of Hijra. Gift from India and repulsing Ethiopian attack were in period of Vikramāditya.
Page 73 of same book-Intercalation of the Ancient Arabs-They learnt the system of intercalation from Jews, about 200 years before the Hijra. Their intercalators, called Kalamis rose after pilgrimage had been finished.. and intercalated the month…. Arabs adopted the decision of the Kalammas. (Prophet Mohammad also was a Kalamma). One of their poets has said“We have an intercalator, under whose banner we march; He declares the months profane or sacred as he likes” 9. Text of Bhaviṣya purāṇa -भि्ष्य पुराण, प्रितसगव प्व १, ाऄध्याय ६एतिसमिे् काले तु कान्यकु ब्जो ििजोत्तमाः। ाऄबुवदां िशिरां प्राप्य ब्रह्महोममथाकरोत्।४५॥ ्ेदमन्त्रप्रभा्ाच्च जाताश्चत््ारर िित्रयााः। प्रमरससाम्ेदी च चपहािनयवजुर्त्दाः॥४६॥ ित्र्ेदी च तथा शुक्तलोऽथ्ाव स पररहारकाः॥४७॥ = (Bhaviṣya purāṇa, pratisarga parva 1, chapter 6)-At this time, the great Kānyakubja brāhmaṇa did Brahma-homa at mount Arbuda (Abu). By effect of Veda-mantras 4 Kṣatriyas were born-Pramara of Sāmaveda, Chapahāni of Yajurveda, Śukla of three vedas (including Ṛk) and Parihāra of Atharva. ाऄध्याय७-पूणे िे च सहस्रान्ते सूतो ्चनमब्र्ीत्। सप्तड्त्रशशते ्षे दशाब्दे चािधके कलौ॥७॥ प्रमरो नाम भूपालाः कृ तां राज्यां च षट्समााः। महामरसततो जाताः िपतुरधं कृ तां पदम्॥८॥ दे्ािपसतनयसतसय िपतुसतुल्य कृ तां पदम्। दे्दूतसतसय सुताः िपतुसतुल्यां समृतां पदम्॥९॥ तसमाद् गन्ध्वसेनश्च पञ्चाशदब्द भूपदम्॥ कृ त््ा च स्सुतां शांिमिभषेच्य ्नां गताः॥१०॥ शांिेन तत्पदां प्राप्तां राज्यां ड्त्रशत् समााः कृ तम्। दे्ाांगना ्ीरमती शक्रेण प्रेिषता तदा॥११॥ गन्ध्वसेनां सम्प्राप्य पुत्ररत्नमजीजनत्। सुतसय जन्मकालेतु नभसाः पुष्प्ृष्टयाः॥१२॥ पेतुदन् वु दुभयोनेद् ु ावित ्ातााः सुिप्रदााः। िश्दृिष्टर्तिजो नाम िशष्यैससार्द्धं ्नां गताः॥१३॥ = Chapter 7-Sūta stated that in 2710 Kali, Pramara beame king and ruled for 6 years. after him Mahāmara, Devāpi, Devadūta ruled for same periods. Then Gandharvasena ruled for 50 years and went to forest after coronating his son Śankha. Śankha expired after ruling for 30 years. Then Gandharvasena had to return from forest and married Vīramatī sent by Indra. From her a son was born and Devas showerd flowers, beat drums, pleasant wind flowed etc. He went to forest with a saint named Śivadṛṣṭi and his disciples ड््शिद्भाः कमवयोगां च समाराध्य िश्ोऽभ्त्। पूणे ड्त्रशच्छते ्षे कलौ प्राप्ते भयरकरे ॥१४॥ शकानाां च ि्नाशाथवमायवधमव ि््ृर्द्धये। जातिश्श्ाज्ञया सोऽिप कै लासाद् गुह्यकालपात्॥१५॥ ि्क्रमाददत्य नामानां िपता कृ त््ा मुमोद ह। स बालोऽिप महाप्राज्ञाः िपतृमातृ िप्रयरकराः॥१६॥ पञ्च्षे ्याः प्राप्ते तपसोऽथे ्नां गताः। िादशाब्द प्रयत्नेन ि्क्रमेण कृ तां तपाः॥१७॥ पश्चादम्बा्तीं ददव्याां पुरीं याताः िश्रयािन््ताः। ददव्यां ड्सहासनां रम्यां िाड्त्रशन्मूर्ततसांयुतम्॥१८॥ िश्ेन प्रेिषतां तसमै सोऽिप तत्पदमग्रहीत्। ्ैतालसतसय रिाथं पा्वत्या िनर्तमतो गताः॥१९॥ = He became Śiva after doing 20 types of Karma (Kriyā) yoga. On completion of 3000 years of Kali, he had been born by orders of Śiva to destroy Śakas and for growth of Ārya-dharma. He was named Vikramāditya and even as a child give happiness to parents. He went to forest at age of 5 and did Tapa for 12 years. Then he came to Ambāvatī (Ujain) with divine powers and with Vaitāla created by Pārvatī for his protection. एकदा स नृपो ्ीरो महाकालेश्वरसथलम्। गत््ा सम्पूजयामास दे्दे्ां िपनादकनम्॥२०॥
