NILSSON PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING .SKRIFTER UTGIVNA AV HUMANISTISKA VETENSKAPSSAMFUNDET I LUND ACTA SOCIETAT1S HUMANIORUM LITTERARUM LUNDENSIS I. MARTIN P.

.

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING
A STUDY
THE ORIGINS AND FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF THE ART OF COUNTING TIME AMONG THE PRIMITIVE AND EARLY CULTURE PEOPLES
IN BY

MARTIN PNILSSON
PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY

AND \NCJESXJiJSTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LUND SECRETARY TO THE SOCIETY LETTERS OF LUND MEMBER OF THE R. DANISH ACADEMY

LUND, C. W. LONDON, HUMPHREY MILFORD OXFORD, UNIVERSITY PRESS

K.

GLEEBUP
PARIS,

EDOUARD CHAMPION
O.

LEIPZIG,

HARRASSOWITZ

1920

LUND

1920

BERLINGSKA BOKTRYCKERIET

PREFACE.
in

the

present

study

I

devote only a few pages to

the Greek Although
in

time-reckoning, and
tields,

am engaged

for the

most part

very different
the

yet the work has arisen from a desire to

prepare

way

for

a clearer
In

view
course

of the initial stages of the

of my investigations into Greek time-reckoning. Greek festivals I had from the beginning been brought up against chronological problems, and as I widened the circle so as to include the survivals of the ancient festivals in the Middle Ages, more

the

particularly in connexion with the origin of the Christmas festival,
I

to

was again met by difficulties of chronology, In the earlier Germanic time-reckoning.
in

this

time in regard

the

year

1911

I

published

Archiv

fiir

Religionswissenschaft an article on the

presumptive These preliminary
.

origin of the
studies
of the

Greek calendar circulated from Delphi.
led
to

my

taking over myself, in the
article

projected

Lexicon

Greek and Roman Religions, the
In
it

on the calendar
out
the
in

in its sacral connexions.
of

This article was worked

the

spring

1914.

the emphasis

was

laid not

on

chronological systems, which have little to do with religion, but on the question of origins, in which religion plays a decisive part. In order to arrive at an opinion it was not enough
historical
to

work over once more the extremely scanty material for the origin of the Greek time-reckoning; I had to form an idea from my hitherto somewhat occasional ethnological reading as to how a

jj

|j

time-reckoning arose under primitive conditions, and what was its nature. This idea obviously required broadening and correcting

by systematic research.
tion of the

The war, which suspended
very beginning, gave '

the continua-

Lexicon

at its

me

leisure to under-

VI

PREFACE.
this

take

more extensive research.

some

limitations

rich libraries of

Certainly it has also imposed on the work, since I could not make use of the England and the Continent but had to be content
of

with what was offered by those
I

am

not disposed to regret this limitation too deeply.

Sweden and Copenhagen. But The ma-

terial

many readers as being and monotonous and the numerous books of travels copious enough, and ethnological works which I have ransacked, often to no profit,
seem
to hold out little prospect that

here reproduced will probably strike

will

come
In

to light.

In this

anything new and surprising conviction Webster's work has strength-

ened me.

two or three instances

I

have derived material

of

great
details

value from personal communications.
of the

For very interesting
I

time-reckoning of the Kiwai Papuans
of

am

indebted to Dr.

G.
sent

Landtman

me
C.

Helsingfors, and Prof. G. Kazarow of Sofia has valuable information as to the Bulgarian names, of months.
of

Dr.

W. von Sydow
exhaustive
lead

Lund has communicated
in

to

me

details

of the

popular time-reckoning

Sweden.
of
all

An
would

examination
to

the

material

obtainable
details

doubtless

a

of primitive

time-reckoning.
in

more exact conception of the Above all, large districts with more accurately

similar
defined.

peculiarities

time-reckoning could be

The Arctic regions form a
differs

district of this nature.

South America

North America; Africa, the characteristically again East Indian Archipelago, and the South Sea Islands all have their
peculiarities.

from

The borrowings which have undoubtedly taken place
at least in part pointed out.

on a very large scale would be

This

working up
specialist;

of the material is

however the task

of the ethnological

my

object

is

simply and

solely to attain the

above-men-

tioned goal of a general foundation.

The observation
the

of

chronological
I

matters varies greatly in

ethnographical

literature;

have

without result, and in other cases
It

my

gone through many books gains have often been small.

is

only in quite recent times that attention has been paid with
profit to this side of primitive life.

anyjgreat

Among

the English

PREFACE.
authors Frazer has
in

VII

drawn up
also

a

list

of ethnological questions (printed

the Journal

of the

pp.

431

ff.,

and

Royal Anthropological Institute, 18, 1889, separately), paying due attention to timeresult, as

reckoning,

which has had a lasting and happy
in

can be

seen
years.

especially

many
of

papers

in

the

JRAI

of

succeeding

Of the works
elaborate

my

predecessors only one has had any more

aims

-

the ninth chapter of Ginzel's handbook, which

deals with the time-reckoning of the primitive peoples, divided up

according to the different parts

of the

w orld.
r

The

significance of

the time-reckoning of the primitive peoples for the history of chro-

nology seems to have been only gradually grasped by the author in the course of his work, since it is not until after he has touched
occasionally

upon the question

of primitive

time-reckoning in the

course of his account of the chronological systems of the Oriental
peoples that he inserts the chapter in question between the latter and
the chapters on the chronology of antiquity.

Ginzel has in

many

re-

spects a sound view of the nature of primitive time-reckoning, and

makes many
is

pertinent remarks, but on the whole his treatment, as
is

not seldom the case,

lacking in exactness and depth.
material collected
original

I

have

gratefully

made use
possible,

of the

by him, going back,
Of
other previous

wherever

to

the

sources.

works must
the

be

mentioned

the

essays of

Andree and Frazer on by
its

Pleiades,

the latter especially distinguished

author's

usual extensive acquaintance with the sources and by
of

its

abundance

material

-

-

and the dissertation

of

knowledge

of the primitive peoples of Australia

Kotz upon the astronomical and the South Seas,

an industrious work which however only touches superficially upon the problems here dealt with, and in regard to the lunisolar "We can here disreckoning adopts the view of Waitz-Gerland
:

cover

nothing

accurate,
(p.

since
I

these

peoples

have

conceived of
fairly

nothing accurately"
that
this
is

22).

think

however

that

we may

say

meanly the possibility of our knowHubert's paper, Etude sommaire de la representation du ledge. temps dans la religion et la magie, is composed throughout in the
to

estimate

too

VIII

PREFACE.

spirit of the neo-scholastic school of

Durkheim.

The present work,

on the other hand, is based upon facts and their interpretation. The book was ready in the spring of 1917, but could not be published on account of the war. Later I have only inserted
a

few improvements and additions.

As
into

I

was putting

the finish-

ing touches to

my

work, there

came

my

hands, after a delay
of

due
ster,

to the

circumstances

of the time, the

Rest Days

H.

Webmine,

whose Primitive Secret
This

Societies has gained

him fame and

honour.

work
the

deals

in detail with a subject akin to

but

not

from

calendarial

and

chronological standpoint here

adopted.

author

make

Only upon the origin of the lunisolar calendar does the a few general remarks (pp. 173 ff.), which however
subject

do

not

advance the

very

far.

In the chapters entitled
Festivals,

Market Days, Lunar Superstitions and

Lunar Calendars

and

the

also concerns

Week some

he has brought together abundant material which
of the

phenomena

treated
it is

information will not be found here, since
ces inaccessible to me.
collate
this
it

by me; part of this compiled from sourI

For the same reason, because
have not thought
does
not
it

could not

for myself,

I

advisable to introduce
it

material into
of

my

book, especially since

adds no

new
I

prin-

ciple

drawn.

knowledge Moreover anyone who wishes

and

affect
to

the conclusions

have

go farther

into these

matters must in any case approach Webster's careful work.

made use
hold,

For the popular month-names of the European peoples I have of the well-known extensive collections of Grimm, WeinMiklosisch,
etc.

In this chapter

my

object has not been to

make

contributions

to

our knowledge

of the

popular months, but

only to bring out, by means of numerous examples, the parallel between the popular names of the Julian months and the names More isolated of the lunar months among the primitive peoples.

ven

and disputed names are therefore omitted, and the names are giI have made only one exception, namely chiefly in translation. in the case of the Swedish lunar months, which really hardly belong

to

my

.subject

since

they

are

a

popular development from the
I

ecclesiastical calendar of the

Middle Ages.

hope however

to

be

PREFACE.
excused for

IX

this, in the first place on patriotic grounds, and sebecause little attention has hitherto been paid to the matcondly ter. In another place I have dealt fully with the Swedish names

of

months,

which are

in

the

majority

of

cases not of popular

origin.
I

have made out a

list

of authorities so that in the foot-notes
;

reference
author
is is

may be made simply to the name of the author where an represented by two or more works, the work in question

denoted by an abbreviation. This list is to be regarded not as an exhaustive bibliography, but merely as an aid to the quotations.

Where
cases.

so

many
not
to

quotations have been

advisable

use

inverted

has been thought commas, except in a few special
it

made

The

fact that the quotations are nevertheless

given as far

as

possible

in the author's

own words must be

held to excuse a

certain apparent inconsistency in the use of tenses.

Since
stages
of

I

was obliged
with

to include in

my work

the preliminary
I

the time-reckoning of the culture peoples,

had

to deal

with

languages

which
I

I

was

altogether unfamiliar, or only

imperfectly

acquainted.

have

therefore often availed myself of

the expert advice

which has been readily given
in

me by

friends

and

colleagues.

For help
of

the complicated questions belonging to

the
ively

domains
I

the

Semitic languages and Anglo-Saxon respectindebted
to

am

especially

my

colleagues Professors A.
I

Mob erg and
have
to

E. Ekwall.

For occasional advice and information

thank Docent Joh. Pedersen of Copenhagen (for the Semitic languages), Prof. Emil Olson of Lund, and Prof. H. Lindroth of

Gothenburg

(for

the Scandinavian), and Docent S. Agrell of

Lund

(for the Slavonic).

The English
proof-sheets.
I

translation

is

the

work
to

of

Mr. F.

J.

Fielden,

English Lector in the University of Lund,

who has

also read the

am

greatly

obliged

him

for his conscientious

performance

of a

lengthy and by no means easy task.
1920.

Lund,

May

Martin P. Nilsson.

Names for the parts of the HoLists of names Names derived from occupations day Parts of the Greek and Latin expressions meric expressions Measures of time. of plant and animal life Modes of time-reckoning. - THE SEASONS Small seasons Wind-seasons seasons 45 Winter and summer Dry and SubFour or five seasons Cycles of seasons Artificially regulated cycles of Seasonal points rainy seasons division of seasons cycles of Greater seasons -seasons Agricultural seasons Indo-European - peoples The division of the j division of the year Seasons of the Germanic The Scandinavian Germanic year Smaller The old Scandinavian week-year wind. America Australia Oceania . Night measured b)~ the stars night CHAPTER II. CHAPTER I.CONTENTS. PAGE PREFACE INTRODUCTION Foundation of the inquiry settings of the stars v 1 Units of time-reckoning Risings and Phases of climate.Series of years designated after events Designation of years in Babylonia and Egypt.S. - - THE STARS The India stars in 109 Inaccuracy of time-reckoning Africa Homer Observation of the stars by the Greeks and Romans Star-lore: N. CHAPTER III. America In- .seasons. - THE YEAR Shorter years 86 The empirical year Pars pro toto Half-years The period of the vegetation and the year Ignoreckoning Relative age rance of age Designation of years after events . -- THE DAY - 11 The day of 24 hours not primitive Counting of days or nights Indications of the sun's position Pars pro toto reckoning Indications by means of marks etc. CHAPTER IV.

147 Indications of - Counting of months and their days the position of the moon lebration of the full moon of of Salutations to the new moon Ce- Other phases The greater phases the the - moon moon - moon Further phases Days named after the phases Groups of days named after the phases of the Decades Days counted from the greater phases African systems The quarters of the moon. VIII. CHAPTER S. Canaanitish months The pre.- CONCLUSIONS 217 Connexion between moons and Imperfect counting of the moons Pairs seasons Multiplicity and absence of names of months of months. America America Africa East Melanesia Torres Straits Archipelago The stars as causes and omens of the weather. THE YEAR 2.MohammeNew moon and months 3. The moon THE MONTH - ~. Correction of the year by the solstices and the stars. VI. CHAPTER IX. empirical 240 series of - - . CHAPTER X. men Indian Australia N. Series of months: N. Arabian months. etc.OLD SEMITIC MONTHS Sumerian months Akkadian months Babylonian Israeli2. THE INTER- CALATION Difmonths Uncertainty as to the month Incomplete -. The Israelites. 1. PAGE dication of time from the stars Observation of the stars: BushS. CHAPTER 1. CHAPTER VII.CALENDAR REGULATION.XII CONTENTS. -- THE MONTHS Siberia 173 Eskimos N. tish months months dan Arabs. -. 226 Babylonia.The ficulties in reckoning months Empirical intercalation Correction of the months by the stars Correction of Jews the Batak year The BaThe pre-Mohammedan intercalation The Babylonian intercalation bylonian months and the stars. BEGINNING OF 267 Uncertainty as to the beginning of the year Beginning ades year of the . - Polynesia CHAPTER V. Asia America - America Africa East Indian Archipelago Torres Straits . Appendix: Egyptian year . New Year feasts The Israelitish New Year The PleiThe year. CALENDAR REGULATION. .Oceania.

The concrete nature of time-indications Discontinuous and 'aoristic time-indications The pars pro toto The continuous time-reckoning EmThe Greek time -reckoning. in Africa FEASTS 324 The market-week ket-week in Asia Origin of Greater periods in Africa The marAmerica Rome Shabattu and sabbath the sabbath The sabbath a market-day FestiCycles of festivals vals and seasons vals Regulation of the festi- Full moon the time of festivals Festivals by the moon determined by the course of the sun Months named after festivals. P. -. - CHAPTER XIV. etc. XII. XIII PAGE CHAPTER vonic XI. CHAPTER XIII. 1.382 . counting of the periods intercalation of pirical ADDENDUM TO INDEX . CHAPTER XV.CONTENTS.ARTIFICIAL PERIODS OF TIME. CHAPTER SOLSTICES AND EQUINOXES. - - POPULAR MONTHS OF THE EUROPEAN PEOPLES 282 Lithuanian Lettish SlaBasque The Anglo-Saxon Anglo-Saxon months Scandinavian month-names Old Scandinavian Later Swedish moon-months Finnish moon- Month-names: Albanian - - German lunisolar year % lunar months months Lapp months. 78 NOTE 1 370 371 LIST OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED . DETERMINATION OF TIME AIDS TO THE 311 Observation of the solstices and equinoxes Observation of the Seed-time determined by the equinoxes by the Scandinavians observation of the sun Devices for counting days. The Oktaeteris and the months Early Greek time-reckoning .Sacral character of the Greek calendar Influence of Apollo and Delphi Babylonian origin of the Greek calendar-regulation. months 2. THE CALENDAR-MAKERS 347 Calendrical observations by certain gifted persons The priests as calendar-makers Sacral and profane calendar-regulation. CONCLUSION 355 Summary of results.

.

The ancient civilised peoples appear in history with a fullythe Egyptians developed system of time-reckoning with the shifting year of 365 days. It clear that these systems of time-reckoning represent the final stage of a lengthy previous development. which comes as nearly as possible to the actual length of the year. even by a Dieteris. our of proceeding is by means of a com- well-known from the science of which have been so comparative religion. sought elsewhere. This is the ethnological ingenious but uncertain speculations. It may indeed at once be To asserted that such a hypothesis lacks intrinsic probability. the Babylonians and the Greeks with the lunisolar. Ch. Thus.INTRODUCTION. account for the early development hard facts are needed. eminent philologists and chronologists have believed the assertion of Censorinus. counting only whole days and neglecting the additional fraction. especially in the case of the Greeks. for example. but as to the nature of this development the most daring hypotheses have been advanced. and have supposed that the Oktaeteris was preceded by a Tetraeteris. Where they are required they must be are extremely few. varying between twelve and thirteen months and arranged by the Greeks from the earliest known has period of always been history in the cycle of the Oktaeteris. Setting aside all only practicable way parison with other peoples among whom methods of timereckoning are still in the primitive stage. vigorously contested upon grounds of no small plausibility. Fortunately this dispute need not be settled in order to prove the validity of the comparative method for an investigation method which is so but the claims of i . and unfortunately these. 18.

These phenomena may be divided into two main groups: (1) the phenomena of the and (2) the phases of heavens sun.The f that the intellect of the natural quite ethnological school of students of comparative religion assumes man can only master a certain limited number of universal conceptions. At the basis lies an accurately determined and limited and indeed small number of phenomena. and can be combined In the matter of the indication to we T have not only in a certain quite small number of ways. may be as different the peoples themselves. and stars Nature . as and reckoning of time. which are the same for all peoples all over the globe. may obtain a For the investigation of primitive methods of time-reckoning . ways. these. The comparative method does not shew how things have happened in a special case in regard to one particular people: it only But much is already indicates what may have happened. since from the result of the complete development. very nature of the subjects treated. no less than in other we certain basis for our deductions. if we can the eliminate gained impossibilities.2 **.. do with a number of conceptions however. into the origin and development of methods of reckoning time.* I PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. depend finally upon one of the heavenly bodies. the primitive ideas of the various peoples. Hence our authority for comparing the conceptions of the various peoples of the globe with one another in order to lay bare this foundation. from these and more abundantly differentiated and complicated more spring ideas. The claim that the comparative ethnological method can be justified only when we are dealing with a narrowly circumscribed number of factors is therefore here complied owing to the with. however. but the foundation is everywhere the same. life. and maintain that the points of departure. the sun. The gist of the dispute may be expressed as follows: . which may be supposed to be as numerous and as various as we please. viz. moon. The opponents of the school deny the existence of these funda- mental conceptions. and that therefore we are not authorised in drawing general conclusions from the comparison or from the fundamental conceptions themselves.the variations of the climate and of plant and animal which on their side determine the affairs of men.

the more important do they become. e. 3 no special astronomical or other technical knowledge is needed: in fact. which has been kept on religious grounds. a day will be a little longer than a complete rotation of the earth. For this reason only in those units which depend upon the sun have asserted themselves our calendar. but since the sun also. The day (= 24 hours. we might venture to state that a system is always based upon previous data: unsystematic indications of time precede the system of timereckoning. These modest beginnings have been obscured from view by the prejudice in favour of the systematic technical and astronomical chronology. The only absolutely necessary thing is a clear idea of the apparent motions of the heavenly bodies. indeed. the moon. which give the units of the time-reckoning. A priori. The units are the year.UNITS OF THE TIME-RECKONING. w%dtyi&QW) is determined from the apparent motion of the heavenly bodies about the earth. Other units more convenient for time-reckoning play no part in the arrangement of the calendar since they are without importance for practical life. on account of the annual revolution of the earth about it. and the more intimately these enter into the life of man. and of the phases of the climate and the life of animals and plants. For a statement of the course and phases of the heavenly bodies and the units of the time-reckoning given by these I refer to the article mentioned in the preface. i. Or to put it otherwise: The time between two successive upper culminations of a star. except for the movable paschal term. the pertinent sections of which are here quoted: t( The units of the time-reckoning are given by the motions of the heavenly bodies (expressed according to the Ptolemaic system). between the moments at which the star passes through . the month. which is caused by the rotation of the earth on its axis. runs through the zodiac in an opposite direction to its daily movement and completes the circle of the ecliptic in a year. e. the sun. and the most important of the fixed stars. i. those depending upon the moon having been dropped. such knowledge has rather played a fatal part by causing attention to be paid exclusively to the system of timereckoning and leading to constant attempts to discover older and more primitive systems. and the day.

the latter is a conventional subdivision of the year which has nothing to do with the moon. the sidereal year). represents time between two successive culminations of the sun is. its length is 27 days 7 hrs. 11.. viz. The interval between two successive moments at which the moon culminates at the same spot at the same time as one and the same star is a sidereal (cp. the vernal equinox.4 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and solar day abstracted from it for the purposes of our The second clock-regulated time-reckoning has no significance for antiquity. the period about the sun. on account of the annual motion of the sun (really that of the earth). one and the same place (== attains the axial rotation: that is a stellar day. unit determined by the sun is the year. the length of which amounts to 365 days 6 hrs.34 sees. This term will be used only when it is necessary to make an express distinction between the lunar and our Roman month.we quity apart from Rome and Egypt speak of months. does not follow the variations of light and darkness and therefore does not enter into the calendar. This is a stellar or sidereal year. This is the natural year. and has the name 'month' only because it historically arose from the lunar month and in its duration comes fairly near the latter. The difference between the the mean actual solar day. But when in relation to anti.. but it does not follow the phases of the moon month . The an zenith). longer than a stellar day: that is a the meridian-line of solar The number of stellar days in a year is greater by one day than the number of solar days. it is about 20 minutes shorter than stellar The lunar or moon-month is determined phases of the moon. lunar months are as a rule to be understood. The moon revolves around the earth twelve times a year and a little the year. 9 min. 56. 43 min. The tropic year is the time which the sun takes to come back to the crossing point of of a revolution of the earth Its the equator. The stellar day day. which is of slightly varying length.. from the visible more more : consequently it moves backwards in the zodiac much rapidly than the sun. In relation to the of motion the sun it apparent may be defined as the time which the sun takes to come back again to the same fixed star. 9.6 sees. 3 min.42 sees. length varies a little.

It has already been remarked that the sun in the course of a year runs through the zodiac backwards. The stars are so to speak the stationary ciphers on the clock-face In practice we naturally have to mination of the stars but with and the sun is the hand. 2. For this out. do not with the invisible culthe position of the sun and the certain neighbouring stars on the edge of the horizon. this is termed the acronychal rising or setting. the side turned towards the earth is completely overshadowed. the side of the moon turned towards the earth is completely illuminated and we have full moon: when the the middle. The are dependent upon the position of the the sun and the earth. and that is new moon. so that one particular star culminates month Hence it is evident that if 3 min. In between The lie the separate phases of the waxing and waning moon. When the three bodies are in a straight line (or rather in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic) in such a way that the earth is in the middle. The risings and settings of the stars. 44 min. of or sets simultaneously with the rising the sun. earlier every day. that is to simultaneously true of with the setting of the sun. since the sun hides them by its . or name the star with which the sun precisely culminates. 5 and is therefore of of phases the moon moon in relation to no consequence for the calendar. side. whereby matter becomes more complicated on the astronomical observation the so-called circumpolar stars are singled say the stars situated so near the pole If the star rises that they do not set (e. moon is in synodic interval between two new moons and is the on an average 29 days 12 hrs. we indicate the exact interval of time between the culmination the sun and that of one_ particular star. the Great Bear). 56 sees. we can determine the day of the solar year. This is the principle of one method of computing time which was very common among ancient and of primitive peoples.RISINGS AND SETTINGS OF THE STARS. this is called If the star rises or sets the true cosmic rising or setting. 93 sees. These risings and settings the star are not visible. g. comprises month: other varieties of month are of lunar is the true This no importance for us. but has entirely dropped out of use in modern times owing to our paper calendar.

will rise and and From this day the star rising. e. e. day drops nearly 4 Assuming that sun and star every simultaneously on one day (true cosmic rising). when the star is not situated in the ecliptic. the apparent cosmic or morning setting. the size and place of the star it is visible in the that so star rises early day on which the morning twilight. then after the period varying somewT hat few days have passed according to the latitude of the place of observation. immediately before the sun appears. From it forward into At length day the setting moves further and further the night and approaches the evening twilight. the time of rising will have a little commonly been pushed so far back that it will take place in the evening twilight. i. i.6 light: the rising PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. will therefore remain visible and longer period. star on the eastern. is no longer visible. In the course of half a year. but on the other hand we now see the If it is assumed that the star is situated setting of the star. sets. and after a few days it will be noticed in the morningtwilight immediately before it sets. in which the sun sets which is advanced constantly further into the light of day. when it is pushed still farther back the rays of the setting sun eclipse the star and its rising is no longer visible. sooner or later. and setting are perceptible only when the star stands at some distance from the sun. We have already rise seen a that the sun minutes behind a certain star. for a longer The of the star in the evening twilight is or the apparent acronychal evening rising. After a few more days the star goes so far back that it rises at the very moment last visible rising the true acronychal risingTThe rising. The moves forward. its setting takes place earlier in the morning. rises i. when the sun is on the and incidentally it is to be noted eastern horizon. sun on the western horizon star . i. on the western horizon. will be so near sunset that the star no longer this . only the so-called apparent rising and setting are practically observable. and this is the first visible setting in the morning twilight.- this is the true cosmic setting. that this position. e. the time there will come a of the year. e. This is the heliacal earlier or morning earlier. viz. may be divided by an interval of a larger or smaller number of days from the opposite position.

the transparency of the atmosphere. climes. Only an approximate indication of time.. the keenness of vision of the observer. The last visible setting of the star in the evening twilight is the heliacal or evening setting. otherwise these are divided by a greater or smaller number of sets in the night but in the days (see above). must move farther from the sun than a brighter one). therefore. recur with a far greater regularity than in our northern which are subject to such uncertain weather. of been remarked that we can determine the the already day year by indicating the true rising and setting of a star at a certain spot. they may be to some extent advanced or retarded. yet in certain owing to the special climatic conditions of the individual years. and further that the climatic phenomena of many parts of the earth. a heliacal rising follows again. the dry and the rainy seasons. Between the day of the heliacal setting and that of the heliacal rising the star is invisible. of the sun. the geographical latitude of the place of observation (since r the farther north or south the sjun is. the more slowly because more obliquely. It can only be remarked that though they depend upon the course cases. the true cosmic setting coincides in date with the true cosmic rising. Instances are the trade-winds and monsoons. in order to be visible. can be derived from the rising and setting of the The phases of the climate and of plant and animal life cannot be particularly described. since they naturally vary so much in different countries.RISINGS AND SETTINGS OF THE STARS. especially in the Tropics but also in the Mediterranean countries. As far as the apparent rising and setting are concerned this indication can only be approximate. and so on. for instance. If the star stands in the ecliptic. In this latter respect. since it stands It has so near the sun that it is eclipsed by the sun's rays. stars". there is a perceptible difference between Rome__and Egypt. Upon the above-mentioned units the system of time-reckoning . will it sink below the horizon). As the star moves on. the true cosmic setting.the visibility of a star depends on several variable factors size of the star (because a smaller star. 7 evening twilight. since the . After a few days the star has approached still nearer to the sun: both set at the same moment.

Sometimes the smaller units may be fitted into the larger as subdivisions of the latter. which excludes all gaps in the chain and all links of indeterminate length. to every other link of the same class. or as nearly as possible equivalent. will be termed the fixed Year's New Day and day of the first method. a system of continuous time-reckoning. into one another without gaps: each link is equivalent. This which also New Year's Day and the first day of the first month coincided and the length of the month varied between 29 and 30 days. The system is like a chain the links of units regular be based. In that case the beginnings of the larger unit of and year the first of the smaller units coincide. so that they constitute the links of the chain formed by the larger unit. . which is reckoned without reference to the year. so that every year begins with a different day of the week. the first Thus in our coincide. . both may also be counted independently of one another without being equalised. in which the smaller units are contained in the larger as subdivisions of them. A case in point is our week. al- which run into though this is not excluded. But where the smaller units do not exactly divide into the larger.8 will PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. lunar month of 29 or 30 days). This method reckoning we shall term the shifting method. in is month somewhat. The days are joined into months and the months only more rarely are the seasons interposed as years of time. and therefore need only be given a name and counted. It is less systematic than the fixed method. The inequality referred to shews then that of the units vary to some extent in number or size (year 365 or 366 days. but the length of the months varies an inheritance from the lunisolar year. This mode of reckoning. and we shall therefore expect to find it play a greater part in earlier times than at the of present day. of 12 or 13 lunar months. not necessarily conceived in the concrete. This is the only genuine system. The relation between the larger and the smaller units may be treated in various ways. but in addition the year varied between 12 and 13 months. chiefly on account of the fact that the smaller units do not divide exactly into the larger.

the latter. or will elapse before a certain event is to take place. the continuous counting: development.MODES OF TIME-RECKONING. Certain important ideas which frequently recur must however first be clearly set down. The is of the time-units. or rather the duration does not stand out by itself but the phenomenon as such is exclusively regarded: the timeis not durative. Here we ought really the of phenomena to of speak not of a time-reckoning in the proper sense. suns. It is not the units as a whole that are counted. and an autumn or a snow. The system It of time-reckoning. their duration fluctuates with Nature. like the link in any system of time-reckoning. since ting time. Since the duration and fluctuating. they cannot be numerically grouped together. and the time-indications are is indeterminate not limited one by the other but overlap and leave gaps. or snow s that has passed since a certain event took place. so that they are of indeterminate length and cannot be numerically grouped together. It is the . be indicated. our object to investigate the preceding stages. winter. represents the final point of the time-reckoning in the proper sense of the term is preceded by time-indications which are related to concrete phenomena of the heavens and the concrete of upon Since these indications depend phenomenon. but a concrete phenomenon recurring only once within this unit. that to other time-indications. because the dawn or the sun recurs once in the day. both systematic and unsystematic. the unit as such had not yet been conceived. the time that has passed or is to pass will be defined. once in the year. this method may be described as the discontinuous system of time-reckoning. but indefinite. e. aoristic. This is the oldest mode of couni. r If the number of dawns. or. but only But since the word 'time-reckoning' has become naturalised. And setting aside these finer distinctions \ve also find that indication to which the time-indications are related are and fluctuating very unequal duration. autumns. because the time-indications do not stand in direct relation to other time-indications but are related only to a concrete phenomenon. to borrow a grammatical term. and through time-indications.

Unfortunately the word . a single point. the origin of the time-reckoning must be sought not in any one system. and that the indication of concrete phenomena following one another in the regular succession of Nature has preceded the abstract numerical indication of time offered by our calendars. as order is ever evolved out of chaos. Our task is now to make clear the nature of these discontinuous and pars pro toto time-indications. since from them proceeds. since the calculation should use the word punktuell to denote is based upon a ptmctum. not upon the whole unit of time. the calendar. and l by this name we shall call it Since it must now be regarded as the natural course of . development that the systematic has gradually arisen out of the unsystematic. but in the discontinuous or pars pro toto time-indications which are related to concrete phenomena. the continuous time-reckoning. pars pro toto method so extensively used in chronology. 1 In Swedish (or German) I this mode of time-reckoning.10 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 'punctual' has quite another sense in English. however simple.

drought and rainy seasons. on the other hand. for this unit as we employ it is abstract and numerical the primitive intellect proceeds obvious. This principle.CHAPTER THE DAY. ^ ^ become Their fusion into a single unit. and only slowly and at a later period develops into a continuous numerical unit of time. periods of famine and plenty. Evidence for this fact is furnished by most languages. which are as a rule without any proper term. and it is only with difficulty and at a later stage that it can be conceived and surveyed as a whole. did not take place till later. ^ ' -^ - / . : upon immediate perceptions and regards day and night separately. is of great it importance for the development of time-reckoning original since shews how the time-indication is disconti- nuously related to a concrete phenomenon. w%frfyuQOv. for day and night together. the day of 24 hours. which has exactly the required signifi- The German Volltag is an artificial and not very happy compound. the circle of 24 hours. and waking penetrate at least as deeply changes following upon the course of the year. The usual method is to make use of a term according to the pars pro toto principle. I. are short units which immediately darkness. light and of time. Day and night. which we meet here at the outset and shall come across more and more frequently in the course of the following pages. In writing English one sadly misses the Swedish dygn. cance. For unit primitive man the day is the simplest and most obvious The variations of day and night. such as heat and cold. sleeping into life as the * . The Greeks also formed a learned and rare (though good) compound. But for the primitive intellect the year 15 a very long period. .

219. 133. i. e. 303. Ling. Asia) described concrete is sometimes the which by day phenomenon The Bontoc Igorot of north Luzon it brings. 'sun-darkness' (Malay Archi2 The pelago) *. in 'suns'. 4 Schoolcraft. with which we shall shortly have to deal. 42. Homfray making a circle with the right arm. is the to the only reference that can be found to any knowledge of movements of. We may primitive idea the day. i. the heavenly bodies 7 So also according .12 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. e.Roth. II. three suns 5 The western tribe of the Torres Straits reckons time northern shores of . now long since extinct. he asserts. 5 Ibid. they indicated with their hands the diurnal motion of the sun and expressed the number two by as many of their fingers. This. sun. e. that they had some idea of regulating compare the well-known sun originates afresh for every new found in the language of signs. Jochelson. e. La time by the apparent motion of the sun. describe a day by a revolution of the time of day by of the pointing with the hand to the position of the sun. 57 B. i. g. Primitive peoples have no term to express this f and must describe the period by means of expressions equivalent to day and night'. I. E. a-qu. and the The Comanche Indians reckon time is reckoned in suns 3 the days in 'suns' 4 and in an Indian hieroglyph from the idea . . gle unit for purposes of calculation. tongues employ the term that denotes its light part. It is not improbable that the designation of the day by means of an indication of the course of the sun arose in the first place from the indication of the position of that planet. The same method of expression is found in the classical languages as a poetic or hierarchical 201. 2 s 1 Snouck Hurgronje. day' etc. . In order to inform him that they would make a journey in two days. We may compare the indication the natives of the Andamans e. ' jenks. 129. p. Lake Superior the duration of a three days' journey described is expressed by three circles. have the same word for sun as for day. namely the sun. Haddon. Yukaghir p. p. . p. The same thing is Billardiere in the year 1800 relates of the very low Tasmanians. I. regarded as a sinmost modern and also the i. light and darkness' (Yukaghir in N. days that 6 . To describe ancient f the period of 24 hours.

Part D. says a Let us celebrate the old nights (days) and the autumns hymn. III. passed'). XIII. and indeed most of the peoples of the globe. etc. i]/iiovs & fivQtotog /uoyig ('with difficulty passing through thousands of suns'). for the Germanic peoples. . OF 24 HOURS. nifamfam. 72. g. i. For this it will be sufficient to quote Schrader's statement: "Moreover it can hardly be necessary to give evidence for this wellknown custom of antiquity. f ( See further Usener. Tacitus. In Sanskrit a period of 10 days is The counting the called dcifarAtrd f (: rdtrl = f night'). XXI v. 11.ovda. a year. E. among whom Tacitus had already this 5 we constantly find in ancient German custom. Euripides. That the De Bell.THE DAY. Bilfinger. still more frequently. vtersehn nacht. 'night by night' = 'daily'. Der biirgerltche Tag. p. and elsewhere. Silius. this Aratus follows the Hototo The nature meric use 4 will be further explained year. instead of day. sol. 289. In English fortnight. sed noctium finiunt they define all spaces of to-day. e. and from the day-time is comparatively rare: the counting Indo-European peoples of olden times. su viersehn nachten. 13 archaism *. (years)". 37. 38. * II. In the Avesta the counting from nights As (xsap. g. 80 )&> be fjioi Onv fjdc dvodeudTj] 6Y eg 'Ihiov i/*r}A. Bis senos soles. one day'). count the days from the nights. e. "this is the twelfth lies . Pindar. 1915) etc. (Bonn. Blinkenberg. ol f)G) KiuV($.<y. 1. In Latin 413 dvc^dendrt] G. and in a sacred regulation zaoai ovrcog Ore ua rgelg &Aioi yevovrai ('to leave so until three suns have ducp' zvi ('in 1 Die lindische Tempelchronik. but in 5 my opinion erroneously. 4 Otherwise. Helena 652. e. and also in medieval Latin. p. 3 II. Germ. and the year is denoted by (pdos. 2 ff this is the twelfth dawn he so''. xsapan. such legal documents phrases as sieben nehte. nee dierum nnmernni sed noctium compntant. is also used to denote the yearly revolution of the sun. pars pro the chapter dealing reckoning with the of the days from the dawns is unique. Gotternamen. Pntn'ca. spatia omnis temporis non by Caesar. 554. p. 35. lux. VI. numero dierum. totidem per vulnera saevas entensi noctes. dawn 3 since I came of in to Ilion". g. But fjAiog. Still more striking and more significant for the discontinuous method of reckoning is the Homeric use of r. sennight are in use observed custom existed among the Celts is proved Gall. 'dawn'. 18. xsapar] is carried out to a still greater extent. 01. XXIV v.

They say in three nights'. or rather the nights. 10 Heckewelder. 88. days but by the number of nights'). p. 744. with reference to the day-time onlys Except in the case of this tribe I have found no notes on the African peoples. 7 Polyn Res? 8 I. yester2 The New Zeal an day is po-i-nehe-nei.. to the question 'How many 4 'How many quesas of 6 . 393. I. p. Cole. Ginzel. the night's night. So also do the inhabitants days?' corresponds in their tongue of the Mar- Africa the phases of the moon and the number of more exact determinations of time. So do the Indians of Pennsylvania . 239. is the German East 7 day following the third night after the moon's appearance Sometimes they say 'day and night' when they wish to describe the full day of 24 hours. I. ders. Ellis. p. . g. i. Occasionally they say that they have worked so many days. little attention seems to have been paid to the point in their case. left' 'when two nights of Ramadan have gone'. 364. a nights?' In the Malay Peninsula periods exceeding a fraction 6 Among the -Wagogos of day are reckoned in nights . The Society Islanders reckon in nights. to-morrow is a-po-po. I. Claus. 3 Sandwich Islands of the inhabitants with the and so nights . 323. . The Polynesians in general counted time in nights. 'on the first night of f Ramadan'. 523. A. Fischer. But the material for America abounds. but only for times. who often for made use the of notches cut in a stick or a similar device 1 computation II. 3 235. 210. G. the night that is past no names for had in former days. . The Greenlanders reckon in nights 9 though certainly we are not told how those who live north of the Polar Circle reckon 10 the Pawnees. Taylor.14 PRIMITIVE TlMErRECKONING.and the same is of the Polynesians as a whole. The third serve as nights after the night appearance of the moon." The Arabians have the same practice. 'seventy nights long'. Night is po. 5 of months and 2 Schrader. 38. p. 4 I. . Cranz. fi 122. 243. p. Mathias 9 Skeat and Blagden. certainly true since they describe the 'days'. Fornander. of nights or even p. and date e. for example. . e. time not by the number of. by the phases of the moon. or 'are V For primitive and barbaric peoples the evidence is equally abundant. . in summer.

