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Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 1

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Serway CP 27 19
001 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
The extremes of the x-ray portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum range from approx-
imately 4 10
9
m to 1.6 10
13
m.
Find the minimum accelerating voltage re-
quired to produce wavelengths at the mini-
mum extreme using electrons.
Correct answer: 7.75983 10
6
V.
Explanation:
Let : = 1.6 10
13
m,
h = 6.63 10
34
J s ,
c = 3 10
8
m/s , and
q
e
= 1.602 10
19
C.
The energy is
E = q
e
V =
hc

min
.
V =
h
q
e
c

=
6.63 10
34
J s
1.602 10
19
C

3 10
8
m/s
1.6 10
13
m
= 7.75983 10
6
V .
002 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Find the minimum accelerating voltage re-
quired to produce wavelengths at the maxi-
mum extreme using electrons.
Correct answer: 310.393 V.
Explanation:
Let : = 4 10
9
m.
V =
h
q
e
c

=
6.63 10
34
J s
1.602 10
19
C

3 10
8
m/s
4 10
9
m
= 310.393 V .
keywords:
Serway CP 27 14
003 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Beryllium, tungsten, and silver have work
functions of 3.9 eV, 4.58 eV, and 4.73 eV,
respectively. 311 nm light is incident on each
of these metals.
Which of these metals will exhibit the
photoelectric eect? The speed of light
is 3 10
8
m/s and Plancks constant is
6.63 10
34
J s .
1. silver
2. beryllium correct
3. beryllium and tungsten
4. None of these
5. tungsten and silver
6. tungsten
Explanation:
Let : = 311 nm = 3.11 10
7
m,

beryllium
= 3.9 eV,

tungsten
= 4.58 eV,

silver
= 4.73 eV,
h = 6.63 10
34
J s , and
c = 3 10
8
m/s .
For photoelectrons to be emitted, hf must
be greater than .
hf =
hc

Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 2


=
(6.63 10
34
J s) (3 10
8
m/s)
(1.6 10
19
J/eV) (3.11 10
7
m)
= 3.99719 eV,
which is greater than the work function of
beryllium and therefore causes this metal to
emit photoelectrons.
004 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
For those metals that do exhibit the photo-
electric eect, what is the maximum kinetic
energy of the photoelectrons?
Correct answer: 0.0971865 eV.
Explanation:
For beryllium,
K
max
= hf
beryllium
= 3.99719 eV 3.9 eV
= 0.0971865 eV .
Serway CP 27 51
005 10.0 points
Photons of wavelength 423 nm are incident on
a metal. The most energetic electrons ejected
from the metal are bent into a circular arc
of radius 19.2 cm by a magnetic eld with a
magnitude of 1.49 10
5
T.
What is the work function of the metal?
The speed of light is 3 10
8
m/s and Plancks
constant is 6.626 10
34
J s .
Correct answer: 2.21364 eV.
Explanation:
Let : = 423 nm = 4.23 10
7
m,
R = 19.2 cm = 0.192 m,
B = 1.49 10
5
T,
h = 6.626 10
34
J s ,
c = 3 10
8
m/s ,
q
e
= 1.602 10
19
C, and
m
e
= 9.109 10
31
kg .
The magnetic force supplies the centripetal
acceleration, so
F = q
e
v B = m
v
2
R
,
q
e
RB = mv = p .
The maximum kinetic energy of the electrons
is
K =
p
2
2 m
=
(q
e
RB)
2
2 m
e
.
From conservation of energy, the kinetic en-
ergy of the photoelectrons is related to the en-
ergy
_
E =
hc

_
of the incident photon and
the work function by
K =
hc


=
hc


(q
e
RB)
2
2 m
e
=
(6.626 10
34
J s) (3 10
8
m/s)
(4.23 10
7
m)

1 eV
1.602 10
19
J

[(1.602 10
19
C) (0.192 m)]
2
2 9.109 10
31
kg

_
1.49 10
5
T
_
2

1 eV
1.602 10
19
J
= 2.21364 eV .
Serway CP 27 43
006 10.0 points
A 0.67 kg block rests on the icy surface of
a frozen pond, which we can assume to be
frictionless.
If the location of the block is measured
to a precision of 0.69 cm, what speed
must the block acquire because of the mea-
surement process? Plancks constant is
6.626 10
34
J s.
Correct answer: 1.14056 10
32
m/s.
Explanation:
Let : m = 0.67 kg ,
x = 0.69 cm = 0.0069 m, and
h = 6.626 10
34
J s .
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 3
With an uncertainty of x in position, the
minimum uncertainty in speed is
v =
p
m
e