सभा धमवमयी तत्र िनर्तमता व्यूहि्सतरा। नानाधातुकृतसतम्भा नानामिण ि्भूिषता॥२१॥ नानारुमलताकीणाव पुष्प्ल्लीिभरिन््ता। तत्र ड्सहासनां ददव्यां सथािपतां तेन शौनक॥२२॥ ाअहूय ब्राह्मणान्मुखयान््ेद्ेदारगपारगान्। पूजियत््ा ि्धानेन धमवगाथामथाऽशृणोत्॥२३॥ एतिसमनन्तरे तत्र ्ैतालो नामदे्ता। स कृ त््ा ब्राह्मणां रूपां जयाशीर्तभाः प्रशसय तम्॥२४॥ ाईपि्श्यासने ि्प्रो राजानिमदमब्र्ीत्। यदद ते श्र्णे श्रर्द्धा ि्क्रमाददत्य भूपते॥२५॥ ्णवयािम महाखयानिमितहाससमुच्चयम्॥२६॥ = Once that king went to place of Mahākāleśvara and worshipped him. He made his great assemly there decorated with jewels etc and set up a throne with 23 idols. He ascended throne after worshipping with blessings of Brāhmaṇas. Then Vaitāla also came in guise of a brāhmaṇa and blessed him. He stated history to king Vikramāditya. भि्ष्य पुराण, प्रितसगव प्व, िण्ड ३, ाऄध्याय २स्गवते ि्क्रमाददत्ये राजानो बहुधाऽभ्न्। तथाष्टादश राज्यािन तेषाां नामािन मे शृणु॥९॥ पिश्चमे िसन्धुनद्यन्ते सेतुबन्धे च दििणे। ाईत्तरे बदरीसथाने पू्े च किपलान्तके ॥१०॥ ाऄष्टादशै् राष्ट्रािन तेषाां मध्ये बभूि्रे । ाआन्रप्रसथां च पाञ्चालां कु रुिेत्रां च कािपलम्॥११॥ ाऄन्त्ेदी ब्रजथ्यै्ाजमेरां मरुधन्् च। गौजवरां च महाराष्ट्रां राि्डां च कड्लगकम्॥१२॥ ाअ्न्त्यां चोडु पां ्ांगां गौडां मागधमे् च। कौशल्यां च तथा ज्ञेयां तेषाां राजा पृथक् पृथक् ॥१३॥ नानाभाषााः िसथतासतत्र बहुधमवप्र्तवकााः। ए्मब्दशतां जातां ततसते ्ै शकादयाः॥१४॥ = When Vikramāditya went to heaven, many kings took charge and the kingdom was split into 18 parts-listen to their names. West boundary was end of Sindhu river, in south was Setubandha (Sea bridge by Rāma at Rāmeśvaram), in north upto Badarīsthāna and upto Kapliāntaka in east. Within this, 18 kingomes arose-(1) Indraprastha, (2) Pāñchāla, (3) Kurukṣetra, (4) Kāpila, (5) Antarvedī, (6) Braja, (7) Ajamer, (8) Marudhanva, (9) Gurjara, (10) Mahārāṣṭra, (11) Draviḍa, (12) Kalinga, (13) Avanti (14) Uḍupa (Uḍra = Odisha), (15) Vanga (Bengal), (16) Gauḍa (East Bengal, Asam), (17) Magadha (Bihar, Chhotanagpur), (18) Kosala. Each part was under a separate king, separate languages and many sects. This way 100 years passed. Then Śakas came. श्रुत््ा धमवि्नाशां च बहु्ृन्दैाः समिन््तााः। के िचत्तीत््ाव िसन्धुनदीमार्ययवदेशां समागतााः॥१५॥ िहमप्वतमागेण िसन्धुमागेण चागमन्। िजत््ार्ययावल्लााँठियत््ा तान्स्देशां पुनराययुाः॥१६॥ गृहीत््ा योिषतसतेषाां परां हषवमप ु ाययुाः। एतिसमिन्तरे तत्र शािल्ाहन भूपिताः॥१७॥ = Hearing decline of Dharma, invaders came in many hordes. Some entered Ārya-deśa by crossing Sindhu river. Othercs came by Himālaya and Sindh also. After winning and ruining Ārya-deśa, invaders returned to their country. They were very happy after kidnapping many women. At this stage, Śālivāhaan became king. ि्क्रमाददत्य पौत्रश्च िपतृराज्यां गृहीत्ान्। िजत््ा शकान् दुराधषावन् चीनतैित्तररदेशजान्॥१८॥ बाह्लीकान् कामरूपाांश्च रोमजान् िुरजान् शठान्। तेषाां कोषान् गृहीत््ा च दण्डयोग्यानकारयत्॥१९॥ सथािपता तेन मर्ययावदा म्लेच्छार्ययावणाां पृथक् पृथक् । िसन्धुसथानिमित ज्ञेयां राष्ट्रमायवसय चोत्तमम्॥२०॥ म्लेच्छानाां परां िसन्धोाः कृ तां तेन महात्मना। एकदा तु शकाधीशो िहमतुांगां समाययौ॥२१॥ = He was grandson of Vikramāditya and took over the kingdom from his father. He conquered the terrible Śakas and invaders from China, Taittiri (Tatars), Bāhlīka (Balkha in Iran), Kāmarūpa (East & north border beyond Asam), Romaja (of Roman empire), and crooks of Khuraja (Born of Khura of Kāmadhenu = wish giving cow, Kurda. Turkey plateau is