77. Rad235. 'sleepingnight by Of the Kiowas it is expressly stated 3 that they reckon time'. * Riggs. kon. . Polynesians. Centr. Spencer and Gillen. The Dakotas say that they will return in so many 'sleeps'. years '. inasmuch as there is and can have been no people that has not observed the daily course . The of the : 1 Dunbar. nights. that of the Comanches in suns is the natives of Central Australia also among the primithe tive Indo-European peoples. the reason for counting in nights striking of this fact is thus: - This statement instead of days becomes almost self-evident" 10 is a priori not perfectly correct. This mode of reckoning . 7 Carver. Finally count time in 'sleeps' 9 one. e. for Africa. which however is not so important for primitive time-reckoning on account of the old and far-reaching influence of civilisation in that continent. Be that as it may. 365. the length of a journey in 'darks'. . p. 8 165. that at least half the globe reckons the days in nights. 25 10 Schrader. 9 p.. and our informants have not noticed the agreement. For Asia. . in isolated instances. p. ff. the fact remains and for S. p. 111. pp. p. . This however is an argumentum ex silentio. II. The current explanation by Schrader is the moon given "Since the chronometer of primitive times and not the sun. i. and not in If the question of the distance of any place arises answer is 'so many darks'. It may even be doubted whether 'sleep' is not sometimes translated 'night' by the reporters. p. and the inhabitants of North America. 177. p. so that a journey might be . sun as well as the monthly phases of the moon as chronometer neither of the two bodies is older than the other. * Mooney. La Flesche. ' Swanton. the 4 Among the Omahas the night or sleeping nights or sleeps time marked the division of days. To reckon in nights is therefore the rule America evidence is wanting or is forthcoming only The reason probably is that in these continents also time is really reckoned in nights. 5 The Hupas of spoken of as having taken so many sleeps 7 6 and the Kaigans of the tribes of the North-East Arizona the North-West 8 also reckon in sleeps. an exception. Austr. p. loff. 1. 15 and the Biloxi of Louisiana 2 Usually however the but is not this word denoted by 'sleep'. 6 339. 6 Fletcher and 308.COUNTING OF DAYS OR NIGHTS. is therefore the common . Powers.

but unfortunately I we are not told how many. Spencer and Centr. an inner connection seems to exist between the of fact counting of the days in nights and the designation of the days. The explanation must therefore be sought elsewhere. from which they reckon time *. Primitive in man knows only concrete indications of time. The Indians moon. pp. but seem to have named and made a list use of them only roughly: the only tribe that possesses of 2 . and is one which also applies to the use of the word 'winter' for finer distinction year etc. to unknown ciple 1 of pars pro him and so he must reckon according to the printoto. A causal connection. must lie in the fact that the period of 24 hours is named after the phases of the moon and consequently the day itself is reckoned in nights. Austr. Moreover The and nomenclature of the moon-phases. such as Schrader and others have maintained. against which must be set the fact that the Indians and so primitive a people as the Australians use not the word 'night' but 'sleep'. Kaigans moon-month is the incomplete. know the phases of the moon.. of the month according to the phases of the moon. and as a matter of fact it is possible Gillen. the names of the days of the and unfortunately this list is there are no indications that the primitive Indo-European peoples distinguished the phases of the moon otherwise than roughly. and visible reckoning prefers to use a concrete and clearly The complete day of 24 hours is point of reference. so each that in the end day comes to have its separate name. 25 2 ff. The Wagogos as indications of time. that every day has its use the phases of the moon also The Arabs speak of ten phases of the three combining days under each name. 308. is clearly a very far advanced special development: the use of the word 'night' to express the period of 24 hours is much older. which has nothing to do with the moon. or rather the nights. The these. p. . Radloff. But this is only a comparatively isolated and advanced development. In in the development of the time-reckoning.16 difference point lies PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Even such low races as the tribes of Central Australia already have names for the phases of the moon. to which we recur further on. so Polynesians have very elaborately developed ^separate name.

which. 3 Claus.J'AJfS PRO TOTO RECKONING. its duration tions. For the indication of a point of time within the day the reference to the course of the sun is the means that lies in nearest to hand. with its various occupa- no such point of reference unless the reckoning is based upon the daily appearance of the sun. two features. p. by dividing the vault of the sky with the . The method of reckoning in is merely an outcome of the necessity for a concrete unmistakable time-indication: it is a typical example of the pars pro toto principle and time-reckoning. which is also actually done in certain cases. stand out prominently: but it is easier to reckon from points than from lengths. he answered. The da}r itself. yet it has no separate parts. p. Now the sleeping-time is necessarily bound up with each day. as we have already seen. 353. The Cross River natives of Southern Nigeria indicate the time by pointing to the position in the heavens which the sun occupies at that time of the day *. 38. a point. on the psychological grounds just mentioned are especially favoured nights the counting. or acquires them only later among certain peoples. However in the daily course of the sun. and the indication can indeed be given quite concretely by means of a gesture in the direction of the heavens. 1 7 to reckon just as well from a part of the whole as from the whole itself. The time between going to sleep in the evening and waking in the morning appears as an undivided unit. which divert the attention from the number. When someone asked a Swahili wjiat time tin: knew of was. In Loango the people indicate sun in the heavens 3 the time satisfactorily enough from the motion of the sun. in divisions of two hours. . offers and the changing position of the sun. I / r i^ to This language of signs is especially common in Africa. Partridge. 2 Velten. provided ^that the part chosen is one that only recurs once every day. p. It offers for reckoning a convenient basis in which no mistake or hesitation is fall possible such as can occur in the various occupations that within the period computed. 244. "Look at the sun'\ although this tribe 2 The Wagogo in order ways of indicating time shew the time of day indicate with the hand the position it other .

Jenks. p. Oliveau. 156. in order to give the time of day 5 The Caffres . 223. as for instance the inhabitants of the Lower Congo 2 r the Masai of East Africa. for example. p. corresponding to the position of the sun 7 In other parts of the world we find the same thing. . . Spencer and Gillen. 343. . if asked at what time anyone will arrive. that means 12 o'clock noon. 270. c - Hammar. pointing to the position occupied m. 10 p. often using^ both arms as Jndicators *. 8 p. . Hose. 169. who express with the position of the sun both clearness and points and duration of time by certainty . p. lie will say. point to the sun In the Dutch East and say. Thus in the New Hebrides the hours of the day are indicated by pointing If a native of with the finger to the altitude of the sun 8 Australia is asked at what time anything took place or is going to take place. two o'clock in the afternoon of the next day. (l will be here to morrow^ when by the the the the sun is sun at 2 - - there'^) p. Fabry. Wilken p. 4 p. 6 . * 12 Foa. who estimate the time of day from 3 and the Hottentots. 153. they say that the sun is here or there. :j Merker. 219. So. . T p. 1 Loango Exp.18 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. most Moreover peoples have descriptive expressions for parts of the day. when the Caffre wishes to shew that he will come at. Alberti. 69. his answer will take the form of pointing r to the position w hich the sun occupied or will occupy in the sky 9 The Bontoc Igorot of Luzon point to at that particular time the heavens in order to indicate the position the sun occupied when a particular event occurred 10 The Kanyans of Sarawak. which they indicate with outstretched arm. and the other hours instinct of the day they are able to give with a sure by means a greater or lesser inclination of the arm . are able to give the exact time of day by pointing with outstretched arm to the ~spoT at which the sun appears at the time they wish to indicate. " Schulze. II. . The Waporogo of German East Africa estimate the divisions of the day from the position of When sun. 4 In Dahomey the natives referring to the position of the sun of the hours means tell the by sun. is arm vertically of raised. 119. p. Across Austr. 5 Ill: 2.. 200. "When the sun stands there" n Indies the time of day is given from the position of the sun 12 . towards the body. 373.. outstretched arm. p.140.

194. Merker. 19 The inhabitants of Java divide the day into ten natural but vague and unequal subdivisions. Crawfurd. Indications of time are given by pointing with the hand to the 6 place occupied by the sun at the time in question This method of indicating the time of day is quite satisfactory. 333. 303. . though they have learned to tell the time from the clock. midway between the zenith and the west.INDICATIONS OF THE SUN'S POSITION. I. also know l . ff. Fletcher and p. Velten. length of the shadows the Swahili say. when such and such In order to indicate the time the natives an event took place of Sumatra also point to the height in the sky at which the sun stood when the event of which they are speaking occurred 2 The natives of the western tribe of the Torres Straits. the chief of which is the observation of the length of shadows. and for astrological purposes the day of 24 hours is divided into five parts. p. The . a plant about 50 cm. afternoon. Brazil divide up the day according to the position of the sun. very accurately by observing the height of the The Tahitians determine the six parts of their day from sun the sun's altitude 4 Among the Omaha Indians the sun indicates the time of day. and 5 The Karaya of Central midway towards the east. Sumatra. p. p. "It is 9 o'clock (sic!)" 9 To indicate the time of day or to represent a distance the Cross River natives use . In their old writings we find a traveller described as setting out on his journey or arriving at the end of it when his shadow was so many feet long 7 The Masai usually estimate the time of . length of shadows. especially in the tropics and for primitive needs. . The flowers gradually begin to open the 1 Crawfurd. 111. with violet. but more rarely from the 8 When the shadow measures nine feet. . day from the position of the sun. Javanese know this latter method but do not often use it. 7 441 287. La Flesche. 153. pp. A motion towards the zenith meant noon. forenoon to give it 3 . and only more rarely does it give place to other methods. K 287 5 f. They also determine the time of day by the length of the shadow and by the working-time.white flowers. Krause. Forster. 1 I. how . p. p. * Marsden. but the most common method is by pointing to the situations of the sun in the heavens. 339. . high. They have however in most of their houses a curious species of sun-dial. 3 R Haddon.

really only satisfactory in the tropics. f f . tribe of the Malay Peninsula. p. by noon theyjirewide open. expressions of one kind or another are 244. inclined at an angle of about 45 so on 4 This and with three it o'clock.Stannus. practice is doubtless connected with the common use of a stick in the Indian Archipelago for observations of time. The ancient Athenians seem to have indicated time by measuring off with the foot the length of the shadow cast by their bodies upon the level ground before them as they stood. Mansfeld.he__sun_ always stands very high and the length of its daily course js_not exposed^to top__great variation. and is by no means primitive. Zeitmesser. 146. Early morning is represented by pointing a stick to the eastern horizon. art. cp.. 109. and they gradually noon and sunset. Babylonians was an upright stick the shadow of which was measured it was also an important instrument for astronomical observations 6 Here however we are already at a highly developed stage and know nothing about the origins. indicate the progress of the day by the inclination of a stick. 288. 19. the shadow as long as the object'. Aristophanes. Horologium in Daremberg and Saglio. a primithe shadow longer than a man' . Where the sun is much lower in winter than in summer. corresponds nearly tive . PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and the length of the day varies greatly at different times of the year. p. I. Ekkles. 4 Skeat and drar Blagden. The indication of time from the position of the sun is : . 5 Dictionnatre des Antiquites- .20 at sunrise. 652. " G. One of these plants is between close~again l To in every garden and enclosed within little stones placed the time of is Lake reckoned either the south of day Nyassa from the position of the sun or from the length of the shadow thrown by a stick. AinaQti %a>Qlv eni detnvor. y deK&novv TOGTOIXEIOV. Placed erect to the west it indicates noon. 1 If descriptive p. At all events the length of shadows served to indicate is time. . to go perfumed to dinner" 5 the to Herodotus Greeks borrowed from the II. Bilfinger. . p. 3 The Benua-Jahun. ten feet. nthance 2 The Society Islanders among their numerous expressions for the time of day include two which have reference to shadows. 393. "when the staff The gnomon which. * Wegener. according . where_t. the method ceases to be practicable.

e. there was in the southern windowsiH. a line which was called the 'noon-line'. The word eykt really designates any of these approximately three-hour divisions but t<> . other means must be found. cett). midr aptann and nattmdl (9 p. small piles of stones were erected for the purpose . windows in the room. cyktarstad etc. determined from the visible course of the heavenly bodies.). dagmdl (9 a.). g.. beside the middle shaft of the frame. the business of everyday life leads to an attempt at systematising.). m.). hddegi (12 o'clock noon). 447. with this line since When the shadow of tl^e shaft fell parallel was noon. e.). The spot which the sun has reached at one of these divisions is therefore called dagThis mode of determining tndlastad. since the time varies according called p. m.so that - certain points on the horizon Iceland the divisions of the day from the position elevations and of the frills - sun above ar^ pjH In marks a certain time The most times thus determined given. facing east and west. Above all it is to. 3 p. Paul.INDICATIONS BY MEANS OF MARKS. the position of the place in question *. since the length of the day varies enormously so far north. These indications in hours are however only approximate. ETC. midnnindi (l. But on the hand such customs as the determination of noon and of the other moments day were. Scanian peasants. m. rismdl = 'the time of rising'. The people imagined that the sun in the course of a day and a night ran through the eight equal regions of the heavens (cettir. The time of day was determined from the position of the sun above the horizon by the selection in every house of certain outstanding points within the range of vision to serve as 'daymarks' dagsnigrk. This device is not exacUyjprimitive. i. m. non (undoubtedly the sun stood above one of these of when day was originally (6 j undorn and also eykt. m. I . See further Finn Magnusson. i. sing. it belong to other a quite advanced stage of civilisation. noon.ao p.). more particularly in the wall. important \vere rismdl or midr margin (6 a. which were always built 'according to the sun'. -mark) where these were lacking. sing. and still are. III. determine the fixed point which divides the day into In the living-room of the houses of the e. nous tad. 21 not resorted important to two parts. m.

Sogn. v. Rismaalsfjeld. 276. vik. Liden A instances similar names in S. 2 Drake. as descriptive exor the negroes. pp. In Sweden there are - Gesundaberget. Nonsfjeld. Solbjorgenut in the Naer0fjord. Sogn. p. 'bay'. Sweden and in England. 1907. eyktarstad) I take . Nonsnib above Loen Water in Nordfjord.* Spencer and Gillen. the expressions 'when the sun has risen' or 'set' 3 Expressions for the most important divisions. but for day by pointing to the and evening they also use morning of . and also those formed with mosse. 25. The for . In Baedeker I have only noticed: Middagsfjallet in Jamtland. p. names are common in Norway. and tiker. pp. the peak of the latter lies in the nonstab. where has given names to man} mountain-peaks. Middagshaugen in Aardal. p. it is also found in Scandinavia. in addition to Nonsberget. Mtddagshorw in Norangdal. g. pressions. Even the tribes of Central and Northern Australia have words e. The Indians divide the day into three or four rough divisions only. Middagsfjeld in Tromso time must be old since it 7 : 'arm and in in Finnmarken. field It is easy to understand why tniddag. Filologi. . The Lapps also indicate time by the position of the sun in relation to the surrounding natural : further - Middagsberget . 'noon'.. From Fritzner's Old Norwegian Lexicon (s. 1 8 Hose. 4 The richness of evening and for morning before sunrise the terminology however varies exceedingly. just found again in Harjedalen. 169. in Dalecarlia = south of Mora the name is f f ? .Durmaalstind. when it is necessary to mention a point of time after dark. . Eyktargnipa and Undornfjeld in Mule Syssel Such Iceland. Natmaalstindcn. The latter practice offers the further advantage of being available in the night- The gestures may be accompanied by time. among replaced by them. swamp'.22 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 259 ff. which seems to be the rule among other peoples. 23. Arkiv for Nord. Nonsknatten and Middagshognan. 444 ff. Middagsnib in Oldendal in the Nordfjord district. The Kayans denote the time position of the sun. Northern Tribes. 2 objects . Mtddagsberg on the Naerofjord in Sogn. are found among all peoples. everywhere predominates as a nomenclator. Spencer. sunrise and sunset ( mor- ning and evening) and noon.

. Mooney. Kiowa words dawn (lit. .. p. p. 'getting-dark'. and n midnight The terminology 1 for 2 the parts of the day is especially Mac * Caulay. p 260. noon (up till about 2 middle of the afternoon. 139 ff. 'sun-sitting- down'.). II. Fewkes. 'The-sun10 is-perpendicular' was the expression for noon on the Orinoco . is until evening But there for also noon. early morning (midway between sunrise and p. 365. noon. 'the-sun-has- come-up'). Ibid. sun- rise ('outside-sun'). 'three-fourths-of-the-day have-gone'. evening. about 3 o'clock. e. ('first-light'). afternoon. 'the-sim-gone'. evening (lit. p. the morning. 223. 111. morning light ('just-see-things'). late afternoon.'evening-creeping-up-the-mountain' (this refers to the line of shadow on the eastern mountains). America little is reported. pp. earlier afternoon until . . p. morning 'full-day'). s Beverley. darkness. 5 !l p. night. . parts: half 7 . of the sun Man}' tribes however had four divisions the Natchez of Louisiana. p. noon. 12. of Chile had words for morning twilight. who divided the day into four equal . 'first-darkness') 8 and in particular among the Statlumh of British Columbia: dawn f ( it-just-cpmes-day'). 155. noon. morning. about 4 p. 23 Seminole of Florida divided up the day by terms descriptive of the positions of the sun in the sky from dawn to sunset J unfortunately we are not told what these words were or how : man}' of them existed. power. and sunset vince mention the three times of the rise. g. 182. Handbook. and lowering 6 5 e. Among the Hopi of Arizona there is every evidence that the time of day was early indicated by the altitude of the sun 2 The Omahas know no smaller divisions of the day than morning. 4. m. pitch dark Of the Indians of S. 'reachedthe-top'. ll Molina. 9 . until a richer terminology. The Indians . evening twilight. dawn. night. p. the line of the shadows. g. to which certainly must be added the transitional periods of sunrise and The Occaneechi of Virginia measure the day by sunset 3 4 The Algonquins of the same prosunrise. I. early morning ('just-no w-morning'). full light ('just-now-day'). noon. half the afternoon. the sunrise (lit. noon). i. m. twilight. 6 7 Du Pratz. 3 Fletcher and La Flesche.NAMES FOR THE PARTS OF THE DAY. e. I0 Gilij. 525. . Hill Tout. and afternoon. 189.

156. . p. 5. . twilight becomes is visible. not translated. The Wadschagga say at six the morning the sun rises'. the earth the difference here is morning is morning) the not evident noon. it . from twelve to o'clock in f A ( sun goes straight on'.24 rich in Africa. noon' (when the day is 'perpendicular'). 6 Westermann. mornnight. at 5 1 it 2 is 'early'. like a man in the act of falling 2 The terms used by the Bangala are: about 2 a. ntete. or 'spreads its arms out'. twilight. Gutmann. . 6 The shadow-lengthening or afternoon. connected with the refinement from the custom of indicating this by a gesture in the direction of the heavens. second division or second half one 'the it 'falls . 12 midnight. p. 105. 6. p. about two it 'bows'. it is afternoon. Hammar. 12 6. : is 'not-yet-early'. 417. p. one set of the ribs or one side of a person. at twelve o'clock the sun rests on his cushion' (like a tired porter). 4 5. meaning that a person turns from lying on one side over on to the 3 In Bornu other. and for midnight. 'universe'. Weeks.so 6. 4. JRAI." ing or forenoon. Such simple indications as those of the Babwende for noon. night. tions are as a rule employed. p. 34. Ellis.157. From about 4 to 5 'the f the is world cuts the aurora'. sun is setting. twilight finishes 11 12. the expressions for the time of day are formed by the aid of the word dinia . the first fowl. 150. it is night. Afterwards follow Since the people are evening'. midThe Yoruba divide the day into early morning.30. 39. about six down'. 6 4 Koelle. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. the lying fowl. not translated. enters. 'sky'. at 12 sun is in the centre of the world'. also have expressions for the hours of 4 . evening or twilight Masai distinguish the following parts of the day at 4 a. noon. the sun is come. 'it Mohammedans they prayer Nile The expressions used by 5 : the Shilluk of the White (it are translated - - "The first morning. the fowls or sun the go in. 6. the sun is near.'world'. the lying bird. p. 3. 'the-siis a fact which of the observation of the sun's position resulting f number of elaborate time-indicalence-of-the-land' \ are rare. Yoruba. 5. or the sun darkens. morning dawn. the sun begins to sink (afternoon). morning. m. m. 6. the dawn.. midnight. the-sun-over-the-crown-of-the-head'. 23. 3 later come dawn. the sun has set. at night. somewhat 241. 284. at 6 'the world is light'. the sun is in the zenith.

m. The Baganda distinguish the following times of day: night. m. 32. this latter is the hour before the sun rises. at 12 is is the-sun-is-perpendicular-overhead'. then the time and when the buffaloes go to drink night. and sunrise ^thetwilight (about 5. the first marking an interval of rest at 8 a. m. and supper at 6 p. JRAI. which l Another lasts until 8 o'clock. . dinner at noon. Baganda. night-fall. From 8 to 10 it is 'stillsun-shews-himself-a-little' or 'rises ). 4 Roscoe. authority gives the following list Evening. This phrase In particular. or the hour : go to bed about 8 o'clock. when the cattle return to the kraal just before sunset.. 69 a.). p.. often used for the period from 3 to 5 p. early . 5 afternoon-now'.. divide the day into . 153. The afternoon usually expressed by the-shadow-is-turned-round'. dawn. 1 Marker. about 4 a. afternoon.. when the sun has risen. six parts 2 a p. m.. - Hollis. and 'the-shadows-lower-themselves' (1 Nandi. m. p.NAMES FOR THE PARTS OF THE DAY. north-east of the Victoria Nyanza. p. to which we shall return later. With the coming of darkness begins the tap a. this is the hour when the first rays of the sun redden the heavens. towards ? 11 they say 'the-sun-is-not-yet-perpendicular-over( head'. the second 4 The expressions being smoked when work ceased at 10 a. when the people usually go to rest 12 4= f = f = . 67 56 a. 9 a. They have moreover highly developed terminology for the hours of the day. m. m. cock-crow. sunset glow the-sun'. full or broad daylight (9 2). after that morning. m. evening 3 The lower classes sometimes reckon from the meal-times. 2 == the-sun-is-broken'. m. 3 o. midday. midnight. for gossip. Masai. m. 2 r ning.. Women engaged in rough work in the gardens spoke of the time at which such and such an event took place as that of the first or second pipe. 1 early'. night.. breakfast at 7 a. m. 38. before the people then 'the blood-red period' or 'the time when the sun decorates the sky'.) 2 The (midday). 332. m. midnight. 26 with separate names: p. morning. - p. 3 Roscoc. m. 4 6 is eve'the-twilight-followsthe-sun-goes-down'. There are also hours called 'the-sun-stands-(or is-)opposite-to-one* 2 p. 'little sun' (early morning from 6 to 9). p. for the times of day among the Thonga of South Africa have . f 25 the-sun-is-still-far-off).

hisaka sana. morning brightness. the reaches hl-wa. the nipandju. 'the time when you do not easily recognise twilight. i. 'the red twilight'.26 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. to and evening brightness. morn1 Junod. e. then come tlhabela sana. the time of clear day shortly before sunrise the native name is given because about dawn it is usually most perceptibly cold). the time when the of the sun (sana) are piercing. time when ku when it . II. The noon. and the circumstance is perfectly natural. Here the language of sunset. 'Little children's tAvilight' was in some places the name given the time in of the first noticeable diminution of light after accordance with the belief that at this hour most children were born. then ndjenga or lilmngu. m. kit pela or the horizon and mpimabaycnt. A distinction was made between evening and late 2 The author evening. Afternoon and morning were only approximate. literally " 1 It strangers coming to your village because it grows dark' is remarkable here that many indications are given from the increasing heat and not from the position of the sun. the time between sunrise and 7 a. . of the hours of day itself only noon is brought into prominence. 373. p. when they nhlekani. Hottentots * distinguish morning arid evening twilight. the time between this and sunrise. been translated and explained as follows: called "The dawn is rays are burning. sunrise. which extended till long after sunset in remarks that this one case is struck just quoted by the fact that while the limits of day and night are elaborately marked out. . point of heat. As soon as the sun has risen a little in the heavens these differences consist chiefly in the position of the sun and in the increasing heat. the middle of the sky. of the Andaman Islands have terms for : the following times of day dawn. or shttahataka. The same is the case with most peoples who possess a more highly developed terminology of this nature. . since the concrete differences in the phenomena of light and of the heavens become so great and so easily visible during the transition from day to night and night to day. the after- maximum the the sun goes down (renga). 2 Schtilze. 282. Thonga.. signs is really more The aboriginals expressive.

9 half of the 121 p. to sunset. .) eve1 morning. = = half-way above.. p. 5. = with the breaking forth of the sun. ing to 27 (three different expressions). sunset. m. m.so 5 time of afternoon prayers. 8 (Ar. wr hen the dew dries up. m. negrang (upright) ma= 12 noon: do-w about rong (real) njaja (great) = about 4 p. keep the old names for the times of day but with Arabic words and the Moslem hours of prayer intermingled.NAMES FOR THE PARTS OF THE DAY. 12 'middle of the day . 336 ff. f : 7 . the last third of night.. pp. I. which I indicate by (Ar. m. twilight. i. 9 dow making (powerful) m. 3 the middle. so evening. afternoon.30 single crowing cock. 6 (Ar. m.. sunset. 1 to In Busang (the common night-fall midnight. noon. 2 The terms used by the Islamite Malayans of Sumatra are mingled with Arabic loan-words. forenoon. pp. Maass. 3 'the time of the long sinking'. nearly 5 the streaks of dawn For the Malays then come midnight and = = = . the last part of this. 9 = rice ning . 1 Then follow: when 317. who have a fully developed calendar influenced by Arabic. referring to the poles used in propelling craft. e. = . so the obligatory noon-day prayers. m. 7 7. . (Ar.6 a. meal time. 3 The Javanese speak of noon.) sunset. 2 Xieuwenhuis Man. . Peninsula the following list is given just before dawn = before the flies are astir after sunrise the heat begins about 8 a. 5 Snouck Hurgronje. 4 (Ar. 11 'close to noon'. after4 The Achenese of Suevening matra. 10 = the loosening of the ploughing-gear 1 1 = the approaching of the zenith 1 2 = the zenith 1 2. 3 a. fall of the day. 511 4 ff. m. the time from noon 3 from commercial language of the Bakau) as spoken by the Mendalam Kayan of Borneo the different times of day are named: (ioiso (day) bekang (open. the 4 of the the continuous 4. 287. I.30 the last part of the beginning.so 'time of twilight'. crowing of 5 the cocks. 5. Craw- . 3 'mid-descent'. 7. 6 sunset. from 3 to from 5 . especially = = = = = = referring to the time of commencement of the evening prayer. split) = 6 a. and 6. (low lebi (little) = about 6 p. ff. so = the sun a pole high. noon.so = the fallfrom the zenith.) (Ar. the plough rests.) . midnight m. l. rising'.) dawn. About 6 a. dow njirang (to shine) = about a. 4.).so 2 = the middle of the period devoted to ing time. m. . noon furd. 3. 199 3 I. about 9 when the sun is of the : .

of Britain (Bismarck Archipelago) divided up position of the sun. Moreover there are words and expressions which mean 'middle of the heavens'. Fornander. === after afternoon when the buffaloes go to water. 3. m. A 3. 'it to get dark'. daylight. when the day turns back. 'it gradually begins to get light' . 2. : and midnight. has come to the tying of the knot' (on the Gazelle Peninsula they say of this time 'the sun has sat down to glow'). 200 4 Brown. getting sun'.. p. when the sun is directly overhead it is awahea. 6. m. however. p. 'it has grown dark' 2 . 121. (Friday) prayer. afternoon. day has come. We was divided the plain. 5. 7. 4. not yet quite overhead). 346. sunset. are told that the Hawaiian day 1. 7. "When the stars fade native Hawaiian writes : away and disappear. 6. 10. la.. was noted by five stations: 1. and had words for sunrise. noon.4 a. about l. 2. midnight. 'with westerly inclina'the sun has come overhead' is . about 3 = = about 10 == The logy. the sun f shews himself '. sunrise 5 . 5. when the shadows are round. when the sun becomes warm. 'the brightness is it coming f on'. 12 noon. translator's note.30. 332. I. The is . 'the sun over the ridge'. a just noon. right in the middle.so p. 2. m. between sunset day. 2 p. 'darkness is drawing near'. n. the children have gone to sleep J natives of the Solomon Islands have a rich termino. 'the sun is there'. between midnight and sunrise. 'the sun stands below 70 from the horizon'. 5 2 Thurtuvald. p. . Snouck Hurg-ronje. But this must be completed by what follows The lapse of night. 'turning'. 334. the sun is over the side-rafters of the roof (i. e.. I. when the sun rises. it is ao. 'it has begun tion'. breaking the shadows. the time of the declining sun. when are distinguished: f In Buin the following degrees of brightness in the daylight . 3. the decline of the day.. noon. morning is past. 1 3 Ibid. inhabitants of New the day according to the sunset. 3 A feature of special note 'the sun is on the entrance-beam' here is that the houses (which must all be built facing the same direction) and their parts serve as aids in indicating time. nearly and presumably some others \ the time-indications based on the The Polynesians mingle position life the sun with others which are derived from the of men and full nature. 5.28 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. into three general parts. about sunset.

l These are. the sun near the horizon. 29 sun inclines to the west in the afternoon. poetically regarded. the is : when the curtains of night are parted'. Other expressions are translated -. midnight to daybreak. Names are given for midnight. from the first edition. dawn. For the Marquesas are given: daybreak. Pol. Xo division into regular periods was known. the day or the red sky. and the stars shine out". broad day -. 1 2 Forster. night.bright noon ('belly of the day from full morning to about ten o'clock ' . pp. the shadow as long as the object. 441 ff.'there comes a glimmer of colour on the mountains'. e. when it reaches the 2 meridian. the stirring of the flies. evening before sunset.' etc. 33 89. the fleeing night'). leaves out the translation of the concrete terms for the times later than noon. 'day breaks'. pp. ahi-ahi pression and then sunset. twilight. '8 a. the night. c.. the rays falling on the crown of the head. . daybreak. The former quotes the latter 'about 7'. ff. the dipping forward of the sun's edge. pressions according to its extension either For the day there from morning The were were two exto evening twilight or from the rising to the setting of the sun. Malo. After that come evening. the ex IE a ant ka la. at unequal distances from each other. the time at which a man's face can be establishing recognised. 'the mountains light up'. nor any means of these. m. according to recurring physical changes.NAMES FOR THE PARTS OF THE DAY. the time after sunset names for the times of day among the Society Islanders . the time when the sun begins to be hot. nevertheless the islanders distinguished a varying number of points of time. the first breaking of clouds. daylight. to 6 p. m. midnight - 3 . very fine examples of the rich terminology for the time of transition between night and day. fire). twilight. sunset. and fills up the period from 7 a. 'it is broad daylight' *. I. with modern terms. Thus: the time of cock-crow. but Ellis 1. the sun above the horizon. pp. 'the east blooms with yellow'. the rays broadening over the land. 14. the same longer than the man. sunrise. Wegener. napoo ka la. twilight. the time at which the houses are f lit up. 3 /?es. particularly well developed. sunrise. 3 . po. 146 ft. In Tahiti the day has six divisions which are fairly accurately determined by the height of the sun. Ellis. m. the same a little oblique. and then comes (ahi.

with the exception of cock-crow. p. the same expression as in Hawaii. -the extinguishing of the o m. tiling (a cricket which is only to be heard at sunset) clouds. When the sun is as best can. 333. after fire20 the cricket minutes of (about sunset). 'the stirring of the flies'. pa ma ao. afternoon ('back part of the sun'). 4 Nieu- wenhuis.). the time when the bird mo was to heard the (/' = call. to water' to cattle-rearing or to But a people which devotes agriculture may borrow from its . ao = - day- break). p. when the cock 3 failed to crow all sense of a division of time was lost to them The phenomena of Nature afford little basis for the naming of the times of day. evening ('fire-fire'. 6 regular daily occupations expressions for the times of day. crying lighting the time feed tame pigeons (about (about half-an hour later).. duan 'the (to sing) of cry smoke down phants have gone itself a couple of expressions of the Wadschagga. In rainy days his At the first cocktribe observed the crowing of the cock. besides the above-mentioned name 1 Mathias T. Thus the Mahakam Kayan. in which the sun Indications of this nature are convenient only in countries is neither too often nor too long hidden by hidden the inhabitants have to manvery interesting statement in this they age connection is made by a Swahili native. 'the . day-break. Gutmann. G. -Nandi. ' 210 ff. the sun upright (= noon).30 sun'). 96. m. 9 a. . m. one given for the Mahakam Kayan of Borneo. which is in great favour as an indicaOther exceptional cases tion of the time before sunrise. are such names as that mentioned for the Society Islands. since there is hardly one of them which recurs regularly every day at a definite time. pp. 'the turning of the the mountain' 5 and one of the Nandi. * Brown. 241. the partridge in the evening. Hollis. p. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. i. and tulna lights (about 2 of night and day' standing together 9 p. e. sunset. crow they knew that it was 5 or 6 a. cock-crowing. m. 318. .). 'the ele. midnight. 348. dawn. p. morning. 3 Velten. A .). 1 4 .. half-way down (about 3 the After that the night was divided into: p. the time to light the fires on the mountains or the kitchen fire for supper) l The Samoans divided the day into first dawn.

" 140. Above. the time of the mid-day rest. Compare Sanskrit sagavds. 'evening'.. the time of Javanese home-coming from work in the fields'. 1 Crawfurd. the time when the oxen were unyoked in the Homeric phrase $M. pp. above. m. 27. is p. but for the time of the occurrence of any event the position of the sun is usually The Achenese and the Malays of Sumatra have an expression exactly corresponding to the Greek fjovAvrog *. 262. halfhave an expression for about 4 p. the cattle leave watering-place to graze. 30. morning.. m. The Wadschagga have expressions for the position of the sun. the times of day are given in relation to the rural labour. This kind of terminology seems to have been developed into a system indicated 1 . p. 12 noon. p.of the oxen'. p. 3 p. the sun shews signs of setting. for late f 31 day'). from the pastures' or is housed' etc. however. 1 p. 24. 'at the yoking of the oxen'. and Lithuanian pietus. m. . p. m. .. m. m. rest for the cattle. . and affords a hitherto little enter the observed piece of evidence for the life of antiquity which agrees well with others. a cattle-raising tribe of the Uganda divided up in the following way: 6 a. milking-time of especial interest since it remains in various Indo-European languages as a relic of antiquity.. Cp. m..NAMES DERIVED FROM OCCUPATIONS. Feist. the cattle return home. m. not seldom.. m. Protectorate.. the cattle This terminology is kraal. the especially for astrological purposes. noon'. noon\ which goes back to Sanskrit pitus. '' 'As the * Roscoe. i.With rest or meal-times are associated Old High German tmtorn. 2 among the Banyankole. the m. I. 7 p. is sent to the pastures'. 6 4 . f So they say 'when the buffalo 'when the buffalo is brought back .. The day . 5 p... the time for the cattle to drink. povAvrog. The are strongly influenced by civilisation and have. meal-time' . a fully developed chronological system. 4 p. f afternoon and the term for noon (beluwa dow.dow uli.OS d'jjeAiog u8Tevi6GTo ftovAvTOvde 5 and Irish im-buarach. Sanskrit abhipitvam. 287. katamyabosi. the time when the cows are herded together. not translated. 2 Bantu. milking-time 9 a. the time to draw water. but also others 3 among which may be mentioned 'the first going of the oxen to the pastures in the morning'. e. f f f fi . sun turned over to the unyoking.

the sun has stood upright. those who have drunk milk are asleep. the oxen drink water for the second time. 6. the goats have entered the kraal. glimmer of day.. bright horizon. 12 midnight. 4. the cattle have drunk water. 10.. the goats feed. 4. 7. the goats have drunk water. 10.HO. 12 noon. m. 2 m. the sun turns. The names for the times of day 2 a. 11. milk (sc. 4. i. the sun is finished. 10. it has become warm.30. Time-indications of various kinds are.4o. 5. the goats have gone to the grazing-ground. morning also night. 4. the eleusine grain has been cleaned for us. 12. the oxen have returned. shut up the calves. the cows). 5. as we have seen. 6. Nandi.3o. the cock-crowing. ployed a very highly organised terminology for the times of day may be arrived at. dusk. have returned from the grazing-ground. the middle . the goats sleep in the wood. from the neighbourhood of Antananarivo. 30. let the calves get their food. diligent 1 Hollis. the Battle have returned. the sun has grown. 96 if. is. the elephants among the Nandi seem almost artificial: have gone to the waters. the sheep have been unfastened. i. centre of night or halving of night. so. the houses are opened. the goats have returned. untie the cattle.32 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKON JNG. 3.. last As a average. 3. 12. the goats sleep in the kraal. the land (sky) has become light. e. 30. 9. goes towards the west. o. take the goats home. so.. 2. e. those who sleep early wake up. 5. the goats 7. the waters roar. frog-croaking. cattle-fold doors have been closed. pp. the goats sleep. example I give the most detailed list of all. so. 9. 5. so. .15. 11. the houses have been closed. the drones hum. 1 p. crow-croaking. the oxen have gone to the grazing-ground 6. 9. the goats have' arisen. a.30. the heavens are fastened.3o. 5. the capital of MadaThe times given are naturally to be taken on the gascar. the oxen have arisen. 6. colours cattle can be seen. m. 11. the goats have been collected. the oxen feed. 7. the oxen sleep. the sun continues to go towards the west. 5. neither man nor tree is recognisable. 3. when they of the night 1 . I. 6. 8. reddish of east. are fully emused alongside of one another. the porridge is finished.

the day (into the room). the disappears). people go to sleep. dew dew winter months). day-break. sunrise. 6. 2.LISTS OF NAMES. the fowls come in. over the ridge of the roof. cow newly calved comes home. early morning. 1. the hoar-frost disappears. 9. falls. m. the edge of the rice-cooking pan is obscure. 9. e. the leaves are dry (i.45. e.3 o.30.30. In the forenoon the position of the sun nearly eastern purlin of the roof marked about 9 with the square o'clock. when the declining sunshine reached the eastern wall of the house). as a kind of sun-dial. 5. 6. its vertical position about least its reaching the meridian.302. at the place of tying light and of the day was observed) the calf (as the rays reached the one of the posts to which . slipping the rice (the sun) at the rice-pounding place of the day. dusk. 6.15. 3 o.45 sunset flush. Finally 1 collect the Homeric expressions for the parts Sibree. people begin to cook rice. 69 ff. 12 noon. the sunlight coming in after midday at the open door by its gradual progress along the floor gave a fairly accurate measure of time. (i.so. the sun touching 4. 8. 1. or at approached. everyone in bed. at the sheep. broad the cattle daylight.45. 9. . The house therefore served. from which the advance of the sun3. 5. clearly indicated 12 o'clock. the cattle come home. three mortar). 5. advance of the day..so peeping in of day taking hold of the threshold. 8. sun dead'). as among the Dyaks. 10 guntwilight. p.or poultry-pen. finished eating. the f (>. decline of the day. go out. midnight I 1 . afternoon. the sunbeam falls on (i. and as noon the ridge-pole. sunset (lit. 12. 6. day less one step. fire.30. 6. 33 6. 7. jinja atidry. In regard to the terms for the afternoon we must bear in mind that the houses in former times were always built with their length running north and south and with the single door and window facing the west. 4. (the sun is) over a right angle with) the purlin. at the house-post (there were in the house posts supporting the ridge in the southern one there : were notches. 12. pp. (at 8. the calf Avas tied at night).15. people eat rice. 6. the day chills the mouth (this applies only to the two or three people awake. e.

