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-2304172/2304433, (M) 09437034172 email@example.com, www.scribd.com/Arunupadhyay (Summary) Veda has 2 forms-world, and its representation in words. Actual world is perceived in 4 ways-giving rise to 4 vedas. Motion aspect which creates useful material by yajña is yajurveda. Outside motion visible by an observer is white or śukla of 15 types and inner invisible motion is black or kṛṣṇa of 86 types giving rise to similar number of branches of śukla and kṛṣṇa yajurveda in word form also. These developed in different times in different regions. Śaunaka has stated their distribution in different regions and present distribution is discussed. For 40 grahas (receiving pots), there are 40 chapters in śukla and for 7 lokas, 7 kāṇḍas in kṛṣṇa yajurveda. Yajurveda describes different types of yajñas. The internal yajña of our body keeps it healthy, in that respect it is science of āyurveda also. Instrument of various yajña is Go (cow) of many levels-all are to be preserved for our well being. ***************** 1. Meaning of Veda-Veda is the real world or its following aspects-(1) Infinite information content (vijñāna) which led to creation (2) Process of creation (yajña), (3) Perception process and its stages, (4) Structure of world ( vedapuruşa)-structure is called pura, its dweller is puruşa, (5) Different zones called agni, vāyu, ravi of space, (6) Chain of creation and dissolution (7) Elements or their qualities etc. Examples are(1) एष वेदो िवश्वकर्मा मर्मा महा मत्मा म सदा म जना मना मं हृदये सिन्निविवष्टः । (श्वेता मश्वतर उपनिनषद् ४/१७) This veda (alternate reading-deva) is called Viśvakarmā (creator of world), Mahātmā (universal soul), and is always present within hearts of all beings. (2) स्वयम्भूरष े भगवा मन् वेदो गीतस्त्वया म पनुरा म । (भा मगवत पनुरा मण) This Veda is Svayambhū (self-created) and himself Nārāyaŋa (Creator Nara = man, who makes the universal spread of matter called nāra=water and resides in it), which has been sung by Ŗşis. (3) वेदो ना मरा मयणः सा मक्षा मत् स्वयम्भूिरित शुश्रुमः । (िवष्णु स्मृतित) We have heard from chain of sages that Veda is himself Nārāyaŋa and Svayambhū. (4) आद्यं त्र्यक्षरं ब्रह्म त्रयो यिन्स्मन् प्रतितिष्ठिता म । स गुह्योऽन्यिविद्स्त्रिविवद्वेदो यस्तं वेद स वेदिवत् ॥ (मनु स्मृतित, १२/२६५) Initial Creator is combination of three letters- A+U+M = Om. Triple Brahma (triple division of Vedas) is established in it. Only the knower of this secret Veda can be called knower of Vedas. (5) ऋग्भिन्ग्भरेतं यजुिभर्मा रन्तिरक्षं सा ममिभयर्मा त् तत्कर्वयो वेदयन्ते । तमोमा मरण े व ै ा मयतेना मन्येित िवद्वा मन् यत्तच्छा मन्तमजरममृततमभयं पनरं च॥ (प्रतश्नोपनिनषत् ५/७) The scholars get this earth by first syllable (A) in form of Ŗgveda, Intermediate space by second syllable (U) as Yajurveda, and Brahma-loka (highest place) by third syllable as Sāmaveda. Learned get That Supreme Brahma by meditation on Om only, which is calm, eternally young, without fear and highest. (6) चा मतुवर्माण्यर त्रयो लोकर्ा मश्चत्वा मरश्चा मश्रमा मः पनृतथकर् ् ।
भूतं भव्यं भवच्चैव सवर वेदा मत् प्रतिविद्सद्ध्यित ॥ (मनु स्मृतित, १२/९७) 4 classes of men, 3 lokas (spaces), and 4 stages of human life, past, present and future creation-all arise from Vedas. (7) शब्दः स्पनशर्मा श्च रूपनश्च रसो गन्धश्च पनञ्चमः । वेदा मदेव प्रतसूयन्ते प्रतसूित गुणकर्मर्मा तः॥ (मनु स्मृतित, १२/९८) All five elements are created from Vedas only as per function and quality- śabda (sound), sparśa (touch), rūpa (form), rasa (taste), gandha (smell). (8) अना मिदिनधनं ब्रह्म शब्दतत्त्वं िनरञ्जनम् । िववत्तर्मातेऽथर्मा भा मवेन प्रतिक्रिया म जगतो यतः ॥ (वा मक्यपनदीय) Śabda (sound or Vedas) is Nirañjana (non- attached), eternal. The whole world is running with the artha (meaning, or form) of this śabda only. (9) अिग्निर्मर्मा ूधा मर्मा चक्षुषी चन्द्रसूय्यौ िदशः श्रोत्रे वा मग् िववृतता मश्च वेदा मः । (मुण्डकर्ोपनिनषद्, २/१/४) This Supreme Brahma is whole world-Agni (=fire, first created, leader, or earth) is his forehead, sun-moon are his eyes, directions are ears and voice is Vedas. (10) अिग्निर् वा मयु रिवभ्यस्तु त्रयं ब्रह्म सना मतनम् । दद ु ोह यज्ञसिविद्सद्ध्यथर्मा मृतग्यजुः सा मम लक्षणम् ॥ (मनुw स्मृतित, १/२३) For progress of yajña (creation), the eternal Brahma (root veda) in form of Ataharva (= un-shaking or un-changing) extracted symptoms of 3 vedas- Ŗk, Yajur, Sāma from Agni (fire, earth, first born or leader), Vāyu (air, motion, intermediary), and Ravi (field of sun or its light, influence). (11) तस्मा मद्यज्ञसा मत् सवर्मा हुत ऋग्भचः सा ममा मिन जिविद्ज्ञसरे । छन्दा मंिविद्स जिविद्ज्ञसरे तस्मा मद्यजुस्तस्मा मदजा मयत ॥ (वा मजसनेयी यजु ३१) From that sarvahuta (everything consumed) yajña, Ŗk and Sāma were created. From that Chandas (partitions, meter of poetry, Atharva-veda) were created. Yaju (creation process, conscious being) was created from that. (12) एवं वा म अरेऽस्य महतो भूतस्य िनःश्विविद्सत मेतद्यदृग्वेदो यजुवेदः सा ममवेदोऽथवा मर्मािङ्गिरस इतितहा मस पनुरा मण िवद्या म उपनिनषदः श्लोकर्ा मः सूत्रा मण्यनुव्या मख्या मना मिन व्या मख्या मना मिन अस्यैवत ै ा मिन िनःश्विविद्सता मिन । (बृतहदा मरण्यकर् उपनिनषद् २/४/१०) Oh! From the breath of that Great Being are Ŗgveda, Yajurveda, Sāmaveda, Atharva-āńgirasa, Itihāsa (history), Purāŋa (sequence and cause of creation), Vidyā (techniques), Upanişads (principles), Ślokas (praise or description of beings), Sūtra (aphorims), Vyākhyāna (lecture), Anu-vyākhyāna (supplementary explanations). All these are His breath only. (13) वा मचा म वै वेदा मः सन्धीयन्ते , वा मचा म िमत्रा मिण सन्दधित, वा मचा म सवा मर्मािण भूता मिन । अथो वा मगेवेदं सवर्मा म् । (ऐतरेय आरण्यकर् १/५/६) From Vāk (word) only Vedas are created, chhanda (meter) and mitra (friends) also are joined by words. All beings are joined through word. So word is all. (14) ऋग्भग्भ्यो जा मता मं सवर्मा शो मूिविद्त्तर्मामा महुः, सवा मर्मा गितया मर्माजुषी हैव शश्वत् । सवर तेजं सा ममरूप्यं ह शश्वत्, सवर हेदं ब्रह्मणा म हैव सृतष्टम् ॥ (तैिविद्त्तरीय ब्रा मह्मण ३/१२/८/१) All forms are from Ŗk, all motion from Yajuş (or Yajur), all field of influence is Sāma, the complete is created by Brahma (Atharva). 2. Śabda-veda-Veda in word form is replica of veda as world(1) द्वे ब्रह्मणी वेिदतव्ये शब्दब्रह्म पनरं च यत् । शा मब्दे ब्रह्मिण िनष्णा मतः पनरंब्रह्मा मिविद्धगच्छित ॥ (मैत्रा मयणी उपनिनषद् ६/२२)
Two forms of Brahma are known-one is word, another is beyond that (world). Person thorough in word form reaches supreme Brahma. (2) शब्दा मिन्त्मकर्ा मं सुिवमलग्यर्मा जुषा मं िनधा मनमुद्गीथ रम्य पनदपना मठवता मं च सा मम्ना मम् । देवी त्रयी भगवती भवभा मवना मय वा मता मर्मा च सवर्मा जगता मं पनरमा मितर्मा हन्त्री ॥ (दग ु ा मर्मा सप्तशती ४/१०) Devī (goddess) is in word form consisting of pure Ŗk, Yajur, sonorous chanting of Sāma from udgītha (start) to nidhāna. Devī is three-veda, all-powerful, influencing Bhava (Śiva), talk among whole world and destroyer of sorrows. (3) द्वे िवद्ये वेिदतव्ये- ... पनरा म चैव, अपनरा म च । तत्र अपनरा म ऋग्भग्वेदो , यजुवेदः, सा ममवेदोऽथवर्मा वेदः, िशक्षा म, कर्ल्पनो, व्या मकर्रणं, िनरुक्त ं , छन्दो, ज्योितषिमित । अथ पनरा म यया म तदक्षरमिविद्धगम्यते । (मुण्डकर् उपनिनषद् १/१/४, ५) Both streams of knowledge are worth knowing- Parā (beyond perception) and Apar¢ (the other perceived). Here, Aparā has become Ŗgveda, Yajurveda, Sāmaveda, Atharvaveda, Śikśā (Instruction), Kalpa (practical), Vyākaraŋa (grammer), Nirukta (derivation of words and meanings), Chhanda (measure of words and world), Jyotişa (astronomy). From Parā, we reach Akśara (eternal). (4) अना मिदिनधना म िनत्या म वा मगुत्सृतष्टा म स्वयम्भुवा म । आदौ वेदमयी िदव्या म यतः सवा मर्माः प्रतवृतत्तयः ॥ (ब्रह्मसूत्र, शा मङ्कर भा मष्य १/३/२८) Vāk is eternal, original source, and self created. From beginning, everything has been created from Veda only. 3. Vidyā and Mahāvidyā-Vidyā is śruti (= hearing), i.e. perception from outside by ‘puruṣa’. ‘Mahar’ is surrounding of ‘pura’ (any structure, town) in which puruṣa dwells. Mahāvidyā is, thus, perception by mahar or effect on it by actions of puruṣa. Original reference or Brahma is atharva (tharva = shaking, atharva = tranquil). From this, 3 steps of śruti-(1) form of a body, (2) coming of information and (3) knowledge-give rise to 3 vedas-Ṛk, Yaju, Sāma. For creation as a whole-form, motion, field of influence ( sāma) of body in which it can be perceived are- Ṛk, yajur, sāma. These are called-agni (condensed form or energy, fire), vāyu (air, motion), and ravi (= sun, its field of light)-also. Four meanings of root verb vid correspond to 4 vedas Element Veda Meaning of Vid Form Ṛk Exist Motion Yaju Gain Knowledge Sāma Know Background Atharva Consider Atharva is reference background or mahar for other three elements, so it is source of mahāvidyā or tantra. Thus, trayī or 3-fold classification means 4 vedas including the original source. 