in shape of Bull, its foothills are places of Kurds. King of Turkey was called Vṛṣaparvā = lord of Taurus mountain in time of Yayāti of Bhārata). He punished all the invaders and imposed fines on them. He set up limits for Mlecchha invaders beyond west of Sindhu river. Bh ārata to wards east of Sindhu river was named as Sindhu-sthāna (Hindustan). Once this conquerer of Śakas went to Himālayas. हूणदेशसय मध्ये ्ै िगररसथां पुरुषां शुभम्। ददशव बल्ान् राजा गौराांगां श्वेत्िकम्॥२२॥ को भ्ािनित तां प्राह हो्ाच मुदािन््ताः। ाइशपुत्रां च माां ि्िर्द्ध कु मारीगभवसम्भ्म्॥२३॥ म्लेच्छधमवसय ्क्तारां सत्यव्रतपरायणम्। ाआित श्रुत््ा नृपाः प्राह धमवाः को भ्तो मताः॥२४॥ श्रुत््ो्ाच महाराज प्रापे सत्यसय सांिये। िनमवयावदे म्लेच्छदेशे मसीहोऽहां समागताः॥२५॥ ाइशामसी च दसयूनाां प्रादुभूवता भयांकरी। तामहां म्लेच्छताः प्राप्य मसीहत््मुपागताः॥२६॥ म्लेच्छे षु सथािपतो धमो मया तच्छृ णु भूपते। मानसां िनमवलां कृ त््ा मलां देहे शुभाशुभम्॥२७॥ नैगमां जपमासथाय जपेत िनमवलां परम्। न्यायेन सत्य्चसा मनसैक्तयेन मान्ाः॥२८॥ ध्यानेन पूजयेदीशां सूयवमण्डलसांिसथतम्। ाऄचलोऽयां प्रभुाः सािात्तथा सूयोऽचलाः सदा॥२९॥ तत्त््ानाां चलभूतानाां कषवणाः स समन्तताः। ाआित कृ त्येन भूपाल मसीहा ि्लयां गता॥३०॥ ाइशमूर्ततहृवदद प्राप्ता िनत्यशुर्द्धा िश्ांकरी। ाइशामसीह ाआित च मम नाम प्रितिितम्॥३१॥ ाआित श्रुत््ा स भूपालो नत््ा तां म्लेच्छपूजकम्। सथापयामास तां तत्र म्लेच्छसथाने िह दारुणे॥३२॥ = Within that Hūṇa-deśa, the powerful king saw a pious man with white robe in hills and asked-who are you. He replied-Know me as son of Īśa (God) born from a virgin mother. I am preacher of Mlecchha dharma and follow the path of truth. Hearing this, the king asked-What is Dharma according to you? Hearing this, he replied-After decline of truth, I came as Messiah in Mlecchha deśa which has no norms. Among these terrible robbers, I have come as Īśā-Masī (ha), and achieved status of Messiah among Mlecchhas. Listen to the Dharma set up by me among Mlecchhas. There may be dirt in body, but mind should be pure on path of trurh & justice. With single minded devotion, one should recite mantras and worship the Īśa in the sun who is eternal and attracts all elements like sun. O king! I merged into Messiah by such act (of recitation). As the eternal form of Īśa is within my heart, I am called ĪśāMasīha. Hearing this, the king saluted and settled that Mlecchha worshipper in that place. स्राज्यां प्राप्त्ान् राजा हयमेधमचीकरत्। राज्यां कृ त््ा स षष्यब्दां स्गवलोकमुपायौ॥३३॥ स्गवते नृपतौ तिसमन् यथा चासीत्तथा शृणु॥३४॥ = On returning to his place, the king performed Aśvamedha-yajña. After ruling for 60 yeas, he went to heavens. Listen about kings who followed him. भि्ष्य पुराण, प्रितसगव प्व, िण्ड ३, ाऄध्याय ३-श्री सूत ाई्ाचशािल्ाहन ्ांशे च राजानो दश चाभ्न्। राज्यां पञ्चशताब्दां च कृ त््ा लोकान्तरां ययुाः॥१॥ मर्ययावदा क्रमतो लीना जाता भूमण्डले तदा। भूपितदवशमो यो ्ै भोजराज ाआित समृताः। दृष्ट््ा प्रिीणमर्ययावदाां बली ददिग््जयां ययौ। ॥२॥ सेनया दशसाहस्र्या कािलदासेन सांयुताः। तथान्यैब्रावह्मणैाः सार्द्धं िसन्धुपारमुपाययौ॥३॥ िजत््ा गान्धारजान् म्लेच्छान् काश्मीरान् ाअर्ान् शठान्। तेषाां प्राप्य महाकोषां दण्डयोग्यानकारयत्॥४॥ एतिसमिन्तरे म्लेच्छ ाअचायेण समिन््ताः। = In the family of Śālivāhana, 10 kings followed who ruled for 500 years. Social norms gradually declined on earth. The 10th king was known as Bhojarāja. Seeing decline of Dharma, the powerful king proceeded on Dig-vijaya. With army of 10,000, he went beyond Sindhu river accompanied by Kālidāsa and many other Brāhmaṇas. He vanquished the