1. 400. IX. 10 f > i]W I. 'Hajg (! f]juo fiefaog jueoov oijQavov fyupifiefrfpCQ dwg & . Od.. Od. fj fjojg ?) dei/. VIII. Od. is often used sleep also indicated. : .34 of the day. 'It a dawn. . is also morning. they go home Besides these larger divisions smaller ones were 7 . wishes to surprise the Old Man of the Menelaus When r}oii]. I. the following phrases: 2 as long as it was dawn and to the dawn and to the noon and the holy day increased' 3 of this the phrase alreadyquoted 'as the sun turned over to the unyoking of the oxen'. can denote forenoon or at least kinds. 'when it was not yet the twilight of the ending night' 9 Before dawn there appears the morning star. 226. 'dawn' in the proper sense of the word. the morning twilight. called eventide to 8 . . IV.r) fj fit'Gov fytaQ II. are far from being so elaborately organised as the examples quoted above. O$T UQ no 2.. comes.. . dAo 9 II. 431. Its character is quite primitive also in the juxtaposition of terms of different They The day is divided into the familiar three parts. 'at dawn'. Od. &u fjol VII. sometimes alone.. Od. 111. when evening. 433. and many are incidental periphrases. 5 f . XXIII. dawn but still r as a time-indication. 197. in which the suitors amuse themselves with dance and song. V. 7 1^105 6' 422. g. . 'dawn'. Od. 2 tcai n 6' f)ci> ual /LIEGOV ii/mao Od. EOJCHpogog. 538. IV. 6' IKQOV ' ii/uaQ Od. 331. f)d> gri 6' VII. sometimes in the well-known periphrastic XI. naaav Od. VII. rose into the all-brazen heaven to shine for the expressions of II. 24. extended so that the word. e. In this sense appears also the derivative is the counterpart. 56. 'at the appearance of dawn' 10 Sunrise is always indicated by verbal and often periphrastic n further 'the expressions.. <pd-vr) . 1*1/10$ . PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Od. 'rise' sun. IV.. ?)ct>. simply by avieval. is also killed'. e. XXII. II. the terminology is still at its beginnings. . XVI. XI. 1. IV. XIII 93. Sea he goes to the seashore 'as the dawn appeared' 4 the Old Man is said to come 'as the sun ascends the middle of the Thus 'we waited the whole dawn' until 'the Old heavens' 5 Man came up from the sea at noon' 6 The afternoon. 407. or an afternoon. r^Qtov 8 606. 3 XXI. . leaving' the fair sea. 4 6<pQa fiV )c!> evdov navvv%io$ fjv uai dt^ero Od. The meaning of tfcbg. a ua t & i]ol cpan>o/nrvi]cpn> II. 288. g. . or a noon when I am to be be will says Achilles *. 685. II.- Od.. 'I slept the whole night Cp. v XVII. n II. 1. 347. gGneQos. 44750. XXIII. XIX.

454. tjE^tog usv Kneira VKOV Jtoo6fla/. the day was for the day 5 for the sinking of the sun see Od.. include the time to sunrise. Sunset (II.II VII. XXII. 318. 324. 779.LOio II./. JULEU^OKS judAiara fjuag a E}(? VJTO yalav Od. 'set'. i. It occurs: to the . f . 735 as long as the 3 and II. 735. in Od. 421 ff. 28. XI. above p. 2 ov&' dJtdr' dv OTi%yOi ngog ovgavoi' dGTOOi'ra. but not ascension. The Homeric Greeks therefore do not seem have observed the position of the sun in any but trie most general fashion. VIII. XXII. applied the forenoon. 8 /. VT '/do fjEAios (pdetiov i>jrQO%fi yairis II. VII. XI. 7 fr> 6' gjretf "Quzavcp AajujrQov (pdo^ 190. We may add certain indications taken from the business of daily life. therefore also is e. 68. ^ dtfaAaQOirao fiadvQQOOv 'Qneavoto Od. 317. 388) is described by the common f or by 'goes under the earth' 6 or the bright light of the sun sank down in the ocean. IX. IV. above). Od.ifivtjv OVQCLVOV eig no/iv%aAKOv. and the already quoted expression . ascending in the heavens 4 The expression can frqm the deep and soft-flowing ocean' f . (cp. 400 is (cp. 241. The word POVAVTOC. VIII. 8 to f 9 It is not the sun but the ploughman unyoking of the oxen' that unyokes the oxen: the word has therefore become established as a chronological terminus teclinicus which is significant on account of its antiquity. the sun shining sun rose above the earth' thereafter once more struck the fields. l t 35 immortal ones' etc. immediately following after the whole period of the sun's The culmination of the sun is above) r mentioned greater 18. . of the part 381 thus described. XVIII. II.v doovoag. Od. Ill. there has been much dispute. Od. 'the XVII. XI. X. 380 ff. XI. If. XVII. and in II. 421 ff.KOI' II. XI yalav djr' otioavodev jTQorodm]Ta( 4 3 17. 31) appears in the twice-recurring verse as the sun turned over evening. . itTfi''ioOTO fiovAvToi'df dv ay jri '" . 58.uttov jregiKa/i/^a /.HOMERIC EXPRESSIONS. sun turned over to the unyoking of the oxen'. gone' (cp. About the expression ev vvurog d^otyfo II. 191. in the simile of the rising of Sirius. ovgavov tg dvitiv . of the shining forth of the evening 6' >)tvuo dvoQOVO or' /. . ovd' Od. drawing after himself the dark night' 7 The evening star has the same name as word dvvew. 9 fjiiog (V vvnra u/. Zamgos . The decline XII. and 'neither as he ascends to the starry heaven nor as he again turns back to the earth from th'e heavens' 2 similarly Od. II. XII. 485. adavdTOioi fpazivoi Od. where 1 morning fv lions surprise a herd. 173 and XV.an'ar i)E/. XVI.

257. JiuII. judAa ydQ riig dverai. terms of - the cows). 'middle of the night'. the meal after having judged many quarrels' 3 in the latter instance in connexion with the market. grace. Anab. 841. (sc. first occurs in the smaller Iliad) - and was judged accor- 'Let us go... Autom. As for the etymology I do not hesitate to pronounce in favour of that lying nearest to hand. The meal-hour as an indication of time occurs 11. 6' rjcog. XII. Qoi%<duev de jrAeav vvg T&V dvo juoiQdcov. The greater part remains' stars 7 . dvi]Q - fonMooaro bslnvov . IV. XII. 251. enei reKOQeOGaro II. This time-indication . 4 dyoQi]g jT/^vovoi]g 181. II 1. and therefore 'milking-time\ Compare the the Banyankole for earl}7 morning at 6 o'clock and . PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 104. 6. 'when a man rises from the market-place to go home to .36 star. That only these two expressions have settled into termini technici admits of a not unimportant conclusion in regard to antiquity. TQITUT^ 6' e'n fiol@a teteinrai s Od. the market-place'. r> dv nejrArjdevai 7 Pherekr. . dyoQ'fjs jrArjtiajQj] 9. XI. for the night ding to the position of the stars: draws close to an end and the dawn is near. fj{*o<. Syll. m. ijuog c)' ejri doQjtov di'ijQ dyoQffler Herod. 6 etc.Od. of night is gone. having fatigued his arms by felling large trees' 439. 'when a wood-cutter prepares his meal after 2 and Od. The stars arc far gone. XI. IV. 312. XII. X. 439. * Herod. Ill. 86. II. 86.. veined nohkd -. was destined to have a great future as the social life of the Greeks developed. the cattle have come back'. . inscr.. eyyiydi di] JTQofiefiijue. 841 'so clear appeared the dream to her' *: it is a well-known fact that we dream for the most part shortly before waking. The night was divided into the familiar three parts (although the expression ^at] vvg. had passed' was the third The morning djUO/>y(I) parts. 483. de TQi%a rvurog er]v. 7. Phrases such as the following are of common 'when the market-place is full' 4 'before the marketoccurrence 5 'the breaking up of the assembly of place has filled itself : . Herod.i' tofiev dOTQa 6e and XIV. ayogfjc. The sense 'beginning or end of night' is therefore fully confirmed. evening at 7 'milk' 'the sun is over.15. the two the third night part and the 'when it 8 ... viz.and those of the Nandi: 6 'milking-time' p. only part of the star serves OL EVCLQyES ^VEIQOV EnEOOVTO VllHTOg 3 Od. Od. dfjidAyew. even in a Delphian sacred decree. %elQac. jre :! IV Xen. itera 6' darga psfiiiKn cU. 173. &id/ivai<. 'to milk'.

pitsciiluM. cum sole nondum //// orto iain lucet. . appearance of the star nein . sequitur gallic im'tun. tune ante lucent.and water-clocks . quod est meridie (inde . the 4 sixth hour. XIII. VII. /line suprema . a fact which is connec3 Hence arises in ted with the spread of sun. creThis terminology is poor and applies almost exclus- ively to the daylight. the Middle (7/0/77 Ages 4 . when the sun sank from the Maenian column to 2 the prison he proclaimed evening. 6. not line. 1 Od. 93. and insert in brackets the additions made by Macrob. Stnndcttangaben. medii did noinen. canotuca) the terminology derived from the dairy mass In daily life there was often a recurrence methods. quam Plautus vesperugi- There are also ortus and occasus solis. et sic diluculum. Tempus quod hide proxi//////// est vocatnr de media nocte (media noctis inclinatio]. In ancient Rome the edifices of the Forum servant of the consul proare said to have served as sun-dials. cum galli can ere incipiunt. Ch. a meridie - tcmpus occtduum). III. is. sequitur vespera ante ortum scilicet ems stellae. nox media Sat. inde dc - - i. sed hoc screnis tantttm diebii* 6 for sexta Hora Zeitmesser. . 24. 214. me 131 .- this post supremam must be before the . nuntiavit.'the hour when people can recognise each other' to primitive .. It seems to p. but only on clear days" \Vith the advance of civilisation the Greek terms for the twelve . time-indicator at the nocturnal home-coming of Odys- seus The Latin expressions I merely copy from Censorinus. a columna Maenia ad carcerem inclinato sidere supremam pro- 3 G. Hist. Pliny.i. each of which varied in length according to the time of the year. . sole orto.. though hora refers to the hour5 ea hora qua incipit homo liomittem posse cogitoscere. as Bilfinger.. appellat. . Stundenang.. dein conticinium. tune mertdies. XXV. 3. A claimed noon "when the sun peeped between the Rostra and the Graecostasis. . . became customary. hours of the day. I. o'clock. example.. 89. e. secundum diluculum vocatnr mane cum lux videpost hoc ad meridiem. 16 ff. . Bilfinger. Ginzel. 2 cntn a curia inter rostra et graecOstasin prospexis- set soleni . Nat. cum conticueruut. us 37 u 1 . I borrow a few examples of a quite character from the early medieval tract Peregrinatio primitive 5 Aethcriac: .GREEK AND LATIN EXPRESSIONS.. e.

when the water neither rose nor fell it . quinta. so that the two complete the exceed day by nearly an hour. p. although must always reckon differently on account of the variathey 4 3 tions of the moon Dalsager also points this out and remarks that their reckoning cannot last for two consecutive days. 5 Wegener. 'sleepingSeldom is the whole time during time'. above.38 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 1. retiring. Fornander. (1) mode of speech when he distinguishes five periods about sunset. 2 XXXV. p. so that they have to make a fresh division every day. Pol. 147. 1 aim 1. 'from the first cock-crow' etc. 1. .294. 29. (2) between sunset and midnight. about rising of quite gone. (4) between midnight and sunrise. On the Society Islands there were two expressions for day according to its extension from morning to evening twilight The Hawaiian judge. and the others following these. follows this of night. and (5) sunrise For the times between sunset and night-fall and between night . . 89. . or. corresponds to night. the of method tide is a is They divide up the day according to ebb and flow. An obviously isolated method is the determination of the times of day from the daily twice-recurring ebb and flow of also very unsuitable. since the period 12 hours 25 minutes. I. Fornander. and surrounding sea by such names as the rising. the ebbing sea they spoke of as 7 the parted. Immediately after the above-quoted divisions of the day among the Society Islanders are mentioned "the longer periods before noon and midnight during which the sea tribes of rises. Ellis. and defeated sea The night is the time of complete darkness and rest. 49. full. was called the standing sea. Res*. 7 Malo. in which it falls"". p. (3) 9 midnight. The rudiments of this method are however seen among some of the tides. Polynesia. 8 aperit esse pullorum cantus. 2 'when the crow of cocks begins' *. 4 XXXVI. Crantz. big. sexta (noon). In fact the periods together Eskimos of Greenland are the only people who reckon by the the tides. 121. p. 55. but also hora tertta. I. 146. p. which the sun remains below the horizon to be understood by it. 8 Wegener. and "night the the light towards the land. the tide . or from sunrise to sunset 8 . 9 c de pnllo primo. when the sea begins to flow The Hawaiians called 11 at night 1 ' .. and therefore the frequently mentioned expression. cp.

Crawfurd. 28. 153. Merker. 373. as for instance among the Swahili 15 and in the Dutch Indies 16 the Yoruba distinguish other cock-cro wings. . the silence of the land' e. u Cp. The Javanese morning twilight have night. . p. 7 4 Ham- mar. During the night itself time-indications are for obvious reasons scanty. Malo.the Hawaiians i. . On the Marquesas Islands the first nighthour of ghosts' the advanced night was termed and midnight 'great sleep'. p. day.. this more accurate division of night being course determined by the stars 10 the only expressions reported however are those for midnight and the time from mid- many of . g. 13 time of the cock-crowing immediately before sunset' 17 Quite exceptional however is the device ascribed to the inhabitants . 'the and that in the . G. i. 333. 13 365.. G p. p. e. Gutmann. 150. which extends till long after sunset and the not yet early' and the tar a (beginning at dusk and 9 etc. p. the limit of the the start from day. p. Schulze. Velten. Wilken. 241. above. I>. as in the late 8 evening of the Hottentots. b\. p. p. f . p. 373. the last watch of 12 The Wadschagga have three coming of day' the awakening in the evening. and then to proceed on both sides in the direction of midnight. P. the Masai 2 4 among the Babwende 5 . Ellis. The extending till the time of rest) among the Masai Tahitians are credited with six divisions of the day and as . p. 153. g. that in the middle .' 210. . its crow serves as a sign that the night is drawing to an end. 'the back of night' among 6 . n night to daybreak 'the watch was 'black night'. e. 40. as e. 8 Mooney. 39 and sunrise there is a rich terminology which has already been illustrated. by the Kiowa *. is f Often the only point distinguished . In 2 order to denote the 3 hours of the p. the first cock-crowing. of the night. 3 . 200. and waning of night u Where the cock is kept. p. the Shilluk . 33. . of the 1 New 156. the Hottentots 'the time of sleep' among the Hawaiians Hence arises of itself a threefold division in which the periods of night before and after midnight are distin7 The usual method is to guished. 105. 441. p. " Mathias Forster.PARTS OF THE NIGHT. midnight. Schulze. 9 5 Hebrides. such as 'the cock opening the way'. p. . 17 " p. See below. p. 10 Merker. . night was 'the : night Avatches (midnight). Westermann. Yoruba. 15 271. Rep. midnight.

JO. 142. 441. 85 and 106. and the observer must either be acquainted with their positions at definite times of the year or else be constantly choosing a new star as his chronometer. p. Bolivia. 343. 1 The Lapps. 273. Oliveau. the stars must therefore gain be accurately known. Holm. p. in Hawaii. a Malo. c Nordenskjold. Egede. Pleiades the time from nelarsik (Vega) 7 or from Among them the observation of the stars is uncommonly well developed.40 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. from the position of the morning-star the Many peoples judge There of is only that has yet early to elapse in before sunrise: but this cannot is always be done. or 39. 4 107. Not many peoples have got so far as that. Wegener. p. 8 33. and the Argenthat the stellar heavens are the When sitting in their huts they can. 131. have moved on before the end Greenland. p. without looking out. who have 3 to tend Dibble. The difficulty however arises that every day the stars about four minutes on the sun. p. indicate the positions of the more important constellations in the sky. p. as great accuracy as the hours of the day "When the Milky Way passes the meridian f to the west. Nordenskjold. use in and any case the method But the fixed only of the morning. with sun 4 . - Forster. says repeatedly clock and compass. who Brazil. night they make a gesture in the direction of the spot 1 the sun would be at the corresponding hour of day . Indianlif. . stars are always there. The Eskimos when is the dark. people (in Hawaii) say the fish has Among the Indians of South America the know- ledge tine of the stars is very wide-spread. E. will 6 . visited the border districts where Indian's meet. If one is out with an Indian at night he will point to Orion or tion of the it some other of constella- and shew how far it journey is reached indicate 8 . Although the science of astronomy was very well developed among the Polynesians. . ' 148. are told of the Tahitians that to distinguish the hours of we night by means of the stars was a science with which very few of them were acquainted 2 On the Society Islands the advance of night was determined from the stars 3 and so . and night. from the and inclines turned' " 5 . . where times time one means of accurately indicating the that is by the observation of the stars. p.

in the morning they dip down- sky ( Another authority states that sarva is the Great Bear. they are fundamentally discontinuous. afford them the same aid" (i. The reindeer herdsman decides from it how far night is advanced. i. they a number of such periods together make up the period of a if and fluctuating length. The Great Dog.NIGHT MEASURED BY THE STARS. pp. They rise when the people go to before a little set and daybreak. and therefore either they indicate a point of time its it day and or. 36. From the the investigation of the modes of naming and rec- follows for primitive timekoning parts refer to concrete in that the time-indications general reckoning phenomena. vens obliquely in front of sarva. They ascend the heasleep. 447. . 277 ff. the Old Man. e. and when he may expect to be relieved. determine the course of time by certain stars. and the Old Woman are three stars that pursue sarva. especially the Pleiades. they are related to periods. the second the Dog and the Elk. the first couple of stars in it are the Old Man and the Old Woman. ff Go stars.. A fable tells how this constellation into saved a servant the who had been driven out by his master great cold of a winter night. HI. these periods are of different They are accordingly of no use in cannot simply be added together even when calculating. given to the Pleiades. When several days are to be counted the pars pro toto method is used: 1 Drake. above. 2 Paul. as the signs of^day) 2 The Homeric Greeks . but the maidens answer: 7 l Of the old yourselves and kiss the suttjenes maidens" "At night the moon and certain Icelanders Kalund writes: . astronomy. complete day. Avhen the weather is good. p. p. 3 See above. their 41 reindeer during the long winter nights. 3 This more accurate method is thereposition of the stars fore peculiar to a few primitive peoples specially gifted in . Sarvon is the largest star in the heavens: when in winter it stands in the middle of the it marks midnight.also judged of the advance of night by the general fashion . Lovosj or suttjenes is the name wards.at least in u . it is called the night-clock of the Lapps. 21. e. The constellation indicates midnight. op. The young men wish the maidens to tend the reindeer by night and say: "Go and kiss the suttjenes young men '.

e. half a day. and the Achenese use the following exa blink of the eyes (literally). e. I. or the distance a woman would often duration of time is indicated by reference to 2 the 1 needed 69 ff. pressions for a period of time the time required for chewing a quid of sirih (about 5 minutes). g. Sibree. Within the day fall a number of occupations counted. an hour).42 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 'the frying of a locust' a moment l The Cross River natives say: 'The man died in less than the time in which maize is not yet completely roasted'. taro. less than about 15 minutes. and most usual mode ing a point of this length and varying the case also with the sun itself. heavens affords the For the countwhich comes to the same is This thing. derived from their daily business. instead of the whole day a part which the chiefly turn the is phenomena. On of the same grounds the the quite isolated in pars pro toto ex- counting plained. comparative distance. is best suited. . or. i. 5 Snouck Hurgronje. the reason why the counting by 'sleeps' or nights predomi- nates. e. p. 'a terms. 201. the days from the dawns duration Homer may be peoples means. 244. the Javanese. a complete day and night 3 The natives of New Britain (Bismarck Archipelago) measure . pp. the throwing of a stick for a short woman's paddle to 4 . a blank period. or divisions of time were also expressed by e. i. in Madagascar 'rice-cooking' often means half an hour. the time required for cooking a kay of rice (about half : for cooking a gantang of rice (about an hour and a half). p. . which have nothing to do with time-reckoning. 332. a unit without subdivisions. Very time crossing'. the wild Short time occupied in cooking yams. Malays. a 'sun-dark'. the time of between sunset and the moon-rise by the smouldering or a torch taro. an hour 2 To indicate of time primitive make use of other - . The word for sun is often the same as that for day. traverse a well-known piece of road Mansfeld. for attention to its varying position time of the sun in the of indicating the time of day. i. 4 Brown. is Within the day two phenomena chiefly recur with such unfailing constancy as to be of use in counting: they are the daily reviving sun and the night or sleeping-time. 'the time in which The one can cook a handful of vegetables'.

pp. 13. 198 ff. Bilfinger. This hour of constant length was not geneal- rally 1 adopted until very late: the varying hour remained Cp. and the practice had its root where in order to indicate the time of occurrence took place in the night-time the calculation was pushed forwards on both sides towards midnight. which could only be achieved by breaking away from natural phenomena. : . For there are no fixed natural limits of day. 2 Der Bilfinger. This hour therefore varied in length according to the time of the year. Doppelstnnde. which had commonly been divided four watches according to the practice borrowed from military flfe. bfirgerliche Tag.. for the other side see Boll. hour of constant length or the double hour. daily life.MEASURES OF TIME. Examples are superfluous. . The double hour. but if morning and evening. and is connected with the duodecimal division the zodiac 2 . arose in Babylon of (kasbii). or still more clearly sunrise and sunset. of events which was done in Rome. Both in the case of the da}' and in that of the other ^time-units this clinging to a natural basis long proved a hindrance to a rational system of time-reckoning. It is however an artificial epoch that must be found by calculation l . In the second place the hour of antiquity is a twelfth part of the whole time of daylight. these in length. until this became the limit of divergence. viz. Sphaera. 43 between two places. and above all was impracticable it Hence alongside of appeared even in antiquity the for scientific astronorcry. a twelfth or a twentyfourth part respectively of the complete day. are chosen as the limits. the establishing of a fixed point of diver- facilitated gence. and my Entstehnng^. But all these indications of periods of time are found among more developed peoples: the primitive peoples pay little or no attention to them. pp. 311 ff. This in daily life. The inconvenience of a varying division of this nature must have it in the south in was not It the north. notwithstanding Bilfinger's assertion to the contrary. although so insupportable as it must have been rendered the construction of the clock diffi- made itself felt in cult. and this duodecimal division was into also transferred to the night. it vary since must change every day and the days will Here the midnight period proved of assistance.

of the spread by the construction of the strikingconvenience for the business of practical life and the construction of the clock together secured the victory of the hour as 1 /uih of the day. the average length of the complete day. because men were unwilling to depart from the natural basis in time-reckoning. A condition for its use was the fusion day and night into one unit. . The substitution of the artificial for the natural time-reckoning has also. created a rational system of borrowed from the natural system only which has reckoning one feature. 93 ff. Our modern hour general use since about the 14th century. to most up the end in has only been Middle Ages. III. Both the as far as the day 1 Ginzel. originally a numerical and it when was first clock l . since as kept separate the constant hour could complete day and its regular divisions however only won their way after a very long time.44 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. is concerned. Its astronomical of division. long as these were not thrive. viz.

THE SEASONS. The year as a numerical quantity is only the tardily attained summit of development. first as the calendar year beginning on New Year's Da}'. except in such as the Egyptian and Islamite years. and the connexion with the natural certain year has always been so strongly felt that. This connexion has necessitated the agreement of the numerical year with the sun. as in the case of the Egyptian shifting year of exactly 365 days. the natural phenomena the end dependent upon the course of the sun. whence arises a situation very inconA'enient for reckoning. since the natural year does not contain a whole number of days. With these and similar con- . and secondly as the current year. and the Islamite lunar year of 354. namely that years of a varying number of days have to be accepted. which penetrate closely into the life of man. a period of the same number of days beginning at one chosen day. year is for us a numerical quantity of 365 or 366 days. such as the variation between heat and cold. rainy season and drought. between the different trade-winds or monsoons. But we speak of the year in two senses.CHAPTER II. These however are exceptional cases. The word 'year' may however also represent the highest chronological unit even independently of the seasons. between abundance and scarcitv of food. the chronological year has had to adjust itself accordingly. the blooming and withering of vegetation. verdure and snow. as for instance in giving a The person's age. Here cases see in also we the which are point of departure. At the basis lies the natural year conditioned by the course of the sun and by the natural phases de- pendent thereon.

e. It must be granted as a premise to our investigation that when we speak the of 'seasons' not only the larger divisions of - those which be understood by the word year the are current alone of all the natural epochs of among year but also smaller divisions Avhich might perhaps us to-day be called seasonal points. for giving the date of any occurrence as for establishbeforehand the time of certain occupations. 'season'. migrating cranes she\vs the time of 2 If one sows too late. The Hidatsa Indians describe any period thus marked by a natural occurrence. 4. in so far as they are connected with this. the crop may ploughing and sowing sends rain if Zeus still thrive upon it on the third day after the cuckoo has called for the first time in the leaves of the oak 1 Matthews. g. Op. it fixes the attention solely on the phenomena The is in question. 448. kadu. The cry of the .seasons are not distinguished in any important feature from the longer: the difference only arises from the longer or shorter duration of the phenomena in question. 'time' (of 1 .46 cretc up. . '-' Hesiod. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. v. and the longer seasons include shorter begin with these shorter seasons since they are more us: to primitive man however they are of extreme importance. by che same word. the occurrence). e. the hot season or the season of strawberries. to that already found in the discussion of the day. for instance the times of cherry- are to blossoming often and hop-picking are also seasons. sowing The of classical instance is afforded by the peasants' maxims Hesiod. since in the absence of a regular calendar they foreign to afford We only means he knoAvs of determining the shortest periods of the natural year. fusion -of the various seasons into the circle of the year arrived at only by degrees: the year is at first counted by The process is therefore similar the pars pro toto method. - Such short - very short .. p. A time-determination of this nature is important not the so much ing or a festival. is from its origin bound and at first discontinuous. and not on the year as a whole. phenomena is the time-reckoning i. be it long or short.

The shepherd is warned. Alt. I]TK ftoorots ayyehog j)/ #' UQOTOV fogaiov vv. binger of the season his birds boast of it: son of Polypais. and early instructors. 18. The crazy vessel is hauled ashore. To muster his flock. and the wine is at its best (582). ration clearly expressing the delight felt at the appearance of the herald of Spring 2 The observation of the birds of passage . so also Theognis: "I hear. fig. Mil. when the cranes flee the winter'. for modern swallow-processions and songs see Abbot. 2128.SEASONAL POINTS. was very useful for this kind of time-determination: Homer 3 already knows it. and muster afloat In the middle air. be heard. des klass. p. (486). ogv fiocoorjg i'jxovo'. 4 II. But when the snail climbs up the plants there should be no more digging in the vineyards (571).Baumeister. Theognis. give you the warning of seasons returning. and be ready for shearing. HoAvnaidi]. Denkm. We When the Cranes are arranged. shrill-crying crane. the ropes. ' Then careful farmers sow their lands. 4/ Before the appearance of the swallow. 1197 ff. the messenger of the vines should be pruned (568). The sail. k .. he says f . 1 Athenaeus. best benefactors. 3 air (yQavoi) tvrct ovv %iimC>va (puyov dgmfiog <povi]r. p. and continue to learn. p. the voice of the even her who to mortals comes as har1 for ' ploughing 4 . and oar Are all unshipped. Steering away to the Libyan sands. the goats are at their fattest. with a creaking note. When the thistle blossoms and the shrill note spring. 1985. Aristophanes makes - You have Your "All lessons of primary daily concern learnt from the Birds. Especially well-known and beloved as a sign that the hard winter was over was the swallow: evidence is afforded by the famous and by a vase-decoprocession of the Rhodian swallow-youths of the cicada is to j . the rudder. Ill. by the Kite reappearing. summer has come. and housed in store. 360 C. 4. Ill. . The sea can be navigated when the fig-tree shews at the end of its branches leaves which are as big as the foot-prints of the crow (679).

g. at the rye. In northern was to be sown when Scania (S. The Garieb Bushmen made great outcries accompanied with dancing and play4 The Banyankole of Uganda used the ing upon their drums euphorbia trees to guide them as to the nearness of the rainy garments of skins. They hailed it with great since joy in menced. 112. My father knew quite well that his birthday was the fifth of September. Of the Bushmen we are told that they paid particular attention to the time at which the first thunder-storm broke. season: when these trees began to shoot out new growth 5 The Indians of the they knew that the rains were near Orinoco took great pains to determine the approach of the . r> Roscoe.or potato-harvest. 1 8 Aristoph. return to the primitive peoples and give first a few examples in which a natural phenomenon serves as the sign of the beginning of one -of the longer divisions of the year or of We some occupation. In assurance of summer. Wilson. p. vv. knew that they when the cattle etc. The Eskimos said that such and such a person was born when eggs were col2 From modern Palestine a bond is quoted lected or seals caught in which a sum of money was to be paid when next thejfoMs 3 (a kind of cucumber) was ripe . 709 p. . The Birds. H. translated by 4 J.48 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Stow. 298. . Frere. * Cranz. and purchase a vest *. ff. p. 297. 140. Sweden) the sowing-time was at hand when the it swallow had come. and danced for several nights in sucession. . Older people could not give their birthdays but only Avere born e. Bantu. In Bohus(W.. Sweden) the barley hawthorn was in bloom. I. pieces they counted it a sure sign that summer had comIn the midst of their excessive rejoicing they tore their threw them into the air. juniper was the the right sowing-time when the flowered. were first driven out to pasture (in the spring). generally agriculture. You quit your old cloak at the Swallow's behest. but when anyone asked him when he was born he would generally answer: 'When they pick hops'. 1 ' still Hin Similar time-determinations from natural phenomena are not entirely neglected by the modern peasant.

Thurn- wald. The tribe of the Bigambul in S. c p. the yams which in summer have lost their leaves suddenly grow green again when the rainy season is at hand. for example. 342. which conies out in spring. 49 rainy season. The Indians of Pennsylvania say that when the leaf of the white oak. Hecke4 \velder. che precedon I'mverno 1 The signs were . VII. and this time is called wobinda. 3 p. another from the Pleiades*. p. . Australia reckon the seasons from the blossoming of certain trees. . 352. Brown. which is called nigabinda. the swelling of the brooks. which almost dry up in summer but swell a few days before the rainy season. 367. : the sudden bursting into blossom of certain trees. is as large as a mouse's ear it is time to plant maize: they note that the whippoorwill constantly fluttering round them calling out his Indian name wekotis in order to remind them of planting-time.The scream of the Araguato monkeys at midnight or at the approach of day. 432. . as Gilij relates in a chapter entitled: De segni. r The height . 2 Howitt. p. ch. 'go has come by then. The apple-tree blossoms at Christmas time. Mooney. The ironbark tree blossoms about the end of January. just as if he were saying 'liacki heck'. 525. of summer however feet' : is named by them the time when the ground burns the The natives of New no trees blossom 2 determine at this time Britain (Bismarck the planting-season from the buds of Archipelago) certain trees and from the position of certain stars 3 In Alu . . .SEASONAL POINTS. Yerra. The time for the sun-dance of the Kiowa Indians is determined by the whitening of the down on the cotton-plant 5 One of the annual festivals of the Society Islands is regulated by the 6 blossoming of the reed Instances are numerous in which phenomena like those mentioned by Hesiod serve as signs for agricultural labour. Pol. E. 332. is the name of a tree that blossoms in September: this time of the year is therefore called yerrabmda. Among the Thonga warm weather begins is called . and is and plant maize when 1 the Gilij.. (Solomon Islands) one division of the year is determined from the bloom on the almond. I.. Rep. 1 7 the period in Jury 'the little 4 7 shtmunu. /frs. II. p. 5 20 ff. finally the heliacal setting of the Pleiades. 3 Ellis.

the birth-times of animals. 122 ff. p. 5 102. and therefore one period is known as 'the time when When a certain mushroom named the birds are driven away' 2 . . The examples intended to hitherto given are only single instances make clear the method are 1 of indicating time. 931. Borneo regard it as a sign that the time for rice-planting has among the Malgassi the blossoming of the shrub Vcrnonia appendiculata in November is regarded in the same way 4 In New Zealand plants and birds which appear at regular seasons give signs of the approach of the time to begin agri. . Dieffenbach. Thonga. who reckon from the development of the buffalo calf in liter o 7 Such signs may also serve to mark off the longer seasons: the Tunguses begin summer with the time when the grayling spawns. 20. . p. 2 196 " 3 ff. When Thonga woman notes these signs she picks up her hoe and sets off for the hills or the marshes to make the fields ready. is caught 8 . 8 signification of this Similar starting-points for reckoning manner and p. ripe ears: the birds from the sorgho first kulat bantilong appears in large quantities the Dyaks of S. 4 p. the soon the summer will come. the time of the 1 . which appear at Christmas. Ronga. afforded the whole year through. p. 4.50 heat': PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Junod. and nit ens. Sibree. Among the great pains are taken to keep away fields. 57. Sechefo. which is done 5 in October According to the communication of a native. the Basutos reckon time by the changing of the seasons. pp. Cticulns piper atus coasts. the time for the first is Ba-Ronga January ears of maize to ripen nitebo. but also by the stars and the moon ous method is one common among the Hidatsa Indians. . Crabowsky. In January comes nwebo.time on the mark the ing dig of the period of the first potato-harvest. become covered with Winter has passed away. and as their times are Junod. 196. the annual variation and growth of 6 The most curiplants. Matp. Two kinds of migratory cuckoo. Schiefner. E. the mahogany and flowers sala trees leaves. The flowerbeautiful Clematis albida reminds the people to over the soil for the planting of potatoes. ' thews. II. and winter with the time when the first good squirrel . certain blossom. come 3 cultural labours.

fixed in regard to dar. 51 each other. is only one kind ripe. The and dance together How upon such a foundation a number of seasons may be built up is shewn by a comparison with an instructive account referring to the Eskimos of the Ungava district of Labrador. From forms the principal food. The chief events are the return of always a sign the of joy to the people. there is little rain. In November the turtle-catch is productive. March: still another two kinds of wild fruit ripen. April: many not visits of neighbouring tribes. since May In is scanty. the open Avater. The seasons have distinctive names and are again sub-divided into a great number of shorter seasons. the inhabitants of the coastal districts catch the dujong and also a few turtles. January: much honey. the melting of the snow. October boats are built. reason the of is and the sun. they may form a sort of calenprimitive Anda- of occupations we to do not with here have throughout year. the breaking up of the ice. The 1 . two kinds of wild fruit ripen and are gathered. and lines for harpoons. and shelter is not necessary. wild honey is abundant. obviously that the summer offers so many changes winter so few. which our authority gives according to the European calendar. warm weather March when the sun has attained sufficient height. p. There are more of these during the warmer weather than in Avinter. there is the bread-fruit has finished. though names of seasons but with the phenomena and business of the The statements made for the extremely manese give a very characteristic circle the year. the weather is pleasantly cool. the older folk make out of bark turtle-nets. the time of birth of various 1 Homfray. . the lengthening in the day.SMALL SEASONS. also a tuber. the honey yet ripened. to August the ripe bread-fruit fruit June many cases of death occur the men in in their sleep without live shelter. 62. Different tribes visit one another and feast people are particularly merry. cables. February: two other kinds of wild fruit. boar-hunting expeditions in the forest In August certain white caterpillars which the to From August decaying tree-trunks are a favourite dish.

This is the case with the western tribes of the Torres Straits. it. or along the sea-coast by the departure of the tern and the fatness of the seals. This is the time when the yams which have been planted begin to sprout. when the reindeer shed the velvet from their horns they know that it is time to move into the winter houses 2 These smaller seasons have seldom developed into an annual cycle otherwise than among some agricultural peoples 3 unless they have been fitted into the larger seasons. the arrival of white whales and the whaling season.52 seals. See . the nesting of gulls. the sign for planting yams. i. below. In the counting of the seasons they commonly begin with surlal (mid-October to the end of November). Each of these periods name applied to The appearance *. and hunting on land and water special other. the yams are ripe. 1 p. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. an interval of fine weather and the wind is shifty: this coincides with Christmas. 202. salmon fishing. Every. In Muralug this period is called malgm. the season when the leaves die down. and other native birds. The constellation known as the Shark arises. who also determine the seasons from the stars. which is the exact equivalent of our called in is There Turner. Cranz I. is food. This name is given to the turtles when copulating: while in this state they float on the sea and are readily caught. and marked by dates anticipated with considerable apprehension of annoyance The Eskimos of Greenland reckon from the winter solstice five moons until the time when the nights become so bright that it is impossible to reckon any longer from the moon. pp. advent of exotic birds. 293 3 ff. eider. e. 2 Dalsager. the ripening of salmon-berries and other species of edibles. 54 ff. thing first is dried thunder is February) is described as 'the time of death'. cp. Then they reckon by the increasing size of the young of the eider-duck and by the ripening of berries. the trapping for of fur-bearing animals.. although several may has its overlap each horseflies of mosquitoes. 66 ff. the time of reindeer crossing the the river. pp. .time. 'the falling of the cashew nuts'. The first part of this season is to The sounding of the up. sandflies. Raz (December Mabuiag duau-urma.

the time when strong winds blow intermittently from the north-west. the latter name being due to the large numbers of jelly-fish that The runners of the yams now grow. It has the sub-divisions kuki. and these have therefore everywhere remained. forms kiipa kiiki. and have surrendered their the but . 57. migrates from New Guinea to Australia 1 . Food is The divisions of aibaud are abundant and sastwaur greater lesser south-east). and birubiru. could not be merged in the reckoning by months. in Muralug dpagap or kerne. The appearance of the constellation dogai kukilaig (Altair. magi Dogai (Vega with festivals are celebrated. It is marked by the appearance of the constellation ft. beloxv. New of The Kiwai Papuans who dwell on the opposite coast of Guinea have the same star myths as the inhabitants . The dry season. names will to describe the latter. time immediately after this is called piirimugo. wattr. and gtigad arai the remaining part of the year. aibaud. Sir. (March to May). south-east). in the measure become merged The}' have therefore in great counting of the months. y lyrae). no smaller 2 on the other only two greater seasons are mentioned hand they have months 3 The smaller seasons have clashed with the reckoning by moons. . The float on the sea.west'. blows steadily: for this reason the first part of this period is known as as ivaur and perhaps merits a distinctive name as much ras. T. or kusikuki. pp. y aqutlae) heralded the beginning of this season. however. together with i. i. ('child'. The south-west wind. . VI. R. Cp. The number of the longer seasons varies considerably. tatt ivaur ('father'. The greater seasons on the other hand. f 53 word 'spring'. accompanied by deluges of rain. piepe.. i. and the time of the damp heat. and is of course connected not only with the climatic conditions 1 but also with - the fundamental phenomena which p. The next division is called dob.SMALL SEASONS. Torres Straits Islands: for them. 'medusae of the north. e. The longer season following ras is kuki. on account of their length. 226 ff. 3 Below ch. which be dealt with later. the last of growing things'. a bird which at this time e.

i. * 3 2 StevenSchoolcraft. II. Among there seems the Hopi of Arizona the year has two divisions to be no equivalent to our four seasons which may be termed the periods of the named and the nameless months: the former is the cold period. Anstr. 17. 25. 189. p. a larger season may also be divided into two or three smaller ones. p. 129. To it corresponds in the tropics and sub-tropical zones the natural many parts For the division into division into a dry and a rainy season. know the two larger divisions of the year. summer extending from April to September. even where it has not been thought necessary expressly to mention the fact. 19. It may be taken for granted that all peoples outside the tropics. this great difference becomes especially pronounced and determines the whole mode of life: but even in the subtropical regions of it is obvious enough. In Maipuri the dry season is called camoti. Fewkes. or where the snow covers the ground. Bushnell. p. 5 son. 21 p. America divide the year into two equal parts of six months each. the summer period ice it and description Swanton instance. of vegetation and winter with its snow superfluous to give examples: the above-quoted of the year of the Labrador Eskimos is a typical is and Boas state that certain Indian tribes of N. Spencer and Gillen. . . W.54 for PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. They may also be called the greater and the lesser periods. p. since The Zuni the former begins in August and ends in March 3 of western NCAV Mexico also divide the year into two periods of six months each 4 The Chocktaw of Louisiana have the same number of seasons 5 The natives of Central Australia have names for summer and winter 6 In the tropics there is often only one rainy and one dry season. with two divisions of the year corresponding to these. . the latter is the warm. one reason or another attract attention. and the rainy season . .. 108. the warmer and colder seasons. Centr. e. 1 Handbook. and The Comanches reckon by winter from October to March 1 I give a few instances from the cold and the warm seasons 2 districts "in which a winter of this nature does not exist. 'the glowing splendour of the sun'. On the Orinoco there are summer and winter. the dry and the rainy seasons. - . . Where the plants die in winter and the trees lose their leaves.