4. Śukla and kṛṣṇa motions-Visible motion is of 3 types- (1) going away from observer, (2) approaching, (3) static or in same state or orbit. Within a body, there are expansion and contraction-so 5 motions are described in vaiśeṣika darśana- उत्क्षेपनणमवक्षेपनणमा मकर् ु ञ्चनं प्रतसा मरणं गमनिमित कर्मा मर्मािण। (वैशेिषकर् सूत्र १/१/७) There are 5 mahābhūtas (subjects of 5 basic measures-tanmātras)Ākāśa-śabda, vāyu-sparśa, teja-rūpa, ap-rasa, Pṛthivī-gandha . Thus, there are 3 x 5 = 15 visible motions giving rise to 15 branches of śukla yajurveda. In astronomy texts, megha (cloud) and its synonyms indicate number 17. Reason is that cloud covers like a plane sheet and a symbol can cover the plane by 17 types of motions. This is called Plane-crystallography theorem in modern algebra (e.g. Modern algebra by Michael Artin, Prentice-Hall, page 172-174). For these 5 mahābhūtas, there will be 5 x 17 = 85 motions. One motion will be internal
random motion at sub-atom level. Thus, there are 8 invisible motions in world, making 86 branches of Kṛṣṇa yajurvda. The whole world is contained within 7 lokas, called 7 āsmān (sky) in Koran. Each is 1 span (vitasti) in body of Brahmā formed of 5 mahābhūtas. Here, span measure varies for each loka. Mahābhūtas are visible, others are dark (tama, kṛṣṇa)क्वा महं तमो महदहं खचरा मिग्निर्वा मभर्मा ूः, संवेिष्टता मण्ड घट सप्त-िवतिन्स्त-कर्ा मयः। (ब्रह्मा म कर् ृत त श्रीकर् ृत ष्ण स्तुित, श्रीमद् भा मगवत पनुरा मण १०/१४/११) Examples of 2 motions are-(1) Motion of man, its hands, feet, face-shapes are white. Internal motion of air, blood, muscles, stomach, nerves etc. is black or invisible. (2) Motion of persons within a train is white for other persons in train. For outside observer, internal motion of persons is black, motion of train itself is white. (3) When man is able to reach higher lokas after death, it is white motion. When he is unable to break the barrier of earth, it is black motionशुक्लकर् ृत ष्णे गती ह्येते जगतः शा मश्वते मते। एकर्या म या मत्यना मवृतिविद्त्तमन्यया मवतर्मा ते पनुनः॥ (गीता म ८/२६) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali states 21 branches of Ṛk, 101 branches of Yajur, 1000 branches of Sāma and 9 branches of Atharvaमहा मन् शब्दस्य प्रतयोगिवषयः। सप्तद्वीपना म वसुमती, त्रयो लोकर्ा मः, चत्वा मरो वेदा मः सा मङ्गिा मः सरहस्या म बहु धा म िभन्निवा मः-एकर्शतमध्वयुर्मा (=यजुः) शा मखा मः, सहस्रवत्मा मर्मा सा ममवेदः, एकर्िवंशितधा म बा महच् ृत यं (ऋग्भकर् ् ), नवधा मऽऽथवर्मा णो वेदः, वा मकर्ोवा मक्यं, इतितहा मसः, पनुरा मणं, वैद्यकर्िमत्येता मय्वा मञ्छब्दस्य प्रतयोगिवषयः। (महा मभा मष्य१/१/१, पनस्पनशा मिह्निकर्-शब्दिवषयप्रतदशर्मा न) Ten dimensional view-Vedic world view is of 10 dimensions-3 dimensions of space, matter, time and 5 aspects of consciousness (individuality) - chiti (design, arrangement), ṛṣi, nāga, randhra, rasa (ānanda). Ṛk is shape of matter, one is origin and 20 are boundaries on both sides of 10 dimensions. Another view is that it describes 7 lokas in 3 worlds (cosmic, physical, internal), or 3x7 satyas, samidhā (usable material) etc. ये ित्रषप्ता मः पनिरयिन्न्त िवश्वा मः(अथवर्मा १/१/१) सप्ता मस्या मसन् पनिरधयः ित्रः सप्त सिमधः कर् ृत ता मः। (पनुरुष सूक्त, १३) सत्यव्रतं सत्यपनरं ित्रसत्यं सत्यस्य योिनं िनिहतं च सत्ये। सत्यस्य सत्यं ऋग्भतसत्यनेत्रं सत्या मत्मकर् ं त्वा मं शरणं प्रतपनद्ये। (भा मगवत पनुरा मण १०/२/२६) Yajur is motion. Starting point has 10 coordinates, and from each there are 10 directions of motion. One is fixed at origin, so there are 1 + 10x10 = 101 branches. Sāma has 10 starts x 10 motions x 10 effects = 1000 branches. Atharva is 3x3 combinations of 3 lokas or 3 vedas. 5. Original branches-Two traditions have been described in Charaṇa-vyūha of Śaunaka-(1) Brahma sampradāya, and (2) Āditya sampradāya. Brahmasampradāya appears to have started with Svāyambhuva-Manu, who was 26000 years before start of Kali yuga in 3102 BC (Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa 1/1/2/29/19). This is stated as 71 yugas of 360 years each in same (1/2/9/36-37). Matsya purāṇa (273/76, 77), tells that after Svāyambhuva Manu there were 43 yugas till Vaivasvata Manu. Bhavişya purāņa, pratisarga parva (1/4/26) tells this period as 16,000 years. Yuga system of 12000 years started with him whose kali started after 10800 years in 3102 BC. Thus, Vaivasvata Manu was in 13902 BC. His father Vivasvān (= sun) made the calendar system called Sūrya-siddhānta and revived Vedic tradition also which was called Āditya sampradāya (Āditya = of sun). This revival started 10 yugas before him in time of Kaśyapa (17500 BC). Reasons of revival are glacial floods in 31200 and 10000 BC and glacial ice in 20000 BC. After second glacial flood, Vedic tradition was revived by Ṛṣabha