Mlecchhas of Gandhar, Kashmir and Arab, imposed heavy fine on them and punished. After this, a Mlecchha guru came. महामद ाआित खयाताः िशष्यशािा समिन््ताः॥५॥ नृपश्चै् महादे्ां मरुसथलिन्ािसनम्। गांगाजलैश्च सस्नाप्य पञ्चगव्य समिन््तैाः। चन्दनाददिभरभ्यच्यव तुष्टा् मनसा हरम्॥६॥ = He was famous as Mahā-mada (man with great arrogance) and was accompanied with many followers. King also worshipped Mahādeva residing in desert. He bathed Hara (Mahādeva) with Ganga water mixed with 5 products of cow, sandal paste etc. भोजराज ाई्ाच-नमसते िगररजानाथ मरुसथलिन्ािसने। ित्रपुरासुरनाशाय बहुमायाप्र्र्तत्तने॥७॥ म्लेच्छै गुवप्ताय शुर्द्धाय सिच्चदानन्दरूिपणे। त््ां माां िह कककरां ि्िर्द्ध शरणाथवमुपागतम्॥८॥ सूत ाई्ाच-ाआित श्रुत््ा सत्ां दे्ाः शब्दमाह नृपाय तम्। गन्तव्यां भोजराजेन महाकालेश्वरसथले॥९॥ म्लेच्छै ससुदि ू षता भूिम्ावहीका नाम ि्श्रुता। ाअर्ययवधमो िह नै्ात्र ्ाहीके देशदारुणे॥१०॥ बभू्ात्र महामायी योऽसौ दग्धो मया पुरा। ित्रपुरो बिलदैत्येन प्रेिषताः पुनरागताः॥११॥ ाऄयोिनाः स ्रो मत्ताः प्राप्त्ान् दैत्य्र्द्धवनाः। महामद ाआित खयाताः पैशाच कृ ित तत्पराः॥१२॥ = Bhojarāja said-O Girijānātha living in desert! You had destroyed the geart Asura with 3 puras (towns of gold, silver & iron) and have created many forms of Māyā (delusion). You are protected here by Mlecchhas and are Sat-chit-ānanda. I seek your shelter as a servant. Sūta (teller of this purāṇa) stated-Hearing this prayer the Lord replied to king-You must visit the place of Mahākāleśvara of Vāhīka region (Mecca) which has been spoilt by Mlecchhas. Ārya-dharma has vanished from that terrible country. The Asura of 3 cities who had been burnt earlier by me is born again sent by Asura king Bali. He is without pedigree and called Mahā-mada (Mohammad) growing Daityas with works of Piśāchas. नागन्तव्यां त््या भूप पैशाचे देशधूतवके। मत् प्रसादेन भूपाल त् शुिर्द्धाः प्रजायते॥१३॥ ाआित श्रुत््ा नृपश्चै् स्देशान् पुनरागमत्। महामदश्च तैाः सार्द्धं िसन्धुतीरमुपाययौ ॥१४॥ ाई्ाच भूपड्त प्रेम्णा मायामदि्शारदाः। त् दे्ो महाराज मम दासत््मागताः॥१५॥ म्लेच्छधमे मितश्चासीत्तसय भूपसय दारुणे॥१७॥ = You should not go to that country of crooked Piśāchas. You will be freed of sins by my grace. Hearing this, the king retuned to his countr. With him, Mahāmada also came to Sindhu river. That exponent on Māyā & Mada (deceit & arrogance) told-your God has become my slave. Mind of the king was attracted towards terrible mleccha dharma. तच्छृ त््ा कािलदाससतु रुषा प्राह महामदम्। माया ते िनर्तमता धूतव नृपमोहन हेत्े॥१८॥ हिनष्यािम दुराचारां ्ाहीकां पुरुषाधमम्। ाआत्युक्तत््ा स ििजाः श्रीमान् न्ाणव जप तत्पराः॥१९॥ जप्त््ा दशसहस्रां च तद्दशाांशां जुहा् साः। भसम भूत््ा स माया्ी म्लेच्छदे्त््मागताः॥२०॥ भयभीतसतु तिच्छष्या देशां ्ाहीकमाययुाः। गृहीत््ा स्गुरोभवसम मदहीनत््मागतम्॥२१॥ = Hearing this, Kālidāsa told Mahāmada with anger-You have created llusion to foolthe king. I will kill your bad conduct of Vāhīka country. Then he recited 10,000 repetitions of Navārṇa mantra and did homa with 1/10th of the number. That fake god created by mlechha was burnt. Being afraid, they returned to Vāhīka and lost arrogance by ashes of their Guru. सथािपतां तैश्च भूमध्ये तत्रोषुमवदतत्परााः। मदहीनां पुरां जातां तेषाां तीथं समां समृतम्॥२२॥ रात्रौ स दे्रूपश्च बहुमायाि्शारदाः। पैशाचां देहमासथाय भोजराजां िह सोऽब्र्ीत्॥२३॥ ाअर्ययवधम्मो िह ते राजन् सबव धमोतमाः समृताः ाइशाज्ञया कररष्यािम पैशाचां धमवदारुणम्॥२४॥ ड्लगच्छे दी िशिाहीनाः श्मश्रुधारी स दूषकाः। ाईच्चालापी स्वभिी भि्ष्यित जनो मम॥२५॥ ि्ना कौलां च पश्सतेषाां भक्ष्मया मता मम। मुसलेनै् सांसकाराः कु शैरर् भि्ष्यित॥२६॥