h
4 mx
=
6.626 10
34
J s
4 (0.67 kg) (0.0069 m)
= 1.14056 10
32
m/s .
Since the speed must be at least as large as its
own uncertainty,
v
min
= 1.14056 10
32
m/s .
Serway CP 27 09
007 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
A 2 kg mass vibrates at an amplitude of 3 cm
on the end of a spring of spring constant
34 N/m.
If the energy of the spring is quantized, nd
its quantum number. Plancks constant is
6.63 10
34
J s.
Correct answer: 3.51668 10
31
.
Explanation:
Let : m = 2 kg ,
k = 34 N/m,
A = 3 cm, and
h = 6.63 10
34
J s .
The frequency is
f =
1
2
_
k
m
=
1
2

34 N/m
2 kg
= 0.656213 Hz .
The quantized energy is equal to the energy
of the spring:
E = nhf =
1
2
k A
2
.
Thus
n =
E
hf
=
k A
2
2 hf
=
(34 N/m) (3 cm)
2
2 (6.63 10
34
J s) (0.656213 Hz)

_
1 m
100 cm
_
2
= 3.51668 10
31
.
008 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
If n changes by 1, nd the fractional change
in energy of the spring.
Correct answer: 2.84359 10
32
.
Explanation:
Let : n = 1.
E
n
= (nhf) = nhf = hf.
Thus,
E
E
=
hf
nhf
=
1
n
=
1
3.51668 10
31
= 2.84359 10
32
.
keywords:
Serway CP 27 36
009 10.0 points
Through what potential dierence would
an electron have to be accelerated from
rest to give it a de Broglie wavelength of
5.1 10
10
m? The mass of an electron
is 9.109 10
31
kg and Plancks constant is
6.626 10
34
J s.
Correct answer: 5.78361 V.
Explanation:
Let : = 5.1 10
10
m,
e = 1.602 10
19
C,
h = 6.626 10
34
J s , and
m
e
= 9.109 10
31
kg .
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 4
For non-relativistic particles, the de Broglie
wavelength is
=
h
p
=
h

2 mK
.
Since the kinetic energy equals to the loss of
potential energy,
=
h

2 me V
2 m
e
e V =
h
2

2
V =
h
2
2 m
e
e
2
=
(6.626 10
34
J s)
2
2 (9.109 10
31
kg)

1
(1.602 10
19
C)(5.1 10
10
m)
2
= 5.78361 V .
Serway CP 27 27
010 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
A photon has a wavelength of 890 nm.
What is its energy? Plancks contant is
6.626 10
34
J s and the speed of light is
3 10
8
m/s.
Correct answer: 1.39593 eV.
Explanation:
Let : = 890 nm = 8.9 10
7
m,
c = 3 10
8
m/s , and
h = 6.626 10
34
J s .
The energy of the photon is
E

= h =
hc

=
(6.626 10
34
J s) (3 10
8
m/s)
8.9 10
7
m

1 eV
1.6 10
19
J
= 1.39593 eV .
011 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
What is its momentum?
Correct answer: 7.44494 10
28
kg m/s.
Explanation:
p =
h

=
6.626 10
34
J s
8.9 10
7
m
= 7.44494 10
28
kg m/s .
keywords:
Serway CP 27 06
012 10.0 points
A sodium-vapor lamp has a power output of
1110 W.
Using 582 nm as the average wavelength
of this source, calculate the number of pho-
tons emitted per second. Plancks constant
is 6.63 10
34
J s, and the speed of light is
3 10
8
m/s.
Correct answer: 3.24796 10
21
.
Explanation:
Let : P = 1110 W,
t = 1 s ,
= 582 nm = 5.82 10
7
m,
h = 6.63 10
34
J s , and
c = 3 10
8
m/s .
The energy of a single photon is
E

= h =
hc

.
The number of photons emitted by the lamp
in time t is
N =
E
E

=
P t
E

=
P t
hc
=
(1110 W) (1 s)
_
5.82 10
7
m
_
(6.63 10
34
J s) (3 10
8
m/s)
= 3.24796 10
21
.
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 5
keywords:
Serway CP 27 30
013 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
X-rays with an energy of 278 keV undergo
Compton scattering from a target. The scat-
tered rays are deected at 40.9

relative to the
direction of the incident rays.
Find the Compton shift. The speed of
light is 3 10
8
m/s and Plancks constant is
6.63 10
34
J s .
Correct answer: 0.000592277 nm.
Explanation:
Let : E = 278 keV,
= 40.9

