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Ancient science and India

(Orissa)

-by Arun Kumar Upadhyay, M.Sc., AIFC B-9, CB-9, Cantonment Road, Cuttack-753001 0671-2304172/2304172/2304433, (M)

09437034172 Email arunupadhyay30@yahoo.in (Abstract) This is with reference to 4 questions of Dr. J.V. Narlikar, summarizing doubts of scientists whether science had developed in India in past and if so what are the evidences. It also tells that there are no records of eclipse or otherwise to date past events. The questions are partly due to deliberate wrong interpretation in British period and destruction of chronology. Most records were destroyed in Islamic rule from 1200 to 1700 AD and it was completed by Britishers who carried away remains to Europe to further destroy by mis-interpretations. The article dates the ancient chronology from 61902 BC by 5 out of 7 yugas used for historic eras. Then it gives evidence of ancient advances by advanced theories and measures of cosmic structures which has not been achieved till today. Other evidences are survey of minerals throughout the world, cooperation for exploration, refining, accurate measures of locations all over world, advances in yoga and yurveda not explained till today, and sciences of language, script and political theory. It was all over the world, but Indian tradition preserved them while asuras destroyed all earlier theories. This is not merely a pro-Indian sentiment, it is useful for further research in all these subjects. (Article) 1. Introduction -The four questions that Prof. Narlikar asks are: 1. What is the scientific content of the Vedas? 2. Can astronomical allusions of the past and the present be used to date ancient writings or events, as is usually done in support of the scriptural history of the Indian subcontinent? 3. Were any supernovae observed in India during the Siddhantic Period, the golden period of Indian astronomy? If not then how reliable Indian astronomy would be in spite of the ignorance regarding the rare cosmic phenomena that were recorded in contemporary China? And 4. Why did scientific activity decline after the Siddhantic Period, if at all the period may be referred to as scientific? Source -J.V. Narlikar. 1996. Four Questions That History Might Answer . In Science, Philosophy and Culture; Multi-disciplinary Explorations . Part 1. (Ed.) D.P. Chattopadhayaya and Ravinder Kumar. PHISPC. Delhi. Pp. 178-184. 1.Ancient Concept of Time Concept of time was defined by a term called arrow of time in 1927 by British astronomer Arthur Eddington to distinguish a direction of time on a four-dimensional relativistic map. Physical processes at the microscopic level are believed to be either entirely or mostly time symmetric, meaning that the theoretical statements that describe them remain true if the direction of time is reversed; yet when we describe things at the macroscopic level it often appears that this is not the case: there is an obvious direction (or flow) of time. An arrow of time is anything that exhibits such time-asymmetry. Its 7 forms are stated-(1) Thermodynamic, (2) Cosmological, (3) Radiative, (4) Causal, (5) Particle physics (weak) arrow of time, (6) Quantum arrow of time, (7) Psychological/perceptual arrow of time. These have been discussed in many articles by Narlikar and a popular book Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawkins. Basically, they have identified 2 types-(1) Thermodynamic arrow is

increase of disorder in any natural process. Increase in disorder or decay indicates increase of time, but it is not measured. Measurable time is by time periods of natural cycles. In mechanics, it depends on observer. In electromagnetic theory, velocity of light is same for all frames, but we still use the same time in mathematical equations of both. That is a logical contradiction. In Bhgavat pura (3/11), 4 types of time are defined. Time is perception of change of world. Change is of 3 types defining 3 types of time = Kla. (1)Nitya Kla (Eternal time)-All physical bodies are always decaying. Changes are irreversible. Whatever has gone cannot come back. So, it is also called Death (Mtyu). ( /) (2) Janya Kla (Creative time)-This is related to Yaja which is creation of useful things in a cycle. Measure of that cycle is unit of time. There are 9 cycles of creation called 9 sargas. In Bhgavata Pura, 10 sargas are stated including Avyakta (abstract, formless). Time of that is Partpara. . (, ) (, /) (3) Akaya-kla (conserved time)-This is time of a system which follows 5 types of conservation laws in physics-mass, momentum, energy, angular