तसमात् मुसल्न्तो िह जातयो धमवदष ू कााः। ाआित पैशाच धमवश्च भि्ष्यित मया कृ ताः॥२७॥ = That ash was placed in their town by the disciples puffed with arogance (mada). Then the pura became Mada-hīna (Madina) = without arrogance. In night, the exponent of Māyā entered body of Piśācha and told to Bhojarāja. Your Ārya-dharma is best, but I will spread terrible dhama of Piśāchas by direction of God. My people will be with pierced penis, without śikhā (puff of hair at top) and with goat like beard. These degraded will be loud & eat all food. Without any Kaula (tantrika act), they will eat animals. Their penis will be made like Kuśa (reeds) by samskāra by Musala, so they will be called Musalman, born as degraders of Dharma. Such will be Piśācha dharma created by me. ाआत्युक्तत््ा प्रययौ दे्ाः स राजा गेहमाययौ। ित्र्णे सथािपता ्ाणी साांसकृ ती स्गवदाियनी॥२८॥ शूरेषु प्राकृ ती भाषा सथािपता तेन धीमता। पञ्चाशब्दकालां तु राज्यां कृ त््ा दद्ां गताः॥२९॥ सथािपता तेन मयावदा स्वदे्ोपमािननी। ाअर्ययाव्तवाः पुण्यभूिममवध्यांि्न्ध्यिहमालयोाः॥३०॥ ाअर्ययव ्णावाः िसथतासतत्र ि्न्ध्यान्ते ्णवसांकरााः। नरा मुसल्न्तश्च सथािपतााः िसन्धुपारजााः॥३१॥ बबवरे तुषदेशे च िीपे नानाि्धे तथा। ाइशामसीहधमावश्च सुरै राज्यै् सांिसथतााः॥३२॥ = Saying this, that god went away and king returned home. The learned king established Samskṛta language among 3 varṇas and Prākṛta among śūdras. He went to heaven after ruling for 50 years. He set up standard of Dharma respected by all gods in the sacred land Āryāvartta between Vindhya & Himālaya. Varṇa-sankara (mixed races) were at ends of Vindhya mountains. Muslims were restricted to west of Sindhu river. Dharma of Īśā-masīha was in Barbar, Tuṣa deśa and in many islands like kingdom of gods. ाऄध्याय ४-सूत ाई्ाच-स्गवते भोजराजे तु सप्तभूपासतदन््ये। जाताश्चाल्पायुषो मन्दाििशताब्दान्तरे मृतााः॥१॥ बहु भूप्ती भूिमसतेषाां राज्ये बभू् ह। ्ीरड्सहश्च यो भूपाः सप्तमाः सम्प्रकीर्ततताः॥२॥ तदन््ये ित्रभूपाश्चििशताब्दान्तरे मृतााः। गांगाड्सहश्च यो भूपो दशमाः स प्रकीर्ततताः॥३॥ = Chapter 4-Sūta told-After Bhojarāja went to heavens. 7 kings fllowed with short lives and they died within 300 years. THe land was divided among many kings. Seventh king was Vīrasimha. He was followed by 3 kings who expired within 200 years. Tenth king was Gangāsimha. भि्ष्य पुराण, प्रितसगव प्व, िण्ड ४, ाऄध्याय १ए्ां िापरसन्ध्याया ाऄन्ते सूतेन ्र्तणतम्। सूयवचन्रान््याखयानां तन्मया किथतां त्॥१॥ ि्शालायाां पुनगवत््ा ्ैतालेन ि्िनर्तमतम्। कथियष्यित सूतसतिमितहास समुच्चयम्॥२॥ तन्मया किथतां स्ं हृषीकोत्तमपुण्यदम्। पुनर्त्क्रमभूपेन भि्ष्यित समाह््याः॥३॥ नैिमषारण्यमासाद्य श्रा्ियष्यित ्ै कथाम्। पुनरुक्तािन यान्ये् पुराणाष्टादशािन ्ै॥४॥ तािन चोपपुराणािन भि्ष्यिन्त कलौ युगे। तेषाां चोपपुराणानाां िादशाध्यायमुत्तमम्॥५॥ सारभूतश्च किथतां हृषीकोत्तम ते मुदा। पुनसते शौनकाद्याश्च कृ त््ा स्नानाददकााः दक्रयााः॥९॥ सूतपाश्वं गिमष्यिन्त नैिमषारण्य्ािसनाः। तत् पृष्टन े ै् सूतेन यदुक्तां तच्छृ णुष्् भोाः॥१०॥ =Translated earlier. ऋषयाः ाईचुाः-श्रुतां कृ ष्णसय चररतां भग्न्भ्तोददतम्। ाआदानीं श्रोतुिमच्छािम राज्ञाां तेषाां क्रमात् कु लम्॥११॥ चतुणां ्िह्नजातानाां परां कौतूहलां िह नाः। स हररिियुगी प्रोक्ताः कथां जाताः कलौ युगे॥१२॥ सूत ाई्ाच-कथयािम मुिनश्रेिा युष्माकां प्रश्नमुत्तमम्। ाऄििं्ांश नृपाणाां च चररत्रां शृणु ि्सतरात्॥१३॥ = Ṛṣis told-We have heard life of Kṛṣṇa stated by you. Now we wish to hear about the kings born in theeir families. Four families born from Agni (fire) are also peculiar. Hari (God) is