Hobley.. and the dry season or summer. 4 May 20 to Nov. and the larger from September to April Among the Akamba the year consists of two rainy seasons from . 197. the dry season when they live on the sand-banks. On the Sandwich Islands the rainy season. March August. and expressions for . 215.WINTER AND SUMMER. November to April So also the Nandi: iwotet. 36. shall find later l Gilij. Hollis. 70. Akamba. about May 4 October. of Loango the Bantu tribes of the May to August. p. 118 ff. the half-year . The} thereby distinguish two seasons. season'. cp. 5 244. I. We p. p. dry season. p. "' 139. ambua ua however. summer is vaunn. 1 kail. 14 13 Fornander. p. of . y separated by two dry periods: ambua answa. p. The Bakairi reckon by the semesters of the dry and the rainy seasons 2 The Karaya of Central Brazil reckon the year from one fall of the river to another. 10 . rainy season. Loango Exp.. p. 5 further the tribes 7 . lasted from about Nov. y Ellis. Torday and Joyce. On the Society Islands they embraced the months of May November and November May respectively. 244. 88 f. the dry but of varied islands season. Nandi. 12 " 10 Wil53. r . p. p. dry and rainy seasons but not for the year as a whole. 'crickets'. . 47 and 295. 94. and the rainy season when they live on the 3 The Wagogo of E.III: 2. Krause. according to the situation of the particular group north or south of the equator. from 14. 8 Mansfeld. 3 II. the rainy season or winter. 514. below p. into two greater periods. Cp. 245. Maass. Tshi. Africa divide upper banks of the river the year into two halves: kibahn. . von den Steinen. . Where n often put in the place of the year The Javanese have a dry and a rainy period which include six of their seasons 12 and so have the Islamite Malays . . p. the dry season. 38. ken. 'rainy DRY AND RAINY SEASONS. and kifitgn. 6 Ibid. below. kcinejit. since these insects The Tupi have incessantly to the end of the season Among the *. this natural division prevails. is Sumatra ls The Polynesians divide the year throughout Their seasons were in general two. September w . p. 35. f 55 f chirp Tamanacho winter is called canepo ratn'. canepo. 20 to May 20. 339. Claus. hooilo. pp. the rainy season. p. 413. and the Congo State 8 The of Cameroons the Cross River negroes Tshi-speaking peoples divide the year into two periods: the smaller hohbor. February. 20 u Globus.

the season when the sun was fruit: it was winter visibility or invisibility of the Pleiades. wind prevailed. for the other five there is none: for about two months before and after the southern solstice it is very scarce. vines) died away: each had six months. p. when daylight alike days and nights were cool. The Bontoc Igorot have two seasons which however do not mark the wet and dry periods. were named and regulated according to the Other writers also give information for Hawaii. p. which comes to an end 'bread-fruit') . and toe lau. . 371. " Brown. 4 Sheldon Dibble. but from March to August exceedingly plentiful. 2 Malo. the trees bore fruit. embracing the other months 6 a third the season of fine weather in which . 24. and the heat was prevalent: it was summer. When the sun moved towards the north. the days were long. p. p. however much rain falls in some 7 . a ' Forster. but when the sun moved towards the south. the tradewere warm. 239.. 3 with the palolo fishing in October 5 another vaipalolo. The recurring scarcity of bread-fruit shewed the changes in the course of the year. as might be expected in a country where these two periods occur: cha-kon is the season of rice or 'palay' growth and harvesting. p. 347. Stair. . 37. 53 and 57. days and nights was prolonged. . 72. the nights became longer and the trees were without 1 Kau was. . and the dry season. the nights grew longer. and the herbage (lit. note 2. directly overhead. p. when it rains heavily is so great that the seasons in following it may sometimes depart from the changes of the climate.56 that both seasons PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. ending in April. but the Pleiades afforded a surer limit 4 In Samoa one authority gives the wet season. B von Biilow. the palolo or wet season from October to March. pp. Ibid. localities - - and the stormy The importance of agriculture season. and the forth new leaves. This season is called pa-uru (urn = . when the regular trade-winds blow. ka-sip the remaining portion of the 1 436. On Kauai Island the seasons were called mahoe-mua and mahoe-hope 2 In Tahiti the breadfruit can be gathered for seven months. Hooilo was the season when vegetation put the sun declined towards the south.

but during the time in which the sun moved in a northerly direction. pp. 343. comparatively dry season of the south-east monsoon (April six December). 708 I. Meier. which blows from Oc- tober to April. O/ is year l . the periods of yam-planting and harvesting In certain localities the atmospheric conditions are such that to two the divisions of the year may be distinguished according winds. as for instance in the Marshall Islands. Moreover smaller of the 1 Jenks. It would seem that the whole year might easily arise through the fusion of these two larger periods: that this is not the case will be shewn in the following chapter. as on the island of Bali. months are reckoned. that is from November to February. In when it sets WSW. "' 3 Erdland. On Valam it is said that monsoon blows as long as the sun sets WNW. 2 Oliveau. 219. 393. south-east south-east e. ' communicated p. May to August.WIND-SEASONS. and in particular there are transitional periods the position of which cannot be certainly .decided. 4 Landtman. These half-years are as a rule well defined. p. . . and thunder in the Bismarck Archipelago remarked that the north-west trade blew throughout the time when the sun was southerly. monsoon prevailed. serves to distinguish these two periods. 105. p. . the the i. In the New Hebrides the year divided into two . but the natural conditions upon which they depend are subject to fluctuation. east of Java: in each case there were the homonymous months. 132. there are the months of calm and the months of squalls 3 More commonly two seasons are given by the variation of the monsoons. although 6 it does not affect the vegetation The people of the Nicobar Islands reckon by the south-west monsoon (November to April) 7 . and the time of the prevailing north-west wind. where . The west the north-west trade blows r '. ff. hurama. Hastings. 2 parts. 21. a period of alternating calms. Hale. The Kiwai Papuans have uro. from May to August: from the month of November to February. storms of wind and 4 A native judge from the island of Vuatam rain. The Benua-Jahun Malay Peninsula distinguish the halfyear of the north monsoon and that of the south monsoon ". letter. by Skeat and Blagden. 8 p. B p. Rotuma or Granville Island near the equator periods of six Avind.

and 4th months. spring beginning with the disappearance of the snow. 8th. characteristic periods arise within the larger. Thompson. or by agriculture. where these From circumstances it becomes pla-in that a fluctuation between a larger or smaller number of seasons is possible. different seasons may be merged into one the another or in part has been shewn in the case of the Eskimos overlap one another. the and named vary according to the geographical nature of the country. and the mode of life. Elsewhere the natural conditions are such that the}. g. '" 17. Teit. 517. and lasting until its disappearance from the valleys. same province group their months beginning with the first snow that stays on the ground. and embracing the period of frequent Chinook winds. 33. termined tude. latii. 34. pp. winter 7th. and 9th months. 3d. according 1 tribe 3 lives Bushnell. and hence more seasons appear. summer. . 2 The Siciatl of British Cofor the Chocktaw of Louisiana lumbia however have three: spring. e. p. The seasons that adhere to natural phenomena are never clearly defined like a division of the calendar: the limits are uncertain. and winter -I that have two). 3 Hill Tout. Shitswap. Teit.58 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. as the p. Of the Indians in general it is said that as a rule four seasons are recognised and have specific names applied to them (apart from the tribes In many cases however the latter may split up both summer and winter into two subdivisions: this is stated e. g. but these divisions are indefinite and irregular in comparison with the reckoning by months l . as of Labrador. there are two different rainy seasons in the year. 4 Nelson. 238 f. 234. is Among Eskimos of the Behring Strait the year often divided into four seasons corresponding to the usual occupations. and indeed it often actually occurs. seasons exactly corresponding to those of the Thompson Indians 5 The natural phenomena from which the seasons are defive . and late fall which takes up the rest of The neighbouring tribe of the Shuswap recognise the year 4 summer .directly lead to more than two seasons. generally the 2d. by hunting p. e. 5th and 6th months. early autumn (Indian summer) 10th and llth months. . The Thompson Indians into five of the seasons.

the - . p. sometimes called 'the time when the leaves are red'. which are reckoned by the rising height of the grass. the ripening. 'grass- which begins when grass and buds sprout and the paigya. the fall of the leaves. autumn (the thickening of the coat or fur. distinguished only four seasons: saigya or sata. mares f foal. 9 189. sun'). our four seasons of 7 . and the cold and the hot season. Mooney. corngathering or 'fall of the leaf. and winter *.?. Molina. Ibid. each of which however was The account of the Comanches normalised to three months r is somewhat indefinite: they have no computation of time be} ond the seasons. the earing of 1 . and" also into the four seasons.. a more recent name is son-pat a. summer (pai. fall. Schoolcraft. 6 They have the They very seldom reckon in new moons four seasons therefore. considered to begin at the first snowfall. the highest sun'. . 181. 370.the rainy season. 294. which begins when the grass has ceased to sprout and lasts until fires become necessary in the tipis at night paongya. In the same way the Dakota reckon five months each for winter and summer and only one month each for spring and autumn. the Creator . 165. . 9 Certain agricultural tribes harvest or midsummer. . . asegya. T * 8 Riggs. The Maida of northern California say that the seasons . '' Powers. 3 autumn. the or le. p. winter The above-mentioned names . pa. 319 Beverley. pp. when the leaves p. but it is ex4 pressly mentioned that this reckoning is not strictly followed The Pawnee divided the year into a warm and a cold period. Rep. 129.tty - summer r were season. the dry season. and the season of falling leaves 2 The Kiowa instituted by Kodoyampeh. 1. 5 Handbook. of the five seasons are those 8 the Occaneechi of the same Algonquins of Virginia district call them: the budding or blossoming. p. Certain 59 year corn or roasting-ear time f into writers state that the Indians of Virginia divided the five seasons: the budding of spring.FOUR OR FIVE SEASONS. of the buffalo and other animals).. begins when the leaves change colour 3 It is to be noted that these seasons must be of very different length. 4. if. The Indians of Chile have words for springing''. p. II. . . of the east divided 1 autumn ' into early p. Dunbar. spring (the etymology of the word is unknown..

winter. Being at present baptized. can hardly have corresponded in former times to fixed dates. 278. p. and tjaktjc-kese. and the two periods by autumn. e. p. time of snow-melting when tjatj. and tjuoikestie. autumn. summer. pp. from this time until the lakes begin to freeze the .and 'autumn-summer'. e. pore. p. 4 The Lapps of Vasterbotten divide the year late summer . the dark period. from the snow-melting period to St. 42. when they fall. Jochelson. 5 kese-qvoutel. and thus we have 1 the following seasons: puge. after having melted during the day. and is also given to a month. Akulina's Day 6 . 9th of March. late winter. ally to St. Nicholas' Day. mid-winter.winter'. Yukaghir. 366. conjile. 3. they reckon the seasons of the year according to the Greek-Orthodox holidays. from the 8th of November to Purification. Michael's Day. . from the time earth becomes visible to the fading of the grass. from Purification to St..60 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. winter. gese. 4. nade. 4 Mooney. 73. June from the 8th of September to St. but their language also contains a compound compounds like 'spring. and spring floods. The limits of these seasons again. p. The Lapps speak also of talve-qvoutel. Rep.. 2d of February. below. the bright period. from the 23d of April to the beginning of snow-melting. 3 Below p. autumn. . first spring. 8th of November. usu. the second spring. cieje. 5 Wiklund. getra. known in Swedish (vdr-vmter) . 1 2 ti Cp. George's Day. from St. change colour. E. They have six seasons. . l but denoted entirely different of names a fifth . the third spring. Sibiria use more often the names of periods or the seasons of the year than the names of the months. 23d of April. 72 ff. 5 Drake. Mary's Day. i. late summer The Yukaghir of N. dalvie. 6. also i. summer. from the freezing They also have four seasons: of the lakes till the melting of snow. late Agriculture is to four arising season the responsible for the adding from the warm and the cold periods and the times of transition between these 2 But other transitional periods between the 3 The Lapps have names longer seasons also arise independently for the four ordinary seasons. into sjeunjestie. Akulina to 13th to 8th September. cille. the name denotes the icy surface forming during the night on the snow. 5. 2. spring. midsummer.

good examples of the fluctuation and furThe Wagogo of East Africa the year into the dry season. November to February. the (4) season of the gentle after-rains. November further distinguish the In the latter the}' rainy season. stating that the latter season. Then . November and December. In t. follows ol airodjerod. and f Hollis calls begins the list with the months of the the season of the great rains lapaitin Icof plenty'. 5 Hollis. pepi. Beyond the seasons the natives have little idea of the East Africa have adolaia. 3 Barrett. July to October. 35. Pepi is the harmattan time. keleme. . but no explanation whatever of these divide the rainy season into three periods. itika. pp. gtinu. so that the each. mwaka or masika: me/too is a week in August. setting of the Pleiades takes place in the evecalled from these loo-'n-gokwa 5 Among the Ewe tribes much Inland rain ends in work in the fields is greatly hindered. and also have four seasons of three months each (1) ol dumeril. Inland keleme also includes another period masa. 1 Clans. about February and March *. 61 Africa ther divide offers sub-division of the seasons. named low on the western after hori- zon (sic!).-p. and then ol amcii. p. the second maize-sowing. and hunting of the season the harmattan wind. and the greater one. in the months which the is ning.adame. preceding that of is : names The Masai the great rains. in which fall yam6 The Yoruba divide the harvesting. the year has three periods: . with showers. 266. The three principal seasons include four months falls. 312 and note.he first two . songola. year begins in March with the yam-sowing. and the rainy season.SUB-DIVISION OF SEASONS. the last-named being further divided into . Masai. The Wa-Sania of British and huggaia. given 3 . and February. p. 38. and viilt a fortnight in November. J Johnstone.. In the neighbourhood of Mombasa the great rains begin in April and last approximate!}' for a month. about to April. Hence the name 'masa-corn'. p. 155. The latter fall in (2) the Pleiades. B ff. the time of the lesser rains. little May to October. 333 Spieth. p. 'l-lengon. * Merker. periods of four months each. grass-drying. September and October. into the year dry season. and the rainy season. which at that time rise (3) engokwa. the time of hunger and drought 4 showers. March to June. lapse three of time 2 .

139. mbangala. Ill: 2. has four. August. including kiiitombo.RECKONING. 2 months. 4 the great rainy season. 3 Hammar. termed kyanda and usually has six months the lesser. the 2 months. division of : a fuller have of five seasons - the year presents itself. Gutmann.. the lesser dry season. the grass-burning season. ndolo. at the beginning of the dry season which commences about May 15. September or June. kiansa. The longer period : is . and December. knmii. 240. most of January and the early part of February. short dry season. months. the dry season with little or no dew. the time of the ripening of and the hot seasons are then often simply bhnuna 2 Where two rainy seasons separated by dry seasons occur. end of February to May. p. the time schagga count: of dew. rainy season' 6 also and that of the last rains or 'little In Loango a dry and a rainy season of about first rains months each are distinguished.. masansa. p. latter part of October. During the six months very little rain falls. and after that two other months 5 of rain A very striking example of the crossing and over- mined by the rains. the latter part of the rainy season up to sivu. Weeks. 308. p. called . lapping of the seasons is afforded by the Bakongo. November. 1 Ellis. . April. including also mpiasa. nsafu. so-called lesser rainy season. 5 p. p. time of the *. to the beginning of the great rains in February.62 the PRIMITIVE TIME. . 2 Loango Exp. then come a few days of rain followed by four months of dry weather. July to the middle of October. 1 The seasons of the Banyankole are deterabout 3 months 4 which begins in when the . Roscoe. March. early light rains. 4 Yoruba. 151. and mbangala. a third In many districts there is season favourite fruits etc. from the beginning to the middle of May . the dry season. about 2 months. They have sivtif the cold season. 156. and September. and there are two months called tiumba. the season of heat. in August and Septem3 The Wadgrass withers and is burnt up ber. nktansa. fruit season. akanda. heavy rains. Bantu. The Babwende ntombo. 139. from the first rains at the end beginning of October to the ceasing of the great rains at the end of January. tschimuna. second half of July. and nkiela. the time when 6 the rains cease. the great heat.

early spring. the period January April. 57. Their seasons are four in number. 'the last rains'. loosely speaking. are scanty. Rice is planted twice. trees and bushes break into leaf. f of the called ally which.lohataona. First.. and conWinter. p. In the inland districts 63 in the neighbour- of Madagascar. the second about April the two crops however are not clearly distinguished and together last about four months *. 'the earth is dry' 2 . as is usulesser rains fall. September and October. soare wanting. June to August. from the beginning of March to the end of April. the first crop is ripe in January or early in February. independently of the rain-fall. . 'time of bareness'. o3. when the grass becomes dry. If these hot period in the land is for the most part deherbage. and in good years winter or early spring rains have revived the grass. or. pp. solate. spring or blossoming-time has come it begins in August and ends in October. a rainy period from the beginning of November to the end of April. productiveness of 1 Sibree. for winter is maintmig. or the cold seastitutes summer and early autumn. first before the end of October and again in November or December. when the fodder has not yet lost its freshness. When with increasing warmth. without grass or which the Avelfare of the Hottentots in the main depends may be called the pasture-season: it includes the period of the greater rains and the time immediately after this. which in the upland Damara dialect is called the sun-time'. The following season. 'the thunder-time'. view the vegetation rather than the climate. there are properly only two seasons. and a four However cold dry period during the other months.. One name . embraces the first half to The Hottentots seem keep in . when the year is good. . - Ibid. 'head the year'. The season upon the the case. This time of drought is described by the same word as the drought itself: it prevails from October to December inclusive. when the rice is planted and a few showers \d\\\fahavaratra. the. and riritihia.AFRICAN SEASONS. from the early part of November to the end of February or into March fiirarano. seasons are distinguished: . hood hot of Antananarivo. 77. It fills.

p. half of winter . in the Sandwich group. On the Society Islands besides the two seasons regulated by the Pleiades there were also three seasons: (1) tetau. warn. commencing with December and continuing until faahu. Ellis. 87. winter. May to August. Res?. kau. first PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. rainy (from September 2 winter and son. . 369. 224.- maka-lii. 60.. puanga. It is to be observed however that in a notice from Hawaii they are called hoo-ilo and maka5 /// This shews that the number is not fixed. * Nisbet. " p. the time of the most frequent rains. though certainly they are regulated by the months the cold season. sumrauwati means 'dead leaves'. autumn. of Molokai. comprising three months. states that there the year A was divided into three seasons: . 58. and the days were shortened. II. Polyit. the longest season. the summer is so called because all the trees with one exception are evergreen and shed their leaves in summer. autumn or season of to dry. both torn and aro aro signify the shooting or springing forth of plants'. rehiia. Maka-lii was so called because the sun was then less visible. the hot season. (3) tc tan poat. sea. 288. tc torn. ferent phenomena of Nature. 4 Malo. n. 5 Ibid.64 son. hotoke. November extended from July to October 6 It will however be seen that these seasons do not fill up the year. Kan was so termed because tapa could then safely be spread out meant 'changeable' 4 The two main seasons are called kau and hoo-ilo. embraces two-thirds of autumn and the l . 8.. te aro aro. and the rainy season 3 The Polynesians usually have two long In : . the season when the ally . 5. 2 Irle. which usuthe season winter. The Herero also have four seasons: spring or autumn the seasummer. onwards). but three are not unheard of. n. the season of high to January. f f 1 Schulze. Burmah native of the island seasons. maliaua is the season of warmth. plenty. there are three seasons. p.//'// rahi. ngahura matiti. (2) te tan . I. and hoo-ilo. Hoo-ilo . and that the second Their names are taken from difpartly covers the first. p. and mer. the time of growth'. being obscured by clouds. The New Zealanders distinguish four seasons: spring. of drought and scarcity of food. mahaua. which corresponded to January and a part of February. ratiniati. the harvest of bread-fruit. .

361 364 ff. S. Such smaller seasons through run be into . According to P. earth is 65 damp and prized as is highly stars. which were formerly food The seasons are regulated by the } . on account of their fluctuating duration and their limited number. The names for the of most part from the varying phases greater seasons are therefore taken of the climate. Sparkman in his unpublished Dictionary of their language the Luiseno year was divided into 8 periods. The climatic phases. puanga the great winter star. These divisions distinguished as 'large' and 'small' or 'lean did not represent periods of time but merely indicated when certain trees fruits came 1 into and seeds ripened. afford no means of distinguishing and naming a greater number of smaller seasons: an of the phases of plant and animal life may be used as equivalent and are much better adapted to this purpose. ordinary reckoning according to lunar months has absorbed the smaller seasons. whereas the regular and definite length of the months makes them easy to reckon. but not so the Luiseno of Southern the in the main: California. rehtt the great sumthe mer star. gives forth her worms. but this seldom since the occurs.the circle of the may together year. These facts shew moreover that between largest and smallest seasons there exists no difference they pass into one another without interruption a series of intermediate stages. which. 1 . pp.. on account of their varying and indeterminate length. and leaf in the valley or on the mountain. especially when to them are added the regular occupations In the above examples terms referring to naagriculture. tural life have already been found mingled with those bor- rowed from the is climate. are inconvenient for reckoning. grass began to grow. but very often refer also to the phenomena of natural life accompanying these. It is however sometimes the case. .GREATER SEASONS. The Indians in general have lunar months named from natural occurrences. Taylor. each of which was again divided into two parts. The ff. Where the seasons are numerous this always the case: direct references to the climate may even be entirely lacking.

names inverted commas). The end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry (about November) forms a kind of season by itself. beginning with parts wind in January and ending with the small the year. During the day it is very hot. and is called odun (year). lendrical cycle *. The farmers go on weeding their farms to give the crops of their second harvest a chance. and the bush already felled is burnt. The dry season is divided into two sections of two months each. the harmattan into nine according to the changes of the with distinct names.66 native PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. that they divide climate. oye by the natives. Mac Donald. p. two months. The 'months' are marked by the rising of certain The seasons have here developed into a regular castars. In reality this cycle is in no way distinguished from the succession of seasons given above: it has only been improved and regulated. The dry season (erun) continues for the next the second rains fall. as appears from a detailed description for the countries around the Niger. August. beans. 64. 165. This is also the fishing season. The second crops of corn. means that everything is Tovukmal refers to the little streams of and sear. In nemoimal the deer grow fat. The cold wind blowing from the east is called harmattan by Europeans. . taken water washing the fallen leaves. but during the latter part of month the rumbling of thunder is heard and small The preparation of the ground is continued and 2 1 Du Bois. to whom we (in all parts 'months' are indebted for this information. and guinea-corn are now gathered. tornadoes to in December 2 . Of the Fanti of the Gold Coast it is said fluence of agriculture. Du the Bois. names are given but are unfortunately not translated. Tasmoimal means that the has come and grass is sprouting. The land is cleared for the next season's crops. brown rain from the physical features of different about Tausunmal. The periods however are related agriculture. and adds that the names are seasons. This happens more particularly under the in- one can speak of an agricultural year determined and named in accordance which are the seasons of with agriculture. p.

the little is dry season. 2 months. as the description shews. 4 months. The months is mentioned the the feature that months. end of rains. are brought about. The deviations arokuro. dry season I.. aicori. Before long the rains have ceased. white Dennett. as the following comparison clearly shews: odun. ago. The main crop however is left standing in the fields until it becomes quite dry. asheroh ojo. by the business of maximum.CYCLES OF SEASONS. season of rains (tornadoes). In the next two months the rain-fall reaches its maximum. Bushes are felled in order to prepare for next year's sowing. and weeding is continued 1 . two parts separated by a little dry season: the first section consists of five lunar months of rain. 130 . pp. anwoch. the latter of two lunar months. and the gourds are gathered in. agwero. end of the harvest. the corn. which happens when the next season.yey jeria. beginning of dry season. yam-planting begins. dura to ripen. 1 month rain and little dry season. ff. The first crop of yams. The season called awori consists of one month dry season. The two following months are called the aroof rain little and the kuro are the season. about September. season of rains (tornadoes). 67 into The rainy season may be divided . erun. sets in. Towards the end of the second month it becomes possible to eat new corn. about October. This sub-division of the rainy season called ago. people are waiting for about November December. The first two months of this section of the rains are called asheroh ojo: it is* the tornado season. 2 months. probably because the corn has grown tall during the last month. At the beginning of this season groundnuts and the first crop of corn are planted. harvest of red dura. harvest of white dura begins. the seed for the second crop of corn is sown. The Shilluk know the months but also divide the year into the following nine seasons: . 2 months. rainy season. II. the ground-nuts. one nearly dry month intervening. agriculture. tornado land and like the first two months of the rains they months. An interestingnames of the seasons do not altogether are lunar coincide with natural divisions - of - the climate.

about January. 'it (the weather) becomes good'. Nieuwenhuis. 4 p. as has been mentioned.. the on burning of the wood felled.68 nondo. 69. but are everywhere called after the characteristic occupations that follow^ one another in different in the Eight of these together make up them have to do with the ricecalendar. mouth of rain beginning of the rains. dokot. g Hastings. the celebration of the new rice-year 5 The Bontoc Igorot. November. dorm. the conclusion of the harvest. 6 p. 'end-of-the-day-time'. is most clearly defined among the rice-cultivating peoples of the Indian Archipelago. about March. harvest of white time for planting red dura. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECK ON L\'(. Globus. 'the rain is coming'. said that they reckon by dry and rainy seasons. reckoning of seems it to exist among the Bakairi of S. February. -February. about April. leu. of the seed-time festival. the weeding. Each period receives its name from the occupathe course of the year. the harvest. September and October. eight periods according to the various kinds of labour carried in the rice-field: . that it hap4 the Among pened blossoming or harvesting of the rice the Bahau. the felling of the trees. 'rain ceases'. A similar but more indefinite mode of beginning of harvest July. the hot season.. July. America. 245. the sowing or celebration . and also distinguish 'months' not by the moon but quite vaguely is whom by the rain and the heat and the phases Their months are given as follows: - of the maize-culture 2 . Wilken. at . l . cultivation. I. in these two there is no work in the fields. divide the year into two parts. nameless :{ . and duration. April. December to January. and seven * of 1 Westermann. 'the maize ripens'. about May January r 1 . March. by whom the seasons are determined according to the state of the rice. nameless. . in speaking of an event.the clearing of the brushwood (to prepare the fields for cultivation). von den Steinen. p. May and June. 103. The agricultural year It for example. the period of rice-culture and the other period. a Dyak tribe of Borneo. 'hardest rain'. the year is divided into is said. dodin. There are however other periods which vary villages as regards name. 199. p. 161. number. shiver. dura continues. 'wood-cutting'. August. about July September. December. 'less rain'.

and keeps this name until the beginning of the next period. (6) sa-gan-ma. g. 10. (4) h-pas. the it as is time. in about 3 months. lasts about four weeks and ends about June 1 (3) cho-ok. g. tion 69 beginning. pa-chog. the period of seed-sowing. in 1903 till July 2. . in which the sementeras are prepared for receiving the young plants. The Igorot often say e. pp. 1 gaps so that the circle Jenks. 1902 the seed was just peeping from the kernels. the season of 'no more palay-harvest'. even when the occupaTo tion that characterised it had ceased some time before. the time of the first harvests. ba-li-ling. which characterises its cha-kon belong: (1) i-na-na. for (5) of To the half-year ka-sip. belong: about 10 or 15 days. which takes its name from the general planting camotes and is the only one of the calendar periods not - named from the the rice industry: it lasts about 6 weeks. of no more work in the rice sementeras. (2) la-tub. fills about 4 weeks. lasts nearly 7 weeks. 20 to Feb. 10. lasts 1903 it began on Feb. the earth being turned three several times. the first period in the year. that an event occurred in la-tub or will in and take place in ba-li-ling. which these seedlings are transplanted from the seedbeds. L'lM if. they therefore keep these periods in mind just as a European thinks of some particular month in which an event has happened The greatly varying length of the periods is once more to be noted. the last period. the time when the sementeras which are to be used as seed-beds for the rice are put condition. or nearly to end of August. said. (8) sa-ma.AGRICULTURAL CVCLES OF SEASONS. about 2 months: on Nov. 15. -when practically all the fields are prepared and transplanted. the seed is sown immediately after the third of into lasts turning (7) the earth. that (7). from about Dec. the time when most of the rice is harvested. begins about Nov. although the seed-sowing does not last many days. and also the fact 1 . continuing until the time of the first rice-harvest in May. a it vacant season is made to fill into a period (see e. which thus ended early in November. 11 and it lasts . in the under being necessary shall be continuous. the period continues for 5 or 6 weeks. in 1903 till May 2.

there is a division of the year into 24 parts. every fourth year is a leapyear with 366 days. 11. . finished and the rice housed. the harvest This tives is 2 . 41. planting of yams and other secondary crops. burning of dry grass. 41 days. 1855 by Pakoe Boewana III. 297 ff. the canals are repaired. 10. 23. naturally Gregorian calendar: hence the variation from in the only instance of an attempt to bring a natural calendar into agreement with the demands of a modern one. 24 (25) J . the seeds form in the rice-plants. The ca- lendar was regulated to the according Crawfurd's statements. The year is an embolimic year of 360 days and is divided into 12 periods of 24. 25 (24). kapihi. 25. 26 (in Ieapyear27). katigo. 5. I. according to Wilken. the rivers swell. See below. cold is weather begins. 8. 7. harvest begins. rice is planted. (43). 9. 12. These are: kalimo. yellow. besides the lunisolar type of year. it is however unpractical and inconvenient This is on account of the varying length of the divisions. Crawfurd. blossoming of wild plants. the names of which corres* r 1 The figures in 2 brackets Wilken. kasongo. koso. high winds. according to him the year has 365 days. rutting season. karo. kawolu. It is still used in eastern Java and in the Tengge mountains 3 In China. ploughing and rice-sowing. 197. and cutting of trees for the cultivation of mountain rice 2. the falling of the leaves. In 41 with the to Bali the year begins with the eleventh season (April). p. sodo. rice turning the rice-crop is ripe. in Java winter solstice. 4. 3. rice grows and tion.70 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. preparations for rice-planting. kanam. represent the number of days as given by 3 Wilken. the last two. are corruptions of Sanskrit words. 41 (43). unequal length. 6. The different divisions correspond the following occupations and natural events: 1. 23. 26 (27). How such seasons and the year formed out of them may be developed under the influence of the improved calendar into periods of definite numbers of days is shewn by the Javanese peasant calendar which is still used in Bali and Java. flowers. almost literally translated from the language of the naWilken gives to certain periods a different number of days but (see note 1). beginning of vegeta. kapat. das to. kasapttluh. The first ten of these names are the ordinal numerals of the Javanese vernacular.

and which have thus been systemaTo decide the matter would tically developed and regulated. winter solstice. sons are expressed by a division of the ecliptic fore astronomical. 15 phenomena but are also borrowed from natural life. signs of autumn. together 29 days. the Indo-European languages. together in the corn son (d'Enjoy). and summer recur possess. It is to nected in pairs. . 15 days. together 31 days. beginning of heat. cold dew. hoar15 "days. ver. 15 days. beginning of snow. 15 days. dawn of spring. 15 days.ARTIFICIALLY REGULATED CYCLES OF SEASONS. and dawn of summer. pure brightness. fruitfulness 31 little (Ginzel) or little rainy seadays. signs of winter. summer 15 solstice. the even Hi. great heat. autumn equinox. frost. They are: rain-water. great snows. moving of snakes. in a greater number of the much of Tacitus 1 D'Enjoy. be noted moreover that the periods are conodd numbers (according to Ginzel's scheme) are called fsie. little 16 days : 15 days. but are ignorant of the name and the goods of. 15 days \ Of this division Ginzel says that among the Chinese the seacold. end of heat. 15 - - days. In former times they took the length of the year to be 365 /* days. The latter begins the of list is with the in mencement taken from spring and gives dates. The about the Germans is therecriticised statement fore corroborated: 'They know and name winter and spring and summer.dew. 15 days. require special knowledge which the present writer does not astronomical . 71 pond the to the climatic phenomena of days. As far as the Indo-European period is concerned it seems now to be agreed that there were then three seasons: for only the roots occurring in the words hieins. It would be surprising however not to find underlying the present divisions old seasons which the astronomical knowledge has drawn within its scope. 15 days. white . 467. 16 days. great cold. the Chinese : they are therefor the have no special names J physical seasons. beard. The number days each case d'Enjoy. spring equinox. of Ginzel. I. sowing-rain days. together 31 days. the joint name being tsie-k'i. together 31 days. and assumed an equal period for the course of the sun in the ecliptic but they afterwards learnt to calculate the beginning of the divisions directly.

sign.. summer. until the early rising of Arcturus. autinnni per3 inde nomen et bona ignorantiir Tac. II 223 ff.or USTOTICJQOV. and summer gag. X\ 7 II . fruit-harvest. 17. spring. p. winter. gives seed-time. The latter term is therefore corrected to qri)iv. Now since four climatic periods are naturally to be distinguished cold. and that this is so will be readily understood by anyone who has become familiar with the overlapping and the instability of the seasons of the primitive peoples. (pyraAiu. Alkman has these four 2 The principle of nomenclature is however different: the first three names are derived from climatic phenomena. on&Qa. Spring however is not equivalent to the other two seasons. 2. onoQ^roc. Feist. Thus the pseudo-Hippocratean seven seasons: 1. 3 DC A.. al- ready appears with the pretensions of an independent season. 84. 4 Roscher. the limits according to Galen. This period however does not coincide with djrcjga. the cold and the warm seasons. If the small seasons are included the circle may be still further extended. tree-planting. 5.PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.. and two transitional periods quence is that the fourth season should also be referred to the climate. the fruit harvest. ch. until the late rising of Arcturus. The same thing seems to have happened in the case of the Latin autumnus. and indeed to the still unnamed period of transition between summer and winter.. djtco^a from the fruit-harvest. of the phenomenon repeats itself in the The Greeks complete the circle with the three seasons year winter. for Indo-European antiquity certainly also divided the year into two parts. This arrangement is cerHiems et ver et aestas intellectutn et ^)ocab^lla habent. up to the spring treatise IlsQl sfidojuddcjr * equinox. 265. OJIMQI]. from the early rising of the Pleiades up to that of Sirius. Germ. 3. although the process cannot be demonstrated. The same addition of a fourth season. 7. autumn. 21. 6. Schrader. the logical consewarmth. but in (^cijucor. but follows it.. The harvest" 1 . 26. 4. p. the ondtQa naturally persists as . 76 Bergk. 1 . Homer the fruit-harvest. spring. from the early rising of the Pleiades to the winter solstice. 48. 44. 2 Fragm. question whether the primitive Indo-European tribe had two or three seasons is therefore pointless. temp. and Theophrastus 3 counts it in addition to the other four and thus gets five seasons. ftegog).

I. since it embraces at least three months. mowing. not indeed mentioned in the Vedic literature but better corres^ the rainy season ponding to the course of the seasons. and a period between the cold season and the hot. Ginzel. There is also a second sexpartite division of the year. one of an autumnal cha- between the rainy season and the cold season. and warm. cool season: the cold season is divided into two periods . is The natural periods a division the North Indian year into three ponding these are racter Three corresrainy. tainly 73 affected treatise. . 31">. season is divided into two periods *. The phenomenon is known to me from my own native district. still persists there in the old literal sense of harvest. sisira. seasons are the most usual in the Vedic period. and a cold season. only found when they are referred to the Julian This point will be dealt with below. but is by the septenary system which pervades the founded on a popular basis: the smaller seasons. is replaced Between summer and ' efterhost appears the skyr dialect for skdrd). These five seasons often occur in the Brahmanas. 'autumn'. the latter being in pairs among the seasons. it is true. hot season. in chapter XI. are given an independent The system has not prevailed.. winter. spring. a still transitional the popular divisions in the Punjab.are the result sons -rasa/if a. Exactly the same process recurs of in the Indian seasons. pp. hewanta. Later two periods are interpolated. but a systematising of these small is seasons months. be insufficiently accurate and the term literally 'after-harvest'. The well-known six sea- warm grishna. which otherwise pass into the greater. rainy season. late autumn. Hence the designation of the autumn season as host is felt to by j cfterhost.. varsha. The word host. the Thibaut. the in which the rainy The splitting up of the seasons persists to this day among Germanic peoples. of a distributed systematic comparison with the months.INDO-EUROPEAN SEASONS. autumn. sarad. and indeed hohb'sten is particularly the hay-harvest. By this arrangement is the loser. 10 if. position by the side of these. but it affords a typical example of the instability of the seasons.