momentum, and parity or charge. (, /) (4) Partpara Kla-This is time of abstract source of Universe, and is beyond any perception. It is described in Bhgavata Pura (3/16). From this abstract 9 levels are created, when forms and changes are perceived. It is called Day of Brahm. (, /) Time and Purua-Purua also is of 4 types-(1) All bodies with form (boundary is called Chhanda) are constantly decaying. That is called Kara. Despite decay, the functions of the body remain the same, called Akara. It is known by same identity, which is invisible ( Kastha). As a part of surrounding, it is constant, called Avyaya. At ultimate source, there is no difference-it is Partpara. Purua Time 1. Kara Nitya 2. Akara Janya 3. Avyaya Akay 4. Partpara Partpara 2. Measures of Time-Srya-siddhnta (14/1)(1)Brhma-His day is time period of creation of 9 stages from formless stage. 1 Yuga = 12, 000 Divya-year. In astronomy, Divya year =360 solar year 1 day of Brahm =1000 yugas =1000 x 12000 x 360 = 4,32,00,00,000 years. Same period is night, when all merge in same formless source. In modern terms, 1 day-night of 8.64 billion LY is radius of visible universe and also cycle of creation. (2) Prjpatya-Prajpati is Creator. His work started with creation of galaxy. Axial rotation period of galaxy is called Manvantara. Galaxy element is called Manu. It has 1011 stars which is equal to number of cells in human brain. So Brain element is called mana (mind). 1 Manvantara = 71 yugas =30.68 crore years

(3) Divya-1 Divya year =360 solar years. It can have 3 meanings-(a) Rotation period of imaginary planet at distance of 60 AU (called Nakatra-kak in Sryasiddhnta (12/80). (b) In 1 day-night cycle, sun makes a circle at horizon. Similarly cycle of northsouth motion is taken as 1 Divya day, and 360 such days make divya-year. (c) This is cycle of historic changes called Parivarta-yuga in Vyu-pura in list of 28 Vysas. It includes current generation with past and next =120 x3 years. (4) Jupiter year-It is period of 361.0486 days taken by jupiter with mean motion in 1 sign. In north India, this is actual time in 1 sign (Srya-siddhnta) . In south India, solar year is taken as Jupiter year ( Pitmaha-siddhnta) (5) Solar year-1 rotation of sun (apparent) is 1 year. 12 part is 1 month. 30 part of month is day. (6) Lunar-Month is synodic rotation of moon in 29.5 days of 2 equal parts-new moon to full is bright half. Other is dark half. (7) Pitara-They live on opposite side of moon. So, lunar month is 1 day of Pitaras. 30 days are 1 month and 12 such months are year. (8) Svana (Civil)-Sunrise to next sunrise is day. 30 days = 1 month. 12 months = 1 year. (9) Nkatra (sidereal)-Axial rotation period of about 23 hrs 56 minutes is 1 day. Sunrise to next rise period is bigger by 4 minutes as earth has to move 1 degree more covered by sun in annual motion. 30 days = 1 month. 12 months = 1 year. 3. Yuga systems- (1) Sanskra-yugas-This is period taken by a man in completing his education. This is of 5 types(a) Gopada-yuga-Like 4 feet of a cow, it has 4 years. It starts with Go-dhli, i.e. sun set when dust Is raised due to cows returning after grazing. Year 1 is Kali (start of count) which will end at midnight after 365 days-hence Kali is called sleeping. Year 2 is Dvpara (dv = 2), which will end after 366 Days at sunrise. Thus is called awaken. Year 3 is Tret (tri =3), which ends after 365 days at noon when people are standing. Cycle is completed in year 4, called Kta (=completed) again at sun-set. ( , /) (b) 5 year yuga- Yjua- jyotia gives 5 year yuga. 5 such yugas have 6 omitted years, making a bigger yuga of 19 years. (c) 12year yuga-It is rotation period of Jupiter and is taken as standard for teaching of Vedas. (d) 19 year yuga-kjyotia gives 19 year yuga with 7 extra lunar months which tallies with solar year within 2 hours (See Vednga jyotia by P.V. Holay, Nagpur, 1985). (e) Eclipse yuga- this is by joint motion of sun and Rhu in 18 years 10.5 days. Its half period of 3339 tithis is also cycle of eclipse indicated in k (3/9/9, 10/52/6). ( , //) (2) Human yuga-(a) Normal working period of life is 60 years. This is cycle of Jupiter years in which Jupiter and Saturn make 5 and 2 revolutions. This is called Angir period in Vedas. - , , ( , //) ( , ///) Here, ditya =12, Pacha-hot =5 x 12 =60 years. (b) Century year-It is indicated by Saptari, who remain 100 years in one star. The line joining 2 eastern stars joins zodiac in point whose location is star of Saptari . It moves back @1 star (13020) in 100 years. This is also obtained by combining yugas of k of 5 x 19 =95 years when moon comes in same nakatra.