called Tri-yugī, how He was born in kaliyuga? Sūta stated-You have put a good question. Now listen about the kings of Agni vamśa in detail. प्रमरश्च महीपालो दििणाां ददशमािसथताः। ाऄम्बया रिचता ददव्याां प्रमराय पुरीं शुभाम्॥१४॥ िन्ासां कृ त्ान् राजा साम्ेद परो बली। षड् ्षाविण कृ तां राज्यां तसमािातो महामराः॥१५॥ ित्र्षं च कृ तां राज्यां दे्ािपसतनयोऽभ्त्। िपत्सुतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां दे्दूतसततोऽभ्त्। िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां शृणु तत्कारणां मुने॥१६॥ = Pramara was king in south direction in divine city made by Ambā. The king strong like Sāmaveda resided there. He ruled for 6 years, then Mahāmara was born. He ruled for 3 years, then his son Devāpi ruled like father. His son was Devadūta. Like his father, he ruled (for short period). Iisten to the reason. ाऄशोके िनहते तिसमन् बौर्द्धभूपे महाबले। किलभावसकरमाराध्य तपसा ध्यानतत्पराः॥१७॥ पञ्च्षावन्तरे सूयवसतसमै च कलये मुदा। शकाखयां नाम पुरुषां ददौ तद् भिक्त तोिषताः॥१८॥ तदा प्रसिाः स किलाः शकाय च महात्मने। तैित्तरां नगरां प्रेम्णा ददौ हर्तषतमानसाः॥१९॥ तत्र गोपान् दसयुगणान् ्शीकृ त्य महाबली। ाअयवदेशि्नाशाय कृ त््ोद्योगां पुनाः पुनाः। हत्ान् भूपतीन् बाणैाः तसमात् ते स्ल्पजीि्नाः॥२०॥ = On murder of powerful Bauddha king Ashoka, Bauddhas (of central Asia) worshipped Sun god and in 5 years, a man named Śaka was born and kali gave him Taittira (Tatar) town. There, he united robbers and repeatedly attacked and destroyed Āryadeśa. Many kings were killed in attacks, so they were short lived. गन्ध्वसेनश्च नृपो दे्दूतात्मजो बली। शतार्द्धावब्दां पदां कृ त््ा तपसे पुनरागताः॥२१॥ िश्ाज्ञया च नृपिताः ि्क्रमाः तनयाः तताः। शत्षं कृ तां राज्यां दे्भक्ताः ततोऽभ्त्। दश्षं कृ तां राज्यां शकै दुष्ट व ल ै वयां गताः।॥२२॥ शािल्ाहन ए्ािप दे्भक्तसय चात्मजाः। िजत््ा शकान् स षष्यब्दां राज्यां कृ त््ा दद्ां गताः॥२३॥ = Son of Devadūta was powerful Gandharvasena who went to forest after ruling 50 years. He had to come back (on death of his son Śankha). By geace of Śiva, his son Vikrama was born who ruled for 100 years. His son Devabhakta was killed by Śakas after ruling for 10 years. His son Śālivāhana conquered Śakas and ruled for 60 years. शािलहोत्रसतसय सुतो राज्यां कृ त््ा शतार्द्धवकम्। स्गवलोकां तताः प्राप्ताः तत् सुताः शािल्र्द्धवनाः॥२४॥ िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां शकहन्ता ततोऽभ्त्। िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां सुहोत्रसतनयोऽभ्त्॥२५॥ िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां हि्होत्रसततोऽभ्त्। िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यिमन्रपालसततोऽभ्त्॥२६॥ पुरीिमन्रा्तीं कृ त््ा तत्र राज्यमकारयत्। िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां माल्य्ािाम तत्सुताः॥२७॥ पुरीं माल्य्तीं कृ त््ा िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां पदम्॥२७॥ = His son Śālihotra ruled for 50 years. His son Śālivarddhana ruled like his father, then his son Śakahantā (killer of Śakas) ruled like father. His son Suhotra, then Havirhotra, Indrapāla, ruled likewise. He built a town Indrāvatī as his capital. After him Mālyavān ruled likewise and built a town Mālyavatī. ाऄना्ृिष्टसततश्चासीन्महती चतुरिब्दका। तताः िुधातुरो राजाश्वि्ष्टाधान्यगर्तहतम्॥२८॥ सांसकृ त्य मिन्दरे राजा शालग्रामाय चापवयत्। तदा प्रसिो भग्ान् ्चनां नभसेररतम्॥२९॥ कु लेया्िृपा भाव्यासत् भूपितसत्तम। ाऄना्ृिष्टनव भि्ता ता्त्ते राष्ट्र ाईत्तमे॥३०॥ = There was no rains for 4 years and hungry king washed grains impure with faeces and offered it to God in form of Śāligrāma. Being pleased, the god said-there will be no period without rains as long as your family rules.
