Short guide for resistivity and induced polarization imaging

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Short guide for resistivity imaging
Chapter 1

Comparison of main methods of 2D imaging
The comparison of main 5 methods used for 2 D imaging will be shown in this chapter. This short overview can help with the choice of optimum solution with the respect to the studied problem. A comparison of important basic features in the frame of these 5 methods is offered. This comparison is illustrated by attached pictures from measurements with the use of individual methods.

Schlumberger
Purpose General purpose method covering broad range of tasks especially imaging of horizontal and quasi-horizontal (declined) layers. Detection of larger inhomogenities of various shape and direction like wider crackles, tectonic zones, ore veins and contacts of layers with big difference of resistivities is also effective. Section covering Medium depth range - of about 1/5 of the maximum used C1C2 distance. Medium side covering.

. The most frequent variant called Wenner alpha is close to Schlumberger with similar range of applications. Wenner Purpose The fastest method. Lower resistance against electric noise is caused by lower level of measured potentials. Measuring conditions Commonly used method for various ground resistivities. Other variants called Wenner beta (like Dipole-Dipole) and Wenner gamma (non conventional array) are used rarely.Resolution Medium resolution . Section covering Low depth range – of about 1/6 of the maximum used C1C2 distance. Low side covering. Measuring conditions High resistance against electric noise – effective replacement of Schlumberger at places hit by electric noise. Resolution Low resolution – inconvenient for detailed investigation of deeper structures.sufficient rather for detailed investigation of shallow structures.

Resolution The highest resolution – allows the maximum possible distinguishing of deeper situated structures. Section covering Medium depth range – of about 1/5 of the maximum used C1C2 distance. Artificial electric noise causes additional significant limitation of use of this method.Dipole-Dipole Purpose The most detailed method especially for detection of vertical structures (including slimmer fissures. ore veins) and cavities. Measuring conditions The effective depth range is strongly limited by rapid decrease of measured potential at larger dipole distance. Medium side covering. .

Higher side covering. The accuracy of positions in section is decreased (side shift) as the method is non symmetric. Resolution Higher resolution. For better results (regarding positions) it is recommended to use an additional Reverse Pole-Dipole or to use Combined Pole-Dipole instead. . Section covering High depth range – of about 1/3 of the used length of the electrode array. The big distance of infinite current electrode requires maximum power of the transmitter and careful installation of such an electrode (or even electrode nest) to reach its lowest possible ground resistance.Pole-Dipole Purpose The most effective method for detection of all vertical structures (even slim crackles) with high depth range. Measuring conditions Installation of external current electrod C2 (C1 in the case of reverse way) – called infinite – is necessary. The place of infinite electrode must be at least at the distance of 5 multiple of the maximum length of used electrode array. Its optimum position should be in perpendicular direction from the electrode array.

The big distance of infinite current electrode requires maximum power of the transmitter and careful installation of such an electrode (or even electrode nest) to reach its lowest possible ground resistance. Rarely used. The highest side covering. C2 and P2 should be on opposite sides of the electrode array. The preparation of the measurement is the most time consuming with the highest requirement regarding the available free area around the measuring line. Resolution Medium resolution. Section covering The highest depth range almost 70 % of the length of the electrode array. Each infinite electrode must be at least at the distance of 5 multiple of the maximum length of used electrode array. . Their optimum position should be in perpendicular direction from the electrode array.Pole-Pole Purpose The most effective method for investigation of deep structures (all kinds). Measuring conditions Installation of two external electrodes (C2 and P2) – called infinites – is necessary.

15 -1 -3 -5 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Resistivity in ohm. Schlumberger Ps. Profile: 20 The length of the measured profile: 31 m Number of electrodes: 32 (4 sections) C1 a P1 a P2 a C2 a). Measured Apparent Resistivity Pseudosection Iteration 5 RMS error = 0.Comparison of sections measured on the same line using different methods (electrode arrays) This way it is possible to judge differences in section covering (depth and side ranges) and resolution (density of measured points). 15 -1 -3 -5 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Unit electrode spacing 1 m b).Z 0 2 4 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 m. 20 25 30 m.4 % 0 5 10 Depth (m) Unit electrode spacing 1 m.m Unit electrode spacing 1 m . Wenner Alpha Ps. Measured Apparent Resistivity Pseudosection Iteration 5 RMS error = 1.Z 0 2 4 6 0 5 10 Resistivity in ohm.m C1 na P1 a P2 na C2 15 20 25 30 m.96 % 0 5 10 Depth (m) Unit electrode spacing 1 m. 20 25 30 m.

