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Benedicto Munthali 2013

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

CPD PAPER 1: CEMENT PART 1 : Standards and Specifications By Benedicto Bright Munthali (Bsc Civil Eng, MICT(pend))
Abstract This paper covers cement standards and specification key to very day engineering work. The paper discusses the EN 197-1:2000 in application to the Malawian cements. The reader is advised on how to use the EN 197-1:2000 in understanding cement composition and anticipated behavior in concrete works. The paper also discusses the importance of focusing of environmental friendly practice in cement and concrete works. Introduction Most engineering works in Malawi do not go without concrete or building works. As engineers, we find ourselves on a regular basis having to either specify or produce various types and classes of concretes and mortars. This attracts our knowledge to how well we understand our materials. Cement is the main hydraulic binder we normally really on when it comes to concrete and mortar works. A number of times when a concrete or mortar job goes wrong, the first material to suspect of underperforming is the cement. But really, how well do we understand this material called cement and how does it really affect us as engineers during designing and construction. This paper attempts to address these questions and many more that affect an engineers everyday life. Back ground So what is cement? In very simple terms, it is a hydraulic binder. It is called a hydraulic binder because for it to have the binding property, it must hydrate (be mixed with water to start it chemical reactions). It is the hydrate products that give the cement its binding property. This therefore means it is important to understand the hydration process. In order to fully understand this, lets us look and the history of cement.
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Benedicto Munthali 2013

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

Most common cements are essentially calcium silicate cements, which are produced by firing to partial fusion, at a temperature of approximately 1500C, a well-homogenized and finely ground mixture of limestone or chalk (calcium carbonate) and an appropriate quantity of clay or shale. The composition is commonly fine tuned by the addition of sand and/or iron oxide. (1) The first calcium silicate cements were produced by the Greeks and Romans, who discovered that volcanic ash, if finely ground and mixed with lime and water, produced a hardened mortar, which was resistant to weathering. In the mid eighteenth century John Smeaton discovered that certain impure limes (these contained appropriate levels of silica and alumina) had hydraulic properties. That is, they contained reactive silicates and aluminates, which could react with water to yield durable hydrates, which resisted the action of water. Smeaton used this material in the mortar used to construct the Eddystone Lighthouse in 1759 (1). The term Portland cement was first applied by Joseph Aspdin in his British Patent No. 5022 (1824), which describes a process for making artificial stone by mixing lime with clay in the form of a slurry and calcining (heating to drive off carbon dioxide and water) the dried lumps of material in a shaft kiln. The calcined material (clinker) was ground to produce cement. The term Portland was used because of the similarity of the hardened product to that of Portland stone from Dorset and also because this stone had an excellent reputation for performance (1). Joseph Aspdin was not the first to produce a calcium silicate cement but his patent gave him the priority for the use of the term Portland cement. Other workers were active at the same time or earlier, most notably Louis Vicat in France. Blezard (1998) gives a comprehensive review of the history of the development of calcareous (limebased) cements (1).

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Benedicto Munthali 2013 Understanding Standards

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

There are two groups of cements commonly used in construction and these are common cements and masonry cements. Each group has a standard that helps in classification of the cements. Before the European standards emerge, cement was classified using BS 12. This has now been withdrawn and replaced with EN 197-1. What we must understand is that EN standards are the main skeleton of standard that have been agreed throughout Europe to bring in uniformity in practice. These standard are however, nationalized in various countries e.g. BS EN 197-1. This means that this is a British version of the EN standards with minor changes that are applicable to Britain. In South Africa, the standards there are SANS 50197-1. The American equivalent to EN 197-1 is ASTM C 150. The American standard stands out alone because the standard classifies cement in a different manner to the EN standard. I will dwell much of this in my future papers on Concrete Standards and specifications but for now, we will dwell on the EN 197-1.