Any period of this nature is described by the old Swedish word and (ami]. hay-harvest. an autumn. haymaking-time (hoyvnnia. hills.Lamb-weaning time or Pen-tide. and on the other between the hay. pp. sldtt-. between ploughing and hay-making. harvest-time (hattstriinia or skurd). ho-. fishing-month. early spring'). to this siv inter. 1 Parting-tide. Market-tide. phtchleth (ploughing-time). fifth season. Compounds with corn-harvest. springtime (voarvtnna or voaronti). Home-field hay-time and . retttr hill (September). ploughing-time (plogen or plogvinna). of ver-tid. e. Norsk Ordboi . hay. or slaatt). PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and August) flocks calls Folding-tide. in May. mellan-anna and ami (which is here used pregnantly to mean harvest). sometimes there winter. Aasen. The North Frisians of manuring. stckk-tid. kaarskord (corn-reaping).. these there is a spring. Flitting-days. sowing. Again from wild birds and eider-ducks one the spring Egg-tide. the the small hobal. and (periods harvest. Amrum and Fohr for at Christmas'). fra-faerar. 'shortest-days-time' (skamttd) In Iceland. when all purchases for the year Out-field hay-time (July are made. where the sheep-farming is the principal industry. we find: -. . (mellonn). midsummer (haavoll or haaball). The periods occupations in particular give rise to such terms. summer being divided into hoveln. For the other districts I add from the Dialect Dictionary of Rietz: -. instance sas-. the period on the one hand between the tillage in spring and phenomenon. godsel-. Mott. hoyoint. though of the rural the hay -harvest. as a. and are vdr-. when the sheep are driven to the kaup-tid.and the former period being the greater.74 harvest.hobal. Little it is season. now obsolete except in dialects. skdr-. meedarIn Norway there leth (hay-harvest). 'between time'.. when the sheep are driven off the pastures into folds to be separated into and marked. I. i. and a winter Weinhold. early summer (leggsumar). come cp. corn). ( mark events by ('in the periods uw julham f um iKOsham are current as general time-indications: fishing-time (fiskja). and stides- of spring. The fisherman uses such seasons as Fishing-tide. late added a sixth attention has been paid is common enough. fardagar. 2 ft. skyr-. the latter Elsewhere the word has the form hovel.

autumn-sowing. r f . That the year was divided into two parts. oat-cutting or In Anglo-Saxon a similar expression occurs in -harvest 2 a law of King Vihtraed in the year 696. at hempafter harvest and hay-making. at harvesttime. De temp. mentioned that time above. haberschnitt. below. harvest. lanbrise. ris I. Where they do so. /O 1 and skil-dagar in summer. rat. ch. an evidence of the false methods by which the problem has been attacked over the German division of the year. im hanflnctiet. it seems now to be agreed that the account of Tacitus . of which more the later. at sowing-time. XI. e. on the statement of Tacitus that the Germans had only three seasons. referred to the fruit and A'ine-harvests and therefore naturally did not appear among the Germans of H In view of the linguistic phenomenon. below pp. 13. Tille. fall of the leaves. bi strn und bi grase. 10. im n'tuen nnd im blnten. 5 has cast doubt Grimm No a scholar than less in grass' J. a and long vigorous dispute has been carried on. 1 Yio-fusson. this is due to the comparison with the rye-harvest). in der bonenarne.. g. . lanbbrost. in der sat. at the bean-harvest. 71. ration that the Germans at the time of Tacitus were acquainted with grain-culture but not with fruit-culture. atplough-time. they achieve a definite length or quite fixed position in the year. to fail Julian months. ch. number of the seasons among the Ger- this is and what has often been regarded as the same thing. 431. im brdcJiet. Grimm. at harvest. 3 Cp. Im und im In-ce. in der herbstim houicet. liabererndte. In the old German laws and elsewhere similar time-indications are common. 74. sprouting of the leaves. im icimmot. im deni suite. 3 to the testimony of I refer to the Scandinavian half-years 4 that the Anglo-Saxons reckoned six months for winter Bede and six for summer. at hay-making time. in the spring. summer and winter. sexton dcege rngernes . se afterhalme mid /tonice. at gathering. and that the word autumn. p. at plough-time. These periods are in themselves indefinite. 'bare and leaf-clad'. However over mans or. when servants leave. at the grape-harvest. cp. is well known. in der swibrache. sat. 2 in der erne. but later he withdrew his doubts in view of the conside. I. 78 4 ft. /// der brache. at the second plough-time. '' '"' p. and to the German expressions for a year: in straw and in bareness and in leaf.SEASONS OF THE GERMANIC PEOPLES.

the Weinhold has given the treatment of the question its direction. August. doubtless coinciding in the first instance with the three Latiddinge or ungebotene Gerichte (regular courts). beginning of a new the though regulated by season. that they are in general calendar-festivals. The beginnings days in of the four seasons . found as early as the time of Charlemagne.- determined from saints' Feb- ruary. 1 the quadripartite Pfannenschmid. but as a the calendar. Un- der primitive cular) may also conditions a festival (the harvest-home in particertainly conclude a division of time and may the thus rule indicate festivals. he mainmain correct. maintains that division was developed alongside of the tripartite. are therefore not authorised in drawing conclusions as to We the beginning of a division of the year from the existence of an old festival. and ba- ses his statement on a study of the principal festivals. viz. and November are of foreign origin: on the other hand the quadripartite division of the year. Support has been lent to the idea of Weinhold by the fact that in later times the beginnings of the seasons were indicated by festivals and saints' days. His thesis rests on an erroneous conception of the festivals. For the general understanding it series of festivals was necessary throughout 1 bring in popular saints' days Tille attacks Weinhold very sharply but remains throughout under the influence of the method indicated by the latter: his to . The attempt however is a complete failure. is German. According to him the tripartite division to which reference has been made crowded out the older division into two parts. which are tains.76 is in PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. are not so ordered that they coincide with the beginning of a season. Hanover. Germanische Erntefeste. 1878. arising from the fact that mid-winter and midsummer were added to the beginning of winter and summer as interpolations in the time-reckoning. the points of division. No season begins with any of the solstices. . The fact of the matter is that the common medieval and saints' calendar was composed of a days from among which suitable and well-known days were chosen in the dating of the beginnings of the seasons also. on the contrary these fall right in the middle of a season. May. This Weinhold tries to prove from the popular festivals associated with these dates.

THE work. // has its good points. which owe their origin to an adaptation of the Roman months (for this see below. Feb. OF. p. in the north in October. agriculture. the duration of which was originally no less indefinite than it is to-day. THE GERMANIC YEAR. but also the Germanic pairs of months. inasmuch as it refers to economic conditions. etc. is primitive Indo-European. since the six seasons could be run is of together The beginnings of the in twos or in threes. The bipartite division. . 13 with Hammarstedt as the beginning of one of the three seasons agrees just as little with the natural seasons of the year. p. and still less was it so. 73. He refers to the six old Indian seasons. p. natural are phenomena. XI). I cannot however agree with in the author in the direction indicated by the sub-title of his essay: "Is a trace of an old Germanic * tripartite division of the year to be observed our po- pular festivals?" Above. however. those of the three given by half-years annual divisions are placed by Title at March 13. and Nov. the same error of method appear in Still more clearly does Tille 's assumption of a sexpartite division of the year. Hammarstedt marks very pertinently that the beginning of winter in Noveml ber. the seasons being regarded as periods of a definite number of days. 11. the tripartite partite foreign (Egyptian) origin: both existed for a long time side by side. principal error lies in the systematising. belongs to the reckoning in halfTille has to give that and that hence arises the absurdity years. 75. as they are expressly termed. But to assign Dec. 10 as the date for the beginning of spring in the north. he asserts. He regards as 60-day divisions not only the smaller seasons mentioned above. as we The have seen. old style: in the north on account of the climatic either reconditions they are pushed back a month. or of sixty-day periods. The 60day periods are so far from being primitive that they first . July 10. which are a comparatively late and artificial product called forth by the adoption of the names of the seasons in the reckon2 and to the pairs of months of the Syrian and ing by months Arabian calendar. the payments of rent. This fact is explained by an old sexdivision of the year. DIVISION. 1 Om eft nordisk arstredelning. among primitive peoples. ch. This is not the case even to-day. 248.

the 'week- The year is divided into two halves. cp.78 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 17 ff. 58 ff. not years it consists of whole reckon people the in ordinary year 52 {= 364 days). in leapyear 53 weeks.winter) they reckon forUntil 371 days). 120. note. Bilfinger has brought forexceptions see Bilfinger.. 19. 1 ff. but as his article is written in Swedish therefore probably inaccessible to many.. 198.. reaches 2 far back into heathen times The reckoning in weeks was once common to all Scandinavia. but his reasoning cannot stand before a searching criticism such as that amassed by 1 For Ginzel. Program of the III. Sodermalm College. p. 1918. I might content myself with a simple reference to Beckman. the in so many misseri. ward his opinion with great penetration and wide learning. misseri. originally in connexion with my studies in the primitive history of the Christmas festival. so many weeks of summer or winter have elapsed. p. Alfr&di. Bilfinger in a penetrating study has tried to shew that this curious calendar is an outcome of the ecclesiastical calendarial science of the Middle Ages. pp. since I agree with him on all important points. and that they later learnt approximately to know the length of the year which is very easily conceivable in view of their lively intercourse with other Archiv nations we have the elements out of which their calendar was developed. (= wards. an article by the same author in the Norwegian periodical Maal og Mtmie. 1915. I add the following note which was written long before it now appears. Religionswiss. 8 ff. pp. Granting that the knew the week (the f. Nordens Hldre tider&kning. midsummer (or mid.. worked out and is in the main in the year 1914. culation of Easter. and in particular developed and more profoundly based by Beckman. and Brate. as tradition shews. I. 118) and made use of it in counting time. Old of Bilfinger's work on the the cardinal point around which his whole demonstrathe relation of the Old Icelandic calendar to the cal- still heathen Icelanders or Norwegians Germanic peoples took over the week while yet in their heathen period. He does not however prove his case: rather. 1908. their took origin under the influence of the reckoning in months. makes against the criticism Finnur Jonsson has not been answered (before Beckman): the objection is that no notice - is taken of the fundamental idea Icelandic year tion revolves viz. so many weeks of summer (winter) remain *. viz. In Iceland there year'. The Lapps have special names for every week of the . II. . Stockholm. still exists a curious calendar. In his of point of fact it seems as though the objection which Bilfinger in study of the Yule-tide festival. . after that backwards. the calendar. see my Studien zur Vorgeschichte des Weihnachtsfestes. Intro.

since in the course of 40 years it must anticipate itself by 50 days. the assumed only that the week-days of the one calendar correspond to those of other. 1 */* days Bilfinger objects that such a year is unthinkable. In the effort to arrive at an embolimic cycle mistakes are at first made. which. since both are constructed out of the same elements. and this is the case. Bilfinger's view of the matter is that the Icelanders for the sake of convenience eliminated the quinary factor from the Easter reckoning by taking the mean Easter Thursday as a fixed point of departure instead of letting the calendar follow the actual variation of this day: this roundabout method basing the a is system of unnecessary since the same result is arrived at by time-reckoning on the year and the week. How the ancient it Roman calendar was treated we know: by the end of the Republic had become thoroughly disorganised . in leapyear days. the Egyptian shifting year). were winter. for this day. which Finnur Jonsson and Brate have allowed to stand.THE SCANDINAVIAN DIVISION OF THE YEAR. on account of their importance for introduced as fixed periods of time into the calendar. Surt about 960 A. they have therefore taken from the Scandinavians the of week and the the year. was. since the week came to Iceland from the south. further to a lunisolar year that also took into account the A reckoning in weeks. but in practice not so (cp. Theoretically the objection is valid.winter festival must therefore for one generation have fallen in summer. and the agreement with the solar year is once more brought about by means of intercalations irregularly introduced for practical reasons. e. This fact. and the old calendars are administered practically. D. The last objection to Are's account of the introduction of the Icelandic calendar. The aim of Icelandic summer. If this was the object in view it Brate remarks (p. was to fix the beginning of a legally very important term. that Easter Sunday falls varyingly on one of the five Sundays between March 22 and April 25 (the other days of the Paschal term being fixed accordingly). 71) the shifting Easter period fragment of a week-year: in so doing he shuts his eyes to what he himself terms the quinary factor. As a reckoning in weeks to the year of 365. not attained. To these must be added the old-established divisions year. i. while previously the year had 52 weeks. week April all may is fall in the Passion week so that it becomes useless business purposes. it being result of the adjusting of the 366. according to Bilfinger. a Bilfinger is not correct in calling (I. for as calendar. there arose a week-year with periodic interpolations of an embolimic week. borrowed from festivals and saints' days falling within the weeks. 21). summer and civil life. as has long ago been observed. This proves on the contrary that the fixing of the beginning of summer pre-Christian. According to Are the cyclical interpolation of a week was introduced by Torsten too few. i.. e. makes development would lead the Easter period a fragment of a lunisolar year. Thursday of the 9 15. This of necessity agrees with Bilfinger's so-called 'mean Easter year'. must also fall. 7Q year. and therefore in 292 year must have run through the whole circle of the seasons: the mid.

but it is evident that they bility must always appear of of themselves in a defective this calendar. Just as in Iceland. 13 weeks beginning rappadagar': these are Midsummer Michaelmas Day.80 the reckoning in tive PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and Christmas Lady Day. Day. calations of this kind are not indeed attested for Iceland. thirteenths. the 'number of weeks' (tigetalet). Day. 5th century: Such intercalations are the ruin of any system. old style). Communicated by Dr. are not of Christian origin: the agreement with is accidental. which recur throughout Scandinavia and fall about three weeks behind the equinoxes is or the solstices. The duration of both fore : made for political purposes. from two weeks are named. however in the same quarters as there. In northern Scania I have met with a relic of the same type of reckoning. but in the quarters beMidsummer and Christmas in the other two quarters they count forwards. We conclude then that the cardinal points of the Icelandic calendar. The date A contributory factor may have been at the places the circumstance that mid-winter and midsummer 1 fall just where a shortening or lengthening of the day becomes observable. quarter-years with the 1 e. what Bilfinger terms the 'mean Easter Thursday' due to climatic conditions. von Sydow. also agree with his statement as the gradual increase in accuracy in the formation of the Icelandic weekof the intercalation held a special : in agreement with Beckman I calendar under the influence of the ecclesiastical calendar. We learn from inscriptions that in Athens still more irregular intercalations were made during the last decades of the. they reckon backwards. Moreover the Rodays was from the beginning not average length of 366 a whit better than the year of 364 days ascribed by Are to the Icelanders before Torsten Surt. but chronology must work with a system. in certain parts of South Sweden in Oland are called they trettingar. From the same derived the special significance of the Tiburtius) which also source they have also summer night (April 14. which begins on April 6 (Lady Day. since the spokesman of the laws had to proclaim publicly every year to the assembled people in the Althing notices about the calendar for the following year. The system is better preserved The people count in rappar. . old style. 14. among which the announcea treatment of ment to find myself In these arguments I place. Smaland and neighbouring provinces. not J . and is reckoned backwards as far as the thirteenth week. weeks and adapted it to the uses of a primi- time-reckoning. and of the winter night (Oct. and this fact often blinds the eye of the chronological student to as a result of intercalations man year with its l /- the Irregular interirregularity in the practical treatment of the calendar. The possi- kind existed. Calixtus).

THE OLD SCANDINAVIAN WEEK. and the calendar must go back to heathen times. but bound up with old basis this.YEAR. This mode of counting. rural 81 occupations and natural phenomena is determined in so many weeks. letters on these are repeated the whole year through. and almost all describe the former by a tree division of the year. built up on the week and the year. day and Tiburtius' day (April 14) the first day of summer. many rune-staves have this division of the year. a curious form of year. The basis of this calendar. which vary there on account of the peculiar arrangement of the calendar. The differently modified: the idea of any borrowing cannot be entertained. and why by weeks should be adopted in popular use only there. its a natural conclusion that the reckoning in weeks had Since the week-day origin in the use of the rune-staff. therefore. which in Iceland had been developed into. This conclusion to ask is but still we may venture the reckoning why the week-day were admitted into the national calendar in the North especially. as the Icelandic.14) the first day of winter. Under the influence of the popular lay astrology the weekwas early spread among the Germanic peoples: on it and on an approximate knowledge of the length of the year. the latter by a tree in leaf. they have been transformed into fixed days under the influence of the Julian calendar. the It is weeks offered an easy means certainly correct. however. They fall in the same weeks as the initial days of winter and summer in Iceland. was in Scandinavia adapted to the Julian calendar and remained The leap-week was therefore unnecessary. was once com- mon to all Scandinavia. is however still preserved in the points of deparIt is the same system ture. As the starting-point of this reckoning in weeks the four great festivals which come nearest to the four points of the solstices and equinoxes are chosen. the summer and winter nights. of The people call Calixtus' without leaves. There can be no doubt that these have made their appearance under the influence of the Christian calendar instead of the four Old Scandinavian points (Oct. such as 6 . In Scandinavia. The reason can only be that the counting in weeks was already in use before the rune staff was introduced. letters of reckoning.

about six has contributed to the half-year reckoning which.- days of the half-year winter nights'. had at first no fixed limits. In the north the this fact months. as such festivals ginning of the new. The quarters arose in the course people counting forwards in the first half of the half-year and backwards in the other half. the calendar. It is true that the first of these festivals. in accordance with their milder climate.82 could tian PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. The middle points of the half-year. the both reckonings met. celebrated before the Vikings went forth on their voyages. fell where of the reckoning. An indigenous element however appears.winter and midsummer. and cumstances is in my opinion . the conclusion of the old year and the beThat it was fixed for a definite day cannot be demonstrated any more than that the festival of victory in spring. the autumn festival at the winter nights. easily be acquired in the lively intercourse with Chrislands during the Viking. denoted.) denotes Christmas-time With the two opening days of the calendar and the one division in the middle are often combined the three great sacrificial feasts.period. nights. often do. like all natural seasons. the system of the Ice- landic calendar is built up. and indeed the great probability is that the limitation of the half-year to a fixed number of days was first achieved as a result of this systematising of Winter and summer. the f nights. commonly reckoned five months dead season is longer. Wikhmd. the Yule festival at mid-winter. This agrees with the popular objection to high numbers. the half-year reckoning. On the contrary the 1 the summer week of This practice has passed into the Lapp language: kess idja the winter nights. fell exactly on the summer night. is widely characteristic That the limits between both seasons of northern peoples. as has already been remarked. were unstable and could be moved forward according to cirfor winter. shewn by the names of the initial sumarmdl (plural) and vetrnaetr. pp. 16 and 20. mid. The Germanic tribes of the south. and the spring festival at the summer : . Where a definitely determined day is in question the plural is out of place it is used to describe a period. talvidja = . which was celebrated at the beginning of a period of rest after the completion of the harvest and agricultural labour. J for instance jol (plur.

like the but were not in themselves definitely limited divisions of time. ch. as winter and summer were in Scandinavia. saga. 83 probably varied according to circumstances: the expression of Snorre lacks calendarial accuracy and remains indefinite: 'They should sacrifice against the winter to get a good year. since. the middle days of the half-year divisions 1 pa 8. in Where divisions. and this Avas a sacrifice of victory" times the Yule festival is regulated by the . and that alongside of the greater seasons smaller ones arose without there being any numerical determination of the relationship between the tw o. enn at midjum vetri biota til grodrar. skylldi biota 2 i nwti vetri 70. Our conclusion is that the Germanic seasons. Further. the 2 This also like the seasons. hit f>ridja at sumri. owing to the of calculation. abroad. Seasons only become divisions consisting of a definite number of days when seasons in general. the third sacrifice in In% historical l summer. pat var sigrblot e. they are not calendar-festivals. Things happened as in the Middle Ages and later: after a calendar has arisen the festivals are regulated by this. and in reconstructing the scheme of the calendar from the festivals very great caution must be exercised. Ynglinga- See g. the beginning of the seasons could be given with reference to this: the day varied according to circumstances. division of the year in the more accurate sense also first method arose through the regulation of the calendar. that only a popular festival or saint's day was A appropriate as a distinguishing day. when a calendar existed. til drs. above. Snorre says that in heathen times it was celebrated at the hokkti night. Here also. and at mid-winter sacrifice for germination. . but of this we have no certain knowledge. but the choice was limited in this manner. therefore. are of varying length shews that the Germanic seasons first attained a definite number of days through the calendar-regulation introduced from . Heimskringla. p. viz.THE OLD SCANDINAVIAN time DIVISION OF THE YEAK. 'Christian calendar. T the regulation of the calendar they are taken over as calendar divisions. the calendar was the starting-point for the regulation of the seasons. a calendar has arisen directly out of the seasons.

frequently a peculiarity to distinguish the seasons by the The principal seasons winds. primitive 3 Brown. the . lasting about 2 months. lasting about a the rari. and the north-west monsoons. one of the Solomon Islands. 367. /. the years ot which are said to be characterised by similar weather. After mbnle follow tovantru. Moreover the people also distinguish a dry and a rainy period. When the calenit. The people are Islamite Malays. and continued Avith 2. tahini won. t. . 331. 'am dry and wet weather alternate 2 In New Britain marck Archipelago). w^ho count in lunar months. '- bic letters and also and in surface. while the dry season set in with 1. to-raraurit (the time of the north wind).84 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. time of the south wind during this period calm prevails at night but there is wind in the day-time sassa nannnio. and the north monsoons also come under consideration for the seasons. time of calm. uauano. The seasons 4. various seasons are distinguished according to the direction of the wind: the time of the west wind. In the two seasons 7. dal akhir. there were two smaller intermediate seasons of one month each. In Lambutjo the matter Maass. Astrology and the calendar have strong!}. each consisting of 5 months. reckon for longer periods In the monsoon districts however by the rise of the rivers of l . ha and 8. particular Java. iahun sai were regarded as falling within the rainy period. p. The names arc those of the Aradenote the years of an eight-year cycle. Of Sumatra it is reported: are named after the quarters of the heavens from which the it is - At the time when we were in Taluk. April to mid-June. talnm djtn. south-east . the period of variable winds and the period of calm 3 In Songa (Vellalavella). between the two greater seasons of the wind blows. dnlawal. and. dar came. itihnle. 514. p. Bis/. and sassti Jiauauio. t. month. 5. the old festivals were also regulated by By way cases may be supplement two or three curious exceptional noted. 6.influenced Sumatra 1 Coquilhat. the south monsoon was blowing. the time of almond-ripening. ali. since there is no dry season. and 3. the west. the east. A completely isolated instance is offered by the Bangala of the Upper Congo. time of the east wind. modes of thought however recur under the . one month. p. /. distinguishing' became days in the calendar.

altogether they occupy 2 Aveeks. Peninsula it has been observed that when the SE monsoon blows the sun comes up in the east. wind. e. lasting about wind. and then again stronger E wind for a lighter of light 1 E wind. during which time navigation in canoes is impossible. at 23 that After the east wind a south-west wind. at very interNaobserve esting accurately primitive peoples On the Gazelle ture. south west wind. lasting two months. Further the east further - - strong or quite weak with squalls. lasting 1 2 Then begins one month Then about \V wind. XYV wind. i. 346. good wind at the time tinguished: of almond-ripening. After this. S wind. but these are not indications of time. lasting about one month. wind a SE wind. calm. lasts only a short time. time one cannot sail on the sea: it often comes 5 after the east wind. . lasting 34 weeks. At the time of the west wind there the time of the east wind much sunshine 1 . and XE \vind. and when the N\V monsoon blows it rises in the south: the wind comes from the oppo2 site direction to that in which the sun rises to see how . . is still 85 The following winds are discomplicated.SMALLER WIND-SEASONS. Each of these months. then again stronger E wind for 2 months. p. Then strong E wind. Afterwards S wind for 1 /z 2 months. Three months afterwards comes the west wind. very strong. lighter SE 1 wind for 1 2 weeks. 1 Thurmvald. not good. Then again a time of 'clear water'.months. 5 Ibid. 34 23 months. is It much is rain. After the south-west 1 months lasting only months.

and regulation of must be carried out according to a principle we shall see that this is as a rule the lunar reckoning but the occupations of agriculture also serve as a handle. use of the expression that the year From a genetic stand-point this expression is incorrect. and finally how the years are not reckoned as members of an era but are dis- tinguished and fixed by concrete events. The present chapter will shew how the uniting of the seasons into the year is only a late and incomplete development. since they are connected only with the single phenomenon. are discontinuous or even indefinite. Nevertheless the uniting of the union does the complete year arise. - a selection. how originally the year does not exist as a numerical quantity. Only through their Every natural year however whole the same phenomena following one another in definite succession.or none at all reckon this of the vear. systematising. the pars pro toto counting being resorted to.CHAPTER the practice of is III. and.. are older than the year. Thus of the Akikuvu of British East Africa it is . because the time-indications. which relate to a concrete phenomenon of Nature. Naturally happens in the rare case in which there is very little between the two halves difference . THE YEAR. offers on the C/ different seasons into a complete year only takes place gradually by means of It the seasons. The the year sons but difficulty of struggling is through to the conception of exemplified by certain peoples in half-years who know two sea- without joining them together. and thus the circle of the year has its prototype in Nature herself. my authorities 1 have often in the Following foregoing pages made 'divided' into so many parts.

passage is marked by two wet seasons. blowing from May to October. shom-en-ynh. which is of Malay the 7 . 1 Routledge. which blows from October to April. as the year varies between 12 and 13. from November to April. 40. sa tann. satahun angni. same names it is evident that originally only half-years existed The greatest unit of time among the Orang Kubu of Sumatra is the six-month innsstm (season). De Backer. howIn ever a word for year. ful. each of which the}' call a 'wind-year'. is very natural. The half-years each contain six months. so that two of these form one of our in . p. The planting is done in all cases commencement of the rains. reported: Its 87 : The equatorial year has no winter or summer. each of which includes six months since the months of both halves have . and harvesting as soon as the crop has ripened after the cessation of the rain. 132. p. are not counted 5 It is said that the of have no other division of the Peninsula Benua-Jahun Malay . 393. since by 'year' a vegetation-period is often to be understood the half-year reckoning however also appears where a difference between the two seasons does exist. 105. the year than the natural one of the north and south monsoons. the monsoon. sho-hong. Skeat and Blagden. In New Britain (Bismarck Archipelago) there are monsoon years of five months: the two intervening periods of the variable winds and of the calms. doubtless serves to distinguish these seasons: otherwise the difference between the seasons is hardly This : perceptible. " p. which occur in what are our spring. Brown. to which the same names are given both halves 2 The people of the Nicobars reckon in monsoon half-years. The each 4 : in reality half-years are also said to contain seven months they must vary between 6 and 7 months. 406. SW years 3 . and the NE monsoon. 4 Swoboda. In Rotuma or Granville Island the inhabitants reckon in periods of six months or moons. There ar therefore two seed-times and two harvests in twelve months. a - Hale.HALF-YEARS. the island lying near the equator. 3 p. p. I. . each lasting one month. 3 Hastings. p. 331. at the first and when the native speaks of a year he means six months *. . The west monsoon.and autumn. is also ascribed to them 6 Bali the year is divided into two seasons or monsoons. 22.

88
1

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.
.

origin

The Samoans have a name

for a

period of twelve

months, but they formerly reckoned years of six months (tausanga); each of these corresponded to one of the two six-month 2 periods, the palolo or rainy season and the monsoon season
.

The Moanu Admiralty Island name the division of the year according to the position of the sun. When it stands north of the equator, the season in question is named rnorai in paiin
of the
it

(sun of war), since wars are chiefly fought in this season. When stands over the equator, the season is called rnorai in liouas (sun of friendship), the season of friendship and mutual visits.

When
in

the sun turns towards the south, the cooler season begins Of the Kiwai Papuans of the islands in the delta of the Fly River
.

3

Guinea, Torres Straits, Landtman writes to me that he say if the people are clear whether they reckon in 4 The former supposition is really only years or in half-years supported by the fact that they are aware that the same na-

New

cannot

.

recur after the lapse of the two half-years. no word for year. On the whole it may be said that they count only the months, and hardly conceive of so great a unit as the year, nor even (at least not everywhere) of the
tural

conditions
is

There

half-year, cases.

although

there

may

be

a

hint

of

this

in

special

Not seldom the dry and the rainy seasons are counted without being combined into a year. This is expressly stated 5 of the Tupi of Brazil and certainly applies also to the Bakairi
.

In

Loango there are dry and rainy
a third season

seasons, and in

stricts

people reckon
therefore
of

by

also, the fruit-ripening. the two main seasons.
6
.

many diCommonly the
centenarian
in
is

A

fifty years old

In

Uganda

there are

the course

months two rainy and two dry seasons, although there is hardly a month in which no rain falls at all. The rainy season from February to June is called to go mukasi, since the rain then falls without much thunder: the second, from August
twelve
to

November, is called dumbi and the frequent deaths from
1

mitsaja, because of the thunder
lightning.

The diy season about
p.

Hagen,
p. 55.

p.
(!

154.

2

Brown,

p.

347.
2,

3

Parkinson,

378.

Cp.

p.

57.

6

Above,

Loango Exp.,

Ill:

139.

HALF-YEARS.

SHORTER YEARS.
that about June.
of

89

December
the

is

more intense than
is

However

one rainy season together composed year, with the following dry season, and consists of six moons or Their year, corresponding to a half-year, consists of months 2 In north Asia the five moons, and a sixth in which it rains % co mmon mode of reckoning is in half-years, which are not to be regarded as such but form each one separately the highest unit of time: our informants term them 'winter year' and 'summer year'. Among the Tunguses the former comprises 6 V* months, the latter 5, but the year is said to have 13 months; in Kamchatka each contains six months, the winter
inwaka,
1
. .

year beginning in November, the summer year in May; the Gilyaks on the other hand give five months to summer and seven to winter. The Yeneseisk Ostiaks reckon and name 5 only the seven winter months, and not the summer months This mode of reckoning seems to be a peculiarity of the far north: the Icelanders reckoned in misseri, half-years, not in whole years, and the rune-staves divide the year into a summer and a winter half, beginning on April 14 and October 14 respectively. But in Germany too. when it was
.

denote the whole year, the combined phrase 'winsummer' was employed, or else equivalent concrete expressions such as in bareness and in leaf, in straw and in
desired
ter
to

and
4

f

c

grass'

.

months are to us the strangest of phenomena. The Yurak Samoyedes and probably the Tunguses of the Amur reckon eleven months to the year, the Kamchadales only ten, of which one is said to be as longas three 5 The natives of southern Formosa reckon about eleven months to 'the year The inhabitants of Kingsmill Island, which lies under the equator, reckon periods of ten months, which are numbered but, in contradistinction to the other 7 In the Marquesas 10 months examples, are reckoned in cycles formed a year, tan or puni, but the actual year, i. e. the Pleiades
'Years'

with

less

than twelve

.

fi

.

.

year,
1

was
4

also

known

\
pp.
"

Roscoe,

Baganda,
above,

37

ff.

2

Id.,

Bantu,

p.

72.
ff.

3

191
'

ff.

See

Hale, pp. 106, 170.

Sohiefner, pp. 198, 201 p. s Mathias G., p. 211.
75.

c

Wirth,

Schiefner, pp. p. 211.

90

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

in 16-day divisions. Fourteen of these 224 form days, i. e. in former times attention was paid to the rainy season only. The first thunder was the signal for the fishers and hunters to come back to their huts

The Yoruba reckon
their old year, of

The Toradja of the Dutch East and begin farming again Indies reckon in moon-months: two to three months however compose a vacant period in which they do not trouble about 2 The Islamite Malays of Sumatra distinguish time-reckoning tahun basar, the great year, or tahun musin, the year of the seasons, both reckoned as 12 months, from tahun padi. the 3 The rice-year, which among them counts only eleven months Dusun of British North Borneo have two methods of reckoning their longest divisions of time. If the native be a hill-man he will reckon by the taun kendmga or the \\i\\-parii season, six months from planting to harvest, if a plain-dweller by the taun tanau or wet padi season, 8 to 9 months 4 This incomplete in which is therefore a the vacant period year vegetation year of no work is simply passed over. In this manner may be
l
. . .
.

discussed ten-month year of the Romans 6 if it really depends upon old tradition and is not a mere creation of spurious learning. It is not a cyclical year like ours:

explained the

much

,

a complete explanation will be given below in the investigation of the manner in which the years were counted. It is true indeed of most primitive peoples, as is said
of

the

Hottentots,
(sic!
I

that

conception

they are well acquainted with the should have said rather: the concrete

year, guri-b, as a single period of the seasonal variation, but do not reckon in years in this sense 6 That is to say the year is by them empirically given but not

phenomenon)

of

the

.

limited

in

the

abstract: above

all

it

is
it

not a calendarial and
is

numerical quantity.

Of the Waporogo
times of day)

said:

-

Somewhat

the conception of the year. Only older, more intelligent people have a clear idea of the sowing-time and the rainy seasons constituting their it,
is

more

difficult (than the

points
1

of reference.
Dennett, pp. 136

But they too can only reckon up a few
ff.
-

Adrian! and Kruijt,
5 " ff.

II,

264.

3

Maass,
pp.

p.

512.
ft'.;

4

42, p. 395. bibliography in Ginzel II, 221

Evans, JRAI,

Mommsen, Rom. Chronologic*,
Schulze,
p.

47

369.

THE EMPIRICAL YEAR.

91

years (though they certainly do this by counting the seasons, cp. below, p. 92), and for the great mass of the people the conception of the year does not exist The Bontoc Igorot has no idea of a cycle of time greater than a year, and in fact it is the rare
l
.

thinks in terms of a year 2 The length of the year consequently varies. Among the Banyankole it begins with the first heavy rains and lasts until the next heavy rains,
individual
.

who

so that a year may be longer or shorter by a few days: it is a matter of no consequence whether it is a week or even

weeks that are taken off or added to the length 3 With the agricultural year it is just the same. For the Dyaks of Borneo the rice-harvest is a main division of the
three
.

year (njelo); in September after the conclusion of the harvest the year is at an end; a definite beginning, a New Year's Day, is unknown*. The translation of a Ho-text runs: - "When the inhabitants of the interior begin to cultivate the yam-fields they begin a new year: when the yams are dug up and the 5 dry grass is burnt away, a year has passed" Among the Thonga the notion of the year (lembe, dji-ma) is extremely vague the year begins at two different periods, that of tilling and that of harvesting the first-fruits. They do not make any difference between a lunar and a solar year 6 A very significant account comes from Dahomey. The word for year does not denote any definite number of months the sense is rather to plant maize and eat, to plant it again and harvest it'. At the end of the harvest the year also is at an end 7 Here therefore we have a natural year quite concretely and empirically given. Chronologically it is of no use nor indeed is it used what method is resorted to will be shewn below. Attention must first be called, however, to an important point. The purely natural year is a circle which has no natural division, i. e. no beginning or end, the seasons following upon each other immediately; not so the agricultural year, which has both beginning and end. Here therefore there is a natural point of division, a new year, which appeared in some of the
. : .

:

f

.

:

1

Fabry,
p.

p.
5

224.

2

Jenks,

p.
c

219.

3

Roscoe, Bantu,

p.
7

140.

4

Gra-

bowsky,
In these

Foa, p. 120. Junod, Thonga, II, 282. Spieth, p. 311. districts there are two seed-times and t\vo harvests in the vear.
102.

92

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

examples just given, and this is The vacant for time-reckoning.

an extremely important point period between harvest and some and so both of these periods difficulty, sowing presents can be used as the beginning, as is done among the Thonga:
the beginning of the year varies considerably, just
l
.

otherwise

can be arbitrarily determined The contradiction between length or duration of time and time-reckoning evidently here becomes apparent. The counting
because
it

is

not performed by

means

of these fluctuating empirical years,
is

but the pars pro toto method by a season. As soon as it
at

is

employed, the years are counted said that some event took place

a definite time of the previous year, or will take place at
in

the following year, a counting of the years is thereby implied, although for an enumeration of this kind the conception of the year is not necessary. When it is said that

some point

something happened at the previous harvest, or Avill happen at the next dry season a counting of the years is no less implied, although seasons are reckoned instead of years, i. e. the pars pro toto method is used. Thus it is, in fact, with all primitive

and many highly developed peoples, and that not only when an event that took place at a definite time is spoken of, but also where the number of years alone is in question: in the latter case the reckoning is only performed from a favourite, conven-

The statement made for the Hottentionally selected season. tots is significant for the kind of reckoning just mentioned.
in mind the age of their cattle from the calving and lambing periods 2 Similarly we are told of the modern Arabians that the female camel is covered for the first time

They keep

.

when she is four rabi old (rabi ** the pasture-season in spring, when the camel foals), so that she foals in the fifth rabi 3 As a basis for the counting either a longer or a shorter season may serve, or indeed any popular natural phenomenon of regular annual occurrence. Thus of the Chinhwan of Formosa it is stated that they have no calendar: they only know that a new year has come when a certain flower blooms again 4 The Paez of Columbia have a word enztc, 'fishing, summer,
. .

year', since a great fishing is only
1

engaged
3

in
*

once a year,
Kisak Tamai,

in

See below

ch. X.

2

Schulze,

p. 369.

Musil, p. 256.

p. 97.

PRO TOTO RECKONING.
January or February
the year
is
*.

93

In the language of the Tupi of S. Brazil

which blossoms always stone-fruit reniform once a year, and produces a much-prized which is also often' used in the preparation of wine the word This tree bears fruit only once a year, also means 'season'. whence it comes that the Brazilians reckon their age by the stones, laying aside one for each year, and keeping them in a
called akayu, cashew-tree,
:

small

basket

reserved

for

this

purpose

2
.

The Algonquin

of

Virginia reckoned in cohonks, winters; the name refers to the wild geese, and shews that these have come back to them so

many
oned have
find

times

3
.

In

medieval Swiss charters time
'leaf-fall';

is

often reck-

in louprisi,

dri,

nun louprisi
4
.

when

the leaves

fallen three, nine times, etc.

on the beginning of the year we shall appearance] of a certain constellation, in particular the Pleiades, gives the signal for the beginning of the agricultural labour, whence is developed the importance of this date as the opening of the year. The time between two like
In a later section

that

the

appearances
cal
risings,

of the
is

same

constellation,
In this

e. g.

between two

helia-

a

year.

manner

the

stellation
S.

itself

can come to denote Vear'.

name of In many

the con-

parts of
.

America the same word means both 'Pleiades' and 'year' 5 The inhabitants of the Marquesas call the year of 12 months, as distinguished from the 10-month fruit-year, by the name of the Pleiades, mata-iti*. How easily this comes to pass is shewn
by a statement made
for the

Bangala

of the

The culmination
planting-season.

of

the constellation kole

Upper Congo. gave the principal
.

This was so familiar to the natives that the informant used the word kole as equivalent to the word 'year' 7 This is in its very nature a pars pro toto designation, since
it
-

refers to an annually recurring phase of the stars. More often the years are reckoned by one of the greater
1

von den Steinen, Globiis,

p.

24b, n.

1.

2

Ibid., p. 245: the last detail

quoted from C. de Rochefort, Hist, natnrclle et morale des lies Antilles, 4 Rotterdam, 1663, p. 56. 3 Beverley, p. 181. Grimm, I, 85; Weinhold, 5 von den Steinen, Globus. 6 Mathias G., p. 211. T Weeks, Jahrt., p. 12.

JRAI,

39, 12".

94
seasons.

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

It is a well-known fact that in Old Norse generally, in and often in Old German and Anglo-Saxon time was reckoned in winters. We find traces of the same practice in Greek (%ijuaQos, 'a one-year-old goat', from the same root as %i!ucbv, of two, three years', winter) and in Latin (bimus, trimus = in htemes It is almost the from hiems): poets often reckon rule among all peoples who live under a climate that has a winter with snow and ice. The Ostiaks reckon in winters, and so do the Eskimos of Greenland 2 and of the Behring Straits 3 and the N. American Indians in general, for instance The common the Kiowa 4 the Pawnee 5 and the Omaha 6 method of reckoning is not by the season, the cold time', but

Gothic,

f

1

.

