Sāmaveda among Vedas Arun Kumar Upadhyay, Cuttack (M) 9437034172 (Summary) Bhagavān Kṛṣṇa has stated in Gītā that

he is Sāmaveda among Vedas. Its meaning is analyzed in cosmic, physical and internal senses. Veda is source and created universe and also its representation in word form. Kṛṣṇa as Brahma includes everything, but here it talks about Vibhūti i.e. excellence in every aspect. All aspects of influence are indicated by Sāma form of Vedas. 1. Introduction- Bhagavān Kṛṣṇa has stated in Gītā (10/22)वेदानां सामवेदोऽिसम देवानामिसम वासव:। (गीता १०/२२) Muṇḍakopaniṣad (1/1/1-5 tells that Atharva was the first Veda told by Brahma. Later on it branched into 4 vedas and 6 angas. ब्रह्मा देवानां पथमं समबभूव, िवशवसय कतार भुवनसय गोपा। स ब्रह्मिवदा सवर िवदा पितषामथवारय जयेषपुताय पाह॥१॥ द्वे िवदे वेिदतवये, इित ह सम यद् ब्रह्मिवदो वदिनत, परा चैव अपरा च(४).ततापरा ऋगवेदो यजुवेद:, सामवेदो, अथवर वेद:, िशका, कलपो, वयाकरणं, िनरक ं , छनदो जयोित षिम ितअथ । परा यया तदकरमिधगमयते।(५)-मुणडकोपिनषद् (१/१) This is not the version of this upaniṣad only, there is no other or contradictory reference anywhere else in any part of Vedas. Under Oxford scheme of destruction of Vedic culture declared in Boden Chair 91831), Ṛgveda was touted to be first Veda spoken without script in 1500 BC. This period was arrived by dropping 1 zero from statement of Megasthenes that Indians had not attacked any other country since last 15,000 years as it was selfsufficient in food and all other things. Since then, we have been feeling glory in UNESCO action of declaring Ṛgveda as heritage book. Root Atharva veda has always been called Brahma-veda as foundation and its 3 branches-Ṛk, Yajur, Sāma stated separately, e.g.अिग-वायु-रिवभ्यसतु तयं ब्रह्म सनातनम्। दद ु ोह यजिसदधयथर ऋगयजु: सामलकणम्॥ (मनुसमृित १/२३) Thus, trayī (triple) has always meant 1 source + 3 branches = 4 vedas. Veda word also indicates 4 number. Thus, it is surprising as to why Bhagavān Kṛṣṇa has stated Sāma-veda only as his form. 2. Vibhūti of Brahma-Brahma means everythingसवर खलु इदं ब्रह्म-छानदोगय उपिनषद् (३/१४१), सवर ब्रह्मैव क े वलम् (तेजिवनद ु उपिनषद् ६/३८). But in particular, we aspire for the more important things. We move upwards from concrete to abstract, which is more permanent and called higher. All objects are Kṣara Puruṣa, their function is Akṣara, and Avyaya is above both called Puruṣottamaद्वािवमौ पुरषौ लोक े करशचाकर एव च। करः सवारिण भूतािन क ू टसथोऽकर उचयते॥ उतमः पुरषसतवनयः परमातमेतयुदाहतः। यो लोकतयमािवशय िबभतयर वयय ईशवरः॥ यसमात् करमतीतोऽहमकरादिप चोतमम्। अतोऽिसम लोक े वेदे च पिथतः पुरषोतमः॥ (गीता १५/१५-१७) Higher or best aspects have been called Vibhūti and they are listed for each category in chapter 10 of Gītā, where this line occurs telling Sāma veda as best among 4 vedas. In what way, Sāma veda is best is explained here. 3. Sāma as highest level in world and word - Veda is the real world or its following aspects-(1) Infinite information content (vijñāna) which led to creation, (2) Process of creation (yajña), (3) Perception process and its stages, (4) Structure of world (veda-puruṣa)-structure is called pura, its dweller is puruṣa, (5) Different zones called agni, vāyu, ravi of space, (6) Chain of creation and dissolution (7) Elements or their qualities etc. Veda in word form is image of real