,
h = 6.63 10
34
J s ,
m
e
= 9.11 10
31
kg , and
c = 3 10
8
m/s .
From Comptons formula, the shift is
=
h
m
e
c
(1 cos )
=
6.63 10
34
J s
(9.11 10
31
kg) (3 10
8
m/s)
(1 cos 40.9

)
10
9
nm
1 m
= 0.000592277 nm .
014 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
Find the energy of the scattered x-ray.
Correct answer: 245.449 keV.
Explanation:
=
hc
E
=
(6.63 10
34
J s) (3 10
8
m/s)
278 keV

_
1 keV
1.602 10
16
J
_
10
9
nm
1 m
= 0.00446609 nm.
Energy of the scattered photon corresponds
to

scat
= +
= 0.00446609 nm + 0.000592277 nm
= 0.00505837 nm,
so the energy is
E
scat
=
hc

scat
=
(6.63 10
34
J s) (3 10
8
m/s)
0.00505837 nm

1 keV
1.602 10
16
J
10
9
nm
1 m
= 245.449 keV .
015 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
Find the kinetic energy of the recoiling elec-
tron.
Correct answer: 32.5506 keV.
Explanation:
Conservation of energy tells us that
E = E
scat
+ K
e
K
e
= E E
scat
= 278 keV 245.449 keV
= 32.5506 keV .
Serway CP 27 22
016 10.0 points
A monochromatic x-ray beam is incident on
a NaCl crystal surface where the interplanar
distance is 0.748 nm. The second-order max-
imum in the reected beam is found when
the angle between the incident beam and the
surface is 17.5

.
Determine the wavelength of the x-rays.
Correct answer: 0.224928 nm.
Explanation:
Given : d = 0.748 nm,
= 17.5

, and
n = 2 .
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 6
From Braggs Law,
n = 2 d sin
=
2 d sin
n
=
2 (0.748 nm) sin 17.5

2
= 0.224928 nm.
Serway CP 27 54
017 10.0 points
Red light of wavelength 649 nm produces pho-
toelectrons from a certain material. Green
light of wavelength 531 nm produces pho-
toelectrons from the same material with 1.8
times the previous maximum kinetic energy.
What is the materials work function?
Plancks constant is 6.62607 10
34
J s and
the speed of light is 2.99792 10
8
m/s.
Correct answer: 1.38007 eV.
Explanation:
Let :
1
= 649 nm = 6.49 10
7
m,

2
= 531 nm = 5.31 10
7
m,
n =
K
max,2
K
max,1
= 1.8 ,
h = 6.62607 10
34
J s , and
c = 2.99792 10
8
m/s .
For each wavelength, K
max
=
hc

hf
t
.
K
max,2
= nK
max,1
hc

2
hf
t
= n
_
hc

1
hf
t
_
nhf
t
hf
t
=
nhc

hc

2
(n 1) hf
t
=
nhc

hc

2
hf
t
=
1
n 1
_
nhc

hc

2
_
=
hc
n 1
_
n

2
_
=
6.62607 10
34
J s
1.8 1

2.99792 10
8
m/s
1.60177 10
19
J/eV

_
1.8
6.49 10
7
m

1
5.31 10
7
m
_
= 1.38007 eV .
Serway CP 27 46
018 10.0 points
The kinetic energy of a nonrelativistic particle
can be written in terms of its momentum as
K =
p
2
2 m
.
What is the minimum kinetic energy of a
proton conned within a nucleus having a
diameter of 8 10
16
m? Plancks constant
is 6.63 10
34
J s .
Correct answer: 8.13881 MeV.
Explanation:
Let : m
p
= 1.67 10
27
kg ,
h = 6.63 10
34
J s , and
x = 8 10
16
m.
From the uncertainty principle,
p x
h
4
p
h
4 x
=
6.63 10
34
J s
4 (8 10
16
m)
= 6.59498 10
20
kg m/s .
Since the momentum must be at least as
large as its own uncertainty, the minimum
kinetic energy is
K
min
=
p
2
min
2 m
p
=
(6.59498 10
20
kg m/s)
2
2 (1.67 10
27
kg)
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 7

1 Mev
1.6 10
13
J
= 8.13881 MeV .
Serway CP 27 41
019 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
The resolving power of a micro-
scope is proportional to the wavelength
used. A resolution of approximately
3.1 10
11
m (0.031 nm) would be required
in order to see an atom.
If electrons were used (electron micro-
scope), what minimum kinetic energy would
be required for the electrons. Plancks con-
stant is 6.63 10
34
J s.
Correct answer: 1.56922 keV.
Explanation:
Let : = 3.1 10
11
m,
m
e
= 9.109 10
31
kg , and
h = 6.63 10
34
J s .
The required electron momentum is p =
h