,

.

,

,

f

by the concrete phenomenon that distinguishes it, viz. the snow. So with the tribes of the N. W. interior 7 the Hupa 8 and the
, ,

say that a man is so many 'snows' old, or that 9 so many snow-seasons' have passed since an occurrence The Siciatl of British Columbia reckon either by summers, 'fine

Dakota,

who
f

.

10 For the Algonquin see p. 93. seasons', or by winters, 'snows' In the tropics to reckon by the cold season is rare the Guarini
.
:

of

Paraguay however reckon in rot, i. e. 'seasons of coolness', 'winters' n and the Bakongo occasionally by stvu, the cold sea12 The reason for the son, though more often by mou, 'season' reckoning of the years in winters is the same as that for the
,
.

counting of the days in nights. Winter is a time of rest, an undivided whole, which practically becomes equivalent to a single point: it is therefore more convenient for reckoning than

summer, which is filled up with many different occupations. In the south of N. America, in the states on the Gulf of Mexico, where the snow is rare and the heat of summer is the dominant
feature, the term for year had some reference to this season or to the heat of the sun 13 e. g. among the Seminole of Florida the name for the year was the same as that used for
,

summer u
1

.

Here the .summer
II
3
,

is

the time of rest, but in Slavo2
fi

Schrader,
175.

227; Feist,
5

p.

266.
p.
9

4
7

Mooney, Rep.,
Carver,
189.
14

p. 366.
8

Dunbar,
p. 77. p.

1.

Nelson, Cranz, I, 293. Fletcher and La Flesche,
p. 99.
I0

3

p.

234.
111.

p.

p.

Powers,
p.

Mallery, 4,
12

Hill Tout, pp. 34, 33.
p. 308.
13

11

von den Steinen, Globns,

245.

Weeks, Bakongo,

Handbook,

p.

Mac

Cauley,

524.

fAKS PRO TOTO RECKONING.
nic also time
'years').
f

95
'summer', plural

is

reckoned

in

summers

(leto

=

We may
of

compare here the English expressions
Basuto

a

maiden

18 summers', etc.

exceptional. ploughing- time, year' *. At the time is reckoned by 'rains', i. e. rainy seasons 2 Ever since the principal food of man has been the produce of fruit-trees or the corn, the fruit- and corn-harvests and
.

only

The

The reckoning in springs is word selemo means 'spring, southern end of Lake Nyassa

the whole period of vegetation in general have been of decisive

importance for his well-being. We have already seen how this circumstance has left its mark upon the indications of the seasons, and in the same way the second most important method of counting years is to reckon by harvests or vegetation-periods. The fellahs of Palestine still do this. Their usual method is to reckon from one harvest to another, or, as they put it, 'from 3 In modern Arabia rents are threshing-floor to threshing-floor' ever for reckoned a whole hardly year, but only until the next the spring, rabi, when young animals are sold, or, as by the fellahs, until the next threshing-time, bedar, when the farmer can realise upon his corn 4 The Negrito of Zambales deter. .

mine the year by the planting or harvesting season, but their minds rarely go back farther than the last season 5 In Bavaria in the Middle Ages the years used to be reckoned in
.

in

autumns. The ceremonial reckoning autumns, Sanskrit carad, 'autumn'

in the Sanskrit ritual texts is
6
.

The
.

subjects of the Incas

had a word hitata, 'year', which as a verb meant 'attacker': but the lower classes reckoned in harvests 7 This is also done in the district around Mombasa 8 The Arabs sometimes reckon the
.

years as

e. g.

We
Indian

40 charif, char if being the time of the date-harvest 9 have already spoken of the rice-year in the East

.

Archipelago as a combination of the agricultural seathe period of vegetation of the rice also serves, although seldom, for the counting of the year. Among the Toradja the
sons
;

time needed for a plant to

maturity
1

is

called taoe,
p. 932,
p.

come to its full development up to and santa'oe accordingly means 'a year
1.
-

Sechefo,
227.
'"

note
64.
p.

Stannus,
3

p.
,

288.

3

Wilson,

p.

297.
'

4

Mula

sil,

p.

Read,
s

Vega,

I,

199.

Johnstone,

Schrader, II 227; Feist, pp. 266 9 Lane's Dictionary, s. V. 266.

ii.

De

nevertheless heard: sautaoe owi. has the definite meaning all as of 'a period of six months'. Thus the yam has its tau of five moons. and conventionally that of 'a year'. bread-fruit has 1'J 4 . The word tau (a Polynesian loan-word-. and derivatively a year'. the word keeps original sense of 'an indefinite period of time'. 119. 99 ff. the rice-year of six months. Here the word has the further f sense of 'the produce of a year'. It is significant that on the Society Islands the bread-fruit season is called tc Ian.//// rahi and tc tau poai.). an age'. tc tan . 'when year's rice-crops still stood on the Held'. 263. roeautaoe owe. know a time of abundance of food and a time of scarcity. Fornander. 'two harvests ago' In the South Sea Islands the bread-fruit ! . . II. period of time. In the Hawaiian group. on the island of Tonga. and Kruijt. Sampac the is practically same meaning. are told: The Malay word for 'year' is tann or talntu. the erythrina is in flower until the harvest its palolo has come and gone. ff. pp. We In the most important article of food: the people. however. and the names of the other two seasons. but the years are reckoned by well-known events (on expressions last this see like the following are below. In the Samoan group tan or taitsanga. Pol. 'a life-time. from 'the plant- ing after 1 when the Adriani I. rp. The}' have no conception of the year as a definite . according to circumstances 2 So far our authority. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. but sautaoe has since the rice is the most im- portant cultivated plant. It seems however to be questionable whether the original sense is not the concrete 'produce of the seasons'. Res?. and is never applied to the year: its duration may be more or less than a year. as we have seen. :! Kilis. In the Society group it simply means 'season'.. 'a period of time'. are formed by adding to this name 3 Of great significance are the accurate reports for the Melanesians. besides the primary sense of season. . and so (now) the space of time between recurring seasons.96 ago'. In general. - The I. 87. signifies a season. which corresponds most nearly to 'year'. or niulu. is Polynesian dialects the primary sense of tan is 'a season'. rather than the abstract 'period of time'. its when not applied to the summer season. the word is seldom used as a time-indication.

iai4 97 winter months: bananas and cocoa-nuts have no tau. and accordingly the sense of the word tau has been extended from 'season' to 'year'. 1896. and also the word 'year' itself. The Greek grtavrog is unexplained.as &QCL and its cognates. but it is very doubtful if such a con1 The Melanesians are only ception is anywhere purely native interested in the concrete phenomena of the year. p. and not in time-reckoning as such. 349. it is quite clear to them that this is a single period of the variation of the seasons. has during the been readily received. that is kale. 3 The pars pro toto counting of the year from shorter or r longer seasons does not how ever extend beyond the years immediately following or preceding. The notion of the year as the time from yam to yam. Hermes. 288. in periods not exceeding five years. 382 ff. The Polynesians have themselves noted this fact. since they always bear fruit. from palolo to palolo. the law of Gortyn. Whether the conception of the year was known in the Indo-European period is not certain: it is however significant that all the words for 'year' of which the etymology is fairly . Germanic peoples render it by periphrases and summer'. 2 . the date 1 is usually fixed by Codrington. See p. Turk. and in the inscription of the Labyades 2 which has also the little observed sense of 'anniversary' . 4 Stannus. etc. and therefore do not in practice combine the period from yam-planting to harvest with that from harvest to planting to form a year. 'some time ago' by the like 'winter .. Sanskrit farad means 'autumn': that the corresponding Avestic sared means "year' in in it is explained by the fact that the years were reckoned autumns. Thus the Slavonic leto means 'summer' and 'year'. of the year is afforded with the conception acquaintance be the fact that the . but in Homer. certain either refer to the produce of the year . fiir Friedl&nder. 647 Prellwitz. may an Further evidence of the lack of original sense. 7 . It is stated of the tribes living at the southern end of Lake Nyassa that the years are reckoned in 'rains' up to three or four years: everything beyond 4 In the district around Mombasa. pp. in Festschr. When it is pointed out. dr or else come from the pars pro toto counting of the year. pp.THE PERIOD OF VEGETATION AND THE YEAR. 31. however. p. Old Scand. 89..

. . (! 3 let. Kisak I. 224. . age mined by reference to the speaker's own relative age or to that of someone else. at The Indians of Pennplace. it is stated that in of people and the time Since the relative age is thus known. 9 Reed.. On the same page as that from which the above quotation for the Marquesas Islands is taken. 2 The but only whether it took place recently or long ago inhabitants of the islands of the Torres Straits never count 3 Individuals belonging to tribes at a low stage of years civilisation keep no account of their own age. 266.' Fabry. p. for either it is immediately seen or else easily remembered from childhood who is older and who younger. Johnstone. 12 p. 18. . p. p. R. or a random one 6 The of his Hottentots have no interest in idea age slightest are interested in that of their cattle. .. p. well the who is the oldest the 12 . but do know quite . 2 225. time when the event took 1 order to determine the time of any event the people or how long his beard was. T. The Kiwai Papuans have no word for year. can give either his own age or the time 10 even the Maoris do not know their age. not to the relative age. 97. 4 * p. though they know that the man of forty years is older than The statements here made obviously rethe man of thirty n fer to the absolute age of a man. 5 Landtman. Thomson. 11 369.ter. which have been gathered In general the primitive peoples reckon only where an immediate practical interest requires them to do so. . never know how old they are. 10 Schulze^ Mathias G. nobales have no idea of their age Oceanian in general. 198. . for instance. but an enquiry as to the age of a man or the number of years since a given event will meet with no 3 In Dahomey no negro has the answer. 156. . Edo. 120. Foa. but only for the monsoon periods: they cannot as a rule state how many years have elapsed since a certain event. alof any event number of harvests 1 . communicated by Thomas. The Babwende. p. ' Str. 211 ff. p. pp. of events can be deter- indicate the how tall a person was. which their own age.98 the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. p. Among the Wa4 The Edo-speaking tribes porogo no one can say how old he is have a calendar. Tamai. . . Hammar. 64. but 7 Few of the they reckon by the calving and lambing periods 8 The Negritos of ZamGhinhwan of Formosa know their age 9 No Marquesas Islander.

secondly those called 'the and thirdly those known as 'our fleet runners' 3 It . first those known is helpers'. Those who have been circumcised at the same time have a special name. etc. among the Polynesians 2 and in the older Greek historians. generation. tive as 'the big ostrich feathers'. anyone is. ! Hollis. the reckoning by generations. in 1859 or ages together form a generation The two periods composed of persons born 63. 108. which is common e. itself ages there arises of chronological expedient usually found at the point where history begins. the 'those-who-are-not-driven-away'. And where numbers are known thev are not willingly used. 99 sylvania temporarily determined an event by referring to their own age at the time of its occurrence J . Pol. those who are not driven away'. old how if asked it is to events. 86. and its members were circumcised 1834 1850. but always refer example. Among the Masai an elaborate system The circumfor classifying ages has exceptionally developed. viz. 4 1 Below. With time-reckoning per se the bases for reckoning are afforded by important and striking events which have been impressed upon everyone and are present to all men's minds: through their relation to to the chronology. 2 Ellis. p. but the year . such as those who 1 ' fight one openly or by day'. or Common the age of some person they serve as a guide for The Aino. evident that an excellent basis for the determination of rela- time is system is hereby given. 261 4 ff. the answer will be that he was born after the catching of the very big fish. g. and those who belong to it were circumcised in 18515. 234. pp. p. Res?< I. not concerned. Holland. . RELATIVE AGE. The 'those-who-fight-openly' period is a 'right-hand' period. Tight-hand' and one 'left-hand' period combine to form a f . from Each age has three divisions. cision takes place in four-year periods with intervals of three of relative From a these indications familiar and a half years.IGNORANCE OF AGE. Masai.period is a 'left-hand'. the do count not days. Here perhaps in the year when there was so much snow once more we see how concrete time-indications always precede the abstract numerical counting of time. The circumcisions are known alternately as 'right-hand and 'left-hand'.

says existed only for two small-pox epidemics". 266. saying: "When he was born I had my rice-field there. The Batak use of of intervals Sumatra think that a small-pox epidemic of from nine to twelve years. 263 ff. an epidemic of small -pox. the armen form epochs of this kind it is impossible to detect the age of any adult *. 3 Nico- . and perhaps in certain cases also forms the basis of calculation. and make . p. rival neighbourhood of Mombasa wars. etc.100 is PRIMITIVE TIME. 32. 4 p. rity on the old e. Where there are many such noteworthy years the time-relationship is so far recognised that the succession of the events is known. and she was born when our southern field was a grazing returns meadow" at 3 . . by which he meant 4 In Borneo that it was somewhat more than 24 years old there have occurred two eclipses of the sun during the last half-century. reckoning time. to give when asked how some such answer as: "She must be four years old. an important military expedition. II. and so on 2 time instructive to note that precisely the same mode of reckoning was found in Scania at the beginning of the last cenIt was a very common thing. g. II. says a well-known authotury. folk-lore of this district.RECKONING. . to referred event. p. a The people conclusion of peace. 195. such as the death of a great man. On questioning a chief. The first of these served as a fixed date in relation to which other events were dated 5 this belief in a how . old his house was I was told: "It has traveller. Hose and Me Dougall. for she is the same age as my brown mare. It is mentioned that the Toradja of the Dutch East Indies sometimes reckon nearly approaching events or events of recent occurrence by the riceIn the of white : sowing: dates at a more distant past are indicated by mentioning events of most note. famines. the It is amusing and at the same next year there". von Brenner. the payment of a tax. for a peasant. * Adrian! and Kruijt. do not reckon their own age. 1 Johnstone. instead From a year one distinguished by a certain noteworthy being regarded as a member of a series. his little girl was. of this kind the natives can only reckon for a as of few years at most in either direction. but count that of their children. * lovius. 214. 7. JRAI.

the succession of rulers offers an ex- ing the 1 subject further. One example p. the little priest!. 293. but beyond that they could not go. i. and within every reign certain years can be distinguished by special events. I. Cranz. to a contemporaneous event of greater impor- The Lapps deer. immigrations. of g. hostilities with the birth of their children or the stature of these at the time. they would say that this or that person was born at the coming or departure of such and such a person. 68. 279. or the founding of Godthaab Egede in the and other colonies. But this brings us to the beginning of history. p. 132. seals caught. etc. with neighbouring tribes or with the whites.DESIGNATION OF YEARS AFTER EVENTS. and when they do so the period is never of more than a few months' duration. Sometimes however they used as epochs from which to calculate pellesingvoak. 55. only: 2 - The Baganda 8 p. p. and I desist from follow- monarchy means of chronological exists. or when eggs were collected. 101 The Eskimos of Greenland knew up to about the twentieth year how many winters a person had lived. well-known events such as the outbreak of . The Caffres rarely give the proper length of past or future periods of time. Egede. Drake. Alberti. etc. f the arrival of ctf other country. p. When they wish to date back somewhat farther. they can arrive at a date *. or the arrival or departure well-known Europeans. * Schulze. when Vasterbotten reckon their age by the reinthis or that aldo (= female with calf) was Formerly they never went farther back in counting than the previous year. coupling them in particular cases cattle-plague. When they had to give the date of an important event they referred to the time at which some speci3 ally fine female reindeer was born The Hottentots. as has been said. born. 369. e. furnish them with satisfactory general indications from which. but keep in mind that of their cattle from the calving and lambing periods. Where the political development has advanced so far that a stable cellent orientation. Otherwise it is their custom to determine the date at which this or that event took place *. by reference tance 2 . have no interest in their own age. . e. Dalsager.

ojomane. in one a such king'. Irle. by referring to the most important events that took place in them. and has been published from the year 1820 . e. of nausea': the Nama had poisoned Katjamuaha. 4 The Masai do not count the (Kilimatinde Station)' but rather denote them years. They say 'It was arms when such and such a war was fought of the kings in the reign of l . fully developed calendar of this nature is possessed 6 the by Herero. reckon by the reigns particular reign. 1844..102 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. g. the cattle died'. a murrain. The Wagogo count f the year when the years by important events. 'year of vomiting. 'year of the stones': the Herero as the slaves of Jonker Africander had to build for him a stone wall. JKAI. ac- the in cording to other sources. in which the 3 young Mohammed is said to have taken part . 251. 3 32. p. id. 5 p. p. And so on up to 1902 inclusive. ojomufcugu or ojombornti. some years after the year in which viceroy of Yemen marched against Mecca with an army Another year is called the which there were elephants 2 year of treason or outrage. year is named and distinguished by a definite event. cp. 39. or. and by certain wars and so's reign' reigns furnish a system of chronological recreferences may be systematised until each the concrete koning. a Spreng'er. a drought. 156. Merker. I tjekeue: 1820. 1842. ff. 37. g. whence arose a conflict at the feast of pilgrims. 4 72. Raganda. 222 . q/o (= year Matabele chief who in 1820 came to Okahandja with a white peace-ox and made peace with Katjamuaha. A . and the latter vomited and purged. 'year of peace'. There are lacking 1 Roscoe. pp. or 'I was still in in so. 'year of the stakes': the Herero - give a few years as examples: of the) from the name of the had to build a palisade around Jonker's dockyard. e. because certain garments which a Himjarite king had sent that year to Mecca were stolen. ojohcwge. the Nama and Herero made peace. Claus. Ginzel. or ojovihende. 1843. 1845. t. p. of Boma the death of the chief. 5 etc. . " pp. an expedition particularly rich in booty. or 'two years after the building . This was Where no the is Mohammed practice of the Arabians before Mohammed. said to have been born in the year of the elephant. 137 ff.

e. so that anybody could shew when he was born or when his father died. a disastrous hunt: this was referred to as a year by itself. g. e. strongly developed by the aid of picture-writing. 1899. etc. p. g. the "latter as the f The same mode and fixed year of the red murrain among the cows'. portant event. In winter they were often produced before the fire. significantly. Four copies belonging to . towards the end: the reckoning fails under growing European influence. Of others I have heard that they were born in the hard winter (1739 40). Several years have two descriptions. a failure of crops. . however. 1. inundation. and 1900. and the events recounted. They are painted on buffalo hide. and some also knew the meaning of the pictures. or could then do this or that. an unusual X. 1895. pp. or already had grey hair. later also on paper. but after only a few years' remove this mark became indistinct and faded away 2 Among the Dakota and the Kiowa detailed descriptions were given in picture-writings. the building of a whites. When worn out and obliterated by use they were renewed. of reckoning appears. new town by fifty the : Thus I have heard more than years ago to their fathers they were or hit a bird with could catch butterflies tall. They were executed by a specially gifted Indian and were handed down from father to son. ~ Dunbar. a general war. and represent in painting the history of the tribe. America. they referred to a year that had been marked by some im. 1844 and 1845 (see above). 103 only the years 1854. g. a very deep snow-fall.SERIES OF YEARS DESIGNATED AFTER EVENTS. 525 ff. for the Dakota by Mallery and for the Kiowa by Mooney. among the Indians of Heckewelder says of the Indians of Pennsylvania :"They reckon larger intervals of time by some noteworthy event. they an arrow'. a very severe winter. which are wellknown and have been published. Everyone knew them. e. unusual sickness. When they could not refer directly to 'When their brother Miqaon talked so old or so any such distinguishing epochs they would say: 'So many " winters after that' 1 This method of reckoning seems to have Sometimes existed among the Pawnee at an initial stage. 1855. 1891. these and 1887 8 are run together. 1 Heckewelder. and.

year he never made a mistake. one to the years 186493. Every year is denpted by a picture. The Kiowa annual calendars are clearer than the Dakota in that they indicate winter by a thick black stroke signifying that the vegetation has died. The records of year-mark are early years memorised. the 'Long-Hair-killed* winter. giving the principal events of the seasons. 4. p. 6. 666 The a deep notch across the stick. which form the central feature of the Above and by the side religious ceremonies of the summer. like circle as the Peruvian quipos \ The Dakota use a symfor a bol of time. ' Mallery. Dakota are known. Carolina time was measured and a rude chronology arranged by means the of strings of leather with knots of various colours. 'the winter. In the first each month is indicated by the crescent of the moon. Four Kiowa calendars are known. 32. and there are a few minor notches to aid in recalling them. Often an important event has . Taking the stick in he would rake his thumb-nail across the year-notch and begin: 'This notch means etc. of which it gives 37 twoof the others refer 183393. star (meteor)-passed-by-with-a-loud-noise' Choze-built-a-house-of-dead-logs' winter. a smaller one for a year and a larger one longer period: the circles are arranged in rows. etc. so that the reckoning of the year becomes the history of the tribe. Some of the terms used are: the f 1794 5. and above is the picture characteristic of the which is arranged in . of these signs are the pictures. 36. . yet when a narrator was asked to go back and repeat the story for a is certain his hand. 88. which go back to 1800. 1 Mooney. of one months. The year-notches are alike. and summer by the medicine lodge with its figures.' 3 The development is clear. 18178. thus: or ooo 2 The Pirn a of Arizona make use of a tally.104 the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. The Indians however were also acquainted with simpler modes of reckoning. the 'storm-of-stars' winter (so called from the abundance of shooting-stars). . 1818 9. Among the Nahyssan of S. without distinction between winter and summer. p. p. respectively. and the mythical period. 3 Russel. to the years month. 18212. the 'small-pox-used-them-up-again' winter. 1825 the winter (through an inundation). 1775. Siouan Tribes. 'many-Yanktonais-drowned' 18334. 1786.

) being described as the year of King X. the complete year of his reign (not the year of accession. of the other years the most important national events in the domain of the religious cult and of politics are almost univerthe first sally employed. 144. and also later under the first dynasty in Babylon. King. more important these he join's events. pp. The same method of distinguishing the years from one another was employed in ancient Babylonia. so that every year has its event (necessarily even if it be an unimportant one). 2 Cp. in this domain. and to the in the labyrinth of more peripheral events and so finds his way memory. 130. and was only replaced by the reckoning according to the years of the king's reign under the dominion of the Kassites For our historical knowledge of the events these so-called 'yearformulae' are of extreme importance. As marks therefore. by years of the reign is to be found. and shew that these in some respects maintained an independent position. C. p. . King. The adoption of the of the main year-formulae locality implies the complete sub2 of the No of an era or any reckoning town trace jugation J .SERIES OF YEARS DESIGNATED AFTER EVENTS. . Only some 1 violent natural catastrophe. This kind of time-reckoning is really used by every one Whoever looks back over his past life sees chiefly the of us. 105 been impressed upon the memory and now serves as a landthe few years that it is possible to count are reckoned. But we mark the events by the of the dates. Such events multiply. Finally the process is systematised. not the dates of the years. and thereby obtain an estimation is which the last acquisition of the of human mind course of time. Only the king's accession to the throne is utilised for distinguishing the years. a longer period can be mastered. 143. exceptionally is the year named after Rather. and is named from that: hence mark from which the reckoning of the years becomes also the history of the people. and when their succession is known. it is a striking fact 215. 95. They vary in each case according to the towns. in the days of the Sumerian kingdom of Ur in the second half of the third millenium B. The mode reckoning in question penetrates deeply among the culture peoples.

3 Meyer. These year-formulae were however used for the dating of documents. are employed. asi- Thureau-Dangin. 1909. of simply the as among been concerned. or a comet or meteor. pp. 2 of Kugler. It is characteristic to count the destructions of a town but not the years During the reign l . arises the difficulty that often an event of such impor- tance that the year can be named after it does not occur until well on into the year. Hence the primitive peoples with whom we have hitherto for the retaining of past events in the memory. I: 2 2 . Journal 337. We order to avoid counting. Sternd. Rimsin of Larsa. e. II: 1.106 that in PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. the year 17 year after that in which the ship of Belit (was a noteworthy event happens it gives its name launched)' to the year: thus the same year is 'the year in which the god Nannar . 1 Ed. year 50 = f temple of X. the year 49 of king Dungi is called 'the year in which the temple of X. the event from which the year is named does not take place until a greater or smaller part of the year has already passed by. 'the when this to is kind of designation when events of the current year are be dated by the year. a contemporary of Hammurabi. Hence arise twofold descriptions. An example containing a political event the year 36 of Dungi = 'the year after that in which Si- muru was destroyed'. and not simply. that is. and they are indeed necessary in of Dungi = . . up to thirty years after that event. If no important event has occurred. 153 ff. in the year after this'.': so firmly concrete description adhered to.. was built'. 331. the years begin to be run together into an era: there are many datings from the capture of Isin. the year is described as the one following' such and such a year. Cesch. having reference to the preceding year. none of the 66 year-formulae hitherto discovered is there any mention of an eclipse of the sun.was brought from Kar-zi-da into his temple'. the year following that in which the 'the year following that in year 51 = which the temple of X. Until the event takes place indications of the kind already mentioned. was see the clumsy method used stead is built. 14. atique. together with the bibliography there given. e.. p. in- saying 'the second year after etc. was built ? . g. or 'the year in which Simuru was destroyed for the second time'. g.

but begin with the day of the king's accession: they therefore offer the disadvantage of running from different dates according to this. . p. 185 ff.. The years however are not calendar years. Meyer. are no different. 4 that they could impress themselves upon the King-. pp. the Roman after consuls etc. by wars. purposes five l . of the sowing. of the birth of Anubis of taxation. 190. especially religious acts and buildings of the kings. 2 2 31 and 148. and lastly by natural catastrophes.. 3 King. . to the counting of years which is so much more . . For a people with a fully developed political life and annually changing supreme a officials the latter naturally was too regular and decisive 1 offer means of distinguishing the years. buildings. limmu. 95 Kugler. 2 146. and other eponymous officials. to have been given at the New Year's Day and therefore to have been determined beforehand: when important historical events occurred. the life too well-established for events of such a nature pp. by events in the religious and political life. I. the year was given a new name from these 3 In the older period of Egyptian history each year of the king's reign is described by an official name borrowed from the festivals . Sternd.e.DESIGNATION OF YEARS IN BABYLONIA AND EGYPT. ephors. II. and from the end of the old empire completely supplants the former method even in official dates. at least within the separate reigns. g. . Ed. At certain periods however the reigns.. and for the censuses wars. but passed over. Gesch. especially inundations of Dates given by events of a previous year are the country 2 At that period however the year-formula seems also found. The Assyrian designation of the year after eponyms. Chronol. suitable for a survey of the course of time. as in Babylon. the Greek after ar- chons. 4 The Egyptians also began with the only a single example concrete descriptions. 236 ff. of the from worship of Horus. were counOf an era there is ted only from the first New Year's Day. Gradually the simple counting of the years of the reign appears alongside of these names. 107 and so under the second king of the first Babylonian dynasty So years were reckoned after the taking of Kazallu also under the first dynasty of Babylon the years were described by occurrences. those of the king's accession. King passim.. and elsewhere.

the starting-point is a matter of indifference.108 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. .. in ab urbe condita etc. The system therefore did not provide that survey over the whole course of time which the awakening historical sense rendered more and more necessary. memory method. and only very its right few persons can do it. It Here of time. of to be able to everyone and become available for time-reckoning happen to the whole people in smaller intervals however the system shews a weak point. by which means everyone without more ado became quite clear as to the dates of earlier or later events. is very difficult to keep an arbitrary series of many names in order without confusing the names. In this respect the old reckoning in epochs long continued to influence the minds of men. or in the countless It was long before it was seen that local eras of antiquity. and that the only to the only practical So men were led essential is that all should use the same starting-point. whether these were expressed in olympiads. that of simply counting the years and marking them by figures.

yet a more exact determmation)of time may be extremely useful. g. 91 ff. but the are content with the concrete phenomenon. e. In the temperate zones the fluctuations changes are very perceptible. In the year in which I write this (1916) the corn harvest has been delayed by nearly a month. The possibility of such a determination exists and that at a far more primitive stage than that of the agri1 See above. for instance. Further. the life e. The Nature tion. since. . time-indications from the phases of the climate and of are only approximate: they themselves. are subject to fluctuaEven in the tropics.CHAPTER IV. although the right time for sowing can be discerned from the phenomena and general conditions of the climate. THE STARS. like the concrete phenomena to which they refer. i. where the regularity of the climatic is greater than in our latitudes. pp. More accupeople rate points of reference are however especially desirable for an agricultural people. earlier or later *. the dry season. the beginning of the rains. incidents of plant and animal trees and plants. whether the rainy season opens so much The days are not counted exactly. are indifferent as to whether the year is one or even three weeks longer or shorter. In general primitive man takesv no notice of^ these variations: the Banyankole. the blossoming of certain - somewhat in arrival of the migratory birds vary different years. or monsoons may be to some extent advanced or retarded. Even the townsfolk notice that the days are shorter and the weather is colder than is usual at the time of harvest. not only on account of bad weather in harvest-time but also owing to the unusually low temperature of the past summer.

. of the morning rising and the evening setting extraordinarily wide-spread. 25. 5 ff. but other positions of the stars. autumn rise. and shews itself in the east in the morning before sunrise 2 . translated by P. dazzling Like to the star that doth in eyes. and especi- observation of the ""so-called 'apparent' or. mentions them often. in which the stars are mentioned as time-indications along with phenomena of plant and animal life. 2 morning rising of Sirius at the bewhich about 800 B. . its name: its Sign is of much thought clear light. visible risings and settings of the fixed stars. are also some1 . C. Landtman. then it has 'made a leap'. But Homer not only knows several stars but A much-quoted is also acquainted with the risings and settings. often in combination with them. pre-eminent to sight.) The the observation is e. times observed the The Kiwai Papuans also compute the time of invisibility of a star. When a certain star has sunk below western is the star horizon they wait for some nights during which 'inside'. 129. S. passage in the Iliad runs: - "Him first king Priam saw with his old As o'er the plain he lightened. ff.- cultural peoples ally in in the observation of the stars. g. for example. took place on the 28th 1 A modern reader. of July (Julian). The ginning lines refer to the of the fruit-harvest. With him however they are pre-eminently a traditional ornament of poetic style: the richest sources are the peasants' rules of Hesiod. ' See pp. as he ran. and appear just as frequently as the latter. communicated II. Worsley. more properly. the brass upon his breast did flame" And mighty 3 . XXII. Whose radiant beams. fever brings to man's poor frame: So. at a certain distance from the horizon. bright. the importance of which has already been explained (pp. Any reader of the classics will be familiar with the ris- ings and settings of the stars: Virgil. Shine with their fellow stars at noon of night: Orion's Dog we it mortals call ill. thinking only by letter.1 1 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

p. 489. d<mj 3 Since it is a star of evil omen it . Ill splendour of the star as it shines in the sky at night. f. Tt'rmrjs the sky in the morning twilight of out upon the battle-field. Hence the star becomes the symbol of the opore. 429. who slowly Cp.. OOTS iidAiGra AdfiJiQov naiupaivyOi /. : ft dye bvovra XVIII. 62. dvoi'Ta Boa>Tijv UQKTOVK. A .fAotf rp 'Queavolo since Sirius at his rising emerges like the dorijQ nafKpaivoi' II. TZOOQCOVTI uai S. XI. 14. 1911. The stars "And treacherous sleep ne'er fell on the eyes that were watch- ful still. Od. 380. r> XI. V. . in A and bringing destruction to the Trojans in in his been found the that Sirius at has passage difficulty rising is only just visible and therefore does not shine in his But Sirius is for the poet the typical brightest splendour. 4 ovMog Botinjt' A. and the Herdman. is the right idea obtained. - the star's appearance. Od. emnrs}' IJAijiddag ff. pvaAiymov. 17. fixed just star. . II. V. dm?Q onogtvu II. V. the observation that the Great Bear alone of the is (greater) stars does not dip down into the further serve as a guide to navigation 7 : ocean 6 . since he stands so far north. by A. p. Od. 3 ReligtonstKi'ss.<pd()oiGii' T. is also called in implied the disastrous-shining star' 4 star-setting is the words 'the late-setting Arcturus' 5 The 'late* f . the first day of lipsing all others l . dntoQivoc. see above. 271 translated Way. brightest as^he speaks of the heavens as starrv On ever\ day of even when the sun is ascending in them 2 one the opore Sirius rises higher and shines more brightly must not think only of the actual first rising. For he kept the Pleiads doth gain 1 in front. V.. my article in Arch. ec- f r < ( r . refers to the fact that the circle which Arcturus describes in the heavens longs also Here begreat. Od./ a period the believed to be induced by the~rismg of this star at beginning of the fruit-harvest.THE STARS of IN HOMER. 275. entirely fails to understand the darker and more fateful side of the simile. 5: 'bathed in the Ocean'. summer. sun from the ocean. Only when it is realised that the time of the morning' the rising of Sirius is the time of the greatest heat and sickness. Sirius Like later appearing flrhillpF. oi/v oiJde oi iwog ri fi/. 272. 35. XII.

Julian). 15) it is time to think about sowing. evening rising of Arcturus (60 days after the winter solstice. 615 ff. and of Orion (Nov. Alcaeus says: "Drink wine. ydQ ddrgov ytQiTMTai. But wrongly. 3 and that when the cricket chirps Sirius burns heads and knees the late autumn rains come men feel relieved. storms rage. Alcaeus. and Orion are also mentioned.. Theog-nis vv. hath no share in the baths of the Ocean-stream: For Calypso. just as the Pleiades are for alt stars are held to be the causes of those climatic changes which are connected with any of their 5 when Sirius rises earlier. followed by the coming of the sw allow. rest. 28a Matth. 619 ff. 597 ff. fall into the sea. 24.jsjor_ the Australians.: reyye ntev/nova poivc^' TO f. y indeed here taken Sirius to mean the sun. XVIII.112 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. pp. * Pfeiffer. 1 ff. His and the Bear. i. 609 of the heavens when Orion and Sirius are in the middle and the dawn sees Arcturus (morning rising the time of the vine-harvest. Sept. whose rising introduces the time of greatest heat. 3). XIII. heavens for some hours during the night-time. the the r winnowing of the harvested corn at the ff. it is when the Pleiades.. Feb. at the (morning) setting of the Pleiades (Nov.. for the star (viz. Sirius) revolves" G . vv. vv. and the ship should be drawn up on land. The other passages are: vv. 528 * ff. morning rising of Orion (July 9).. 1 II. . before this time the vines should be pruned. of the Hyades.. vv. doth it glare on Orion's falchion-gleam. Hesiod says that at the time when the thistle blooms and . Ever turning alone And The Pleiades.. 414 ff. fr. vv. vv. the Goddess divine. messenger of spring. 486. and as the Greeks the cause of the heat. fleeing from Orion. * Op. vv. 1039 . since the star Sirius is /uses the night more not passing over their heads for so long a time but 4 Commentators of classical times have . for Sirius. the Wain: it they are wont to call it moreover at bay. the Hyades. remains in risings or settings . but not in any special connexion with the indication of time The morning-star helps to determine time on a night journey 2 ! . Cp. 564 ff. the heat declines. had bidden him still to keep Over his left that sign as he fared on the face of the deep". 18). 93. c 8 Od. e.

that winter bring mortal men. as 'twere a dog. I of the Agamemnon of Aeschylus says: On elbow bent. 113. R. vv. till that the hidden lore Of rising stars and setting I unveiled" 3 . ff. 457. who must hold to the natural year and its seasons. 113 jolder in time-indications from the stars are therefore much Greece than the lunisolar calendar. Later. Aesch. Aeschylus. And took no thought. the morning rising of Arcturus on Sept. who glories men every advance in civilisation... to the phases of the stars have become so familiar f everyone that Sophocles can say.the stars in having brought to And Prometheus. includes 2 ..vesperugo. Rex. . Prom.. J Schol. 8 2 453 translated by N 399 fr. in = tentriones or mgulae. those bright constellations. 4 Soph.. Prom. Whether stars the Romans made use' of time-indications from before they borrowed them from the Greeks is unany case they had their own names for some constellations: -. The discovery . 18 the 4 . e.. translated by E. Thring.. a time of six months from spring to Arcturus'. watching. The watchman who The - speaks the prologue ". g fiQQ$ sig &QKTOVQOV 1 . mark And the stars in nightly conclave meet. as they know them is come and go" *. iubar lucifer. Soph.. without peer. and so latter is also of the science of .. in Lords paramount And summer Right well I in their train for heaven. the evening star. of the advent of the flowery spring. the Pleiades. Agam. 4 ff. and always existed which was of a religious and civil alongside of the latter . i. Oed. the The all founder of regarded by the tragic poets as the elements of intellectual culture. therein the knowledge of the risings and settings of the stars: - Nor "Of winter's coming no sure sign had they. v. Aesch. of star-observation and of its use in timeij \ reckoning and navigation ascribed to the heroes Prometheus | and Palamedes.. sepcertain. Palam. Whitelaw.OBSERVATION OF THE STARS! GREEKS AND ROMANS. vergilme.as the calendar of character peasants and seamen. Of fruitful summer none: so fared through each. the Great Bear.

