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DR. KARTINI ABDUL MUTALIB
Hasil Pembelajaran: 1. 2. 3. kepelbagaian pengelasan haiwan mengukur kepelbagaian spesies kekayaan, kesamarataan species ujikaji dlm kurikulum sekolah rendah
Secara keseluruhan – Alam Haiwan Sangat luas – sangat tinggi kepelbagaiannya
Ciri Haiwan Multicellular – banyak sel dengan tubuh yang lengkap Heterotrofik .tidak mensintesis makanan (herbivor @ karnivor) Terdiri dari tisu-tisu yg berkembang daripada lapisan embrio Tiada dinding sel – lebih fleksibel Mobil – boleh bergerak .
air tawar.Ciri Haiwan Pelbagai bentuk – invertebrata & vetebrata Habitat pelbagai jenis – marin. Perkembangan embrionik . daratan Pembiakan seksual – sperma + telur + zigot.sel-sel membahagi membentuk morula. blastula & gastula Unik tisu – spt tisu saraf dan otot .
Early embryonic development in animals Only one cleavage stage–the eight-cell 2 embryo–is shown here. expands. producing layers of embryonic tissues: the ectoderm (outer layer) and the endoderm (inner layer). 5 The 6 The Cleavage Cleavage Zygote Eight-cell stage Blastocoel Blastula Cross section of blastula blind pouch formed by gastrulation. Blastocoel endoderm of the archenteron develops into the tissue lining the animal’s digestive tract. Blastopore Figure 32. The blastula of many animals is a hollow ball of 3 cells. and eventually fills the blastocoel. cleavage results in the formation of a multicellular stage called a blastula. The zygote of an animal undergoes a succession of 1 cell divisions called mitotic cleavage. opens to the outside via the blastopore.2 . Endoderm Ectoderm Gastrula Gastrulation Most animals also undergo gastrulation. a rearrangement of the 4 embryo in which one end of the embryo folds inward. called the archenteron. In most animals.
endoderma. mesoderma) Rongga pelan tubuh (acoelomates.Ciri Haiwan Evolusi tisu haiwan – Simetri bilateral -3 lapisan germa (ektoderma.protosomes atau deuterosome Segmentasi . psedocoelomates atau coelomates). Endoskeleton .
Acoelomates .ada rongga antara mesoderma dan endoderma Coelomates – mempunyai rongga tubuh yang dipenuhi cecair .tiada rongga tubuh Psedocoelomates .
radiate from the center. . such as a sea anemone (phylum Cnidaria). The parts of a radial animal.Simetri (a) Haiwan boleh dikategorikan – Simetri atau tidak Radial symmetry. Any imaginary slice through the central axis divides the animal into mirror images.
Only one imaginary cut divides the animal into mirror-image halves. such as a lobster (phylum Arthropoda). the development of a head (b) Bilateral symmetry. has a left side and a right side. bilateral symmetri – Dua bahagian simetri Bilaterally symmetrical animals have – A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side – A right and left side – Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends – Cephalization. . A bilateral animal.
endoderm. Bentuk / plan tubuh – Berbeza mengikut organisasi tisu haiwan Embrio Haiwan Bentuk lapisan germa tisu embrio ectoderm. and mesoderm Haiwan Diploblastik = 2 lapisan germa Hiawan Triploblastik = 3 lapisan germa .
Coelomates such as annelids have a true coelom.8a . Rongga Badan – coelom yang berasal dari mesoderm Coelom Body covering (from ectoderm) (a) Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Coelomate. Figure 32. a body cavity completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm.
Pseudocoelomata – Rongga tubuh berasal dari blastocoel Body covering (from ectoderm) Pseudocoelom Muscle layer (from mesoderm) (b) Digestive tract (from ectoderm) Pseudocoelomate. . Pseudocoelomates such as nematodes have a body cavity only partially lined by tissue derived from Figure 32.8b mesoderm.
acoelomates Tanpa rongga tubuh Body covering (from ectoderm) (c) Tissuefilled region (from mesoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Acoelomate. . Acoelomates such as flatworms lack a body cavity between the digestive tract and outer body wall.
perkembangan protostome atau 2. perkembangan deuterostome .Perkembangan Protostome dan Deuterostome – Haiwan boleh dikategorikan kepada mempunyai satu atau dua mod perkembangan 1.