Devaji-11th Vyāsa and first Jain Tīrthankara. Then Maya Asura revised in 9233 BC 9121 years before end of Satya yuga). At time of Mahābhārata, 2 traditions of astronomy were current as per Mahā-siddhānta (2/1-2) of Āryabhaṭa-2-(1) Āryamata in Āryabhaṭīya of 360 Kali (changed to 3600 Kali by British) starting with Svāyambhuva Manu and (2) Parāśara mata, described in Viṣṇu-purāṇa which was followed by Brahmagupta in 550 śaka (of 612 BC = 2526 Yudhiṣṭhira śaka) i.e. in 62 BC. This follows third version of Sūrya-siddhānta. Based on some astronomy and puāṇic data, differences between these two systems are-(1) Brahmā yuga was of 4 equal parts, later yugas from Vivasvān described by Parāśara are of 4, 3, 2, 1 parts for Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara, Kali. (2) Pitāmaha (Brahmā) siddhānta keeps Guru years in 60 years cycle same as civil year of luni- solar calendar. Sūrya siddhānta keeps it equal to actual time of motion of Jupiter in 1 sign by mean motion = 361.0486 days followed in north India. (3) Year started with entry of sun in Abhijit. When north pole shifted away from that, it was changed to Dhaniṣṭhā which was start of rains (varṣā) in 15800 BC (Mahābhārata, vana parva 230/8-10). So, year was called varṣa. From Vivasvān time, year starts with spring equinox and Chaitra month. (4) Purāṇas give 4 cardinal towns of Indra-Vasvaukasārā, Soma-Vibhāvarī (900 east), VaruṇaSukhā (1800 east), and Yama-Sanyamanī (900 west) separated by 900 longitude. These could be earlier division at time of Svāyambhuva Manu. Sūrya siddhānta and later texts of astronomy have given cardinal points on earth separated from Lankā or Ujjain at intervals of 90 0 each. Yama-koṭi-pattana is 900 east (Yama Dvīpa = Antarctica, Yama is lord of south, yama = 2, Yama-koṭi dvīpa is nearest twin island Newzealand, its south western tip is 90 0 east), Romaka-pattana is 900 west (Konacry = Koṇārka or some place west of Rabat = place of sun)-both are ports (pattana). 1800 east (or west) is Siddhapura where Brahmā had constructed a dvāra to mark the end of east direction ( Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhā kāṇḍa 40/54, 64)-that is place of greatest Pyramid in Mexico. (5) Finally, the 2 traditions of Vedas are more marked in branches of Yajurveda-associated with story of Yājñavalkya, who revived Āditya sampradāya and residue was collected by other disciples of his Guru like Tittiri birds, so it was called taittirīya and being black vomited material, it was kṛṣṇa yajurveda. Yajurveda branches and their distribution at time of Śaunaka areBrahma sampradāya of Kṛṣṇa yajurveda-(1) Vaiśampāyana, (2) Lauhitya, (3) Śāvadha, (4) Palāṇḍu, (5) Ālambi, (6) Kalinga (Pala), (7) Kamalāha, (8) Ṛchābha, (9) Āruṇi, (10) Taṇḍi, (11) Śyāmāyana, (12) Kaṭha, (13) Kalāpa, (14) Chulabhi, (15) Sumati, (16) Devavara, (17) Anukṛṣṇa, (18) Āyu, (19) Anubhūmi, (20) Āprīta, (21) Kaśāśva, (22) Sumūli, (23) Vāṣkali, (24) Śuka, (25) Lauki, (26) Bhūriśravā, (27) Somāvi, (28) Ātunāntakya, (29) Dhaumya, (30) Kāśyapa, (31) Aukhya, (32) Ilaka, (33) Upamanyu, (34) Vida, (35) Bhārgava, (36) Madhuka, (37) Pinga, (38) Śvetaketu, (39) Prajādarpa, (40) Kahoḍa, (41) Yāgyavalkya, (42) Śaunaka, (43) Ānanga, (44) Unira, (45) Tāla, (46) Yāska (Paingi), (47) Khāṇḍāyana-living at end of Kaṭha. 13 Kaṭha branches from 48 to 60- (48) Piñjula-kaṭha of Krauñcha dvīpa, (49) Audala-kaṭha of Śāka dvīpa, (50) Sapicchhava--kaṭha of Śāka dvīpa, (51) Mudgala-kaṭha of Kaśmīra deśa, (52) Śṛngala--kaṭha of Sṛja deśa, (53) Saubharakaṭha of Simhala deśa, (54) Maurasa-kaṭha of Kuśa dvīpa, (55) Chuchuka-kaṭha of Yavana deśa, (56) Yoga-kaṭha of Yavana deśa, (57) Hāpila-kaṭha of Yavana deśa, (58) Dausala-kaṭha of Simhala deśa, (59) Dhauṣa-kaṭha of Krauñcha dvīpa, (60) Jṛmbha-kaṭha of Śvetadvīpa. 12 Charaka branches-(61) Charaka, (62) Āhvaraka, (63) Bhrājiṣṭhava kaṭha or Bhṛṣṭha-kapiṣṭhala-kaṭha, (64) Prāchya-kaṭha, (65) Kāpiṣṭhala-kaṭha, (66) Vārāyaṇa, (67) Chārāyaṇa, (68) Śveta, (69) Śvetāśvatara (Upamanyu), (70) Pātāṇḍi, (71) Maitreya.