25 30 m. 5 10 Measured Apparent Resistivity Pseudosection Iteration 5 RMS error = 1. Measured Apparent Resistivity Pseudosection 0 Depth (m) Unit electrode spacing 1 m.15 % 0 5 10 15 20 Unit electrode spacing 1 m. 0 -2 Depth (m) -4 -6 -8 -10 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Resistivity in ohm.m C1 na 15 20 25 30 m.m Unit electrode spacing 1 m . Dipole-Dipole Ps. Pole-Dipole Ps. Iteration 5 RMS error = 1.Z 0 0 5 10 Resistivity in ohm. 20 25 30 m.c).18 % 0 5 10 15 -2 -4 -6 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Unit electrode spacing 1 m C2 P1 a P2 d).Z 0 2 4 6 0 5 10 15 20 C2 a C1 na P1 a P2 25 30 m.

5 10 15 20 25 Measured Apparent Resistivity Pseudosection Unit electrode spacing 1 m.e1). Pole-Pole Ps.Z 0 0 5 10 15 20 C2 C1 a P1 P2 25 30 m. .

Pole-Pole -5 Iteration 5 RMS error = 5.e2).m .8 % 0 5 10 0 15 20 25 30 m. Pole-Pole C2 C1 a P1 P2 Iteration 5 RMS error = 5. e2).8 % C2 C1 a P1 P2 Depth (m) -10 -15 -20 -25 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Unit electrode spacing 1 m Resistivity in ohm.

Comparison of sections measured on the same line using different Wenner methods (alpha.5 % 0 5 10 0 Depth (m) C1 a P1 a C2 a P2 15 20 25 30 m.m Unit electrode spacing 1 m b). Wenner Gamma Iteration 5 RMS error = 2.m Unit electrode spacing 1 m . -1 -3 -5 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Resistivity in ohm. resolutions and sensitivities to the structure are obvious. Wenner Alpha Iteration 5 RMS error = 1.4 % 0 5 10 Depth (m) 15 20 25 30 m. -2 -4 -6 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Resistivity in ohm. -1 -3 -5 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Resistivity in ohm. gamma) In the following pictures different depth ranges. Profile: 20 The length of the measured profile: 31 m Number of electrodes: 32 (4 sections) C1 a P1 a P2 a C2 a). Wenner Beta Iteration 5 RMS error = 1. beta.29 % 0 5 10 Depth (m) C2 a C1 a P1 a P2 15 20 25 30 m.m Unit electrode spacing 1 m c).

bedrock surface .impacts in civil engineering Engineering geology This area connected with the construction and maintenance of buildings.choice of places for dangerous waste materials .mechanical properties of rocks.complex judgement of strategic localities .Examples of typical applications Hydrogeology This wide area of resistivity imaging applications includes various tasks: .slope stability .raw material prospecting .geological survey .detailed geological structure . railways and bridges requires judgement of: . sediments etc. roads.water management and protection . Geological mapping General survey for geological studies covers: .environmental monitoring .landslide risk .

Projecting of water well Detailed geological information for locating.Rock surface -50 Inverse Model Resistivity Section 201.3 -20 -30 -40 G . The picture shows the position of a wide fault filled with permeable weathered rocks convenient for building of the well with rich water supply. The preliminary idea of the survey was based on mapping of tectonic zones and weathered rocks. 0 0 -10 S G G S -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 Unit electrode spacing 3.8 % 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 m. Iteration 4 RMS error = 6.2 33. Due to the needed rather high depth range and resolution Pole-Dipole method was chosen (infinite electrode C2 at x = 50 m and y = 600 m).Gneiss S .0 m Depth (m) 10 18.5 110.8 Resistivity in ohm.2 60.1 366.m .4 667. drilling and building of water well was required.

Schlumberger array was used.Backfill . These extremely low values of resistivity are typical for the high contamination with organic substances.Environmental protection A complex monitoring in the frame of ground water protection in close vicinity of a pig farm was done. The goal of the resistivity imaging was to detect leakage from a liquid manure tank. Under the backfill created by sand and gravel a zone with significantly decreased resistivity is seen.0 m -4 Inverse Model Resistivity Section 30 34 38 40 Resistivity in ohm.m . B . 0 5 Iteration 4 RMS error = 2.sand and gravel .Zone of contamination with liquid manure 10 15 20 m.3 % 0 0 Depth (m) 10 14 18 22 26 Depth (m) -2 -2 -4 Unit electrode spacing 1.