Aldebaran. pp. arranged according to the signs of the zodiac: by the side of these are holes into which solar little calendar 2 according to the relation of every lunisolar year to the solar one The Arabians also carefully observed the stars. The Pleiades were observed throughout their course. 99 ff. 2 Rehm. 162 ff. the Hyades. these tablets being arranged events 3 . shot a copper arrow. On the stone are inscribed the risings and settings of the stars. were brought into a calendar. It may be well first to show by a few examples how far they were acquainted with the stars and saw in them images of terrestrial The Chukchee give names to the most important conthings. up mnemonic verses were made. 'the Front Head and the Rear Head'. are translations 1 of the corresponding Greek names At a later period the risings and settings of the stars^ . :i Sprenger. stellations. and about most of the positionsj^fejclL they take. pp. His wife is Capella is a man driving with two reindeer.114 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Suculae. against a 'group of Leo. which was then arranged according to the signs of the zodiac. Among_diyinities are reckoned 'the Motionless Star' or the Nail-star' or 'the Pole-stuck Star'. and many of their proverbs couple the risings of the stars with natural . or later according to the months of the Julian or Egyptian The solar year. a reindeer-buck which is tied behind the sledge of women'. and pchittin. Greek lunisolar year in w as r unsuitable for the the varied reference to How both were adjusted to practical sun needs and the is shewn by the remains of tw^o stone calendars found at Milet. could be tablets containing the days of the lunifitted. . it since purpose. and canicula. 'the Standing Woman'. Since these constellations is are the so-called lunar not primitive. Mohammed swears by the setting Pleiades in the 53rd chapter of the Koran^ We return once more to the primitive peoples. together with the climatic phenomena accompanying them or believed to accompany them. but must have been stations their use here added on to a primitive usage. f a part of who has Orion is an archer with a crooked back. Aquilo. Arcturus and Vega. the Pole-star. the Dog-star. a fox approaches from the side. stars. the Pleiades. Six of the stars of the Great Bear are men throwing 1 Gundel.

p.STAR-LORE: x. the of Orion is are the breast-bone of the heavens. 2 3 142. . p. the belt composed of three 'scattered ones' . Carver. | American Indians have paid it less attention to the stars: but 8 that the sum-total of their astroexaggerated to say nomical knowledge was the ability to point to the Pole-star is 1 Bogoras. the belt of Orion. If the morning star comes up above a mountain south-east of Sitka. 4 II. Venus as the morning star ('Morning-round-thing'). . 115 with slings. Three-men-ininto the sky who were taken up back Sirius has a . Cygnus as three kayaks which have been out seal-hunting. two months are named after the risings of the Pleiades and Orion Of the Thlinkit it is said that few constellarespectively *. 427. ^^^ ' which. Egede. Venus is the follower or man-at-arms of the sun. good weather . The Twins are two elks running from two hunters who are Corona is the paw of the Polar driving two reindeer-teams. it means bad weather. 10. Schiefner. 307 ff. like the moon.J another by the hair. to the Great Bear. the Pleiades are to be regarded as baying hounds with a bear among them. 5 c 204.Greenlanders jwins - and could not find their way man's name. B if well over in the Otherwise the North east. ' v . The Eskimos of Greenland have a good knowledge of the stars. pp. Swanton. AMERICA. Cassiopeia represents five reindeerbucks standing in the middle of a river 1 . and Jupiter (?) as the evening star ('Marten-month' or 'Marten-moon'). Jupiter is the mother of the sun Among the Konyag of tbe island of Kodiak. off the south coast of Alaska. tions or stars appear to have been named by them: those to which names are given are 'the Great Dipper'.fasten their ropes and harpoons. the seventh is a fox gnawing' at a pair of antlers. a-line' (probably the belt of Orion). 106 and 85. Aldebaran is the eye of the bull. and Alde3 baran. When one planet crosses [ the path of another it is a wife and a concubine who have t/i one|2 2 By then ^j. p. Holm. and 39. Bear. or else it is a visit of two stars ' Ammasalik names are given to Vega ('the Foot of the Lamp'). the Pleiades (sculpin). the Pleiades 'the Barkers'). 131 ff. which by night used to serve as a guide. The Great Bear is a reindeer. is the brother of the sun. or the little stool on which the}. 253. Delphinus is a seal.

the Pleiades were called by an old name. 635. Arcturus is the right hand of Antares. Dorsey and Swanton. Orion and the Pleiades are always mentioned together. the most important stars. The tribes of Pennsylvania had names for a few stars. the latter were seven The Diegueno constellations sisters. pursued by Aldebaran. Orion stars 3 . this name. Sirius is the e'nd of a great cross- beam 1 supporting the frame from the side. which however they did unwillingly. pp. p. was not commonly used. Orion is a large frame on which manioc is dried. and said that when the Great Bear rose or a certain star stood in the north it was time to do this or that 6 The Indians of South America have observed the stars in much greater detail. in particular for the Bakairi of Central Brazil. are altogether different from the Luiseno. 110. which had a religious significance. the morning star fornia name. from which they took their way when they travelled at night. these women however reckoned by other stars. a ff. The Great Bear was 'the Litter'. and 4 The Luiseno of southern Cali'Big Star'. Those most frestairs^ quently mentioned are Antares and Altair. The associated stars near the form much larger groups than those common among us. and observed their motions: the Pole-star 'shewed them by night the direction they must The Omaha called the Pole-star 'the Not-moving-star'. The were chiefs among the first people. the larger stars are the tops of posts. 'the Deer's Head'.116 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. loupe it was reported at their discovery: - - In other places they merely reckon the day by the sun and the night by the moon. the other stars around Antares are his suite. and the Pole-star. 666. 4 The Pleiades are 3 a p. for the Biloxi and Ofo . 'Stars-all-heads' (?) (three large Pleiades). 162 Columbus. 203. and are based upon totally different ideas: it has not been possible however to obtain an accurate account of them 5 Of the natives of Guade. are well known. The descriptions of von den Steinen . 527. Du Bois. Gatschett. . p. 2 Fletcher and 5 La Flesche. Otherchiefs are Spica. the popular name being 'Little-duck's2 foot'. . Fomalhaut. it rises before the latter and announces his coming. p. Venus 'Big-Star' For the Klamath are mentioned only the three stars in the belt of take in the morning 1 . 'Stars-in-circle' (the Pleiades). p. Heckewelder.

Zetitratbras. is an ear-piercer. 359 Teschauer. natives of Brazil in general it is stated that there is hardly a single important constellation which does not explain to them some event... the Milky Way is a huge drum-stick. upon which a jaguar. and the holes in it (the dark spots) are observed and explained by stories. AMERICA. the The Southern Cross. Nordenskiold has repeatedly visited border and 3 Brazil. Bolivia. The Paressi have a name for the Southern Cross. of Orion. The Scorpion roro the Southern Cross represents the toes of a great ostrich. Castor and Pollux are the holes of a great flute. or more properly the hole bored in the ear. 486. the which are stuck backwards. 1 between the Argentine. Of the Chane and Chiriguano Indians he says that districts ff.STAR-LORE: s. ' Krause. . the Centaur a leg belonging to them. a two stars of the Centaur above it represent ray fish). knew many the constellations. 340. in Capella wear their ears. Scorpio. pp. above which they see an ostrich whose figure is to be recognised in a dark spot of the Milky Way: other animals are also found in the sky. and this could Way fish close beside. for example. is leaping 2 . Of the an ostrich. probably Procyon. One star. 513. The Southern Cross is a bird-snare on a twig. though they certainly have no heroes of them. p. 784 ff. or represent some idea in connexion with things that happen upon the to set in earth. and Canopus were related the E. Canopus has no name. pp. two other Auriga ear-rings Kayabi. The name of The Karaya of Central Brazil Venus was not translatable 1 . Myths 3 . Orion is a Jabuti turtle and in the parts verging on to Sirius a cayman. To the Boof corresponds and Argo. In the snare a mutum cavallo (crax) was Milky full taken. 'the father of the heap'. the Pleiades are the bunches of blossom on the angico tree. of the Pleiades. and the two large stars of the Centaur represent two stars of of are the of the feathers canes belonging to it. fallen out at the side is 117 : heap of grains of meal that have a larger mass. is a little capsule such as the Bakairi Aldebaran. A be seen in a dark patch of the Sokko heron with a little basket approximately to the stars of Pisces is a drag-net for children. von den Steinen. and drew some of them in our inis formant's sketch-book.

they are called yehu. when. but the natives do not know the meaning of the name. the body is the neighbouring 'coal-pit' (the dark spot of the Milky Way). p. reich. 44 f. of Rio Scorpion Orion a beetle. the Great Bear is a road. and the stool-bearer of the moon. 319 Spieth. the Big Star' Pleiades the a tail are of a flock of parakeets. planet. for star. but they know The part of the Milky Way lying nearest to well. a word unknown meaning. all men will die. The Guarayu call Orion 'the Black Vulture'.. . at his side lies a heap of snake's bones (the sword). Orion. the Southern Cross is called the Ostrich Way. 4 f. 'morning'. the Pleiades a serpent. The Southern Cross with the stars around it is an ostrich. The Milky Way is composed of stars forming a cord 4 Of the Ibo-speaking tribes we are . Orion the is is the burning roca. 173. - Ehren- 72. f the Pleiades are the most important constellation. The Ipurina . the Southern them very Cross together with a few neighbouring stars is the head of the ostrich. ft Centauri the ostrich's feet. on their return after their period is 'the Eel's Nest'. constellation. 557. and the two largest stars of the Centaur are its collar. the morning star ('the Clucking Hen'). Purus are call turtle. missing. Venus is called coewrilla. p. Nordenskiold. a star always situated in the vicinity of that planet. pp. 273. Indianlif. Indianer och hrita. told mat they seem 1 to be singularly incurious about heavenly p. the Hyades the Cross forest-folk 2 In a Chilean word-list there called wise. In Africa seem to to have paid the comparatively more civilised negro_ tribes less attention to the stars than the more primitive tribes of the south. another constellation is the Roe-buck's Horn'. Venus called 'the The Karai tribes called a. the Pleiades. 3 Molina. the Southern Cross is a fresh-water ray. still another 'the Tapir'. they do not give names to many constellations. it is a good omen: is the circle J . the two large stars of the Centaur are a roebuck. The Ho tribe considers the stars be the children of the moon: it recognises and names the most important constellations.118 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. a cluster of stars in the south The Pleiades are called piangi. pp. words Venus 3 . if they are surrounded by a is circle. Orion with his sword is called 'Birds-meet-each-other'. of of invisibility.

when it Ten star-names is bright and clear there will be of the Shilluk are given. the belt of Orion represents three rowers. much rain rain. 104. and the little f above of it is bers the tribe a thief pursued by the six other stars. cries. to which the stolen animal belongs. with head. 1 Arcin. The people think that the rain comes from the Pleiades. e. who are regarded as the 'Caretakers. they expect u good rainy season. the hour of prayer. Bakongo. since The Bakongo of the constellations must be of native origin. is held in particular veneration. kole. Venus ( the Wise-Man-whoIn French Guinea ?/ ursae is an ass. and the eastern the 3 Thomas. hands. which the magician takes intrusion call the three and 'the Chief Hunter'. the western star star 5 of the last-named is to them a boar. the evening star also has a name. rain for their farms 3 The Bangala call the Pleiades a without superabundance five stars in Lepus.who-guard-the-rain'. Westermann. Weeks. Venus and a fore-runner of Venus are known 5 The Wagogo know the Milky Way." the lowing constellations: belt of Orion l names not can-talk') -tar . memFor other peoples the Great Bear is the star of the camel. the companion and guardian The marabout the moon. and announces by or sometimes by blows on a gong. young group . this constellation is clearly seen. p. p. JRAI. but only two are translated: the Pleiades are 'the Hen'. pp. and 'Three Stars' is Uranus 'sic!). 394. the Pleiades. 417 ff. for the Great Bear two were given. are a man of women. . his into Everyone has carefully of astrology is not are the Mohammedans. 127. From the appearance of the Milky Way they draw conclusions as to the lack or abundance of 4 . the middle 4 is the dog. five stars in Orion are bundles of thunder and lightning. 'the Palm-rat'. pp. translated (Three and Three'). Jupiter (?). at the beginning of the rainy season. and feet. . the belt of Orion. 293 ff. p. i. and if. of in a confused thing. and . i. e. while the names people striking. however names were got for the folThe Pleiades ('Hen and Chickens'). Venus is the wife of the moon. Ibo. 119 bodies and occurrencea. the morning awaits the rising of Venus.STAR-LORE: AFRICA. account good and bad 2 The stars. Cassiopeia is that of the ass. stars in Orion's belt 'the Dog'. the Pleiades have the name 'murmur'. 39. 3 Weeks.

leads aware Orion ('the Fish'). The natives are a dog). Venus is the best is ('Ants'). on account of their thick cluster of stars. Jupiter is called 'the Great as the evening star is the wife of the moon. his belt ('the Line of the Hunter'. * Thonga. 'the Side-star' 4 . or the star atwhose rising men_run_away 1 (i. Venus as an evening star is recognised to he the same celestial body as the morning star.. since it does not remain long in the sky. *. are three fugitive zebras against the middle one of which the hunter i shoots his arrow $ and c. Jupiter is known. Of single fixed stars our author heard only Sirius called by a name. Far greater knowledge who of possessed by the Hottentots. 285. II. Mercury 'the Dawn-star comes when the udders of the cows (which are milked . 135 ff.. from that or the star illicit intercourse). Sirius ('the Rain-star'). that certain stars move. . as a morning star she is the liar. the Magellanic Clouds 'Embers' in the dual. The Bushmen of the latter divide the stars into night-stars and dawn-stars: they relate very fine 3 1 Glaus. The Pleiades. Ill: 2. the Pleiades is the only constellation with a name. who Star'. 4 p. Junod. or are : otherwise known as 'the Rime-star \ The Milky Way is called '(glowing) Embers'. e. pp. further stated that the stars play in their ideas. the Scorpion ('the Serpent'). the Pleiades . their mind seems not to have tried to group the stars. hunter a Of the Thonga it remarkably small part known. and is called 'the Evening Fugitive'. pp. 367 ff. 39. Loango Exp. but is sometimes identified with Venus. are called by a name derived from a verb meaning 'assemble'.120 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. or to have seen 2 In Loango the folfigures of animals or objects in the sky . The six stars of the belt and sword of Orion are grouped together as 'the Zebras' d. e. when however he is seen in 'the middle of the sky' he is called 'the Middle Star'. krurw^the planets accurately. spy of the moon. Venus illusory moon 3 .the false Southern lowing constellations are distinguished: Cross ('the Turtle'). Venus is 'the Fore-runner is the sun'. morning and evening) are filled again: as an evening star he is not observed. or false moon. they have no notion whatever of constellations. Schulze.

Castor and Pollux his wives. p. Orion's sw^ord three male tortoises hung upon a of stick.STAR-LORE: AFRICA. 724. I g. of stars are given. and the Pleiades. others by Kotz. give only a few and 144. 121 and complicated myths. India know Porcupine-star'). pp. 108. II. the constellation to which house Aldebaran belongs is 'a pig's jaw'. y crucis are a male hartebeest. pp.. the Great Bear. 3 and the stars . Orion's sword Sirius. the Magellanic Clouds a steinbok. ft. Many names by Ridley and MacPherson. arm missing The natives of Australia have a rich stellar mythology 5 The evening star has its name and its myths. howin the all is women who believed by the tribes ever. appear to pay very little attention to the probably because these enter very little into 2 Bleek. his daughter (Regulus or a Iconise Achernar is 'the Star-digging-stick'sstone'. a. are this Alcheringa period lived at Intitakula: whom our authority studied. e. the evening and the morning stars. and the stars in general as campfires of natives who live in heaven. 213 f. ff. and relate about them myths which are probably borrowed from the neigh2 The pagans of the Malay Peninsula know bouring Badaga . 139. such as that of the connexion between 'the Dawn's Heart' (Jupiter) and a neighbouring star. Orion they regard as an emu. stars 1 the in natives detail. also pp. 593 5 3 ff. Of the Kayan of Borneo it is movements stated that though they do not observe the stars or their for practical purposes. the Pointers to lions. Southern Cross Aldebaran are is Canopus'. the Pleiades are 'a well'. or the Pleiades In the Indian Archipelago the observation of the Pleiades as a sign of the arrival of the season for sowing is very common. Orion is a man Avhose left 1 . Rivers. is 4 . The Pleiades . II. 30 examples. of the astro- logical seasons (sic!). or 'the Digging-stick's. a Orion is a female three male hartebeest. . Procyon a male eland. Skeat and Blagden. 131 ff. The Toda S. AUSTRALIA. op. INDIA.stone of the lionesses. 4 Hose and Mac Dougall. and have fanciful names for them and relate mythical stories about the personages they are supposed The Klementan call Pegasus 'the padi storeto represent. As a general rule. they are familiar with the principal constellations.. his belt three female tortoises so hung ('the 1 .

which sometimes comes dow n to earth and chokes men T and women acquainted in Avith According to another author their_sleep *. Strehlow. 9. pp. corona a us trails is the Laughing is a crow. to The Pleiades are seven dulled because off sisters. men. man Spencer and 2 628 ff. The stars are fires which the spirits of the dead have lit in their journey across the sky. Howitt. A in Scorpio are devils the}* sometimes who try come down catch the spirits of the dead. anything which is connected with their daily life. Australia give names to many stars group some of them together in constellations. among which are the sons The Wiiambo thought that the stars were once of Bunjil. great an article of . 24.. 21 Central Australia. 19 f. the Southern Cross The tribes 'an eagle's foot'. 565 f. pp. more especBy the northern Arunta and the ially with their food-supply. e. according to the Wotjoare some women. another star baluh. 431 f. I. two have been a them: 1 they caught them and tried to melt the ice succeeded in escaping to heaven. The Pleiades. anyone interested in the catasterisms of ancient mythology should read the full account given for this tribe.122 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Mars an eagle. ice-maidens. E. Kaitish the Magellanic Clouds are supposed to be full of evil magic. A waving dark shadow which you will see along the Milky Way is a crocodile.. f. but do not Gillen. very high stage of development in stellar science and mythology is reached among the Euahlayi tribe of the north-west district of New South Wales. a small star in Arg'o is 'the Shell Parakeet' 3 . f Jackass'. Tribes. the Arunta the Pleiades are seven maidens at the circumcision who had danced ceremony and then ascen- ded into heaven. presumably the dark patches without stars. pp. The Southern Cross is an emu. and the dusky haze i. II. Two dark spots . which interest primitive peoples as much as the stars themselves is the smoke of the fires.. the dark patch in the Milky Way adornment (ngapatjmbi). to earth and make whirlwinds. Xorth. Venus is called 'the Laughing Star' the reason the Milky Way is an overfor her laughter is a coarse jest flow of water. Two stars in the neighbourhood of the Magellanic Clouds are called the two Gland-poison Men': the Clouds f are the smoke of their is fires. . The morning star is also known 2 and of S.

no de- developed . Str.-T. e. & JR. nest. p. Brough-Smyth. the Cross the first spirittree.? I. the eagle springs up to guard his Vega rises. the Coal-pit'. 123 shine so brightly as their sisters. The sword and belt of Orion are boys who on earth loved and followed the Pleiades. pursued by 'The Featherless a devil of waterf \Vurrawilberoo. The Northern Crown is called ninUion \collai. Castor and Pollux are two hunters of long' ago.the 'hole' between the foreieet of Centaurus and the Cross 3 .STAR-LORE: AUSTRALIA. 219. 433. at least they 5 The Banks Islanders notice that . the Southern Crown an eagle-hawk. Ridley. Corvus is a kangaroo. a long series of star-names. p. and is called tribe f inuUion-ga. The The dark spot at the foot of the 'holes' are also \vell known. 4 mythology and observation of the stars They distinguish the planets from the fixed stars.Venus does not twinkle never travel by night. Altair rises. and consequently do not use the stars in navigation. 95 if. The white cockatoos which used to roost in the branches of this tree followed it and became the Pointers l Ridley has obtained from the former chief of the Gingi to the r . the dark spot beside the Southern Cross. mother and daughter. As richly to the stellar science of the Melanesians we variously informed. 2 Parker. p. . 1 Kot/. who goes ever}* night to his sky-camp. is called an emu. 37. The tribes of the Torres Straits are very have a . Canopus is the Mad Star': he of them f went mad on 'the losing his loves.. i. says our authority. and it is they who make the winter thunderstorms. quoted by . the bird sits under the Elsewhere the star at the head of the Cross is an opossum fleeing from a pursuer . the Pleiades drop down some ice in the winter. and is also called tnnUioii-ga. pp. Especially noteworthy for the observation of the risings is the following. The Magellanic Clouds are Emu' is Native Companions'. pp. in consequence of this. but In order to remind people after death were turned into stars. a huge yaraon which was the medium for the translation sky of the first man w ho died on earth. 139 ff. when it stands exactly north on the meridian. Eagle-in-action'. 274.. 4 See below. holes. f Later Cross (the situ tree) tree -. the Eagle's Nest'.

A ially when it case tribes from a native of another tribe. in Lambutjo 'Hog-fish f 1 . 376. and on Bambatana and Alu the year is reckoned according to them: the Crown is called in Lambutjo 'the Fisher in Buin Taro-leaf-greens'. as distinct from vitUy 'star'. '- Ibid. perhaps because of their longer sea-voyages. Rivers. 340 .. and with calling the planets luasoi from their roundness. is 'the War-canoe'. Admiralty Islands understand the moon and the know neither stars nor moon 2 stateMatankor but the stars. on the Gazelle Peninsula kakupcpe. The Dog' or 'Shark' Many myths are is a large star 'that of told the stars 3 . since extremely primitive the stars quite well. 1 . a large net for deep water. it is 'the when it rises later. Orion's belt Mel. information out about the names of stars or constellations could be obtained. from the statement of a native Moanu. Cruz and the Reef Islands excel all others in their practical astronomy. in Lambutjo kapet. In any it comes would constitute an exception. a kind of small fish. ment such as this must be received with great reserve. below. on the Gazelle Peninsula the People-at-the-feast'. but could not which they were said to denote l The . In Florida the early morning star is called 'the Qtiartz-pebble-for-setting-off-to-sea' ever. If. I. pp. 'the Three Men'. quoting p. : Company 1 of Maidens'. The former are called in Lambutjo kiasa. howThe Pleiades are 'the Shining-stone-of-light'. 3 552. Another authority remarks that the natives of the Solomon Islands are more concerned about the stars than the eastern Polynesians. p. know New Britain and of the Solomon Islands even very_ The Pleiades and corona boreahs play an important part (cp. by which the approach of the yam-harvest is marked. espec- Moanu of the . Further star-names are: -. on the Gazelle Peninsula 'the Thornback'.. IT. 173. point A the stars native gave a few names. The possibility of intluence from the astronomically learned PolyneThe people of Santa sians must also probably be entertained.for the Hyades in Buin 'Earth-rat'. the eveParkinson. the pursues Fishes'. the natives of well. Thurnwald.124 finite PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. The natives of Banks Island and the northern New Hebrides content themselves with distinguishing only the Pleiades. 141). the star in the middle of the constellation is called Cygnus is called in Buin 'Hog-bearer'.

STAR-LORE: OCEANIA.. The Tahitian. 442. p. since in these the stars are their principal guide. there is enough space between star and horizon for the wind to be released. The(Polynesians^pe very learned in astronomy. It is the for how many hours a star can serve him as compass. p. At Saa the Southern Cross1s~a net with four men letting it down to catch palolo. so that immediately after the apparent turning of the star from east to west he may choose another. and the Pointers are two men cooking what has been caught . Tupay a. as was most commonly the case in their voyages. and prevent the free passage of the wind. p. the Southern Triangle 'the is Three-men-in-a.the stars stand just above the eastern horizon. Certain periods of bad weather recur every year with tolerable regularity. for instance. so to speak. But if the pernicious star in question is at the given time 20 or 30 above the horizon. This strong wind will last until another influential star arises under the first. 2 Forster. island. Mantis Red l Pig' . one constellation. they stop up the east. or promontory to a report is detailed given for the - passage or promontory of this spot the that atoll to be reached. . and their bold and wTde seaTvoyages have helped to make them so. Of great interest also is the idea of the connexion between the atmospheric and other phenomena and the stars. pre3 A ferably the Pleiades. I . 348. 125 ning star 'Listen-for-the-oven'. was chosen as a point to steer by i . because the daily meal is taken as evening draws on. \vho accompanied Cook on his first voyage. could always 2 When H point out to him the direction in which Tahiti lay the Society Islanders put to sea in the evening. so that the sailors attribute them to the immediate influence When.. The Pleiades are called 'the Tangle'.because the palolo appears when on-e of the Pointers rises above the horizon. All stars are called dead men's eyes. 148. at Codrington. canoe'. at 4 o'clock in the morning which time the signs of the weather are observed . Above stands the star sailor's business to know gives the direction. This of the stars. 8 Wegener. Marshall Islands: In the from atoll to atoll the course of the boat is journey commonly directed from a certain passage.

>. Venus. Sirius ('Big Star'). the claw of the Scorpion. The Polynesian material for star-names. p. the Magellanic Clouds (the upper and lower 'Haze'). 4 Mathias Erdland. n aquilae] 'disembowels the heavens'. See further KOtx. this For example when Spica storm is developed. pp. Mars 2 5 ('the Red Star'). but 20 above the horizon a violent important of the stars that bring bad weather are Spica. is only lasts until Arcturus some The most time later becomes visible on the eastern horizon. Jedada (7. With the rising of Cassiopeia the time ft. the Pleiades. Altair. 'Day-star' 1 or 'Herald-of-the-morning'. G. of calms begins. 238. Jupiter. Altair is before -regarded as a bad fellow. do reconOf 'King Jabro'. the Milky Way ('the Long-blue-cloud-eating-shark'). 72. 43 Wegener. f great 1 . 24 ff. e. are related: when long myths they emerge from the horizon tears are when they vanish again into but shed joy prevails. wind is therefore reduced. von Billow. v . This explains followed by a wind favourable for sailing. 209 f. //. and can here only be represented in outline. Orion's belt.126 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. dawn it is commonly a time When he rises in the east run low. Antares. ciliation and goodwill return. so as to give some idea how far astronomy may advance at this stage The Marquesas Islanders know and name a number of constellations and separate stars. Delphinus A and . so that quarrels arise: only the hot season (June August) brings plenty of food. g.. and sometimes 'Taurna- who-rises-at-dusk'. the 4 ConLittle Eyes (the Pleiades). Arcturus. like lower star acts The strength of the why every storm is a wind-chute placed against an open hut. know the name of this or that con- if it marks the beonly ginning of some important native occupation -. . <?. 148. p. is pvr^^^^^y an islander engaged indicate and name this or that star since in the fishing trade can abundant. 3 and Saturn 5 . called sometimes are: - - vthe Pleiades. when food supplies have when he rises higher and guarded secret jQnit through prevailing European influence it Ms now fallen entirely into decayT) In Samoa it is now an exception for a native to stellation. pp. ff. 'the Rudder' (Orion's belt) stellations mentioned as being known to the Society Islanders of civilisation 3 . pp. n Pegasi. 1 the west The knowledge of the stars was often a carefully .

Orion's belt is called of ? . named Hoapili. g. names The Hawaiians had names five planets known by many constelapparently and they also knew the An distinguished native astronomer. Elbow Maui'. and the Pointers are the cables. matartki (the Pleiades) is the prow.. among them names for the Pleiades. 442. for and it further stated that 2 . - Forster. Jupiter. te toke o the mast. 125. p.STAR-LORE: OCEANIA. note 1. For the Marshall Islands see above. have omitted many which are not translated 5 Some stars are mentioned below in the account of the Maori calendar of months 6 . Taylor. which he let fall as he ascended into heaven. 'the Leather-iacket-fish' 'the Virile 1 i x the Southern Cross). Unfortunately given. and was acquain4 The Maoris had names for all the five . 4 Dibble. The most important of the latter is 'the Canoe of Tamarereti'. Venus. I. 127. from Lamotrek come 24. which consists of the following parts: . separate lations. long lists of starnames come from the Carolines. and the morning and evening stars *. p. whose husbands are Taikeha and Ninikuru. p. " p. 18 names are given lorPonape. 3 Member' (AMebaran).. Orion. observe the stars. Saturn. Pp. but ted only with the he had never observed it. Further. 2 Brandeis. and The Micronesians know the stars well.the three stars of Orion's principal stars and belt tc form the is icaka two 'the stern. -107. 78. f. p. 127 The people of Nauru. and their daughters are 7/0reore and Tfkatakata. Fornander. west of the Gilbert Islands. 211 . e. By the position of the Magellanic Clouds the natives think they can tell from what quarter the wind will blow. the two Magellanic Clouds. For Tahiti names are given is des ('Star-of-the-nest'). Sinus. 'the Broom' (Ursa Minor) r 'the Body-of-the-animal' (Sirius). the Scorpion is 'the House-of-Te-Whiuare the and-his-slaves Waka mauruiho and Waka mauruake husbands of Hurike and Angake. the Southern Cross is the anchor. the I names corresponding to our star-map are not . chiefly the Pleiades. the PleiaSirius i'Big Star'). stated that he had heard from others (Europeans ?) that there was one more travelling-star. many other stars are for 3 . the Southern Cross. One constellation is called 'the Garment of Maru'.. 363. and the belt of Orion. for a great number of constellations. and the Magellanic Clouds.

When he gets dawn and steps out of his hut. under the names of 'Markingday' and 'Marking-night'. the same way he observes at evening before he goes to stars there. and notices the stars that are shining and are soon to vanish before the light of the sun. although good sailors Stellar science and mythology are therefore wide-spread among the primitive and extremely primitive peoples. . Modern man is almost entirely without knowledgfi^iLAe stars. Sirius. from Mortlock 23. pp. unidentified on the other hand knew little about the stars. 'the Shark'. some people are apt to think that the determination of time from the stars belongs to a much more advanced stage: it is frequently regarded as a learned and very late mode of time-reckoning. e. what wards set 1 appear in the west at dusk and soon afterExperience teaches him that these stars k Christians. (Ursa Minor) fttsa-makit. and are bad navigators in the Leo. which at most call forth a vague emotion or are the objects of a science \vhich is considered to be very difficult and highly specialised. They had no names even for the most important constellations. 2 tain a considerable development among certain barbarjc_r2ep_ples. 68. the J . 388 it. etc. Southern Cross (perhaps). g. Centre-of-the-house' (Arietes). Hale. and is left to the Although this experts. 'the Bowl-in-the-midst-of-Sota'. Primi(1 not tive up the In rest at man rises and goes to bed with the sun. but so the observation of the visible risings and settings. not Orion Animal'. for him they are the Ornaments of the night-sky. 'the phinus and Aldebaran. from Yap 25. he directs his gaze to just there brightening east. It is true that the accurate determination of the ris- ings and settings of the stars does demand scientific work. Deland Cygnus. but the natives did. Their ignorance is ascribed to the fact that they never undertake voyages be yond the limits of their groups. 'the Rat'.. not distinguish between the planets and the fixed stars. /^ technical sense. 'the Fish-net'. or it may mean 'the Star-that-changes-its-position' (sic!).128 'the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. The Fijians identified. must be conceded. 'the Seven Mice'. 'The Branch-of-the-tree'. The evening and morning stars were known. and at. 'the Two Eyes' (Scorpio). 'the Fowling-net' (Corona). 'the Tail-of-the-tish' (Cassiopeia). p.

very conveniently. he learns that the risings and settings of certain stars coincide with certain natural phenomena. 132. In order to determine the time of certain important natural phenomena it is therefore sufficient to know and observe accuracy and certainty. as appears from statements already made.ew stars or constellations with It has been asked why this the most important 2 Pleiades^re " 2 On this special point Andree ""^Seepp. has collected much material.. 139. Just as the advance of the day is discerned from the position of the sun. instance. expressed by us in so many degrees above the horizon. so the advance of the year is recognised by the position of certain stars at sunrise and sunset. is not so accurate as that from the heliacal risings and tion. however. Hence the latter pass almost exclusively or at least pre-eminently under consideration wherever. However it would seem as if this mode of indicating time would require a greater knowledge of the stars. m. 136. 123. of the weather at 4 a. Here. since. for the purpose of determining the seasons a star may be observed when it is stationed at other positions in the sky than on the horizon. 129 vary throughout the year and that this variation keeps pace with the phases of Nature. 138. . e. fresh star for each of the smaller divisions of time.INDICATION OF TIME FROM THE STARS. 144. therefore. more concretely expressed. The ^4. g.as if it would constantly be necessary to observe a possess. 9 . settings. a calendar of the natural year is based upon the stars: sometimes however the upper culmination (jusaovQdvrjfia) is also given. Stars and sun alike are the indicators of the^oial of the heavens. 125. which has been considerably augmented by Frazer. there lies ready to hand a means of determining the time of the year. This is not the case. or. such as only few peoples . Finally the stars can also be observed at other times than just before sunrise or after sunset the Marshall for the signs were accustomed to observe Islanders. may also serve. With the lack of a means of accurately telling the time such an observation is very uncertain of night J : and unpractical. A determination of this kind. and one which is indeed much more accurate than a method depending on a reference to the phases of Nature. as in Greece. and is therefore seldom found. at its upper culminabut other positions.

since neither can be observed at the favourable moment. Sirius comes out: the people call to one another: ."Give The Bushmen perceive Canopus^ me yonder piece of wood that I may (in the fire). grandmother shall make a little warmth for us for she coldly comes out the sun shall warm grandmother's eye for us". animals." The other man says to him: "I saw Sirius. About the same time Can opus." "Who was that saw Sirius?" They say to one another: One man says to the other: "One brother saw Sirius. and we may also compare the dark starless patches which so largely occupy the attention of primitive peoples."Ye must as - burn (a stick) for it us (toward) Sirius. else rial must be added. account of the Bushmen shews viz. and can without difficulty be recognised as such. consisting as does of comparatively small part. that Sirius may not coldly come out. . The Pleiades however form themselves group without any aid from the imagination. Sirius appears. To create constellations in which terrest- objects. that I may burn it towards grand- . belong to the best known phenomena of the heavens. how extremely primitive peoples may also observe the risings of the stars.. grandmother." The other man says to him: "I wish thee to burn a stick for us towards Sirius. that the sun may shining come out for us. which.which is indeed somewhat nire may even they say put (the end to a child: of) it worship them. should have played so great a and the answer given is chiefly that its appearance coincides (though this is true of other stars also) with imporThis is correct. and . and unimportant stars. that I may point it burning towards . similar case is that of the Magellanic Clouds. . It is because they are easy to recognise immediately into a that the observation of these stars plays so important a part. for grandmother carries Bushman rice. that I may put it in the fire." The other man says to his son: "Bring me the piece of wood yonder. An the twilight. but somethingtant phases of the vegetation. it particular constellation. although neither of these two phenomena is used in determining time. where A they are visible. may connect them with the seasons. and men are arbitrarily seen requires no inconsiderable degree of imaginative power.130 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and a similar ceremony takes place.

He throws fire at them 1 Canopus and Sirius appear in winter. p. Me Kellar. p. that is in the first half of the cold season. 144. After they had taken part in all the ceremonies in which to-day the assistance of women 1 Bleek and Lloyd. he says that Sirius shall twinkle like Canopus. he holds it in the 131 may He ascend the sky. 95. These stars become visible in the middle of June. 279. e. that grandmother one". The appearance of the Pleiades also gives to the Bushmen of the Auob district the signal for departure to the tsama field 2 The _Euahlayi tribe also connect the Pleiades with the cold^ they call the stars 'the Ice-maidens'. danced_Jn order to win the favour of the Pleiades. i. 367. below p. i. for the higher they stand the at sunrise and the more brightly more nearly winter draws towards an end. Here therefore the constellation is connected with a phase of the Nature. Canopus. The ceremony just fire. 2 Schulze. above the eastern horizon they twinkle. and the whole is mythologically explained. p. are seven maidens who ascended into heaven. 122. It is said also the stars rise higher. where they again gathered danced in the women's dance. towards points burning Sirius. cp. cp. . like the other of wood.OBSERVATION OF THE STARS! BUSHMEN. and say that in winter they let ice drop on the earth and also cause the winter thunderstorms 3 Another . but after many Avanderings came back and Pleiades ngoknta fruit to Okaralyi. it is period the time between the evening setting and the morning rising. instead of blessings curses are 4 The Arunta say that the Pleiades apt to be bestowed on it tribe . 4 I. he points to them with fire that they may twinkle like each other. The child brings him the piece described that it is will make obviously a warming-incantation. and are therefore called at the time of their becoming 'Rime-stars'. imagine them to be covered with ice. The Hottentots connect the Pleiades with winter. mother. quoted by Frazer. Parker. p. Ridley. p. 3 . According to another Arunta myth the Pleiades are maidens who had danced at a circumcision ceremony. it . He sings. e. above. since visible the nights may be al- ready so cold that there is hoar-frost in the early morning. During this are not to be seen in the sky. 338 f. hence the cold is connected with them. 307. the constellation__is_ worshipped by onejbody as the giver of rain. but should the rain be deferred.

pp. 43. . Aldebaran.who is held in great respect since he has taught the natives to find the pupae of the wT ood-ants. Those two groups The breaking up of a set forth the period of the summer.132 is still PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.. important article of food in August and September who has taught them to find the eggs of the . in MacPherson. The natives also know and tell stones of many other stars 2 Another states that can tell from the authority position of Arcthey turus or Vega above the horizon in August and October re3 spectively when it is time to collect these pupae and these eggs . which prolonged drought is thus explained: kangaroo culminates in March. again invested with a myth. they went district. A tribe nected certain constellations with th seasons. tribe in Victoria taught the ff. When a shower of rain has come. The winter stars are Arcturus . in Kotz. is a tree with three big branches. . The Pleiades are young maidens playing to a corroboree-party of young men./#//-hen. which the cooked by the successful hunters. As the year advances Castor and Pollux appear : they are two hunters who pursue and smoke kill Capella. Not without reason did the circumcision most frequently take place at the season when the Pleiades rise at evening in the east and remain in the sky all night long (this is the case in the summer months). An 3 old chief of the Spring 1 Creek 2 ff. Strehlow. to determine tneTIme of the feast. and here it is imagined some birds drink. which are also an important article of food in October. and this circumstance is of Western Victoria con- represented by the belt and sword of Orion. is an old man keeping time for the This group corresponds with the months of Nodancers. vember and December. Berenice's Hair. pp. whence they ascended to heaven back to their native and are now to be seen as the Pleiades. requisite at this festival. every drop is nevertheless sucked up by the dusty earth. 9 and 19 Stanbridge. which are an and Vega. so that this prominent constellation was regarded as a spectator of the festil The Pleiades therefore serve vities connected with the rite . A small cavity formed at the junction of the three branches has however retained a little water. 'the Rose-crested Cockatoo'. The Mirage is is the of the fire at a kangaroo. 71 Brough-Smyth. p.

"' quoted by Andree. 364. the lost 4 children can be seen in the sky every night Among the the Pleiades is of culmination of Arizona the Indians Tusayan often used to determine the proper time for beginning a sacred . the regular heavy rains will begin. 15. . The S. 307. Among the N. have much greater knowledge consequence frequently connect sfpllnr phe- nomena. 4 Wilson..OBSERVATION OF THE STARS I AUSTRALIA. in particular the these have disappeared below the horizon. when the buffalo calves are yellow: But when these turn brown. nocturnal rite 5 . p. p. JRA1. 311. Me Clintock. the Pleiades are seven children who ascended into heaven because~tEey had no yellow hides of the buffalo calves. after death. quoted by Frazer. young people the names of the favourite constellations as indicaFor example when Canopus at dawn is tions of the seasons. American and in of the stars. - Bogoras. Since this constellation begins to appear above the horizon at the time of the winter solstice. According to another legend of the same tribe. AMERICA. ascended into heaven. especially those of the Pigi^s wifrh pha^s of Nature. Fewkes. the Pleiades are visible in the east a little before sunrise. which is believed to be a forefather of the tribe who. Therefore the Pleiades are invisible during the time (the spring). II. the time has come to visit friends and neigh- bouring tribes in The Chukchee form out of the stars Altair and Tarared Aquila a constellation named pclrittin. Indians. when *. If of certain constellations. only a very little way above the eastern horizon. quoted by Frazer. 301. American Indians the determination of time from constellations is rare. 3 L'Heureux. and most families belonging to the tribes 2 living by the sea bring their sacrifices at its first appearing . 308. In north-west Brazil the Indians determine the time of planting from the position Pleiades. and is the opening of the agricultural year . The Siusi gave an accurate ac1 Dawson. quoted by Frazer. it is time to collect eggs. in autumn. It includes two sacred vigils and the solemn blessing and plant3 ing of the seed. 312. p. it is said to usher in the light of the new year. The Blackfeet Indians regulate their most important feasts by the J^leiajjes^a feast is held about the first and the last day of the occultation of these stars. p.