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Benedicto Munthali 2013

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

This is a standard for all common cements made from clinker. There are 27 types of common cements; below is table 1 extracted from EN 197-1: 2000
Composition (percentage by mass ) Main constituents Minor additional constituents Burnt shale Limestone
a

Main types

Notation of the 27 products (types of common cement)

Clinker

Blastfurnace slag

Silica fume

Pozzolana natural

Fly ash calcareous W

natural siliceous calcined Q V

LL

CEM I

Portland cement Portland-slag cement Portland-silica fume cement

CEM I CEM II/A-S CEM II/B-S CEM II/A-D CEM II/A-P

95-100 80-94 65-79 90-94 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 35-64 20-34 5-19 65-89 45-64 40-64 20-38

6-20 21-35
------------------------------------------

6-10

6-20 21-35

6-20 21-35

6-20 21-35
-------------------------------------------

6-20 21-35

6-20 21-35

6-20 21-35

6-20 21-35

0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5

Portland-pozzolana cement

CEM II/B-P CEM II/A-Q CEM II/B-Q CEM II/A-V

CEM II

Portland-fly ash cement

CEM II/B-V CEM II/A-W CEM II/B-W

Portland-burnt shale cement

CEM II/A-T CEM II/B-T CEM II/A-L

Portland-limestone cement

CEM II/B-L CEM II/A-LL CEM II/B-LL

Portland-composite c cement

CEM II/A-M CEM II/B-M CEM III/A

6-20 21-35 36-65 66-80 81-95 18-30 31-50


--------


------------------


-------------------

0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5

CEM III

Blastfurnace cement Pozzolanic c cement Composite c cement

CEM III/B CEM III/C CEM IV/A CEM IV/B CEM V/A CEM V/B

11-35 36-55
------ --

CEM IV

18-30 31-50

CEM V

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Benedicto Munthali 2013

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

From this table we learn that there are 5 main types of cements CEM I to CEM V. these 5 types are further subdivided into subgroups based on their composition. What is important to know for an engineer is the constituent material in the cement since this will have an effect of the strength development properties in concrete or mortar. Lets try to bring this table to life; in Malawi, we will pick 3 cements for our discussion; Lafarge Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Duracrete cement Njati cement

These 3 cements are different in classification. If you look on any of these bags you should find this; CEM I on the Portland bag CEM II B-P on the Duracrete bag CEM II A-L on the Njati bag

Picture 1: Njati Cement bag

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Benedicto Munthali 2013

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

Now lets go back to our table from EN 197-1:2000 and see what it tells us. If we go under main type and look up CEM I, the table tells us that this is a Portland cement that is made from 95 -100% clinker. (Portland is not a brand name, it is nomenclature

of the cement). This is cement is referred to as a pure cement because it is made of


clinker only. It has 0-5% minor constituents added to it and this is normally Gypsum. Gypsum makes it possible for your cement to have controlled setting time. If 100% clinker is used, the cement will set (harden) immediately after you add water to it. Gypsum is therefore used to control setting time. If too much gypsum is in your cement, you get a long set, the cement does not harden for a very long time. If you have little gypsum you get a quick set, the cement hardens before you have finished placing it, either ways, if this happens on site, query the cement manufacturer. Now Duracrete (CEM II B-P) according to our table falls in a group of PortlandPozzolana cements. Portland because it has clinker in it and Pozzolana because it has a

semi-cementious material that on its own does not have cementious properties but
when mixed with calcium-silicate compounds, it reacts and produces cementious properties. From the table we see that the pozzolana material added to the cement is natural pozzolana soil. Pozzolanic materials contain reactive (usually in glassy form) silica and alumina, which are able to react with the calcium hydroxide released by hydrating cement, to yield additional CSH hydrate (the main strength-giving hydrate product produced during hydration) and calcium aluminate hydrates. This reaction is much slower than the hydration of the clinker silicates and the strength development of pozzolanic cements is slower than that of pure Portland cements. Provided moist curing is maintained, ultimate strengths may be higher than those of pure Portland cement concrete (1). This means that if you compare this cement with pure cement like Portland cement, you will get lower strengths at 28 days but it is expected to give

higher strengths after 28 days. This is a very important point when specifying and
analyzing performance of this cement against other cements. In order to get it correct, what is required before specifying the cement, is a trial mix with a pure cement (OPC) and our Portland pozzolana cement. A mix ratio is selected and both cements used to
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Benedicto Munthali 2013