world, which has been called Vāk-artha-pratipatti (correspondence between word and world) by Kālidāsa in Raghuvamśa (1/1). Some quotes areएष वेदो िवशवकमार महातमा सदा जनानां हदये सिनिवषः । (शवेताशवतर उपिनषद् ४/१७) = This veda (alternate reading-deva) is called Viśvakarmā (creator of world), Mahātmā (universal soul), and is always present within hearts of all beings. सवयमभूरष े भगवान् वेदो गीतसतवया पुरा । (महाभागवत पुराण, अधयाय १) = This Veda is Svayambhū (self-created) and himself Nārāyaŋa (Creator Nara = man, who makes the universal spread of matter called nāra = water and resides in it), which has been sung by Ŗşis. वेदो नारायणः साकात् सवयमभूिरित शुशुमः । (भागवत पुराण, ६/१/४०) = We have heard from chain of sages that Veda is himself Nārāyaŋa and Svayambhū. अनािदिनधनं ब्रह्म शबदततवं िनरञनम् । िववतरतेऽथर भावेन पिक्रिया जगतो यतः ॥ (वाक्यपदीय, ब्रह्मकाणड,१) = Śabda (sound or Vedas) is Nirañjana (non- attached), eternal. The whole world is running with the artha (meaning, or form) of this śabda only. द्वे ब्रह्मणी वेिदतवये शबदब्रह्म परं च यत् । शाबदे ब्रह्मिण िनषणातः परंब्रह्मािधगचछित ॥ (मैतायणी उपिनषद् ६/२२) = Two forms of Brahma are known-one is word, another is beyond that (world). Person thorough in word form reaches supreme Brahma. शबदाितमकां सुिवमलगयर जुषां िनधानमुदगीथ रमय पदपाठवतां च सामनाम् । देवी तयी भगवती भवभावनाय वातार च सवर जगतां परमाितर हनती ॥ (दग ु ार सपशती ४/१०) = Devī (goddess) is in word form consisting of pure Ŗk, Yajur, sonorous chanting of Sāma from udgītha (start) to nidhāna. Devī is three-veda, all-powerful, influencing Bhava (Śiva), talk among whole world and destroyer of sorrows.
Among the triple partition of Veda, Sāmaveda is the highest and a vibhūti in terms of Gītā-)

ऋिगभरेतं यजुिभर रनतिरकं सामिभयर त् ततकवयो वेदयनते । तमोमारेणव ै ायतेनानयेित िवद्वान् यतचछानतमजरममृतमभयं परं च॥ (पशनोपिनषत् ५/७) = The scholars get this earth by first syllable (A) in form of Ŗgveda, Intermediate space by second syllable (U) as Yajurveda, and Brahma-loka (highest place) by third syllable as Sāmaveda. Learned get That Supreme Brahma by meditation on Om only, which is calm, eternally young, without fear and highest. 4. Knowledge - Vidyā is śruti (= hearing), i.e. perception from outside by ‘puruṣa’. ‘Mahar’ is surrounding of ‘pura’ (any structure, town) in which puruṣa dwells. Mahāvidyā is, thus, perception by mahar or effect on it by actions of puruṣa. Original reference or Brahma is atharva (tharva =shaking, atharva = tranquil). From this, 3 steps of śruti-(1) form of a body, (2) coming of information and (3) knowledge-give rise to 3vedas-Ṛk, Yaju, Sāma. For creation as a whole-form, motion, field of influence (sāma) of body in which it can be perceived are-Ṛk, yajur, sāma. These are called-agni (condensed form or energy, fire), vāyu (air, motion), and ravi (=sun, its field of light)-also.