Pembahagian adalah radial dan tidak boleh ditentukan Protostome development (examples: molluscs.9a Spiral and determinate Radial and indeterminate Cleavage. annelids.Pembahagian . determinate cleavage. arthropods) Eight-cell stage Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms. . chordates) Eight-cell stage (a) Figure 32. Deuterostome development is characterized by radial.Pembahagian adalah spiral dan boleh ditentukan Dlm perkembangan deuterostome . indeterminate cleavage. protostome development begins with spiral.Cleavage Dlm perkembangan protostome . In general.
protostome - Pembentukan Coelom .Coelom Formation – Pembentukan rongga kaviti disebut perkembangan schizocoelous – Pembentukan rongga kaviti disebut perkembangan enterocoelous Coelom Archenteron In deuterostome development Mesoderm Coelom Blastopore Blastopore Mesoderm Schizocoelous: solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom Enterocoelous: folds of archenteron form coelom (b) Coelom formation. Coelom formation begins in the gastrula stage. the coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm (schizocoelous development). In deuterostome development. . In protostome development. the coelom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenteron (enterocoelous development).
Blastopore Terhasil Perkembangan protostome – blastopore menjadi mulut Perkembangan deuterostome – blastopore menjadi anus Anus Mouth Digestive tube Mouth Anus Anus develops from blastopore Figure 32.9c Mouth develops from blastopore .
Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion–524 Million Years Ago) Early members of the animal fossil record – Include the Ediacaran fauna Figure 32. b (a) (b) .5a.
6 .Paleozoic Era (542–251 Million Years Ago) The Cambrian explosion – Marks the earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals – Is described by several current hypotheses Figure 32.
5 Million Years Ago) During the Mesozoic era – Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates – Coral reefs emerged.Mesozoic Era (251–65. becoming important marine ecological niches for other organisms .
Cenozoic Era (65.5 Million Years Ago to the Present) The beginning of this era – Followed mass extinctions of both terrestrial and marine animals Modern mammal orders and insects – Diversified during the Cenozoic .
Pengelasan Biologi Example: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Short-beaked Echidna Animalia Chordata Mammalia Monotremata Tachyglossidae Tachyglossus aculeatus .
Alam Hidupan Eubacteria Archaeobacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia True bacteria Ancient bacteria Single cell Primary producers External digestion Consumers Eukaryotes Viruses Prokaryotes .
000 species 25.400 vertebrates (Phylum Chordata) – 3. 45% endemic – 700 reptiles.600 fishes. 84% endemic (incl. many endemic . 93% endemic ~520.Biodiversity: 8% of the world’s total species diversity >800.000 fungi 5. 89% endemic – 357 mammals.000 insects.000 invertebrates (“the other 99%”) – 225. 159 marsupials) – 174 amphibians. most endemic – 850 birds.000 vascular plants 250.
Beetle Diversity .
Alam Haiwan MULTISEL Tisu Radial simetri (Filum Radiata) Obor-Obor Bilateral simetri Filum Platyhelminthes (flatworm) Psedocoel FilumNematoda (cacing bulat) Filum Rotifera Tiada Tisu (Filum Porifera) Sponge Coelom endoskeleton Segmen Moluska Filum Echinodermata Filum Chordata Eksoskeleton Filum Annelida. Arthropoda .
most marine and colonial Filter feed on fine particulate matter drawn in with water in through pores Skeleton used as ‘bath sponges’ Small calcareous sponges. Heron Island .Phylum Porifera: Sponges About 5000 species.
no organs No circulatory system No nervous system No respiratory or excretory system: gas exchange and waste excretion by diffusion Very simple digestive system: no mouth or gut .Phylum Porifera: Sponges Poorly differentiated tissues.
attached tubular form (eg.Phylum Cnidaria/Radiata: jellyfish. sea anemones.freefloating. corals Medusa of Class Scyphozoa jellyfish 9000 species. marine or freshwater Medusa . sea wasps. a sea anemone) clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris Heteractis magnifica Class Anthozoa sea anemone . hydrozoans. (pelagic) and bell shaped (eg jellyfish) Polyp .