44 % 0 5 10 0 -2 -4 Depth (m) 25 45 65 85 105 -6 -8 -10 Unit electrode spacing 0.500 m 125 145 165 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Resistivity in ohm. The exact position of the main water infiltration is obvious at position P. Schlumberger array was used.Protection of building Walls of a building as well as cellars were partially hit by water coming to its insufficiently insulated basement.m . The picture shows large watered zone with significantly decreased resisitivity in the left part. The survey for determination of watered zones along this building was performed. 40 45 Iteration 5 RMS error = 0. Several profiles in the vicinity of the building were measured. Sandstone Eluvium (dry) 15 20 25 30 35 Water saturated zone m.

2 40 165 160 Inverse Model Resistivity Section The way of water infiltration during the high water level. The picture coming from one of profiles in perpendicular direction to the river shows both the geological structure and the base and structure of the artificial dike.5 101 160 254 Resistivity in ohm. 20 40 60 80 0 100 120 140 m. Schlumberger array was used. 63. 180 175 170 165 160 Unit electrode spacing 2 m 180 175 170 Elevation 10 15.River dike investigation In the frame of the protection against floods the river dike quality and stability were monitored.9 25.m . The material of the dike shows both inhomogenous structure and permeable basement which leads to its malfunction in the case of flood (quick occurrence of water on fields behind the dike). The huge alluvium gravel layer allows quick water infiltration below the dike in the case of high water level. Thus a profile along the dike and a dense grid of profiles perpendicularly to the river were measured.

Landslide risk judgement Mapping of the depth of the debris for dam stability monitoring was done on a slope of river valley close to the dam. 530 520 510 500 490 530 520 510 500 490 Sandstone locally with S thin claystone layers 480 Elevation 480 Elevation 470 S 470 460 20 40 60 450 S Bedrock surface Unit electrode spacing 4 m 22. Heterogeneous structure of the bedrock partially saturated with water from the dam is obvious as well.2 576.6 1297. Schlumberger array was used.3 440 430 430 420 420 Inverse Model Resistivity Section 10 Resistivity in ohm. 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 460 450 440 m.6 113. The picture shows the depth and shape of old landslide created by stones and coarse sandstone debris.4 2919.m .5 50.9 256.

Mapping slope deformation A road in mountains was fatally destroyed by active landslide (as a consequence of heavy rain).base of non solid ground 470 465 465 50 460 60 m. Schlumberger array was used.zone of saturation 470 20 30 40 10 S Slip surface . The picture shows the thickness and shape of the watered zone with risk of the massive continuous landslide. The bedrock is created by claystone and sandstone. Wet sediments . The position of an old dry landslide is seen at position D as well.m . 455 Elevation 6 9 12 15 18 Elevation 460 455 450 Unit electrode spacing 1 m 21 24 27 450 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Resistivity in ohm. Detailed monitoring of the slope was performed before the road reconstruction.

50 m 90 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Resistivity in ohm. The cellars in the right part of the picture are situated in solid rock and are not endangered by collapse.61 % 0 10 20 Depth (m) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 Unit electrode spacing 1. Houses and asphalt road on that place were partially destroyed. Many inhomogenities (cavities. The survey should detect weak zones. holes and waste material deposits in the slope. Schlumberger array was used. They determine the zone of the slope instability. error = 1. Iteration 5 Abs. 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 m. backfill) are visible in left part of the picture.m t hal p s A d roa Unbroken Cellars ad Ro Cellar Roof fall A Base of disturbed area B Backfill C Clay .Monitoring slope stability above cellars The area above a queue of wine cellars was endangered by unpredictable movement of instable soil that occurred as a consequence of collapse of some cellars.

K1 New discovered cavity K2 Cavity continuation K3 Known cavity partially repaired 30 35 40 45 50 55 m. Their positions are partially visible in situ because they are accompanied with depressions of the dam. Iteration 3 RMS error = 5. The section shows three main areas filled with mud from the fishpond (taken during the flood). The survey was performed to detect its weak places.Mapping cavities A fishpond dam was partially destroyed during the flood.m . Schlumberger array was measured along the dam.4 % 20 25 0 -2 Depth (m) 10 30 50 70 90 -4 -6 Inverse Model Resistivity Section 110 130 150 Unit electrode spacing 1 m Resistivity in ohm.