,
so
K =
p
2
2 m
e
=
h
2
2
2
m
e
=
(6.63 10
34
J s)
2
2 (3.1 10
11
m)
2

1
9.109 10
31
kg

1 eV
1.6 10
19
J

1 keV
1000 eV
= 1.56922 keV .
020 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
If photons were used, what minimum pho-
ton energy would be needed to obtain
3.1 10
11
m resolution? The speed of light
is 3 10
8
m/s .
Correct answer: 40.1008 keV.
Explanation:
Let : c = 3 10
8
m/s .
E =
hc

=
(6.63 10
34
J s) (3 10
8
m/s)
(1.6 10
19
J/eV)(3.1 10
11
m)

1 keV
1000 eV
= 40.1008 keV .
Serway CP 27 25
021 10.0 points
X-rays of wavelength 0.168 nm are reected
from a certain crystal, and the rst-order
maximum occurs at an angle of 19.2

.
What is the interplanar spacing of this crys-
tal?
Correct answer: 0.255423 nm.
Explanation:
Given : = 0.168 nm,
= 19.2

, and
n = 1 .
From Braggs Law, we have
2 d sin = n
d =
n
2 sin
=
(0.168 nm)
2 sin19.2

= 0.255423 nm.
Serway CP 27 11
022 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
When light of wavelength 339 nm falls on a
potassium surface, electrons are emitted that
have a maximum kinetic energy of 1.34 eV.
What is the work function of potassium?
The speed of light is 3 10
8
m/s and Plancks
constant is 6.63 10
34
J s .
Correct answer: 2.32704 eV.
Explanation:
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 8
Let : = 339 nm = 3.39 10
7
m,
K
max
= 1.34 eV,
h = 6.63 10
34
J s , and
c = 3 10
8
m/s .
The work function is
=
hc

K
max
=
(6.63 10
34
J s) (3 10
8
m/s)
(3.39 10
7
m) (1.6 10
19
J/eV)
1.34 eV
= 2.32704 eV .
023 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
What is the cuto wavelength of potassium?
Correct answer: 534.21 nm.
Explanation:

c
=
hc

=
(6.63 10
34
J s) (3 10
8
m/s)
(2.32704 eV) (1.6 10
19
J/eV)

10
9
nm
1 m
= 534.21 nm .
024 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
What is the threshold frequency for potas-
sium?
Correct answer: 5.61577 10
14
Hz.
Explanation:
f
t
=

h
=
2.32704 eV
6.63 10
34
J s

1.6 10
19
J
1 eV
= 5.61577 10
14
Hz .
Serway CP 28 28
025 10.0 points
Using the Bohr model, nd the ionization
energy of the ground He
+
ion.
Correct answer: 54.4 eV.
Explanation:
n =
0
n = 5 2.18 eV
n = 4 3.40 eV
n = 3 6.04 eV
n = 2 13.6 eV
n = 1 54.4 eV
Let : k = 13.6 eV and
Z
He
= 2 .
The energy with Z = Z
He
= 2 is
E
n
= k
_
Z
2
He
n
2
_
= 13.6 eV
_
2
2
n
2
_
=
54.4 eV
n
2
.
We need the minimum energy required to lift
the electron from the ground state (n = 1)
and to barely reach the free state at E = 0.
The ground state energy of He
+
is given by
the equation
E
1
=
54.4 eV
1
2
= 54.4 eV,
so the ionization energy of He
+
ground state
is
E
ionization
= E
infinity
E
1
= 0 (54.4 eV)
= 54.4 eV .
Serway CP 28 43
026 10.0 points
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 9
The K series of the discrete spectrum of
tungsten contains wavelengths of 0.0215 nm,
0.0209 nm and 0.0185 nm. The K-shell ion-
ization energy is 69.5 keV.
Determine the ionization energies of the L-
shell. The value of hc is 1243 nm eV.
Correct answer: 11.686 keV.
Explanation:
Let : E
K
= 69.5 keV,
hc = 1243 nm eV,

3
= 0.0215 nm,

2
= 0.0209 nm, and

1
= 0.0185 nm.
E
N
E
M
E
L
E
K

1

2

3
N shell
M shell
L shell
K shell

3
corresponds to an L- to K-shell transi-
tion,
2
to an M- to K-shell transition, and

1
to an N- to K-shell transition.
The ionization energy of the K-shell is
E
Ki
= E

E
K
= 0 E
k
= E
k
.
The energy of the L-shell is
E
L
= E
K
+
hc
0.0215 nm
= 69.5 keV +
1243 nm eV
0.0215 nm