Stings from sea wasp (box jellyfish) are dangerous and often fatal .Phylum Cnidaria Nematocysts are a diagnostic feature (Stinging organelles for defence and capture of prey) People often experience stings (eg blue bottle).
polyps embedded in skeleton of calcium carbonate .Class Anthozoa: Corals Sessile polyps that often live colonially. catch zooplankton on nematocysts. Feed by everting tentacles. Food passes between individual polyps to provide for whole colony Hard corals .
Phylum Cnidaria Radial symmetry No circulatory system Primitive nervous system: ‘nerve net’ No respiratory system: gas exchange by diffusion Simple digestive system – one-way gastrovascular cavity .
hydatid cyst tapeworm) . liver fluke of sheep) Class Cestoda Tapeworms (eg. pork tapeworm. tapeworms and flukes 12.Phylum Platyhelminthes: flatworms.700 species Class Turbellaria Flatworms (free-living) Class Monogenea Ectoparasitic flukes Class Trematoda Endoparasitic flukes (eg.
Phylum Platyhelminthes Bilateral symmetry. dorso-ventrally flattened Many are parasitic Many are hermaphroditic No circulatory system No respiratory system: gas exchange by diffusion Simple nervous system / simple eyes Simple digestive system – one-way gastrovascular cavity .
anteriorly pointed Range from few mm to ~30 metres in length Many brightly coloured . algal mats Have a unique eversible anterior proboscis used for catching prey Elongated. under rocks.Phylum Nemertinea: proboscis worms 900 species Mostly marine species: rocky crevices. in sand.
with tapered ends Thick collagen cuticle Move by longitudinal muscle contraction Elephantiasis is caused by a roundworm which blocks lymphatic tissue.000 species.Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms 12. many parasitic Pseudocoelomate: possess fluid filled body cavity Found in virtually every habitat Cylindrical. causing grotesque swelling in affected regions .
nerves running posteriorly. amphids) No respiratory system Through digestive system . parasite Rudimentary nervous system: aggregation of nerve cells (brain). nerve cells on cuticle (setae.Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms Bilateral symmetry. papillae. cylindrical Pseudocoelomate – possess body cavity Limited closed circulatory system.
Phylum Annelida: Segmented worms 8700 species Class Polychaeta (Marine bristle-worms) Class Euclitellata Sub-class Oligochaeta (Earthworms) Sub-class Hirudinae (Leeches) .
ventral nervous cord and ganglia in each segment Through digestive system Excretion through nephridial tubules .Phylum Annelida: Segmented worms Coelomate – possess true body cavity Segmentation and metamerism Closed circulatory system (blood vessels) Primitive respiratory systems Nervous system – brain.
eg thorax) – diversity and complexity of form . crustaceans. millipedes. centipedes Most species-rich phylum in animal kingdom > 1 million species described Have – hard chitinous exoskeleton (protects soft parts. arachnids.Phylum Arthropoda: insects. allows muscle attachment) – evolution of wings – jointed limbs – tagmatisation (organisation of segments into functional groups.
internal fertilization . segmental ganglia Sexes separate.Phylum Arthropoda Reduced coelom (haemocoel) Open circulatory system – blood pumped by heart through haemocoel Well developed nervous system – brain with paired nervous cord.
Contoh .Phylum Arthropoda Well developed respiratory systems Complete digestive system Specialized nitrogenous waste excretion: Malpighian tubules collect dissolved N waste .
crabs.Sub-phylum Crustacea < 42. thorax and abdomen 2 pairs of antennae. 2 pairs of maxillae Carapace enclosing body Appendages (legs. swimmerettes) made of 2 parts – endopodite and exopodite . mandibles. copepods.000 species prawns. amphipods. barnacles Head. isopods. crayfish. shrimps.
Sub-phylum Crustacea Mostly aquatic. many marine Omnivorous: scavengers. including compound and simple eyes (ocelli) . carnivores Often have gills on limbs Well developed nervous system. filter feeders.
malaria.contributes to abundance and distribution Many are pests of humans and crops. bubonic plague) Many positive impacts – pollination. biological control . pharmaceuticals.Class Insecta . Some are major vectors of disease (eg.000 species described Among most numerous inhabitants of terrestrial environments Ability to fly .Serangga Largest group of animals. about 800.
thorax and abdomen Head segments are fused Head features compound eyes. antennae.Insect body plan Distinct head. three pairs of mouthparts Thorax has 3 pairs of walking legs. and 2 pairs of wings Abdomen lacks appendages except for cerci .