.Investigation of the rock surface The rock surface (granodiorite) was investigated before projecting of basements of houses. 118 40 30 20 116 114 112 110 108 106 B Bedrock surface 118 116 Model resistivity with topography Iteration 4 RMS error = 4. The shape of inclined bedrock as well as the weathered layer above are very well visible from the picture.0 m 102 100 10 16 Inverse Model Resistivity Section 25 40 63 101 160 254 Resistivity in ohm. Silty loam+Eluvium Granodiorite m.m. Schlumberger array was used.1 114 112 110 Elevation Elevation 108 10 106 104 B 104 102 100 Unit Electrode Spacing = 1.

(These two pictures demonstrate the fact that for this purpose the increased spacing . Schlumberger array was used. Elevation 220 216 212 208 Inverse Model Resistivity Section 10 14 18 22 26 30 Unit electrode spacing 1 m 34 38 Resistivity in ohm.2 m instead of 1 m .gives very similar results. 0 Elevation 220 216 212 208 Inverse Model Resistivity Section 10 14 18 Unit electrode spacing 2 m 22 26 30 34 38 Resistivity in ohm. Minimum electrode spacing 1 m 0 20 40 60 80 m.) a).m b). Minimum electrode spacing 2 m 20 40 60 80 m. The picture shows the border between homogenous clay sediment and inhomogeneous area created by sandy and clayey sediments. The task was to give an exact information about the square and depth of homogenous geological structure.Mapping resistivity contact General geological mapping was performed to determine the safe area for a large building construction.m Sandy developments Clay sediments Geoelectrical boundary .

3 % 0 20 40 0 -2 Depth (m) 10 30 50 70 90 -4 -6 -8 Unit electrode spacing 1. Schlumberger array was used.m . recycling materials 60 80 100 120 140 160 m. A Alluvium sediments . The backfill shows very inhomogeneous structure (building waste material. concrete blocks.00 m 110 130 150 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Resistivity in ohm. concrete blocks and recycling material).clayey silt B Bbackfill .Mapping backfill The backfill thickness was determined by means of resistivity imaging.building garbage. Iteration 4 RMS error = 5. It is possible to see very homogenous bedrock (clayey silt) covered by approx. 2 m backfill.

4 m Iteration 4 RMS error = 1. 1 m) in the ceramic clay quarry. Depth (m) -1 -3 -5 D Inverse Model Resistivity Section 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Unit electrode spacing 0.m 80 90 100 110 120 125 .) Dry cracked claystone at the surface Sandstone Claystone Near-surface inhomogeneous layer. Minimum electrode spacing 0.54 % 0 10 20 30 40 m. The detected inhomogeneous layer of sandstone with pyrite was spread horizontally at about 1 m depth. Schlumberger array was used.85 % 0 10 20 30 40 m.decreased spacing .sand and insulated dissemination of metallic sulfides (pyrite) a).Thin horizontal layer survey The task was to determine a thin inhomogeneous layer (of approx.for required resolution.4 m 120 125 Resistivity in ohm. Minimum electrode spacing 0.m b). Depth (m) -1 -3 -5 D Inverse Model Resistivity Section 50 60 70 Unit electrode spacing 0. (These two pictures demonstrate the necessity of the sufficient density of electrodes .8 m Iteration 4 RMS error = 1.8 m Resistivity in ohm.

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g.g. Thus we can obtain useful information from simultaneous sections of resistivity. .Short guide for induced polarization imaging Chapter 2 General features and purpose of IP measurement Measurement of induced polarization allows distinguishing structures according to their chargeabilities and can be used as complementary method for resistivity imaging. as metal factor). Physical background To understand physical basis of this method comparison with simple and well known electric elements like resistor and capacitor is useful. The decay curve of potential can sampled and sections from individual sampling windows can be processed as chargeability (resp. metal ore layers) look like capacitor rather than resistor – the potential induced during current pulse is kept for significant period (during several seconds) when this pulse is terminated. Other structures (e. This comparison is useful for judgment of structures when metal ore layer (with first order conductor). organic and inorganic chemicals) are supposed and studied. water table or influence of artificial substances (like oil. dry sandy and crystalline rocks) look like resistor rather than capacitor – the potential induced during current pulse is rapidly lost (during several milliseconds) when this pulse is terminated. Some structures (e. chargeability and metal factor (defined as ratio of chargeability and resistivity).