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

make the same mix and cured under same condtions. Comprehensive strength testing should be done at 7, 14, 28, and 56 days. The strength achieved at 28 days for the Portland pozzolana cement is the one to be used for specification. Just as an illustration, a C30 concrete with OPC may give you around 30 Mpa at 28 days while the Portland pozzolana cemene will give you around 25 Mpa. At 56 days, the OPC cement will give around 31 Mpa while the Portland pozzolana cement will give around 32 Mpa. So for testing a C 30 concrete at 28 day for Portland pozzolana cement, a result of around 25 could be accepted while the same result (25) should be rejected for OPC. This cement will have 65-79 % clinker and 21-35% natural pozzolana and again 0-5% minor constituents (Gypsum). Also worth noting is that due to continuous hydration, these cements tend to have a dense internal matrix. This reduces permeability of the concrete and hence increases durability.

Now Njati cement which is a CEM II A-L is a Portland Limestone cement according to the table. It is made up of 80-94 % clinker, 6-20% limestone and 0-5% minor constituents (Gypsum). Unlike pozzolana, the limestone added does not contribute to the strength development at any stage of hydration. It only facilitates the hydration process hence the cement behaves more like pure cement. This means it gives you a performance very close to OPC. This cement however, together with OPC, are both not good at resisting chemical attacks. An example would be concrete for sewer systems, water treatment plants and any environment that exposes the concrete to sulfates, chloride, acids and salts. The best cements for these applications are those with low clinker contents and other cementious materials added. That is why it is better to go for pozzolana cements, slag cements, fly ash cement and silica fume cements etc. In many chemical attacks, it is normally the lime (calcium) and silicates that are attacked hence a cement with less of at least one of the two, is more likely to be resistant to chemical attacks.

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Benedicto Munthali 2013 Strength Classes

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

According to the EN 197-1:2000, there are several strength classes for cements, below is table 2 extracted the standard;
Table 2 Mechanical and physical requirements given as characteristic values

Strength class

Compressive strength MPa Early strength 2 days 7 days 16,0 42,5 52,5 62,5 Standard strength 28 days 32,5 52,5

Initial setting time min 75 60 45

Soundness (expansion) mm

32,5 N 32,5 R 42,5 N 42,5 R 52,5 N 52,5 R

10,0 10,0 20,0 20,0 30,0

10

What this table tells us is that we have two kind of strength development we may expect in cements, normal strength development (N) and rapid strength development (R). A normal strength development simply develops strength normally and a long (normal) setting time. This kind of cement gives a longer open time to work with the cement on site after hydration has begun. In rapid strength development, the cement sets fast and there are shorter open times to work with the cement after hydration has begun, the cement hardens fast. This also means, it has higher early strengths as compared to normal cements. Refering to the table 2 above, it can be seen that you can have, for example, a 32.5 normal setting and rapid setting cement. Now if we go with a 32.5 cement, what is expected is that at 28 days, the cement can achieve a

strength of between 32.5 to 52.5 Mpa and it is expected to start setting after 75 mins.
This means is very simply terms, you can produce a C 50 concrete or even higher and a C 25 concrete or lower with a 32.5 cement. This is because the strength of the concrete

will be because of your mix proportion you have selected. The data in table 2 gives you
an indication of the strength of the cement alone.

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Benedicto Munthali 2013

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

Concrete technology permits you to make any concrete class with any cement, what is makes the difference is the volume of cement used to achieve that strength. For example if you use a 32.5 and a 42.5 to make a C 30 concrete, you will discover that you will use less cement with the 42.5 compared to the 32.5 to achieve the same strength. Normally it will be 15-25% less depending on the classes of comparison. Now from a construction point of view, it means it is cheaper for the contractor to use higher strength class cement, so the higher the strength class, the less the cement required to