सुतो माल्य्तश्चासीच्छम्भुदत्तो हरिप्रयाः। िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां भौमराजसततोऽभ्त्॥३१॥ िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां ्त्सराजसततोऽभ्त्। िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां भोजराजसततोऽभ्त्॥३२॥ िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां शांभुदत्तसततोऽभ्त्। दशहीनां कृ तां राज्यां भोजराजिपतुससमम्॥३३॥ शांभुदत्तसतसय तनयो िबन्दुपालसततोऽभ्त्। िबन्दुिण्डां च राष्ट्रां ्ै कृ त््ा स सुिितोऽभ्त्। तेन राज्यां िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां ्ेदि्दा मुने॥३४॥ = Son of Mālyavān was Harapriya, then the sons in order were Bhaumarāja, Vatsarāja, Bhojarāja (in time of Mohammad), Śambhudatta, Bindupāla ruled for similar periods. Bindupāla made a kingdom named Bindu-khaṇḍa (Bundela-khaṇḍa). िबन्दुपालसय तनयो राजपालसततोऽभ्त्। िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां तसमािातो महीनराः॥३५॥ िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां सोम्माव नृपोऽभ्त्। िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां काम्माव सुतोऽभ्त्॥३६॥ िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां भूिमपालसततोऽभ्त्। भूसरसतेन ििनतां पुरां तत्र शुभां कृ तम्॥३७॥ = After Bindupāla, their sons ruled likewise-Rājapāla, Mahīnara, Somavarmā, Kāmavarmā, Bhūmipāla, who dug Bhūsara and built a town there. िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां राज्यां रां गपालसततोऽभ्त्। भूिमपालसतु नृपितर्तजत््ा भूपाननेकशाः॥३८॥ ्ीरड्सहसततो नाम्ना ि्खयातोऽभून्महीतले। स्राज्ये रां गपालां स चािभिषच्य ्नां ययौ। तपाःकृ त््ा दद्ां यातो दे्दे्प्रसादताः॥३९॥ कल्पड्सहसततो जातो रां गपालािृपोत्तमात्। ाऄनपत्यो िह नृपिताः िपतुसतुल्यां कृ तां पदम्॥४०॥ = His son Rangapāla ruled like father. His son Bhūmipāla defeated many kings. His son Vīrasimha was famous and went to forest by making Rangapāla a king. His son Kalpasimha was without son. एकदा जाह्न्ीतोये स्नानाथं मुददतो ययौ। दानां दत्त््ा ििजाितभ्याः कल्पिेत्रम्ाप्त्ान्॥४१॥ पुण्यभूड्म समालोक्तय शून्यभूत्ताां सथलीमिप। नगरां कारयामास तत्र सथाने मुदािन््ताः॥४२॥ कलापनगरां नाम्ना प्रिसर्द्धमभ्द् भुि्। तत्र राज्यां कृ तां तेन गांगाड्सहसततोऽभ्त्॥४३॥ न्त्यब्द्पुभूवत््ा सोऽनपत्यो रणां गताः। त्यक्तत््ा प्राणान् कु रुिेत्रे स्गवलोकम्ाप्त्ान्। समािप्तमगमद् ि्प्र प्रमरसय कु लां शुभम्॥४४॥ = Once he went to banks of Jāhnavī (Gangā) for bath and gave grants to Brāhmaṇas. By their grace, he got Kalpa-kṣetra where famous town Kalāpa was built. While ruling there, his son Gangāsimha was born. He was without son and went to Kurukṣetra for war at age of 90. He ws killed there (second war of Tarain in 1192 AD). Thus the great family of Pramara brāhmaṇa ended. 10. Agnivamśī kings-The four Agnivamśī or Brahmakṣatra kings(1) Pramara or Panwār Dynasty (2) Chapahāni or Chauhān Dynasty (a) Tomara, (b) Samaladeva Dynasties were its branches. (3) Śukla or Chālukya Dynasty (Solanki in Gujrat, Rajsthan, Salunkhe in Maharashtra, Karnataka). (4) Parihāra or Pratihāra dynasty. Paramāra Dynasty-1. Pramara (392-386 BC), 2. Mahāmara (386-383 BC), 3. Devāpi (383380 BC), 4. Devadatta (380-377 BC). 5. For 195 years from 377-195 BC, Śaka kings captured Ujjain and they went to Śrīśailam.
6. Gandharvasena (182-132 BC), 7. Śankharāja (132-102) went to forest from meditation and died issueless. Gandharvasena returned from forest and had second son named Vikramāditya (102-82 BC). 8. Vikramāditya (82 BC-19 AD), 9. Devabhakta (19-29 AD) 10. Anarchy from 29-78 AD 11. Śālivāhana (78-138 AD)-settled Jesus Christ in Kashmir. 12. Śālihotra, 13. Śālivardhana, 14 Suhotra, 15. Havirhotra, 16 Indrapāla, 17. Mālyavān, 18. Śambhudatta, 19. Bhaumarāja, 20. Vatsarāja-9 kings for 500 years (138-638 AD). 21-Bhojarāja (638-693 AD)-Met Prophet Mohammad. 22. Śambhudatta-2, 23. Bindupāla, 24. Rājapāla, 25. Mahinara. 