1 keV
1000 eV
= 11.686 keV
so the ionization energy of the L-shell is
E
Li
= E
L
= 11.686 keV .
Serway CP 28 31
027 10.0 points
Determine the wavelength of an electron in
the third excited orbit of the hydrogen atom,
with n = 4.
Correct answer: 1.32952 nm.
Explanation:
Let : n = 4 .
L = m
e
v
n
r
n
= nh
m
e
v
n
n
2
a
0
= n
h
2
p = m
e
v
n
=
h
(2 a
0
) n
Thus, the de Broglie wavelength of the elec-
tron in the n
th
orbit is =
h
p
n
= (2 a
0
) n.
For n = 4, this yields
= 8 a
0
= 8 (0.0529 nm)
= 1.32952 nm .
Serway CP 28 55
028 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
A meson (

) of charge e and mass 273


times greater than that of the electron is cap-
tured by a lithium nucleus (Z = +3).
n
i
n
f

Free electron
Correct answer: 8353.8 eV.
Explanation:
Calculate the energy of the n = 2 energy
level.
Let : m

= 273 m
e
and
Z = 3 .
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 10
The energy levels in this atom are
E
n
=
m

Z
2
k
2
e
e
4
2 h
2
n
2
=
(273 m
e
) 3
2
k
2
e
e
4
2 h
2
n
2
=
(273) 3
2
(13.6 eV)
n
2
=
33415.2 eV
n
2
Thus
E
2
=
33415.2 eV
2
2
= 8353.8 eV .
029 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
Calculate the energy of the n = 3 energy level.
Correct answer: 3712.8 eV.
Explanation:
As above, the energy is
E
n
=
33415.2 eV
n
2
E
3
=
33415.2 eV
3
2
= 3712.8 eV .
030 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
When the meson makes a transition be-
tween two orbits, from n = 3 to n = 2, an
emitted photon Compton scatters o a free
electron initially at rest, producing a scat-
tered photon at an angle of = 60

.
What is the wavelength of the scattered
photon? The speed of light is 3 10
8
m/s and
Plancks constant is 6.62607 10
34
J s .
Correct answer: 0.268914 nm.
Explanation:
Let :
c
= 0.00243 nm,
c = 3 10
8
m/s , and
h = 6.62607 10
34
J s
= 4.1413 10
15
eV s .
The energy of the emitted photon is
E = E
3
E
2
= (3712.8 eV) (8353.8 eV)
= 4641 eV,
so the wavelength of the emitted photon is
E =
hc

=
hc
E
Using Comptons equation

= +
c
(1 cos )
=
hc
E
+
c
(1 cos )
=
_
4.1413 10
15
eV s
_ _
3 10
8
m/s
_
4641 eV

10
9
nm
1 m
+ (0.00243 nm) (1 cos 60

)
= 0.268914 nm .
Serway CP 28 14
031 (part 1 of 4) 10.0 points
A hydrogen atom initially in its ground state
(n
i
= 1) absorbs a photon and ends up in the
state for which n
f
= 3.
Find the energy of the absorbed photon.
The energy of the ground state of hydrogen is
13.6 eV.
Correct answer: 12.0889 eV.
Explanation:
Let : n
f
= 3 and
n
i
= 1 .
The energy of the absorbed photon is
E

= E
f
E
i
= (13.6 eV)
_
1
n
2
i

1
n
2
f
_
= (13.6 eV)
_
1
1
2

1
3
2
_
= 12.0889 eV .
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 11
032 (part 2 of 4) 10.0 points
If the atom eventually returns to its initial
state, what photon energy could the atom
emit?
Correct answer: 12.0889 eV.
Explanation:
|E| = 13.6 eV

1
1
2

1
3
2

= 12.0889 eV .
033 (part 3 of 4) 10.0 points
If the atom undergoes a transition from the
n = 3 state to n = 2 state, what photon
energy could the atom emit?
Correct answer: 1.88889 eV.
Explanation:
Let : n
f
= 2 and
n
i
= 3 .
|E| = 13.6 eV

1
2
2

1
3
2

= 1.88889 eV .
034 (part 4 of 4) 10.0 points
If the atom undergoes a transition from the
n = 2 state to n = 1 state, what photon
energy could the atom emit?
Correct answer: 10.2 eV.
Explanation:
Let : n
f
= 1 and
n
i
= 2 .
|E| = 13.6 eV