7 Maitrāyaṇīs-(72) Manu, (73) Varāha, (74) Dundubhi, (75) Eki, (76) Haridru, (77) Śyāma, Śyāmāyana. 4 Kalāpas-(78) Hāridruṇa, (79) Chhāgali, (80) Tumburu, (81) Ulupi. 5 Hāridruṇavis-(82) Āsuri, (83) Garga, (84) Śarkkarākṣa, (85) Mṛga, (86) Vasava. 15 branches of Śukla yajurveda following Yājñavalkya-(1) Jābāla-banks of Narmadā, Vidarbha. (2) Baudheya-Raṇāvaṭa in south, Ābhīra, Gurjara, (3) KaṇvaKarṇāvata or Karṇāṭaka, Draviḍa, Mahārāṣṭra, (4) Mādhyandina- all over, specially Sarayūpārīṇa of Uttara Pradesh. (5) Śāpeya-Nāgara of Gurjara, (6) Tāpāyanīya-banks of Namramdā, Nemal district in MP, (7) Kapola-Bhṛgugauḍa of Gurjara, (8) Pauṇḍravatsa- Trivāḍī-mewāḍa of Gurjara, (9) Āvaṭika-Śrīmālava of Gurjara, (10) Paramāvaṭika-Ādya gauḍa of Marudeśa (Marwar), (11) Pārāśara-in Gurjara and Maru deśa, (12) Vainadheya-Kankara, Baudhya mountain (Baudha of Orissa-Khanā vachana), (13) Gālava-called Mālavī in Saurāṣṭra and Vidarbha, (14) Kātyāyana- Narmadā-sangama, Maharashtra, (15) Baijavāpa-Nārāyaṇa sarovara (Kathiavada of Gujrat). This has been quoted by Dinanath Chulet Shastri in his introduction to Śatapatha-Brāhmaṇa published with Harisvāmī bhāṣya. 6. Old Geography-Śākhās of Kṛṣṇa-yajurveda are extensive and indicate the places where they were current before Vivasvān. Many are from south India and some are from other parts of world including America1. Lauhitya-north east Asam 2. Ālavi-Alai valley in Kirghiz or Turkistan. 3. Kamalāha-Kambala, kula-parvata of Ketumāla (Vāyu purāṇa, chapter 44)-that is in north Africa, 900 west from Ujjain. 4. Ṛchābha-Ṛkṣa mountain-south east part of Vindhya. 5. Āruṇi-Aruṇśṛgavān , Aruṇoda-west from Kailāsa mountain-Leh ranges (Laddakh) 6. Śyāmāyana-Śyāmā river in Ketumāla 7. Sumūlih-river of Ketumāla-(both in Vāyu purāṇa, chapter 44). 8. Kalāpa-Kalpa valley in eastern Himachal Pradesh. 9. Chulabhi-Chola (Kerala) 10. Anukṛṣṇa, Anubhūmi-both in regions of Anu who went west of Arab ( Ānava = Ionians who later went to Greece). 11. Bhārgava-in eastern India (Matsya, Brahmāṇḍa, Vāmana etc) 12. Madhuka-Madhuvata sarovara on Śveta mountain (central Asia as per Vāyu, Matsya) 13. Pinga-Pingalā river-Ali pingal region, north of Mahanadi delta. 14. Tumburu-a region in eastern Vindhya. 15. Āprīta-Afridi area in west Balochistan (Pakistan). 16. Devavara-Devakūṭa mountain-Mount Suleiman in Persia. बा मह्लीकर्ा म वा मटधा मना मश्च आभीरा मः कर्ा मलतोयकर्ा मः। पनुरन्ध्रा मश्चैव शूद्रा मश्च पनल्लवा मश्चा मत्तखिन्ण्डकर्ा मः॥४०॥ गा मन्धा मरा म यवना मश्चैव िविद्सन्धुसौवीरमद्रकर्ा मः। शकर्ा म द्रुह्या मः पनुिविद्लना मश्च पना मरदा महा ममर्माू ितर्मा कर्ा मः॥४१॥ रा ममठा मः कर्ण्टकर्ा मरा मश्च कर् ै कर् े य्या म दशना ममकर्ा मः। क्षित्रयोपनिनवेशा मश्च वैश्या मः शूद्रकर्ुला मिन च।।४२॥ कर्ा मम्बोजा म दरदा मश्चैव ववर्मा रा म पनह्लवा मस्तथा म। आत्रेया मश्च भरद्वा मजा मः प्रतस्थला मश्च कर्सेरकर्ा मः॥४३॥ लम्पनकर्ा मस्तलगा मना मश्च सैिनकर्ा मः सह जा मङ्गिलैः। एते देशा म उदीच्या मस्तु प्रता मच्या मन् देशा मन् िनबोधत॥४४॥ अङ्गिा म वङ्गिा म मद्गु्र ् कर्ा म अन्तिगर्मा िरबिहिगर्मा री। ततः प्लवङ्गि मा मतङ्गिा म यमकर्ा म मा मलवा मणर्माकर्ा मः। सुह्मोत्तरा मः प्रतिवजया म मा मगर्मावा मगेयमा मलवा मः॥४५॥ प्रता मग्ज्योितषा मश्च पनुण्डर ा मश्च िवदेहा मस्ता मम्रलिविद्लप्तकर्ा मः। शा मल्वमा मगधगोनदा मर्माः प्रता मच्या म जनपनदा मः स्मृतआः॥४६॥ अथा मपनरे जनपनदा म दिक्षणा मपनथवा मिविद्सनः। पना मण्ड्या मश्च कर् े रला मश्चैव चोला मः कर्ुल्या मस्तथैव च॥४७॥