Adding 5 year yuga ofYjua moon will be 1 more. Rjatarangi has called it Laukika era. (c) 120 years cycle is taken in cycle of periods of planets in astrology. (3) Parivarta Yuga-It is Divya year of 360 years. Vyu pura (23/114-226) or Krma (chapter 52) has called it parts of Dvpara or Parivarta. Brahma pura (1/2/29/19) tells Yuga of 2600 years and at (1/2/9/36, 37) calls the same as manvantara of 71 yugas where 1 yuga = 360 years. .. ( , ///) ( ,/ //,) 71 x 360 =25,560 or about 26,000 years. (4) Sahasra yuga-(a) Bhgavata pura (1/1/4) tells a session(satra) of 1000 years by aunaka. Human life is only of 100 years, but standards of moral remain for thousand years, which is a satra of that period. 3000 years after that, Vikramditya re-edited Puras which is continuing now for 2000 years. (Bhaviya pura, 3/3/1/2-4) (b) Saptari-vatsara is of 2700 divya (solar year) or 3030 Mnua years (12 revolutions of moon in 327 days) ( , ///, , /) ( , /) Here , 2700 Divya years= 2700 x 365,25 days, 3030 Mnua years = 3030 x 327 days. Both are equal. (c) Romaka siddhnta has used a yuga of 2850 years which is 150 times k yuga of 19 years. (5) Dhruva or Kraucha yuga-(a)Dhruva samvatsara is of 9090 Mnua years or 8100 solar years (Brahma pura, 1/2/29/18). Vyu pura (57/18) has called it Kraucha-samvatsara. (b) Jupiter Yuga-Jupiter years in north India follow Srya-siddhnta, chapter 4, where 361.0486 days is time taken by Jupiter in 1 sign by mean motion. In 85 solar years, there are 1 more i.e. 86 Jupiter years. In south India by Pitmaha siddhnta, solar year is taken as Jupiter year. 60 years cycles in both systems will join in 60 x 85 =5100 solar years which makes 1 Jupiter Yuga. Rma was born on 11-2-4433 BC at 10-47-48 LMT. Then it was Prabhava year in both systems (Viu-dharmottara pura, 82/7, 8). 5100 years prior to that, Prabhava year was at time of Matsya incarnation in 9533 BC. As per Iliad of Homer last island of Atlantis had submerged in 9564 BC. Persian tales tell it in 9844 BC. Glacial floods lasted about 1000 years. (6) Ayana-yuga-Manvantara of 26000 years is the precession cycle of earths axis in reverse direction. But historic cycle follows cycle of Glacial floods and ice eras. That is joint effect of rotation of Apogee in 1,00,000 years and precession in reverse direction in 26000 years (Milankovich Theory, 1923). When north pole is inclined away from sun, it gets less heat. Heat is further reduced when sun is farthest at apogee (mandoccha). That is period of glacial ice. At perigee, when north pole is towards sun, it gets maximum heat and is Glacial floods. That is cycle of 21,600 years1/21600 =1/26000 + 1/100000 Middle value of 24,000 years is taken in India with 12000 years period of Avasarpi in order of Satya, Tret, Dvpara, Kali of 4, 3, 2, 1 parts. Second half is Ustasrpi in reverse order of yugas. This is cycle of correction taken from tradition by Brahmagupta (Brhma-sphua-siddhnta, Madhyamdhikra, 60-61) and Bhskara-2 (Siddhnta-iromai, Bh-paridhi, 7-8)