Vidyā-mahāvidyā Steps of śruti Four meanings of root verb vid correspond to 4 vedas Element Veda Meaning of Vid Form Ṛk Exist Motion Yaju Gain Knowledge Sāma Know Background Atharva Consider Thus, the knowledge proper is Sāma and essence of Veda. 5. Meanings of Sāma-Sāma is field of influence. Sun is 150 million kms from us, but it is visible to us as its light reaches us. Zone of light, gravitation, heat etc are its sāma. Since we are within sāma of sun, we can see or feel it. Sāma field is divided into 3, so Viṣṇu has been called Trisāmā in Viṣṇu-sahasranāma. For sun, the 3 zones are called heat (tāpa), brilliance (teja) and light (prakāśa) upto 100, 1000 and 1 lakh diameters of sunHeat zone (Tāpa-kśetra)-Up to 100 yojanas from sunशत योजने ह वा एष (आदिदतय) इतसतपित (कौषीतिक ब्राह्मण उपिनषद् ८/३) स एष (आदिदतयः) एक शतिवधसतसय रशमयः । शतिवधा एष एवैक शततमो य एष तपित (शतपथ ब्राह्मण १०/२/४/३) Bright zone (Raśmi-kśetra)-Up to 1000 yojanas from sunयुका ह्यसय (इनद्रसय) हरयः शतादशेित । सहस्रं हैत आदिदतयसय रशमयः (इनद्रः=आदिदतयः) -(जैिमनीय उपिनषद् ब्राह्मण १/४४/५) असौ यसताम्रो अरण उत बभ्रुः सुमङ्गलः । ये चैनं रद्रा अिभतो िदकु िशताः सहस्रोऽवैषां हेड ईमहे ॥ (वा.यजु.१६/६) Maitreya Maņɖala -1 lakh yojanas-Vişņu purāņa (2/8) Extreme limit of sāma is distance at which sun is just visible as a point-that is parama-pada of Viṣṇu. We cannot see stars whose sāma in any form does not reach us. Thus, sāma is only means of knowledge and form of Brahma. 6. Āditya and sāma-The initial stage from which creation started is called Āditya (ādi = start). After creation, sāma of created form extends up to the original zone. Solar system was formed due to contraction of matter from a sphere of about 1 light year radius. Now, light of sun is more than background of galaxy till that zone only. It is 2 power 30 times earth size called 30 dhāmasितंशद्धाम िव-राजित वाक ् पतङ्गाय धीमिह । पित वसतोरहदुिभः ॥ (ऋक ् , १०/१८९/३) Ādityas of solar system, galaxy, universe are called Mitra, Varuṇa, Aryamā. Varuṇa part is now seen as neutrino corona of galaxy called Goloka in Purāṇa or Kūrma in Veda as it does creation. Iniverse is theoretivcally visible till 2 power 64 times earth size. That distance of 8.64 billion light years is Tapah loka (visible universe). This time is called day-night of Brahmā. Initial uniform spread of matter is like ocean of water called Ap (rasa), Ambha, Salila, Mara. Created form within a boundary is like earth. Intermediate form is like cloud or boar (moving in water, land both). That is called varāha meaning cloud or boar. Ap, varāha, bhūmi also are 3 sāmas in stages of creation.

7. Parts of sāma-Three parts are described above. Corresponding to 5 levels of creation in space, there is 5-fold sāma. For 7 lokas, there are 7 parts of sāma cycle called pañcha-vidha and sapta-vidha sāma in Chhāndogya upaniṣad. These are called 7 paridhi (circumference) in Puruṣa-sūkta or 7 parts of yajña cycle in Gītā. अनाद्भविनत भूतािन पजर नयादन समभवः । यजाद्भवित पजर नयो यजः कमर समुद्भवः ॥१४॥ कमर ब्रह्मोद्भवं िविद्ध ब्रह्माकरसमुद्भवम् । तसमातसवर गतं ब्रह्म िनतयं यजे पितिषतम् ॥१५॥ Chain of creations is-(1) Akśara = abstract creator, (2) Brahma (material), (3) Karma (action), (4) Yajña (useful production), (5) Parjanya (creative surrounding), (6) Anna (consumable product), (7) Bhūta-which is same as Akśara and is consumer. Sequence of Cosmic Yajña is given in Taittirīya upanişad (2/1)तसमाद्वा एतसमादातमन आदकाशः समभूतः । आदकाशाद्वायुः । वायोरिगः । अगेरापः । अदभ्यः पृिथवी । पृिथवया ओषधयः । ओषधीभ्योऽनम् । अनातपुरषः । Sequence of creation is-(1) Ātmā =Original conscious being. It had mind living in vacuum-called Śvo-vasīyasa-mana, (2) Ākāśa = vacant space, (3) Vāyu = motion, (4) Āp = uniform spread of matter, (5) Pŗthivī = compact (= pŗthu) structure, (6) Oşadhi = Plants. Normally, these are divided into 2 classes. Oşadhi is annual plant which dies after fruit. Others are vanaspati. Here both are included. (7) Anna = Food. In general, it means anything which is consumed for existence. (8) Puruşa, which is same as (1), but a local form. 8. Sāma in each action-In society, it is harmony between actions and productions by each individual and group. That is interlink of all yajñasयजेन यजमयजनत देवासतािन धमारिण पथमानयासन्। ते ह नाक ं मिहमानं सचनतः यत पूवे साधयाः सिनत देवाः॥ (यजुवेद ३१/१६) Even human body or any machine runs by harmony within its parts. As spoke sound, sāma is song. By repeating in a harmonious order, it is soothing and it lasts in our memory. In all these respects, Sāma is most important and highest level of Vedas.

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