Class Insecta • Variety of feeding methods • Gas exchange through spiracles that open externally. lead to tracheae. divide into tracheoles • Excretion system: Malpighian tubules .
bees. butterflies) Hymenoptera (ants.Major insect orders Coleoptera (beetles) Hemiptera (bugs) Diptera (flies) Orthoptera (crickets. wasps) Trichoptera (caddis flies) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Blattodea (cockroaches) Siphonaptera (fleas) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Odonata (dragonflies. damselflies) . locusts) Lepidoptera (moths.
Incomplete metamorphosis (successive
Complete metamorphosis (adult form has
a completely different body form and feeding pattern to the juvenile stage) (e.g. Wanderer Butterfly)
Second largest animal phylum (after Arthropods) >100,000 living species Aquatic and terrestrial forms Includes chitons, gastropods (snails, slugs,nudibranchs), bivalves (mussels, oysters, cockles), cephalopods (squids, octopuses)
Consist of muscular foot, visceral mass and mantle (secretes the shell)
Open circulatory system Well developed nervous system Respiratory system: gills within the mantle cavity Complete digestive system, including the radula Excretory system present
flattened Distinct head with well-developed sense organs Strong radula Variety of habitats .Phylum Mollusca: Class Gastropoda Variety of form – coiled.
Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda: nudibranch Class Polyplacophora: chiton .
Phylum Mollusca: Class Cephalopoda (head-foot) Head surrounded by ring of arms and tentacles Well developed brain. advanced capability in vision (colour vision) .
Phylum Echinodermata (“spiny skin”) 6000 marine species Asteroidea .feather stars Ophuroidea.sea urchins Holothuroidea .sea stars Crinoidea .brittle stars Echinoidea .sea cucumbers Internal skeleton composed of calcereous ossicles Brittle star (top) and Sea star .
respiratory trees .Phylum Echinodermata Larvae have bilateral symmetry. adults exhibit secondary radial symmetry (5-rayed) No head Have modified coelom .unique water vascular system and tube feet used in feeding and locomotion No excretory organs – diffusion across body surface Well-developed digestive tract .radial Circulatory system via coelomic fluid Nervous system – relatively simple Respiratory system varied – gills.
g. Amphioxus) – Hemichordates (e. acorn worms) .g. sea-squirts) – Cephalochordates (e.g.Phylum Chordata Possess at some stage during development: – a notochord (pre-cursor to a backbone) – pharyngeal slits – hollow dorsal nervous cord Primitive chordates include: – Urochordates (tunicates: e.
Phylum Chordata: Sub-phyla Vertebrata ~38. arteries and veins Respiratory system – from skin to lungs Complex digestive and excretory systems Well developed nervous system Variation in modes of locomotion .000 species Diagnostic Posses cartilaginous or bony vertebrae (backbone) Embryonic tissue called the ‘neural crest’ Typical Bilateral symmetry Specialized head with a skull to protect brain and sensory organs Teeth Closed circulatory systems – heart.
rays) Osteichthyes (bony fishes . skates. lizards) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) . turtles. salamanders) Reptilia (snakes. crocodiles.all common fish) Tetrapods Amphibia (frogs.Sub-phyla Vertebrata Classes Chondrichthyes (sharks.
lungfish and coelacanth) are closes relatives to tetrapods .Sub-phyla Vertebrata Chondrichthytes cartilaginous skeleton Osteichthytes bony fish includes teleosts – fusion of vertebrae in caudal fin – loss of dentine and enamel from scales Lobe-finned fish (salamanders.
Sub-phyla Vertebrata: Class Mammalia Mammary glands (produce milk) Hair Four-chambered heart. double circulation Highly developed nervous system .
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Praktikal 4 dan 5 Amali 4: Mengukur dan Membanding Kepelbagaian Spesies Amali 5: Memahami Trenda Populasi Bring your own broadband .
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