सेतुकर्ा म मूिषकर्ा मश्चैव कर् ु पनथा म वा मिविद्जवा मिविद्सकर्ा मः। महा मरा मष्टरा म मा मिहषकर्ा मः कर्िविद्लङ्गिा मश्चैव सवर्मा शः॥४८॥ आभीरा मश्च सहैषीकर्ा म आटव्या मः शबरा मस्तथा म। पनुिविद्लन्दा म िवन्ध्यमुिविद्लकर्ा म वैदभा मर्मा दण्डकर् ै ः सह॥४९॥ कर् ु लीया मश्च िविद्सरा मला मश्च अश्मकर्ा म भोगवधर्मा ना मः। तथा म तैिविद्त्तिरकर्ा मश्चैव दिक्षणा मपनथवा मिविद्सनः॥५०॥ ना मिविद्सक्या मश्चैव ये चा मन्ये ये चैवा मन्तरनमर्मा दा मः। भा मरुकर्च्छा मः समा महेया मः सह सा मरस्वतैस्तथा म॥५१॥ कर्ा मच्छीकर्ा मश्चैव सौरा मष्टरा म आनता मर्मा अबुर्मादः ै सह। इतत्येते अपनरा मन्ता मस्तु शृणु ये िवन्ध्यवा मिविद्सनः॥५२॥ मा मलवा मश्च कर्रूषा मश्च मेकर्ला मश्चोत्कर्लैः सह। औण्डर ा म मा मषा म दशा मणा मश् र्मा च भोजा मः िकर्िन्ष्कर्न्धकर् ै ः सह।।५३॥ तोशला मः कर्ोसला मश्चैव त्रैपनर ु ा म वैिदशा मस्तथा म। तुमुरा मस्तुम्बुरा मश्चैव पनद्गमा म नैषधैः सह॥५४॥ अरूपना मः शौिन्ण्डकर् े रा मश्च वीितहोत्रा म अवन्तयः। एते जनपनदा मः ख्या मता म िवन्ध्यपनृतष्ठि िनवा मिविद्सनः॥५५॥ अतो देशा मन् प्रतवक्ष्या मिम पनवर्मा ता मश्रियणा मश्च ये। िनरा महरा मः सवर्मा गा मश्च कर् ु पनथा म अपनथा मस्तथा म॥५६॥ कर् ु थप्रता मवरणा मश्चैव ऊर्णा मर्मादवा मर्माः समुद्रकर्ा मः। ित्रगता मर्मा मण्डला मश्चैव िकर्रा मता मश्चा ममरैः सह॥५७॥ (मत्स्य पनुरा मण, अध्या मय ११४) Kaṭha branches are many named after regionsPinjula –Krauñcha Dvīpa-north America Audala –Śāka Dvīpa-soth east Asia, Australia Sapicchhava ---do--Mudgala-Kashmir Śṛngala-Sṛja deśa Saubhara-Simhala Maurasa-Kuśa- Dvīpa-Africa Chuchuka-Yavana deśa-west of Arab Yoga- -----do--Hāpila- -----do---Dausala-Simhala Dhauṣa- Krauñcha Dvīpa-north America Jṛmbha-Śveta Dvīpa-Scandinavia, Iceland 7. Present distribution-Present study of Yajurveda śākhās is described as belowMādhyandina YV: Currently found all over North India- Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and even Maharashtra (up to Nasik), West Bengal, Assam, Nepal. Along with Taittirīya Yajurveda, it is the most prevalent Vedic śākhā. Followers of this school were found in Sindh (Pakistan) in the 19th century but became extinct after Hindus were ethnically cleansed by the Muslim majority after 1947. Kāṇva YV: Currently found in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. In Orissa, the followers of this śākhā follow a slightly different text. Epigraphic evidence shows that they were once present all over India, as far as Himachal Pradesh and possibly in Nepal. Charaka YV: Interior Maharashtra, adjacent parts of Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh. Followers of this śākhā now follow the Maitrāyaṇī YV śākhā, having lost their own texts. Maitrāyaṇī YV: In Morvi (Gujarat), parts of Maharashtra (Nasik/Bhadgaon, Nandurbar, Dhule). Earlier, they were spread all the way east up to Allahabad and extended into Rajasthan and possibly into Sindh. Kāṭhaka YV: The oral traditions became extinct possibly a few decades ago. They were found in central and eastern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, possibly west Punjab and NWFP. In later times, they got restricted to Kashmir, where all their