(7) Astronomical era is of 12000 Divya years each equal to 360 solar years, i.e. of 43,20,000 years. It has 3 meanings-(d) Combined cycle of planets within wheel of solar Ratha, up to Saturn (b) Cycle of change in eccentricity of earth orbit, (c) Cycle of magnetic pole reversal. These depend on (a). 4. Yuga Cycle-First yuga is too small and last yuga is too big for historic eras. Remaining 5 yugas are used to determine historic times. This is similar to 5 elements used to decide a day in Indian calendar-called pachnga due to that reason. Multiple elements are needed due to many reasons-(1) Day, month, year are defined in many ways. (2) Motions of sun, moon, earth are not in simple relation and there is no exact solution of elliptical orbits. (3) Orbits are changing in eccentricity, direction of major axis and there are perturbations due to other planets. (4) There are long periods of uncertain changes. (5) Rotation of earth is slowing down due to tidal friction and its rate is uncertain in long past despite 10 models of correction up to 3000 BC. (6) Multiple elements serve as check of errors. Based on 5 yugas, the yuga cycle from 61902 BC is given below. Cycle Order BC years of start Yuga 61,902 Satya Glacial cycle (modern value) Glacial ice 69,200 ( Tret of previous

cycle) Avasarpi 57,102 Tret Glacial flood 58,100- Maij era, some sktas in (descending) 53,502 Dvpara that period- Veda-kla-niraya-Dinanath Chulet, 1925. Dark era (first) 51,102 Kali 49,902 Kali Utsarpi 48,702 Dvpara (ascending) 46,302 Tret Glacial ice 45,500 42,702 Satya 37,902 Satya Avasarpi 33,102 Tret Glacial floods 31,200 29,502 Dvpara dya Tret-Brahm-Varha Kalpa dya-yuga 27,102 Kali 29,102 (Svyambhuva) 25,102 Kali 27,376Dhruva-0 (Brahma-dina 2) 24,702 Dvpara 43 x 360 = 16,000 Utsarpi 22,302 Tret Glacial Ice-20,000 19,276Dhruva-1 18,702 Satya 13,902 Satya 13,102- Vaivasvata Manu Avasarpi 9,102 Tret Glacial floods 9,200 11,176Dhruva-2 5,502 Dvpara 28 x 360 = 10,000 8,476Ikvku-1 Vaivasvata 3,102 Kali 3,102-Kali 5,776Saptari-2 (Current,day-3) 1,902 Kali Mahvra birth 1905, Buddha (18886-1805) 3076-Laukika-3 702 Dvpara 756-draka, kambhar aka -612, rHara-456 Utsarpi 1,699 AD Tret 1700AD-Industrial revolution 5,299 AD Satya 2000 AD-End of Tret-sandhyInformation era.