achieve a particular strength. This is why I personally like the Pakistani cement Maple
leaf (52.5N), but bear in mind it also has a shorter initial setting time so you have to work fast and most laborers do not like working fast. As of when to specify use of a normal cement or rapid cement, normally when early strength is required for example in construction dam and bridges where you have flowing water, rapid hardening cements can be used and formwork can be removed early because the concrete will have developed enough strength to withstand the action of water. Also in construction works where formwork removal needs to be done early for various reason or rapid constructions, rapid hardening cement will be ideal as compared to normal cement. Green Construction This paper had only looked at the common cements found in Malawi but if we go back to table 1, there are 27 types of common cements, the question is, why do we have all these cements? Production of pure cement contributes to green house gas emissions. For every ton of OPC produced there is approximately a ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced. Literature has it that the cement industry is the second largest green house gas polluter. It is in this regard that the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) prepared an Agenda for Action for a 5 year period from 2002 to 2007 (2), endorsed by the leading cement manufactures of the world. The agenda addressed the issues of (a) climate protection, (b) fuel and raw material use, and (c)
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Benedicto Munthali 2013

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

emission reduction besides other issues. The comprehensive study on sustainability of cement industry, carried out by Bettelle and the WBCSD (3), envisaged the following scenario, insofar as the CO2 emissions are concerned: Considering 1990 as the base, the global demand for cement in 2020 shall increase 1.15 1.8 times regionwise. The demand in developing countries shall far exceed that of developed countries At the global level, the cement industry will be required to reduce the CO2 generation by 30-40% in 2020 and about 50% in 2050, above the 1990 measure. In order to achieve the desired level of CO2 reduction, the cement industry will have to develop alternative cement formulations and new technologies to improve energy efficiency; use alternative building material such as fly ash, blast furnance slag and pozzolana; use alternative low carbon fuels; and adopt Cos capture sequestration techniques. It is from this back ground that the cement industry strive to reduce production of pure cement (CEM I, read as C.E.M 1) and increase production of blended cements (CEM II (2) to CEM V (5)). So in as much as OPC is preferred cement, it is not environmentally friendly cement at production. We are therefore encouraged to use blended cements in order to low CO2 emissions. Apart for using blended cements, we must start considering alternative building materials such as fly ash and slag in our concrete mixes. This furthers the reduction of CO2 emissions and provides more environmental friendly concretes (green concrete). What is of paramount importance is to understand our building materials in order to produce required concrete quality. Conclusion As highlighted by this paper, there are two main types of cement, common cements and masonry cements. Each cement type has a standard and for common cements the EN 197-1:2000 is the guided standard. Masonry cements have not been featured in this paper since they are not used for structural concrete works. Kumanga cement is an example of masonry cement.
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Benedicto Munthali 2013

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

The EN 197-1 helps us to understand the composition and behavior of common cements. From the standard we can identify the key constituents in cement, their quantity and mostly expected behavior in concrete. In Malawi, there are currently 3 types of cement on the market; 1. An ordinary Portland cement e.g. Lafarge Portland Cement, Maple leaf cement 2. A Portland Pozzolana cement e.g. Lafarge Duracrete cement 3. A Portland limestone cement e.g. Njati cement. All these cements have positives and negatives which an engineer must be aware when choosing the type of cement for an application. Portland cements develop strength 90% of its strength by 28 days while Portland pozzolana cements develop strength slowly and continue to develop strength after 28 days. Portland pozzolana cements form dense concrete matrix giving more durable concrete and are more resistant to chemical attacks. Portland-limestone cements are blended cement that behaves like Portland cement and have better resistance to chemical attacks as compared to Portland cements. The most common strength class found on the market is 32.5N. We are encouraged to use more blended cements in concrete works to low green house gas emissions.

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Benedicto Munthali 2013 References

CPD Paper 1:

CEMENT PART 1

1. Moir, Graeme. Cement. [book auth.] J. Newman & B.S. Choo. Advanced Concrete

Technology. Oxford : Elsevier, 2003.


2. Business Solutions for Sustainable World. [Online] [Cited: February 15, 2013.] http://www.wbcsd.org. 3. K. Humphreys & M. Mahasenan. Towards Sustainable Cement Industry -

Substudy 8: Climate Change. Geneva : World Business Council for Sustainable


Development, 2002.

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