extant manuscripts have been unearthed. Recently, the entire Hindu minority was cleansed from the Kashmir valley by Islamists, and so the śākhā might be deemed extinct completely now. Chārāyaṇīya Katha YV: Existed in Kashmir. Kapiṣṭhala Kaṭha YV: Found in West Punjab around the time of the invasion of Alexander. Also in parts of Gujarat. Only a fragmentary Samhitā and Gṛhyasutra text exist, and followers of this śākhā are said to exist at the mouths of Narmadā and Tapi rivers in Gujarat. Jābāla YV: Central India, around the Narmada region. In Maharashtra, there still exist Śukla-Yajurvedin Brāhmaṇas who call themselves ‘Jābāla Brāhmaṇas’, but there is no knowledge of the existence of any texts of this śākhā. Taittirīya YV: Buddhist texts and some versions of Ramāyaṇa attest their presence in the Gangetic plains but currently they are found all over Southern India. The Taittirīyas are themselves divided into numerous sub-schools. Among these, the followers of Baudhāyana and Āpastamba were found all over South India (including Maharashtra), while the Hiraṇyakeśins were found mainly in Konkaṇ and Western Maharashtra. The Vaikhānasas have a more eastern presence- around Tirupati and Chennai. The Vādhūlas are present currently in Kerala and earlier in adjacent parts of Tamil Nadu. The Agniveśyas, a subdivision of the Vādhūla immigrants from Malabar, are found around Th\anjavur in Tamil Nadu. The Āpastamba, Hiraṇyakeśin, Vaikhānasa and Baudhāyana schools have survived with all their texts intact. The Vādhūlas survive, with most of their texts while the Bharadvājas and Agniveśyas are practically extinct as a living tradition although their fragmentary/dilapidated texts survive. Other śākhās of YV: A text called ‘Yajurvedavṛkṣa’ gives the geographical distribution of more than 100 śākhā of Yajurveda. This description is being left out for brevity. 8. Contents of available texts-As stated earlier, the Yajurveda has two main divisions – Śukla Yajurveda and Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda. In the former, the mantra and Brāhmaṇa portions are collected in separate texts, whereas in the later, the two portions are found interspersed. The extant Śukla Yajurveda Samhitās are Mādhyandina and Kāṇva. The extant Kṛṣṇa Krishna Yajurveda Samhitās are Kāṭhaka, Maitrāyaṇīya, Taittirīya (also called ‘Āpastambī’ Samhitā), Kapishthala (fragmentary) and possibly Charaka. Of the extant Yajurveda Samhitās, the two major ones currently are the Mādhyandina and the Taittirīya. The great sage Yājñavalkya collected and edited the Śukla Yajurveda Samhitā, called the Vājasneyī Samhitā. The Mādhyandina Samhitā comprises of 1975 kaṇḍikās or 3988 mantras (the prose kaṇḍikās are split up into several mantras) arranged into 40 chapters according to the order of performance of Vedic sacrifices. All but the last chapter (which is called the Īśāvāsya Upaniṣad) are employed in the Vedic ritual. The Yajurveda is largely prose, with about 700 verse mantras, most of which are directly borrowed from the Ṛgveda. The Yajurveda therefore is a liturgical text, but also contains sacrificial formulas to serve the purpose of ceremonial religion ( yaju is derived from the root “yāg” – to sacrifice). Coming to the Mādhyandina Samhitā specifically, Chapters 1-2 deal with Darśa-pūrṇamāsa rites, Chapter 3 with sacrifices performed in the morning and the evenings, sacrifices performed every four months at the start of the three seasons. Chapters 4-8 with Soma sacrifices. Chapters 9-10 with Rājasūya and Vājapeya Chapters 11-18 with construction of altars for yajñas. Chapters 19-31 with Sautrāmaṇi rite. Chapters 22-25 with the Aśvamedha. Chapters 26-29 give material supplementary to earlier chapters.