5. Parts of Yuga-Brahma pura (1/2/6/6-8) tells that the current kalpa or day of Brahm is called Varha-kalpa. Parts of yuga are counted only for this kalpa. In list of 28 Vysas, each part of a yuga has been called parivarta. 1 parivarta = 360 years (Paridhi = circumference divided into 3600, parivartana = change). 1 Tret = 3600 years = 10 Parivarta Yuga. Start of Tret was in 22,302 and in 9,102 BC. These had 10 +10 = 20 parivarta or parts. Even after second Tret ended in 5,502 BC, this counting continued till age of Rma (birth on 11-2-4433 BC as per horoscope in Vlmki Rmyaa) as era of advancement continued. Vyu pura, chapters (70, 86, 98) mentions these partsAsura king Bali-3rd Tret This count should start from 22,302 BC, but this yugasystem itself started after Vaivasvata Manu, hence it should more properly be counted 3600 years before 13,902 BC, i.e. from 17,502 BC. Second Tret will be completed in 16,802 BC and the third will continue till 16,442 BC. In this period of Bali, Vmana had achieved supremacy of 3 lokas for Indra. But Asuras thought that they could have defeated Devas in war and continued attacks. Finally Krttikeya defeated them convincingly. In his period, pole star had shifted from Abhijit to Dhanih and in consultation with Brahm, he started year with entry of sun in Dhanih (Mahbhrata udyoga parva, 230/8-10). That should be in 16,000 BC. Bali period is 1 saptari = 2700 years after completion of Dhruva cycle in 19,276 BC, i.e. after 16,576 BC when Asura empire based in Kraucha Dvpa (north America) was most powerful. Year started with southward motion of sun, or var (rains), so year itself was called vara. Datttreya -10thTret,-It appears to be in 9102 BC when second Tret started after end of glacial floods. Mndht - 15th Tret-started in 9102-4 x 360 =7,662 BC and continued till 7,302 BC. 18 generation after him was Bhu, who had been defeated by Yavanas with help of Haihaya, Tlajangha, aka, Prada, Kmboja, and Pahlavas (Brahma pura, 2/3/63/119-120). Megasthenes, Arian, Solin and other Greek authors have given the date of this first Yavana attack by Dionysus (Bacchus) as 6451 years 3 months before Alexander, i.e. in 6,777 BC. Paraurma-19th Tret - It started in 5502 + 2 x 360 = 7222 BC. After his death, Kalamba (Kollam) samvat started in 6,177 BC which still continues in Kerala. As incarnation of Viu, he has been called Hercules (as sun or Viu, he holds the earth). He was 15 generations after Dionysus as per Greek writers. He destroyed kings (kingdoms) 21 times, which has been called republic era for 120 years by the Greeks. This should start 120 years before the death of Paraurma in 6297 BC, when he must have been about 30-35 years. Thus, he lived up to at least 155 years of age, so he is famous as long lived. Rma-24th Tret- This actually started 3 parivartas after end of Tret, i.e. 5502-3 x 360 = 4422 BC, i.e. when he was 11 years of age. Thus his life was mostly in 24th Tret. 6. Modern formula-The data base is only 300 years old. So, there is large error in estimating time. There are many errors in estimate of long term variation in orbits like eccentricity, apogee motion and may be inclination angle with ecliptic and nodes. In addition, there is uncertainty in estimate of slowing down of earths axial rotation due to tidal friction caused by moon (75%) and sun. There are 10 alternate models of correction given on the following web linkhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%94T One of the external links in that is following which gives online formula for calculating Delta-T which is difference between Universal time and Ephemeris time, difference is due to slowing down of earth's axial rotationhttp://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/deltat/deltat.htm.