1
1
2

1
2
2

= 10.2 eV .
Notice that the answer in part 2 is the sum
of the answers to parts 3 and 4.
Serway CP 28 03
035 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
The size of the atom in Rutherfords model
is about 1.3 10
10
m.
Determine the attractive electrostatics
force between a electron and a proton sep-
arated by this distance.
Correct answer: 1.3618 10
8
N.
Explanation:
Let : q = 1.6 10
19
C,
k = 8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C, and
r = 1.3 10
10
m.
According to Coulombs Law, the force is
F = k
q
1
q
2
r
2
=
_
8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
_
_
1.6 10
19
C
_
2
(1.3 10
10
m)
2
= 1.3618 10
8
N .
036 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Determine the electrostatic potential energy
of the atom.
Correct answer: 11.0646 eV.
Explanation:
The electrostatic potential energy is
V = k
q
1
q
2
r
=
_
8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
_

_
1.6 10
19
C
_ _
1.6 10
19
C
_
1.3 10
10
m

1 eV
1.6 10
19
J
= 11.0646 eV .
keywords:
Serway CP 28 46
037 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
A pulsed ruby laser emits light at 694.3 nm.
Consider a 13.8 ps pulse containing 7.61 J of
energy.
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 12
Find the physical length of the pulse as it
travels through space. Plancks constant is
6.626 10
34
J s and the speed of light is
3 10
8
m/s.
Correct answer: 4.14 mm.
Explanation:
Let : c = 3 10
8
m/s and
t = 13.8 ps = 1.38 10
11
s .
The physical length will be
= c t
=
_
3 10
8
m/s
_
(1.38 10
11
s)

_
1 10
3
mm
1 m
_
= 4.14 mm .
038 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
Find the number of photons in it.
Correct answer: 2.65803 10
19
.
Explanation:
Let : h = 6.626 10
34
J s ,
E
total
= 7.61 J , and
= 694.3 nm = 6.943 10
7
m.
The energy per photon is
E
p
=
hc

,
so the total number of photons is
n =
E
total
E
p
=
E
total

hc
=
(7.61 J)(6.943 10
7
m)
(6.626 10
34
J s)(3 10
8
m/s)
= 2.65803 10
19
.
039 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
If the beam has a circular cross section of
1.141 cm diameter, nd the number of pho-
tons per cubic millimeter.
Correct answer: 6.2791 10
16
mm
3
.
Explanation:
Let : = 4.14 mm and
r = 0.5705 cm = 5.705 mm.
The number of phtons per cubic millimeter
is

e
=
n
r
2

=
2.65803 10
19
(5.705 mm)
2
(4.14 mm)
= 6.2791 10
16
mm
3
.
keywords:
Serway CP 28 11
040 10.0 points
Calculate the Coulomb force of attraction on
the electron when it is in the ground state of
the hydrogen atom.
Correct answer: 8.2241 10
8
N.
Explanation:
Let : q = 1.6 10
19
C,
k = 8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
, and
a
0
= 0.0529 nm = 5.29 10
11
m.
In the ground state,
r
1
= (1)
2
a
0
= 5.29 10
11
m
and the Coulomb force has magnitude
|F| = k
|q
1
q
2
|
r
1
2
= 8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
2

(1.6 10
19
C)
2
(5.29 10
11
m)
2
= 8.2241 10
8
N .
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 13
keywords:
Serway CP 28 27
041 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Find the energy of the electron in the ground
state of doubly inozed lithium, which has an
atomic number Z = 3.
Correct answer: 122.4 eV.
Explanation:
Let : Z = 3 ,
n = 1 , and
a
0
= 0.0529 nm.
Energy is E
n
=
Z
2
(13.6 eV)
n
2
, so
E
1
=
(3)
2
(13.6 eV)
(1)
2
= 122.4 eV .
042 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Find the radius of its ground-state orbit.
Correct answer: 0.0176333 nm.
Explanation:
n = 1 .
The radius is r
n
=
n
2
a
0
Z
, so
r
1
=
(1)
2
a
0
3
=
0.0529 nm
3
= 0.0176333 nm .
keywords:
Serway CP 28 24
043 10.0 points
Two hydrogen atoms collide head-on and end
up with zero kinetic energy. Each then emits a
photon with a wavelength of 113.9 nm (n = 2
to n = 1 transition).
At what speed were the atoms moving
before the collision? Plancks constant is
6.62607 10
34
J s and the speed of light
is 3 10
8
m/s.
Correct answer: 45681.8 m/s.
Explanation:
Let : = 113.9 nm,
h = 6.62607 10
34
J s ,
c = 3 10
8
m/s , and
m = 1.67262 10
27
kg .
Each atom gives up its kinetic energy in emit-
ting a photon, so
E = 2
_
1
2
mv
2
_
= 2
hc