26. Somavarmā, 27. Kāmavarmā, 28. Bhūmipāla or Vīrasimha-7 kings for 300 years (693-994 AD) 29. Rangapāla, 30. Kalpasimha, 31. Gangāsimha (issueless)-200 years (993-1192 AD) Last king died in war on side of Prithviraja Chauhān in 1192 AD at Taraeadi, called Kurukṣetra here. Chāhmāna kings-(1)Chāhmāna, (2) Sāmantadeva, (3) Mahādeva, (4) Kubera, (5) Bindusāra, (6) Sudhanvā - He set up 4 Pīţhas of Śankarāchāryas for which an order was issued on copper plate dated 2663 Yudhişţhira śaka (485 BC) on Āśvina śukla 15. (7) Vīradhanvā, (8) Jayadhanvā, (9) Vīrasimha, (10) Varasimha, (11) Vīradaņɖa, (12) Arimantra, (13) Māņikyarāja, (14) Puşkara, (15) Asamañjasa, (16) Premapura, (17) Bhānurāja, (18) Mānasimha, (19) Hanumān, (20) Chitrasena, (21) Śambhu, (22) Mahāsena, (23) Suratha, (24) Rudradatta, (25) Hemaratha, (26) Chitrāngada, (27) Chandrasena, (28) Vatsarāja, (29) Dhŗşţadyumna, (30) Uttama, (31) Sunīka, (32) Subāhu, (33) Suratha, (34) Bharata, (35) Sātyaki, (36) Śatrujita, (37) Vikrama, (38) Sahadeva, (39) Vīradeva, (4) Vasudeva, (41) Vāsudeva (king in 551 AD)-his 2 branches started kingdoms. One branch ended with last king of Delhi-Pŗthvīrāja-3 killed in 1192 AD. The other branch had Vīra Gogādeva who fought with Mahmud Gazanavi in desert. Delhi-Ajmer branch-(42) Sāmanta, (43) Naradeva or Nŗpa, (44) Vigraharāja-1, (45) Chandrarāja-1, (46) Gopendra-rāja or Gopendraka, (47) Durlabha-rāja, (48) Govinda-rāja or Guvaka-1-in time of Pratihāra king Nāgabhaţţa-2. (49) Chandra-rāja-2 (843-868 AD), (50) Govinda-rāja or Guvaka-2 (868-893 AD), (51) Chandana- Govinda-rāja (893-918 AD), (52) Vākpati-rāja-1 (Vappayarai) (918-943 AD), (53 A) Vindhya-rāja-very short period followed by his brother. (53 B) Simha- rāja. He had 4 sons-Vigraha-rāja-2, Durlabha-rāja-2, Chandrarāja, Govinda-rāja. (54A) Vigraha-rāja-2 (from 973 AD)-He had defeated Mūlarāja of Gujrat and made Āśāpurā temple in Bhŗgu-kacchha. He had sent army in 997 AD to help Lahore king against Subuktagin. (54B) Durlabha-rāja-2 (998 AD), (55) Govinda-rāja-3 (999 AD), (56A) Vākpati-rāja-2 (999-1018 AD), (56B) Vīrya-rāja (1018-1038), (56C) Chāmuņɖa-rāja
(1038-1063 AD)-these 2 were brothers of 56A. (57A) Simhala-eldest son of 56C. (57B) Durlabha-rāja-3 (1063-1079 AD)-son of 56C. (57C) Vigraharāja-3 (1079-1098 AD)-brother of 57B. (58) Pŗthvīrāja-1 (1098-1105 AD), (59) Ajaya- rāja (Ajayadeva or Salhana)-(1105-1132 AD)-built Ajmer. (60) Arņorāja (Analdeva, Anna, Anaka)-(1132-1151 AD), (61A) Jagadeva (1151 AD)- He had killed his father Arņorāja for which he was killed by his brother Vigraharāja-4 (61B) Vigraharāja-4 (Viśāladeva)-(1151-1167 AD)-he had defeated Chālukyas. (61C) Someśvaradeva (1169-1177 AD)-Brother of 61B, as Pŗthvīrāja-2-son of 61A had no son. (62A) Apara-Gāngeya or Amara-Gāngeya-son of 61B. (62B) Pŗthvīrāja-2son of 61A. He defeated 61A and died issueless in 1169 AD. (62C) Pŗthvīrāja-3 (1177-1192 AD)-last Hindu king of Delhi. He defeated Mohammad Ghori in 1191, but was defeated in 1192 AD due to Jayachanda of Kannauj. Śukla or Chālukya (at Dwārakā Rāṣṭra) 27 kings (392 BC-1192 AD) 1. Śukla or Chālukya, 2. Viśvaksena, 3. Jayasena, 4. Visenā, 5. Madasimha, 6. Sindhuvarmā, 7. Sindhudvīpa, 8. Śrīpati, 9. Bhujavarmā, 10. Raṇavarmā, 11. Chitravarmā, 12. Dharmavarmā, 13. Kṛṣṇavarmā, 14. Udaya, 15. Vāpyakarma, 16. Guhila, 17. Kālabhoja, 18. Rāṣṭrapāla, 19. Jayapāla, 20. Veṇuka, 21. Yaśovigraha, 22. Mahichandra, 23. Chandradeva, 24. Mandapāla, 25. Kumbhapāla or Vaiśyapāla, 26. Devapāla-Son-in-law of Anagapāla, Tomara king of Delhi. 27. Jayachandra-His daughter Samyuktā married to Prithvīrāja Chauhān, last hindu king of Delhi. He died in war with Ghori in 1193. Pratihāra Dynasty (Kalinjar) 35 kings (392 BC-1193 AD). 1. Parihāra, 2. Gauravarmā, 3. Ghoravarmā, 4. Suparṇa, 5. Rūpana, 6. Kāravarmā, 7. Bhogavarmā, 8. Kalivarmā, 9. Kauśika, 10. Kātyāyana, 11. Hemavarmā, 12. Śivavarmā, 13. Bhāvavarmā, 14. Rudravarmā, 15. Bhojavarmā, 16. Gavavarmā, 17. Vindhyavarmā, 18. Sukhasena, 19. Balāka, 20. Lakṣmaṇa, 21. Mādhava, 22. Keśava, 23. Surasena, 24. Nārāyaṇa, 25. Śāntivarmā, 26. Nadivarmā (conquered Gauḍa and ruled there), 27. Sārangadeva, 28. Gangadeva, 29. Ananga Bhūpati, 30. Mahipati-1, 31. Rājeśvara, 32. Nṛsimha, 33. Kalivarmā-2, 34. Dhṛtivarmā, 35. Mahipati-Died in Kurukṣetra war with Ghori in 1193.
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