The minimum error for 3100 BC is 25 hours after correction. Without correction, it is about 68 hours. All Indian ephemeris have followed calculation from 17-23102 BC, Ujjain mid-night and Vkya-karana (sentence for remembering formula) give error of less than 0.20 in moon motion which is about 20 minutes only. In addition calendar software of NASA does not take into account the temporary slowing of rotation by glacial floods and resultant changes in moon orbit itself. There was rise in sea level after Mahabharata. Isaac Asimov (Intelligent mans Guide to Science) feels that it was due to nuclear war. There may be natural cause also for rise in radio-activity by 3 times after that-e.g. Increased solar flare about which we are not sure. But this will indicate time of 900 BC instead of 3102 BC in radio-carbon dating. This error has been eliminated in Indian time measures by simultaneous use of 5 yugas explained above. 7. Other wonders of astronomy-There is complete arbitrariness and more than double standards in modern historical research. In 500 BC, Sumerian historian Berosus has written that Greeks write and twist history only for showing their superiority as may be seen on these siteswww.angelfire.com/nt/Gilgamesh/classic. html rbedrosian.com/euseb2.htm. This tendency has continued since Herodotus. After destroying Alexandria, it was claimed to have been built by Alexander. He had destroyed libraries of this place and Persipolis (Persia). Most Greek scientists had got education in Ezypt-e.g. Euclid and Ptolemy. Appolonius could not get a good teacher for conic sections, so he came to India. But sole point in research of David Pingree is that ryabhaa had borrowed sign tables from Hipparchus. Such conclusions are based by quoting his own articles-generally a group of 5-6 persons quote each other. Neither Hipparchus nor Pingree have read math otherwise he would have known that no math can be copied by a persons who has not read it already. Moreover Pingree did not exist then to teach Greek to ryabhaa. But there are much bigger things seen in normal texts of math and history which need very advanced knowledge of math, science and engineering(1)Alexander could not have planned his attack up to India without knowing map of Asia, Europe and Africa. Location of countries in these regions have been indicated in all Indian puras and several Greek texts. Size and shape of these counties was well known. For survey of these regions, Greek persons had not been hired. All these were by local people. (2) All puras have indicated that India is triangular in south and rectangular in north. 9 regions of Bhratavara make one of the 4 petals of earth-lotus, i.e. cover 900 longitude in north hemisphere. This is possible only after a detailed survey of world. (3) All texts of astronomy tell about 4 places on earth placed at 90 0 interval on globe. This is not possible without a detailed and accurate survey all over the world. Vlmki Rmya, Kikindh ka, (40/54, 64) tells that after u island (Indonesia-in shape of trunk of elephant with head in Burma), there is ocean (Pacific). After crossing ocean, we reach end of east direction (i.e. 180 0 east of Ujjain) where a Dvra (gate) was made by Brahm as a mark. That confirms accurate worldwide survey. That is location of the largest Pyramid in Mexico. (4) After sudden burning of library at Persipolis, Persia had regrouped, so Alexander had to return by ocean route from Makran coast. Obviously, ships were not built by Alexander nor Greek had come in advance to teach ship building. This region is surrounded by desert, so wood and iron-both had to come from at least 500 kms. Shippers knew map of Arab sea and also navigation by longitude, latitude and direction-there are no other marks in sea. In Europe,

longitude determination was known only in 1482 after which Columbus made journey in 1492. Alexander had come with about 2 lakh army and at least 120 thousand had survived. He had looted 20 lakh bullocks and many other properties. In addition, weapons, clothes, tents, horses, and food also had to be transported. Even for USA, it was not possible to send 1 lakh men to Iraq in single trip. This massive ship building needs all branches of science. (5) Many Indians take pride that in 499 AD, ryabhaa had started astronomy. In fact, none of the things mentioned could have been found out by him. He could not have known that many towns were on same longitude as Ujjain without accurate national survey. He could not have visited Mexico, west Africa, Newzealand to know 3 towns at 90 0 intervals from Ujjain. He could not have visited poles to know that north pole is in ocean and south pole on land mass (known only in 1985 by echo sounding). In 1909, when Admiral Peary had reached north pole, Bal GangadharTilak had written Arctic Home in Vedas. ryabhaa could not have used base data of 3600 years from Kali for planetary calculations. That is possible only by continuous and accurate observation for 3600 years at least. Now we are using base data of 100 years only. From 2000 AD, annual reference has been started. Error of 68 hours for 3100 BC is normal