=
2
_
6.62607 10
34
J s
_
113.9 nm

_
3 10
8
m/s
_

10
9
nm
m
= 3.49047 10
18
J and
v =
_
E
m
=

3.49047 10
18
J
1.67262 10
27
kg
= 45681.8 m/s .
Serway CP 28 57
044 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
In this problem you will estimate the classical
lifetime of the hydrogen atom. An accelera-
tion charge loses electromagnetic energy at a
rate given by P =
2 k q
2
a
2
3 c
3
, where k is the
Coulomb constant and a is its acceleration.
Find the acceleration of the electron in the
n = 2 state. Assume that the electron is two
Bohr radii (approximately 0.0529 nm) from
the center of the hydrogen atom. Coulombs
constant is 9 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
and the speed
of light is 3 10
8
m/s .
Correct answer: 3.53031 10
20
m/s
2
.
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 14
Explanation:
Let : k = 9 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
,
q = 1.6 10
19
C,
n = 2 , and
m = 9.11 10
31
kg .
r = n
2
(0.0529 nm)
= (2)
2
(0.0529 nm)
1 m
10
9
nm
= 2.116 10
10
m.
Using Newtons second law,
F = k
q
1
q
2
r
2
= ma
a = k
q
2
r
2
=
(9 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
) (1.6 10
19
C)
2
(2.116 10
10
m)
2
(9.11 10
31
kg)
= 3.53031 10
20
m/s
2
.
045 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
Calculate the rate of energy loss of the elec-
tron.
Correct answer: 7.09011 10
13
J/s.
Explanation:
Let : c = 3 10
8
m/s .
The rate of energy loss is
P =
2 k q
2
a
2
3 c
3
= 2(9 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
) (1.6 10
19
C)
2

(3.53031 10
20
m/s
2
)
2
3 (3 10
8
m/s)
3
= 7.09011 10
13
J/s ,
an energy loss of 7.09011 10
13
J/s .
046 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
Using the energy of the electron, how long
will it take for all of this energy to be con-
verted into electromagnetic waves, assuming
that the rate of energy loss calculated in the
second part remains constant throughout the
electrons motion.
Correct answer: 7.67266 10
7
s.
Explanation:
In the n = 2 orbit of hydrogen, the elec-
trons energy is 3.4 eV. Radiating 3.4 eV
of energy at the rate of computed in part 2
would require a time of
t =
|E|
P
=
(3.4 eV)
_
1.6 10
19
J/eV
_
7.09011 10
13
J/s
= 7.67266 10
7
s .
Serway CP 28 20
047 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
An electron is in the third Bohr orbit of hy-
drogen.
Find the speed of the electron. The value
of h is 1.05 10
34
J s . The Bohr radius is
5.29 10
11
m.
Correct answer: 7.26263 10
5
m/s.
Explanation:
Let : n = 3 ,
h = 1.05 10
34
J s ,
m = 9.11 10
31
kg , and
a
0
= 5.29 10
11
m(Bohr radius) .
From the quantization of angular momen-
tum, the speed of electron is
L = mv
n
r
n
= nh,
where r
n
= n
2
a
0
.
v
n
=
nh
mr
n
=
nh
mn
2
a
0
=
h
mna
0
=
1.05 10
34
J s
(9.11 10
31
kg) (3) (5.29 10
11
m)
= 7.26263 10
5
m/s .
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 15
048 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
Find the time required for the electron to
circle the nucleus.
Correct answer: 4.11893 10
15
s.
Explanation:
The time required is
t =
2 r
n
v
n
=
2 n
2
a
0
v
n
=
2 (3)
2
_
5.29 10
11
m
_
7.26263 10
5
m/s
= 4.11893 10
15
s .
049 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
Find the current corresponding to the motion
of the electron.
Correct answer: 0.0388451 mA.
Explanation:
The current is
I =
Q
t
=
e
t
=
1.6 10
19
C
4.11893 10
15
s

1000 mA
1 A
= 0.0388451 mA .
Serway CP 28 17
050 10.0 points
A monochromatic beam of light is absorbed
by a collection of ground-state hydrogen
atoms in such a way that ten dierent wave-
lengths are observed when the hydrogen re-
laxes back to the ground state.
What is the wavelength of the incident
beam?
Correct answer: 94.9236 nm.
Explanation:
#photon
state energies
n n 1
n 1 n 2
.
.
.
.
.
.
2 1
So when electrons relax from the n
th
state
to ground state, the number of possible ener-
gies of photon is
N(n) = (n 1) + (n 2) + + 1
=
n(n 1)
2
For ten dierent photon energies
10 =
n(n 1)
2
0 = n
2
n 20
0 = (n 5) (n + 4)
n = 5
The incoming photons must have a wave-
length given by
1