Its proper application requires deeper knowledge. The first 20 ms IP window after pulse termination can be hit by EM (electromagnetic) effect especially while longer cable line is used. Measuring instructions and settings For IP measurement stainless steel electrodes are necessary. This effect can disturb responses of real objects. the IP measurement takes significantly longer time than resistivity. for special tasks can bring results that can be hardly replaced by another geophysical method. The measured potential is necessary to be kept at the highest level possible to suppress noise present at low measured potential and causing big statistic deviation of IP readings.Methodical reminders IP measurement is not such a general method like resistivity imaging. It means to set 200 mV optimum potential for IP measurement which activates the maximum available transmitter power. The choice of IP window can influence selectivity to specific kinds of objects. . however. windows set to short times after pulse termination increase selectivity to shallow situated and smaller objects while windows set to longer times after pulse termination select bigger and deeper situated objects. Generally.

Examples of typical applications Following examples show results from raw material prospecting and hydrogeology. . which belong to basic areas of IP applications. Environmental studies like leakage of oil and other mineral substances can be supported by IP measurement as well. Some important features of IP measurement are discussed in individual pictures.

Chargeability section shows ore vein situated in weakened zone of rock characterized by lower resistivity (see resistivity section).04 s Inverse Model Chargeability Section 0 3 9 Unit electrode spacing 2.001 msec/ohm.m” 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 .0 m Metal Factor in “0.03 -4. IP 2 = 0.7 0 Depth (m) -0.5 -1.m 30 40 50 60 m. Inverse Model Resistivity Section 20 29 41 60 86 124 Unit electrode spacing 2.0 m 16 22 28 34 41 47 53 59 66 72 78 84 91 97 157 Chargeability in msec (= 0. Iteration 5 RMS error = 6.3 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 Depth (m) 10 20 IP 2 = 0.79 -6.02 .99 -9. Iteration 5 RMS error = 2. Metal factor section illustrates further possibility of selection of ore vein positions decreasing influence of changing resistivity.0 m 178 257 519 Resistivity in ohm.1 %) Iteration 5 RMS error = 62.73 10 20 30 40 50 60 m.0.Ore Prospecting Shallow situated ore deposit (former surface mines from 15 th century) was investigated using Schlumberger array.63 -3.02 .0.2 % 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 Depth (m) 10 20 30 40 50 60 m.04 s Inverse Model Metal Factor Section 500 700 Unit electrode spacing 2.

04 . IP 2 = 0.0 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 Depth (m) 10 20 30 40 50 60 m. Depth (m) Inverse Model Chargeability Section Unit electrode spacing 2.3 Unit electrode spacing 2.0.0 m 0 3 9 16 22 28 34 41 47 53 59 66 72 78 84 91 97 157 Chargeability in msec (= 0.1 %) . Iteration 5 RMS error = 25.0 m 10 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 IP 3 = 0.IP Windows Selection This picture (accompanying the previous one) shows the crucial influence of IP windows position in pulse decay curve.04 s Inverse Model Chargeability Section Iteration 5 RMS error = 5.0.0 m 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 Depth (m) 10 20 30 40 50 60 m.1 Unit electrode spacing 2.00 .0.02 s Inverse Model Chargeability Section Iteration 5 RMS error = 6.02 . IP 1 = 0.06 s -10 0 20 30 40 50 60 m. Smaller and shallow situated objects are emphasized in first 20 ms IP window while next IP windows select weakened zone filled with ore vein.

Iteration 4 RMS error = 4.0.06 s Unit electrode spacing 4.m Iteration 4 RMS error = 7.1 %) .0 m 110 140 170 200 230 Inverse Model Chargeability Section 50 80 20 Chargeability in msec (= 0. Position of the drift as well as rather complicated geological structure are seen from accompanying resistivity section. 0 50 0 -10 -20 Depth (m) -30 Unit electrode spacing 4.3 0 50 100 0 -10 -20 Depth (m) -30 -40 IP 3 = 0.Natural Graphite Deposit IP Section performed above former drift of graphite mine shows position of deposit.0 % 100 150 200 250 m.0 m 60 120 240 480 960 1920 200 250 m.04 . 150 -40 Inverse Model Resistivity Section 15 30 Resistivity in ohm.

IP section shows slightly inclined water table at approximately 3 m level in the sandy layer.m Unit electrode spacing 2.04 s Inverse Model Chargeability Section Unit electrode spacing 2.0.85 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 Depth (m) 10 20 30 40 50 60 m. IP 2 = 0. Iteration 4 RMS error = 4.Water Table Investigation Basic geology of the site is created by quartz sand above clay background visible in resistivity section.1 %) .0 m 0 20 25 31 39 49 61 76 95 119 149 186 233 291 363 455 568 Iteration 4 RMS error = 0.0 m 0 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Chargeability in msec (= 0.02 .7 % 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 m. Depth (m) -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 Inverse Model Resistivity Section Resistivity in ohm.