in modern data. Actually, ryabhaa work was in 360 Kali year and he was using preMahbhrata data. Just to prove that he was after Greek mathematicians, his dated was changed from 360 to 3600 by Sudhakara Dwiwedi for which he was rewarded as Principal of Queens Sanskrit College, Varanasi (now Sanskrit university). (6) Even combined effort of whole India and other nations could not have estimated any planetary data. Smallest distance is of moon. If India was under unified rule in 499 AD, at least 2 observatories were needed-on at Patna and other at farthest place Kanyakumari. Simultaneous observation from these will give distance of moon. But that will be less than 1/6 of a degree. If there is error of 1 minute in longitude/latitude of these places, error of 1 minute time (by quartz watch) each at both places and error of 1 minute angle at each, error in moon distance will be 50%. (7) Estimate of solar system and galaxy is given in Mexico (Mayan astronomy) and Vedas and all puras. Einsteins theory of relativity came in 1905 and 1912 (special and general). But first estimate of galaxy size was made in 1928 after which James Jeans wrote Mysterious Universe in 1931. Real measurement was made in 1950 after Radio astronomy. Solar system is neither defined nor measured. On basis of Bhgavata pura, Yajurveda, gveda appendix, -I had written 3 facts about solar system unknown in modern science in 2001-size of solar system, solar wind up to Uranus, and 60000 small planets at distance of 60 AU. Later 2 were found in NASA probe to Uranus in 2007. Bhgavata pura tells 60000 bodies of above 135 km. diameter, NASA estimate is 70000 bodies of above 100 km. diameter. (8) On one hand NASA is probing basis of projected end of civilization in 2012 in Mayan calendar, on other hand we tell that no script was known to them. Both ryabhaa and Mayan astronomy have used 18 digit number system as measure of galaxy is Parrdha yojana (18 digit number). But ryabhaa has started from 3102 BC, Mayan start is 12 years earlier. In India, start of Kali is linked with death of Ka after which Yudhihira abdicated. However, it was not start of Jovian cycle. In south Indian Pitmaha system, it was Pramth at serial 13. In Mexico, it started with first year Prabhava. 8. Other sciences-There are many unexplained facts in other branches also which are commonly known to school students but not thought by biased researchers.

(1) Copper age is called primitive and prior to 1500 BC after which Iron age started. But school students are taught that metallurgy of copper is more difficult as it cannot be reduced by carbon. Iron can be extracted even by village blacksmith. Iron is known by red coloured soil, but copper ore needs more technical exploration. (2) Prospecting of gold, diamond and rare elements are much more difficult and there is no sure shot method. But all over world mines of gold, silver were known. Digging up whole earth is much more difficult. Even if ore is found, it needs to be tested chemically-otherwise we will not know that we have found copper ore. (3) Basis of homeopathy is not explained till today. It was based on certain observations of Taittirya upaniad etc. 5 unexplained points are explained by vedic model of cosmology which indicates interlink between 3 worlds-human, physical and cosmic. Effectiveness or rather bad effects of wrong medicine proves correctness of Vedic model. This explanation can be seen on http://www.scribd.com/doc/32158010/Homeo-Slide http://www.scribd.com/doc/11959849/Vedic-foundation-of-Homeopathy (4) Meanings of 6 chakras in vertebra or method of 52 accomplishments in Yogastra of Patanjali are not understood till today. (5) Complicated structures of scripts devised by Brahm continues till today in each region. Seehttp://www.scribd.com/doc/33686722/Vedic-origin-andclassification-of-Script (6) Reference and design of ancient Vimnas all over world and Vaimnika Rahasya of Bharadvja. 9. Consumerism-Only prior to Svyambhuva Manu in 29102 BC, it is stated that Devas moved in Planes (Vimnas)-Brahma pura (1/2/6). It indicates that the civilization was destroyed due to Dha-kla (time of burning). It could be global warming due to excess energy consumption as of now or may be increased solar activity which is uncertain. But it appears that after destruction of this civilization, it was realized that mass scale use of planes and other energy consuming devices are not ever lasting and finally lead to destruction. After that, there may be indication of planes, but not of mass use. Its destructive nature is indicated in Manu-smti ( /) = Do not use the big technology, it creates exploitation of human being and environment along with unemployment. Use of heavy machine is very harmful for society and nation. In 1950, Pt. Bhagwaddatt while translating the above verse commented that "the western world is enjoying by using heavy engineering and technology, the disastrous consequence would be known very shortly to the western world". Now we are watching the consequence. A small portion is shown in a movie Inconvenient Truth produced by Mr Al Gore, former Vice President of USA.