Chapters 30-39 contain mantras for novel and unique rites like the Puruṣamedha, Sarvamedha, Pitṛmedha and Pravargya. Chapter 40 is the Īśāvāsya Upaniṣad. Very popular in South India, the Taittirīya Samhitā deals with detailed descriptions of sacrifices like Agniṣṭoma, Jyotiṣṭoma, Vājapeya, Rājasūya , etc It is divided into 7 kāṇḍas which are further divided into 5-8 Prapāṭhakas each. The Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, the Taittirīya Āraṇyaka and the Taittirīya Upaniṣad are associated with this Samhitā. In general, the contents of this Samhitā parallel the Śukla Yajurveda Samhitās although exotic and special rites like the Puruṣamedha are absent here. Kāṇva and Mādhyandina Śatapatha Brāhmaṇas of the Śukla Yajurveda : The Mādhyandina Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa (SBM) is divided into 14 kāṇḍas containing 100 adhyāyas, 68 Prapāṭhakas, 436 Brāhmaṇas and 7179 Kaṇḍikās. The Kāṇva (SBK) text is divided into 17 Kāṇḍas, 104 adhyāyas, 435 Brāhmaṇas and 6806 Kaṇḍikās. Note that unlike the Mādhyandina version, there is no division into Prapāṭhakas. The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa is perhaps the most important Brāhmaṇa text from the perspective of Vedic studies. Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa of Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda: The Brāhmaṇa comprises of 3 Kāṇḍas, which are divided into 8, 8 and 12 a dhyāyas respectively. The Brāhmaṇa is also sometimes divided into 8 aṣṭakas, in the style of Ṛgveda. These adhyāyas are further divided into anuvākas or sections, which contain sentences on a particular topic. There are a total of 17480 sentences in the Brāhmaṇa. The first Kāṇḍa of the text deals with the Agnyādhāna, Gavāmayana, Vājapeya, Soma, Nakṣatreṣṭi and Rājasūya. The 2nd Kāṇḍa deals with Agnihotra, Upahomas, Sautrāmaṇi, Vaiśysava and others. The last Kāṇḍa gives some additional details on the Nakṣatreṣṭi, the Aśvamedha and some parables like that of Bharadvāja, together with the Purushamedha Yajña. Vādhūla Brāhmaṇa or the Anvākhyāna Brāhmaṇa of Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda : It is an anu-brāhmaṇa or a minor Brāhmaṇa like work, embedded in the Vādhūla Śrautasūtra. The work has not been published so far and is in manuscript. Taittirīya Āraṇyaka : This work comprises of 10 Prapāṭhakas. The first two are called ‘Kāṭhakam’ because they are said to have been borrowed from the Kāṭhaka śākhā of Yajurveda. Prapāṭhaka 5 deals with the Pravargya rite. Prapāṭhakas 7-9 are the famous Taittirīya Upaniṣad. Prapāṭhaka 10 is the Mahānārāyaṇa Upaniṣad, or the Yājñika Upaniṣad. This Prapāṭhaka is often considered an appendix because its extent and contents are unsettled and vary from region to region. It is a compilation of Upaniṣadic matter together with miscellaneous mantras for recitation at various occasions and for various purposes. Bṛhadāraṇyaka of Śukla Yajurveda: This text forms the 17th book of the Kāṇva Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and the 14th book of the Mādhyandina Śatapatha Brāhmaṇas. The initial 2 Prapāṭhakas in the Madhyandina version deal with the Pravargya rite, and the last 6 constitute the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, whose details are beyond the scope of this webpage. In the Kāṇva version, the Pravargya portions are separate in Kāṇḍa 16. Maitrāyaṇīya Āraṇyaka: Since this text is identical with the Maitrāyaṇīya Upaniṣad in 7 Prapāṭhakas, its discussion is beyond the scope of the present webpage. Kaṭha Āraṇyaka -It comprises of 3 Prapāṭhakas, of which II and III largely deal with the Pravargya rite. 9. Aim of Yajurveda-It is well described by the very first verse-
ॐ इत॒षे त्वो॑र्जे
त्वा म॑र् व॒ा मयव॑र् स्थ द॒ेवो व॑र्ः सिव॒ता म प्रता मपनर्मा॑र्यतु आप्या म॑र्यध्व मघ्न्य॒ा म इतन्द्रा म॑र्य भ॒ा मगं मा म व॑र् स्तेन ईष ॑र् त मा मघशँ॑र्सो ध्रुवा म अ॒िन्स्मन् गोपन॑र्तौ स्या मत
प्रत॒जा मव॑र्तीरनम॒ीवा म अ॑र्य॒क्ष्मा म
ब॒हीयर्मा जमा म॑र्नस्य पन॒शून्पना म॑र्िह (वा म. यजु १/१)
Flow of energy from Sun has been called Īşā, it is central axis of all life, so it is called Īşā-daŋɖa (axle rod) of ratha of sun. Its measure is given in Bhāgavata purāŋa, part 5 as 6000 yojana (1 yojana = sun diameter). In human body, it is spinal cord which links brain with body. Sun in space is life, its image is digestive system around maŋipūra-chakra which feeds the body. Here, cow is called Aghnyā, i.e. not to be killed. In general, ‘go’ means sun-rays, any place (e.g. earth) where yajña is done, yajña itself, and human organs. Thus, all as cycle of production are to be maintained and only its remains are to be consumed as taught in Gītā (3/10-16). If we maintain chain of yajña starting with human body and organs, family and Indra (king, space radiation) we will be bestowed with Prajā, will remain free of any infection and decay. We will not take due of others. ‘Gha’-the fourth letter indicates 4 Puruşārtha (aims of human life). Not following the path is agha =sin. We should not deviate from Puruşārtha which is taught by Charaka by maintaining healthy life. Then man and society will run steadily and wealth will increase. On earth surface, agriculture is base for all other yajña. So, the rod of plough (Hala) is called Īşā or Harīşa (hal+īşa). That is put to start any worship whip is a model of all yajña. It is also called yūpa-dāru (wood for central axle). If that axle is kept moving for efficient agriculture ( agri =first of culture), we remain healthy, wealthy and do not need other’s wealth.