= R
H
_
1
1
2

1
n
2
_
=
n
2
1
2
R
H
(n
2
1
2
)
=
5
2
1
2
(1.09737 10
7
m
1
) (5
2
1
2
)

1 10
9
nm
1 m
= 94.9236 nm .
Serway CP 28 05
051 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
The size of the atom in Rutherfords model
is about 1.3 10
10
m.
Determine the speed of an electron moving
in a circle about the proton using the attrac-
tive electric force between an electron and a
proton separated by this distance.
Correct answer: 1.39402 10
6
m/s.
Explanation:
Let : m = 9.11 10
31
kg ,
e = 1.6 10
19
C,
k = 8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
, and
r = 1.3 10
10
m.
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 16
The attractive electrical force between the
electron and proton produces the centripetal
acceleration as
F = k
q
1
q
2
r
2
=
mv
2
r
v =
_
k e
2
mr
=
_
8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
2

(1.6 10
19
C)
2
(1.3 10
10
m) (9.11 10
31
kg)
= 1.39402 10
6
m/s .
The speed is so small compared to the speed
of light that we do not need to consider the
Einstein relativity when studying the atom.
052 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Compute the de Broglie wavelength of the
electron as it moves about the proton.
Plancks constant is 6.63 10
34
J s .
Correct answer: 0.522067 nm.
Explanation:
Let : h = 6.63 10
34
J s
The de Broglie wavelength with momentum
p is
=
h
p
=
h
mv
=
6.63 10
34
J s
(9.11 10
31
kg) (1.39402 10
6
m/s)

10
9
nm
1 m
= 0.522067 nm .
The wavelength and the atom are the same
order of magnitude, so wave eects such as
diraction and interference must be consid-
ered.
Serway CP 28 07
053 (part 1 of 6) 10.0 points
A hydrogen atom is in the excited state (n =
4).
Using the Bohr theory of the atom, nd
the radius of the orbit. The value of h is
1.05 10
34
J s .
Correct answer: 0.8464 nm.
Explanation:
Let : a
0
= 0.0529 nm and
n = 4 .
From the Bohr model, the radius is
r
f
= n
2
a
0
= (4)
2
(0.0529 nm)
= 0.8464 nm .
054 (part 2 of 6) 10.0 points
Find the linear momentum of the electron.
Coulombs constant is 8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
Correct answer: 4.97704 10
25
kg m/s.
Explanation:
Let : m
e
= 9.11 10
31
kg ,
k = 8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
, and
e = 1.6 10
19
C.
The centripetal acceleration is supplied by the
Coulomb force:
m
e
v
2
r
=
k e
2
r
2
v
2
=
k e
2
m
e
r
,
so the linear momentum is
p = m
e
v
n
=
_
m
2
e
v
2
n
=

m
e
k
e
e
2
r
n
=
_
9.11 10
31
kg

_
8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
2

(1.6 10
19
C)
2
8.464 10
10
m
= 4.97704 10
25
kg m/s .
Version 001 HW 29/30 Quantum C&J sizemore (21301jtsizemore) 17
055 (part 3 of 6) 10.0 points
Find the angular momentum of the electron.
Correct answer: 4.2 10
34
J s.
Explanation:
Let : h = 1.05 10
34
J s .
According to Bohr model, the angular mo-
mentum is
L = nh = 4 (1.05 10
34
J s)
= 4.2 10
34
J s .
056 (part 4 of 6) 10.0 points
Find its kinetic energy.
Correct answer: 0.849716 eV.
Explanation:
The kinetic energy is
K =
1
2
m
e
v
2
2
=
p
2
2
2 m
e
=
(4.97704 10
25
kg m/s)
2
2 (9.11 10
31
kg)

1 eV
1.6 10
19
J
= 0.849716 eV .
057 (part 5 of 6) 10.0 points
Find its potential energy.
Correct answer: 1.69943 eV.
Explanation:
The potential energy is
U =
k e
2
r
= 8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
2

(1.6 10
19
C)
2
8.464 10
10
m

1 eV
1.6 10
19
J
= 1.69943 eV .
058 (part 6 of 6) 10.0 points
Find the total energy.
Correct answer: 0.849716 eV.
Explanation:
The total energy is
E = K + U
= 0.849716 eV + (1.69943 eV)
= 0.849716 eV .