Scorpio. which other much rain When these tribes see a dancing-implement. 245. above p. No. y von den Steinen. II. the northern part of Eridanus. e. in set. 1 had 3 -constellations: -. i. 'the Crab'. When these set. continuous rain the river begins to rise.a Second Crab'. basket'. e. birds. in the sand. and according to them they divide up their seasons. 2 had 2 constellations: r the Fishing- and kakttdsuta. . . the Pleiades. the water in the river is at its highest. Teschauer. or else the arrows will be worm-eaten. Cp. and especially on low branches or beams.134 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 49. The Tato stars in the vicinity of Orion. beginning of the rainy season. The canes used for arrows must be cut before their appearance. with their height and the period and time of their appear- ance in and disappearance from the sky. pp. Koch-Grunberg. i. 734 ff. Youths'. These stars bring cold and rain: when they disappear the snakes lose their poison. They 4 recognised the approach of winter from the signs of Nature but also from the fact that the Pleiades at sunset were not too . fowls. falls. of count the progress of the constellations. and spoke of certain constellations which . f by which they calculate the seasons. the water is at its lowest J The natives of Brazil are acquainted with the course of the constellations. and that the higher while they are still the constellation rises the higher the birds roost also. in Orion. 203 4 Globus. When this sets there is little or no rain. 3 was 'the Great Serpent'. . i. roost low. planting of manioc. e. In the valley of the Amazon it is said that during the first few days of the appearance of the Pleiades. p. the Manioc-pole' 3 manaco of the Orinoco called the Pleiades 'the Mat'. 2 reappeared at the beginning of the dry season: they referred f . and the f falls. and in explanation drew three diagrams No. and appear again in June. 1 2 ff. composed of the principal stars of Leo. No. Hence the legend says that everything that has appeared before the constellation will be renewed. its Pleiades The Bakairi reckappearance marks the beginning of spring oned by natural phases. The disappear. Their appearance coincides with the renewal of the vegetation and of animal life. but were also well acquainted with astronomical signs. which obviously consists of the three bright stars west of Leo.

Frazer. is wide-spread. 3 . but it it is of so primitive a character that rather appears to have been one of the rudiments of the astronomical knowledge of the people of the Incas. among the Hotten- The Bechuana in 1 of Central Africa are directed by the positions of certain stars in the ved heavens that the time has arrithe revolving year when particular roots can be dug II. relate myths about the Pleiades. 309. worship them. 310. with references. and cele- come: . the time for sowing has of . and not the Pleiades. occupied the chief place. 113. 309. p.OBSERVATION OF THE STARS far distant I SOUTH AMERICA. 21. brate feasts at their appearance. * " Gilij. Nordenskiold. that tots. The observation of the appearance found highly developed of Canopus and Sirius we have already among~~the Bushmen. p. of 6 It called the Pleiades 'the Maize-heap' of the Pleiades the observation that be thought might probably has spread from this ancient civilised people among the inha- ancient Peru. since among the Egyptians Sirius. Indianlif. Moreover this assertion does not correspond with the facts. p. p. for which I refer to Fraseason sets in 5 zer. 2 De Angelis. of sowing by the position of the Pleiades in regulate the time 4 The Chane and relation to the spot where the sun rises Chiriguano do the same. In Africa also the observation of the stars. 135 from the western horizon: the evening setting falls at 1 The Lengua Indians of Paraguay connect the beginning of May the beginning of spring with the rising of the Pleiades. and above In view of the disseminaall of the Pleiades. and when Orion is no lojiger visible a period The Chacobo of north-eastern Bolivia cold dew__begins. of the Pleiades S. America. tion of this knowledge all over the world it is making a quite unnecessary exception to state that it came into Africa from Egypt.. Indianer och hvita. who bitants of S. and at . When the Pleiades rise above the horizon very early in the morning. it is important for this to be finished before the rainy Still further tribes. 3 The the time of sowing by the observation of the Pleiades when the Pleiades the call they disappear piangi. ime celebrate feasts which are generally of a markedly 2 The Guarani of the same country recognised imrnpral nature this . 173. quoted by Frazer. dry season begins. So did the inhabitants . 169. Guarayu . Frazer. Grubb. pp. 5 Id.

for use. JRAI. distinguishing these stars as the acWhen the Pleiades assume a certain position in the tors). nus. stars rise. p. or up when they may commence their labours of the field. Among are the only constellation which bears a it Thonga name the Pleia- shtri. The Pleiades is call selemela. 39. p. which has the same . the people know that the great rains are 2 which their evening are no longer over. quoted by Frazer. - : . and they begin des to dig 4 . of heavens it is the signal to commence cultivating their fields and gardens *. in named after them. which may be translated 'to 'cultivator' or 'the cultivate for*. II. 316. since they begin to dig up the soil when the Pleiades appear. McCall Sjan- 5 Junod. 286. the year - newed'. p. 116. 316. when tilling is resumed 5 At the southern corner of Lake Nyassa the rising of the Pleiades early in the evening gives the sign to begin the hoeing 6 The Kikuyu of British East Africa say that of the ground heavens to shew the this constellation is the mark in the rises in July . continuing say: increase. and the last of the period of the great rains. The Masai know whether month setting visible it will rain or not of according to the appearance or non-appearance is the Pleiades.136 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. is becomes a the sun 'the is and perfectly clearly seen 'isilimela when about to is re- Then they renewed'. p. melo. a pronominal prefix. precursor se." 7 when to plant their crops: in the night. Hobley. rising shortly aiter_sunset as indicating the planting-season e Amazulu call the Pleiades tstlimela. 442. When they falls. p. and. ' the season of 3 1 Kidd : Frazer.- are not seen again until the following season Moffat. agriculture' (from lemela. The people say: 'istlimela dies and is not seen'. when winter is coming to an end. Thouga. The Caffres determine the time of sowing by 2 the Bantu tribes of S. and August. until. 4 Callaway. and they . one of to its it stars first and then cluster of three. 289. and at last. Theal: Frazer. the people assemble etc. it begins is to appear. . at should call the spring-time of the year. Africa regard observing the Pleiades . 41. This what we they their likhakologo ('turnings' or 'revolvings'). 3 meaning as the Bechuana name. people tain they plant when it is in a cerA dancing-song begins position early "When the Pleiades meet the moon.

. 394.has come Orion 'the Old Men'. To combine the Isubu in in certain groups. they are all found in g. 93. which they the course of the seasons. . 129. 8 ff. 82. he was obliged to climb on and on until he reached the roots and found himself in a strange land the country of the Pleiades. pp. He into it. below. because the rains. is In the Indian Archipelago the observation of the Pleiades the most general and frequent means of determining the tillage. " Loango Exp. ff. the tole of 'the Orphans'. p. e. and invited him to eat. tole other stars 3 . The Masai call the sword of and his belt 'the Widows' who follow the constellations. and since his comrades sailed away. Masai. pp. 135 and 138. The Dyaks of Sarawak say that Si Jura on a sea-voyage once found a fruit-tree with its climbed up roots in the sky and the branches hanging downwards. pp. Si Kira answered: "They are not maggots.who-guard-the-rain' 4 When the constellation kole 5 . Globus. 4 293 5 See p. Bakongo. " Weeks. In Sierra Leone the proper time the eastern part of the sky 2 for planting is shewn by the position in which the Pleiades are to be seen at sunset: the Bullom do not observe or name any .OBSERVATION OF THE STARS! AFRICA. another is These are summer signs. time for Hence these stars are mythologically regarded as the originators of the rice-culture. but boiled rice". 137 showers . men. such them l . it is the time of harvest 8 as as he visible the rains. and he explained to 1 Hollis. though not infrequent. 318.. 1902. Weeks. pp. Arcin. the Bangala plant more than at any other time. reaches the meridian. Kamerun shew constellations are in contradistinction to tole a moto. p. 3 Winter-bottom. indicating that the end of the rains has come. The Bakongo associate these stars with the rainy season: the rain comes from them.persist. - to an end.. they are called 'the Caretakers. a nyon. p. 177. . 275 above. In is Loango Sirius is called 'the Rain-star'. since long Alongside of him Orion is regarded as a sign of the rainy season 7 In French Guinea the people know that when the winter constellations appear above the horizon. "Those little maggots?" replied Si Jura. Ill: 2. 39. 201 p. are then fairly certain 6 . There Si Kira received him kindly. - f. the tole of the elephants. quoted by Frazer. cp.

yet both they and many other races in Borneo sow the rice when 4 . and wished to destroy both men and the chicken: the former were saved by Orion. a wise man is appointed to go out before dawn and watch for the Pleiades. the people know that the time has come but not until they are at the zenith before dawn work. John. 23. it is still The Dyaks begin the rice-planting when the same position at about 3 or 4 o'clock 1 the Pleiades reach in the morning as 364. Hose and McDoug-all. considered desirable to burn the fallen timber and sow rice. 168. according to the position of these stars in the heavens. burn. and eight months respectively. plant. . but brought them a fruit with three husks. but lived on the products of the forest. 4 p. . they cut In another legend down the forest. invisible formerly there were seven. 139. A guest how the rice was cultivated and reaped. 3 St. The hen was angry. Some tribes determine the approach of the time of rice-sowing from the observation of the stars. The Kayan of Borneo know the most important constellations.138 his let PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. As soon as they are seen to rise while is it to begin dark. morning and evening. JRAI. brooding. hen sible is 2 . - ff. in which there were contained three kinds of rice. but only six chickens were left. I. but the cuckoo calls as long as they are viThe Sea-Dyaks determine the time of sowing by ob- serving the Pleiades. 213 109. During the time in which the Pleiades are invisible. Schaank. I. chickens had come down to earth. Hose. horizon When the Pleiades at daybreak appear just above the the time to clear fresh land in the forest draws near. 213. however. One of the where men gave it to eat: it would not eat. and reap the Pleiades are six chickens which the hen follows. and at that time men did not know l . that would ripen in four. quoted by Andree. and the Pleiades themselves tell them when to farm. II. p. the of rice. Si Jura taught the Dyaks how to cultivate rice. just quoted says in another place that although the Kayan more usually determine the time of sowing by the observation of the sun. although they do not observe them and their motions with a 3 However one of the joint authors practical end in view . six. and then him down by a long rope near to his father's house.

in the Reports of the Expedition to the Torres Straits. p. quoted by by Andree. 315.> aqnilac]. 3 . Marsden: Frazer. and also. consisting of a part of Scorpio. the planting of yams and sweet potatoes Accurate information for these tribes is given by Rivers . come when of July 3 . and their rising regulated particular dances. ' Xeuhauss: Frazer. Xanrwer are 'the Brothers' . Pleiades are of seen at a certain height above the horizon The Kai the time for labour in the fields has German New Guinea say that come when the Pleiades . they say that the of western tribes these new yam-time has come 6 straits have names for many The stars. 364. 1 /?. 303. The Achenese of the north know that the sowing-time has . 313.OBSERVATION OF THE STARS: EAST INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO. : > Frazer. in his right (Corvus) some kupa-iruit. p. the 139 sun reaches at 8 o'clock. p. in the stern sits Kareg (Antares). Tagai (= Centaurus. the Pleiades rise before the sun. an island to the south of Subegins matra. The most important constellations are 'the Shark' (= the Great Bear together with Arcturus) and corona borealis. and regard it as useless to do so before that time 2 In Sumatra also the time for sowing was determined in this way. at the beginning In northern Celebes the rice-fields are prepared for cultivation when the 4 . Still larger is This constellation represents a man. The Batak of the middle of the island regulate their various agricultural operations by the position of Orion and the Pleiades. 315. 4 von Spreeuwenberg: Frazer. are visible above the horizon at night: the Bukaua of the same 5 When the natives of the country also follow the Pleiades Torres sunset. Then a feast 1 The natives of Nias. Below the canoe is a sucker-fish. The seasonal appearances of certain stars or constellations were noted. Xieuwenhuisen. . a fishing-spear. standing in the prow of a canoe (Scorpio). y lyrae. quoted In Mabuiag this constellation is called - Schaank. on the . which are largely grouped into constellations. Lupus). ibid. assemble to till their fields when the Pleiades appear.Vega the elder. p. Straits Islands see the Pleiades on the horizon after . Haddon. Tagai holds in his left hand (the Southern Tagai. as our au7 thority thinks. 313. p. Old and experienced men are watch to determine the spot exactly. p. 6 Haddon: Frazer. and Altair the who in their outstretched arms are holding sticks younger Cross) - - - (/?.

pagas and dede (Beteigeuze). of the seasons at the appearance stole the a fishing expedition the crew water from him and Koang. the people speak of the rising or setting of a constellation or star at a certain season. there will be rain in the morning. Dogai. Our Delphinus is called bably Achernar. Kwoior. at the feasts the holding which is dependent upon : (the Pleiades) plentiful supplies of food. Kek.kek comes up. you go to New Guinea side. will come up in the south between Badu and Moa and it will be cold weather. wapil. he is the sign for everything to be done: 'start meeting'. of i. and you. sweet potatoes. the people begin to plant yams. Towards the end of the season the Shark becomes visible. A native of Mabuiag gave the following list of the stars relating to the season called aiband: -. They therefore killed - On them and side. When you go round this way and when you come up. The risings and settings of the stars were observed. and then the pigeon migrates from New Guinea to Australia. they have in mind the time of the year when the star or constellation in question bird that when when first appears a Tagai of Of or disappears on the horizon at daybreak. kek is pro- The most important star was whose rising indicated not only the beginning of many ceremonies but also the planting-season. then the yams and sweet potatoes will . yams. and bananas are ripe. you go to New Guinea there will be plenty of rain. and certain rites and agricultural occupations regulated thereby. as does the birubirnIt is expressly noted gttiilai (the Crab) appears. kek. the north-west wind begins to blow a little bit' when the tail has gone down altogether. Others I omit.140 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. when you come up over Mangrove Island just before the southeast monsoon sets in. you have to bring rain. 'the Trumpet-shell'. and when the Shark comes up again. uthnal. usal at this time the ovaries of the turtles enlarge . gil. Then the wind will shift and it will rain in the afternoon. only the tail of In Badu it was said that when above the horizon. Utimal. the Shark f is : The stars also help to determine the seasons. said: when you come up "Usal (the Pleiades). e. catasterism is related which at the same time has reference to the the stars in phenomena question.

the head rises. 218 p. 482 ff. the When far off. Str. . 3 Codrington. .OBSERVATION OF THE STARS! TORRES STRAITS. who have for the most part the same star-names and call most of their months after stars: the Shark is also implicated in this story. since the mosquitoes swarm houses when this constellation sets. this is the signal for the north-west wind to begin. 4 Brown. the Bird' to points (cam's major) the north but is such a position that one wing other is still the invisible. the time has come in which the turtles lay eggs. of the 141 told You all have work to do" l . where he and his three-pronged spear became the constellation Antares 2 The Melanesians of Banks Island and the northern New Hebrides are also acquainted with the Pleiades as a sign of mences. T. Parkinson. the time is the fish papai*. 2 Landtman. the rising 1 in the early morning. The inhabitants of New approach of the yam-harvest Britain (Bismarck Archipelago) are guided in ascertaining the 4 The Moanu time of planting by the position of certain stars on land use the as a both Islands stars of the Admiralty guide and at sea.. f sets in comes up morning and wind are not season the north-west rainy it f strongly: so also on the horizon. The natives of the acquainted with certain stars. and many natives then go to the Los-Revs group in order to collect them. A similar story is Kiwai Papuans. 377 . when the constellation is visible at When in at evening. and recognise the season of the monsoons by them. The Crown stars into the called 'the Mosquito-star'. The two largest of the Circle are called pitui an papai: when this conis stellation becomes for visible favourable catching Bougainville Straits are cially the Pleiades. When the Pleiades (tjasa) appear at night-fall on the horizon. pp. three fishermen in a canoe.season of the turtles com- Another myth tells how Javagi got angry and threw Karongo up into heaven.water. R. p. more high. the south-east wind the 3 . 332. ripen.) disappears from the horizon at evening. MELANESIA. there is more wind and high-water. the copulating. Wlien the Fishers' Canoe' (Orion. When the fin sets. espe- of this constellation is a sign pp. 348. 5 ff. when the when tail sets. ff. this shews that the south-east wind is at hand. pp. But when the Thornback (Scorpio) and the Shark (Altair) emerge as twilight begins.

When they 'come up anew'. the 1 Wheeler. . p. 2 Guppy. In fish in the water.142 that PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. In Ugi. kai-rmt is ripe: a ceremony takes place a at this sea- son On Treasury Island grand festival is held towards so far as could be ascertained the end of October. 313. when at the zenith. there When 'the up. it is the pairing season. said that 'the Thornback' (Pisces) 'the People-at-the-feast' (the Pleiades) . i. At that time 'the Fishes' realis) are in the water. the turtles come up on land: the people say that they 'go to play'. pp. 3 Thurnwald. the former constellation is called galial ('fishes'). and the star is so called because his rising indicates the end of the visible during the taro season. one of the Solomon Islands. in order to celebrate the approaching appearance of the Pleiades above the eastern horizon after sunset. 'they stand in the middle'. and the Pointers are two men cooking what is caught. the Pointers appears above the horizon 4 In the list of star-names given for the Carolines there are also references to the seasons. and mot. since he is name of Arcturus formed from ara. is reckoned according they are in the east. e. In Ponape le-poniong is seen at the time of the variable winds. On the Gazelle Peninsula the time for good fishing is the time of the appearance of the Pleiades: at this time the fishing-nets It is and must not see each other. it is said that 'they are waiting'. the times for plant2 ing and taking up yams are determined by this constellation . Avhen in the west. since the palolo first comes when one of are spread out. ff. where of all the stars the Pleiades alone have a name. which at this time are not to be eaten 3 On the island of Saa. 37. the Southern Cross is the net with four men letting it down to catch palolo. another by the almond-ripening. 340 4 Codrington. quoted by Frazer. . the white men celebrate Christmas. the 'The Fishes' (corona bo- dip down when in Pleiades are no come Fishes' are the sky. 348. the people go to look for fish. p. they are 'bowed down'. both Alu and Lambutjo one division of the year is reckoned by the return of the Pleiades. the l . p. In Lamotrek Corvus is is called 'the Viewer-of-the-taro-p at dies'. In the Pleiades. 'to come'. 'to conclude'. When the Pleiades Lambutjo the year to the position of When are high overhead. When they stand low.

143 winds. himself above. the immediate return of the South Sea herring.akers-whothe belief that the rain comes from them. or 'makes' (noist) certain weaand the stars were regarded as causes 3 . follows that the stars are regarded as authors of the events accompanying their appearance. as if it were a case of the entrance of a planet into * * See Pfeiffer. . 1 . At the return 2 of the Pleiades the natives celebrate an anniversary: as soon as the stars appear above the eastern 1 Christians. tain star) So in ancient (orifjiaivei) Greece the expressions (a cer- 'indicates' ther were not kept apart. 1 ff. pp. 125 5 f. the name among the Bakongo the_Caret. constellation. 137. or some other similar event of importance in the 2 of the natives . the myth of the Euahlayi tribe that the Pleiades let ice fall down on to the earth in winter and cause thunderstorms. 130 L. 238 . 72. life When jnind. the primitive so often happens. is unable to distinguish between it accompanying phenomena and causal connexion./o-catch. rain. to its accustomed spawningthese however belong In to the chapters Samoa it is at present an exception name this or that star grounds. the atuli. the author expresses a erroneously. quoted by Frazer. and the belief of the Marshall Is- landers that the various positions of certain stars cause storms or good winds 4 The same idea is very clearly seen in the account of the Hottentots given by a missionary of the 17th century 5 . and a few instances have already been given. G. p. such as the warming-incantaof the tion given to the Pleiades Bushmen against Canopus and Sirius. *) and guard-the-rain'). the appearance of Among the astronomically learned Polynesians time-estimations according to stars play an important part: most of Capella means heavy gales and bad weather on the months and the if an old fisheryear. pp. POLYNESIA. 131. when these take place without the inter- ference of men. von Billow. 317.. Schmidt. p. pp. in of the f ( other words send the . which at its enand indicate man can trance into this or that constellation (sic!) announces the beginning of an abundant o///. as the stars indicate this or that event. which bring visiting parties to the island.OBSERVATION OF THE STARS! MELANE north-east SIA. instead of the position of a fixed star. A similar process of reasoning atmospheric phenomena is not seldom found among primitive peoples. 388 ff .

and said: .144 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. begagewog. when the rain would not stop. but Ridley.. a native^ that the sun is the source of heat ridiculous. above. according old to an account. p. chief of the Gingi tribe. in winter they are barely visible or are lost to view altogether. worship the heavenly bodies and think that natural causes are governed by certain constellations. and teach them to stretch out their hands towards them. The people of the kraal assemble to dance and sing according to the old The chorus is always: "O Tiqua. found the statement that Andy. it is then winter (magur). it is domda ('autumn'). it which produces heat. 273. when they rise to their highest altitude. these are visible at a cerin is spring. turned to the souls of his dead friends in the Milky with certain charms. 279. 3 Ridley. p."If makes the warm weather come in summer-time. should the rain be deferred. An old native. pp. uientjes. 131. 2 Parker. give rain to us that the fruits (bulbs etc. custom our father above our heads. until they made the rain cease. may ripen and that we may have plenty of food: send us a good year!" of their ancestors. and shew to them these friendly stars. cp. They The natives have names of the and sing and dance to win the favour are worshipped by one group as the which Pleiades. giver of rain. horizon the mothers to lift their little ones in their arms. why the sun^ does he not make the winter warm for he is seen every day?" Way is . run up some eminence. blessings that the Pleiades that are bestowed on them The Euahlayi tribe thinks bring frost and winter thunderstorms. of Australia (perhaps of Victoria). T The influence tain altitude accompanies the<^Tleiade>. there is nothing strange in an account which unfortunately comes from a writer whose evidence in other respects is open to grave doubt. and the Milky Way by its change of position brings rain 2 . . for these. the belief of the natives. We are told of New South Wales. 95 ff. p. curses instead of 1 . when in autumn they sink down again towards the horizon..). The Way Milky 3 regarded as a stream with fertile banks These facts being so. When above the horizon. The ordinary stars have no kind of influence on the seasons. it is summer. ivimiga. and cold.

p. The Nandi East Africa know by ance of the Pleiades The Guarayu bad harvest 5 . 3 From this belief in the stars as causes of the natural phenomena it is but a . 1 It is true that astrology. 6 p. for granted. pp. cp. which evidently points to this idea. 5 Weeks.which a missionary among "Have gods was: weather?" In accordance with this a Lapp myth relates that a servant driven out on a very cold night by a cruel master was saved by the Pleiades. ' quoted by Frazer. cattle. pp. Abbot. 293 ff. Above. 317. when the Lapps were still heathens. 145 simply the Pleiades *. 7 Similar weather-rules and prognosa rich harvest portends in modern European folkare found in abundance tications The origin in lore and in the so-called peasants' calendars. 6 wanting. At the beginning of the 18th century. one of the questions is A . of British i. 308. and from the accompanying conditions omens are drawn as to the quantity of the forthcoming crop and the ferti] by a circle. Frazer. is 'the Sheep-skins' The Greeks had the same belief in Sirius as the cause of the . p. e. 72 and 119. and when they are clearly to be seen at the beginning of the rainy season the people expect a good season. Nordenskiold. the other side of the globe. the Pleiades at their reappearance are surrounded it is : In a good omen but if this circle is Macedonia the Pleiades are called 'the Clucking or Broodtheir setting announces the advent ing Hen' (ij KAcoooagid) of winter. Hollis. Indianer och hvita. the popular astrological beliefs of antiquity is usually taken lity of the this .short step to attempt to draw from the manner of their appearance conclusions as to the kind_ol phenomenon caused bx rh^m To the Bakongo the Pleiades are the guardians of the rain. p. America believe that when . Bakongo. the appearance or non-appearwhether they may expect a good or a of S. Reuterskiold. 70. 173. 4 168. and precisely similar story comes from perfectly credible. 112. The account agrees very well with what is otherwise known of the stellar science of the Australians. sufficient but not too much rain 4 .THE STARS AS CAUSES AND OMENS OF THE WEATHER. these people put to them about their you prayed the Pleiades to warm the summer heat. especially under 2 Mo- 3 Manning. 10 . all must die If the constellation sets in a cloudy sky. p. p. One of the Lapp names for these 2 stars.

the stars are never used in a narrative. The consciousness of a fixed and constant order is therefore impressed upon the mind of primitive man much more powerfully by the eternal revolution of the constellations than bv the variation of the seasons. has penetrated very deeply even among of as the Central Africa and such little civilised peoples negroes the Malays of the Indian Archipelago. the Pleiaconsidered. but only where and method therefore does not apply practical rules for the constantly recurring occupations labours are concerned. influence. able to discover. It has been shewn. but other constellations as well. i.146 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. These observations cannot be followed up quite primitive. observed. . and to shew that the whole vast system of astrology had And the Babylonian prognostiits root in primitive thinking. present study. The to the historical event in the wider sense. but only to the reiterated event the recurrence of which is empirically known. that even among the most primitive peoples of the globe the stars are known. of the not nearly so frequent determination of the advance of night in from the motions of the stars we have already spoken chapter I. further: astrology and its origins lie outside the limits of the cient Babylon. e. and sky remained. then. cations from stars. There is however a difference that should not be neglected between this method of determining time and the So far as I have been time-indications from natural phases. where the date of any familiar event is to be given. and used for the determination of time des. first and foremost. indeed. until a very late period. and also for the festivals. but Isee no cogent reason for finding in the above-mentioned world-wide examples of a belief in the influence of the stars upon natural phenomena any influence of that astrology which derives from an- hammedan Rather do these myths and traditions seem to afford an analogy to the initial stages of the Babylonian astrology.

THE MONTH. Only for one or two days has the star the position which serves for the determination of time. sun determines the variation between and causes the natural phases of the year. kind of time-determination necessarily refers to points of time. In the first place it has nothing to do with the natural phases conditioned of the sun: it by the course the seasons. As in the like well as the sun and the fixed stars the heavens. The shorter time of its As long as the interval of time defined by it. moon appears does not entirely vanish before the sunlight the fixed stars. unlike the too lengthy period of the year. the strength of its light. the most that can be can be carried out by this medone is to regulate the already existing divisions by It it. This unit has further its peculiar characteristics. the fixed stars the hours of the night can be determined. night. is in it fact incommensurable with itself In the second place immediately obtrudes . than5~to the rapid revolution of the planet round the earth. is easily kept in mind and taken in at a glance. and not to periods. in the night-time its light eclipses that of the smaller stars. which steps in between day and year. From the position of the sun the times of the day can be given with ease and certainty.CHAPTER V. human race has existed. and the appearance vary quite perceptibly from day to day. but not so the seasons of the The day course of the and to the exceptions I shall recur in chapter XII. forms a shorter unit. The course of the moon. and But still more frequently are the seasons regulated by them. No this division of the year into parts thod. man's attention must have been drawn to the moon. From year. Its shape.

p. This statement involves a certain the overlooking of the fact that the time-indications from natural phases and from the stars . and this fact is due to its the nature of the duration. The principle of continuous in the 12 ticed. it is stated that the month is 1 everywhere the natural division of time While the human mind therefore arrives only gradually at the conception of the year. it was often said in southern it should . concrete appearance.. 244. to which at first little attention is paid: for compared with the 27 28 days in which the moon can be seen days in which it is invisible are little nosky the The phases of the moon represent a gradual waxing and waning. Nigeria: "I sold this canoe to him eight moons ago" p.are just as primitive and must be just as old. Albert!. 219. 3 . the month is already given by the natural phenomenon.148 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. And this. 155. time-reckoning therefore suggested by the. and use it for time-reckoning. viz. Thus. pro3 Partridge.the 'wild' Kubu of Sumatra Hagen. Of the S. who observe the stars so well. One moon follows another with a short interruption. But if by time-reckoning the continuous principle and measure of time moon to is are implied the statement is in that sense true. is in its The time-reckoning according to the moon nature continuous. p. The observation of the moon is often said to be the oldest is form of danger. American Indians. The indeed the first chronometer. . as always. in opposition to the time-indications from natural phases and from the stars. p. of time. moon. for example. Consequently it is only to be expected .. Kttlturhist. into notice as a unit.as I hope has been shewn above . is the starting-point: practically everywhere the month same jis a unit of enumeration or a measure is denoted by the word as the moon.. As in 1 2 The Caffres Nordenskiold. The linguistic distinction between moon' f and 'month' only follows at a stage which primitive peoples All peoples know the moon still living have not yet reached. which draws attention and not to the point. a continuous development. time-reckoning. bably also among. that moon determines be expressly stated that the revolution of the the greatest measure of time 2 and that we should find peoples who can count reckoning by months and not by years. 68.

statements vary between 15 and 31 days the Caffre month is said to have 25 days. 4. since this or that in the brides they said e-ounting of the : "Two moons have gone But this principle it event took place" course voted.l . For the Basuto on the other hand only expressions for the two days of the moon's invisibility are mentioned: the first.^ Examples are superfluous. attention is No We know month. p. p. and expects her confinement after ten moon-months 2 . the So its it is phases said of the Caffres that they count the month from the of the moon during its visibility. regard paid as to counting the number of days in any month. native runs: "The months are reckoned from the moon (the same word is used for both). starting-point. so is years a well-known event is used as a In the New Healso with the months. the 149 counting of the it . 291. since life. she perceives that she is pregnant.COUNTING OF MONTHS AND THEIR DAYS. 311. 5 343. and then again for a short time is invisible. viz. of one human in gives too many months in the and since the months are drawn is into another connexion. each woman naturally having a different position oi the moon in view. about see the number of When we the moon and then days constituting a it is lost again a little month has gone" A native Basuto says that . p. pp. 1 Oliveau. for example. has jiot_pevailed months. 93. p. 2 von Billow. which stands in the sky. paid at first to the number of days in the month: many primitive peoples cannot even count~so far as A significant passage in a Ho text originating from a thirty. When the moon appears. 251. and that the days of invisibility are not counted: the moon has gone to sleep 6 . If menstruation does not take place then. c f. chefo. remains long in the heavens. to which the following chapter I de- Only - one case is a reckoning of this nature common. Below. 3 * Se- . is nothing 3 . 158 Spieth. give at exat the in pregnancy. Apparently only the time during which the moon is visible is at first counted. Macdonald. but least one: The Samoan woman looks moon and pects the beginning of menstruation at a quite definite position of that planet. we say that a month has just gone. 931. 5 . since the bulky moon itself fills up the deficienc}^ 4 When men begin the days great uncertainty at first to count prevails: in Buin.

the concrete phenomenon is many 29 days: . therefore. Ibo. p. 'it 5 . 177. Here. . described by reference to the is . and the A disappearing of the moon as the morning rising of that planet. so that the following month follows directly upon the preceding. not only its phases. Stannus. day-break sleeps in the open At the south of air'. however. e. the starting point. 140. overhead'. natural that the days of the darkness should soon be included. stands low on the scientific In the horizon. peoples say. we say 'it stands After this it stands in the middle (of the sky). like the Banyankole. description of this nature.150 'the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. p." Other expressions are: 'the moon falls upon the forest'. 'the (greeted apes'. as in the case of the sun and the stars. 288. moon has gone by the into the dark'. but in isolated instances. it will break'. the as the moon evening rising or morning setting. *. at least in part. i successive positions of the moon in the sky at sunset. 932. of course without the above terminology. When the moon does not rise until after night-fall we say that When it does not rise it 'stands on the edge (of the sky)'. 5 2 Thomas. that the month lasts for 28 days the moon is visible. 556. and that the latter are. Bantu. . does occur. Schoolcraft. not only the varying shape of the moon. the new full On the analogy of the rising and setting of the stars moon can be described as the evening setting. but also. since this animal can^ see moon is the moon [sooner than man 28 days to the The Ibo-speaking peoples also reckon only month 2 and so do the Dakota 3 It is only . in Sechefo. the second. When our informant asked a native how long he would remain at his present 1 camp. Spieth. and for one day hidden 4 As always. he answered by pointing p. its position in the sky. are taken into account. when it is in the sky at of the Lake Nyassa the day month denoted by indicating the position of the moon in the 6 Of the Seminole of Florida it is reported sky at day-break that the months seem to be divided simply into days. not be long before another appears. p. until very long after night-fall we say 'it shines unto dayWhen the moon is once more on the wane. to the 3 new moon II. * Roscoe. B 127. above-mentioned Ho text a further passage runs: "When the moon appears and comes nearer. p. i.

He meant moon would the where to answer. - new moon p. Thurnwald. . new . The Ewe tribes also have ex- pressions which refer to the shapes of the moon. 1 he gave them a p. IV: 1. 428. evening twilight. Howitt. moon with joy is wide-spread 3 The Dieri of Australia relate that there was once no moon.INDICATIONS OF THE POSITION OF THE MOON. Mac * Caulay. Among the different phases of the moon's light two stand the first appearance of the out with especial prominence crescent of the moon. so that the old men held a council and a Mura-mura gave them the moon. until every day of the moon's revolution is described by a name. at certain intervals 3 4 . so that the days of full moon are more numerous. 525. but fills its disc gradually. See further Frazer. 140 ff. but greater and 'greater refinement ever being attained. but not so often. 151 from west to east to the spot [the west. 331. and it is just as exceptional for descriptions of the day according to the position of the moon to be consistently carried out. and the full Both events are joyfully greeted and celebratedjmiong: in the new moon j peoples. in order that they might know when to hold their The hailing of the new moon ceremonies. These different shapes have in general attracted most attention. instead of being one exactly determined day like the day of the new moon. and sweeping his hand be when he should go home. The explanationof this ] "fact must partly fie in the circumstance that the full moon many does not suddenly appear like the new moon. Hence there may be a counting of the months in new moons instead of a continuous reckoning in moons. as when the natives of the Solomon Islands count the months which must elapse before the funeral feast by making a notch in a stick or a knot in a rope at the appearance of the 2 . p. and serve At first the phases of the moon are disfor time-reckoning. is position in the sky. in particular the appearance of the new_moon t / the full moon also. and the names not only refer to the phases of the moon but also indicate its tinguished only of observation roughly. "About ten days hence" */) I To sky is indicate however the day by the position of the moon in the exceptional.

speak to me. pp. plucking at it with the forefinger and at the same time sending out a high note (V). p. In Lambutjo the people howl and strike themselves on the mouth with their hands. 7 p. or from the animals that were usually hunted . Thou must speak to me. 44. When the Bushmen new moon they pray: "Young Moon! Hail. 3 Carver. 203. 4 Du Pratz. the people of Buin trill with their under-lip. trill a high in Africa. ff. New what there shrill is taken up by all and repeated in chorus: no mention of any time-reckoning 5 On the southern cry which is side of Dutch New Guinea we learn that the first sight of the new moon was signalised by a short sharp bark rather than a shout. 132. Wollaston. Thurnwald. Several times on the day following the first sight of the new moon our authority noticed that a spear decorated with white feathers was exposed in a conspicuous place in the The author states that he is unable to say whether village. the result being a gurgling noise 7 . hail! When the sun rises. hail.152 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. The Patago- then In the villa'ges of Port people at the first sight of the . hail. Young Moon Young Moon. 354 Seligmann. 193. 6 In Buin this custom had any connection with the calendar . 332 . that I may The same custom recurs sight of catch the - ! 1 " Hanserak. hail. hail. . nians welcome the West Greenland celebrate at every new a performance of the sorceror. guishing of lamps. 4 Moresby (British new moon Guinea) the give a prolonged some. On the Gazelle Peninsula the natives put their forefingers in their mouths and V. if. p. Young Moon! Tell me of something! Hail. at the same time uttering V. Young Moon. Musters. the appearance of the quarter (sic!) of the new moon the people immediately utter the 'war-cry'. p. so that the new moon may not break the cocoa-nuts'. 175. an extinand the barter of women *. c p. When the new moon comes at r up. so that a kind of quacking is heard. II. in Heathen Eskimos moon a feast with new moon by patting their heads and mur2 Certain tribes of North America at an incantation muring the eagerly expected appearance of the new moon uttered 3 The loud cries and stretched out their hands towards it Natchez of Louisiana at every new moon celebrated a feast which took its name from the principal fruits reaped in the preceding moon.

* 283. If to fear. . the opposite was it shewed that the moon was full of 3 As soon as the new . r and when they perceive the faint outline after the sun has set deep in the west. . I. p. 415. the dangers of the month had been poured the case. this day is also termed an evil day. break him (my enemy) neck and throat!" Since in the evening so many curses are Its peculiarities uttered. this shewed that there was nothing out. decide the character of the whole month. I. two. and drive want far away. II." On this day no legal business is done and no debts are paid. The appearance of the crescent was carefully examined. send me blessing. The Wadschagga climb a hill in order to see the cres- cent properly. Bleek and Lloyd. Hail. something. p. give me food. Banyankole Uganda in front of his hut and a fire their hands. If the horns were turned towards the earth. e. -hail.SALUTATIONS TO THE eat NEW MOON. g. . a day of rest. For this reason no one should go to rest on this evening hungry or only halfsatisfied.moon is weapons and misfortunes out of their huts and of come the seen. But whoever can manage to get his debt paid on that day will that they may 1 51."One. 235. . and go in quest of food for the children. The fct pej^oji_whp_sees it shouts kengelekezee (^gf^g^^JlmlfjaojHL_sha^ed' ) and this exclamation . 153 Thou must speak to me about a little thing. "Let our journey with the white man be 2 The Ba-Ronga always greet the apparition of prosperous!" r the new moon with cheers. 3 Junod. Thonga. 139 f. drums are brought out and beaten without cessation for four days 4 . three. is repeated from one village to another. not go to sleep hungry every day. The master of the house admonishes his wife: "Day of the moon! Honour the moon. According to a Nkuma informant the day of the new moon is shimusi. Everyone lights clap A number of royal lets it burn for four days continuously. Roscoe.ayers to it. Young Moon!" watch most eagerly for the first glimpse of the new moon. 1 The Bechuana that I may eat. and pray at its appearance: . O my moon. 2 Livingstone. four (the day of the new moon is reckoned as the fourth day of the month). Bantu. or else he will be hungry the whole month long. they utter a loud shout of kua! and vociferate pr. give me peace.

120. III." 8 A fact is here mentioned to w hich we shall recur below. 8 f. 4.154 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. certis dieimpletiir: nani agendis rebus hos auspicaTac. the days being fixed by the native This is also the case elsewhere. have luck and This custom is of a highly developed order and exactly resembles the well-known ancient Roman and modern New Year superstition. or a bad moon!". At Nibo when the hardly new moon comes out they salute it with: ."Their meetings are. 152. moon. either at new moon or full moon: such seasons they believe to be the most auspicious for beginning business. in . 16 164). T 1 Gutmann. in which also plays a prominent part. 127. The people of of the full moon dance from night-fall till 5 . one can avoid suspecting foreign influence. p. don't let disease catch me. - . p.. except in case of chance emergencies. 4 Foa. 3 Stow. 2 Thomas. XI. Anthropol. Ibo.. . The dances for full moon also gives rise to special feasts: half Africa in the light of the nights of full example. the Ibo celebrate a children's festival at the time of the moreover the new moon new moon 2 .. c p. dance at the time of the neglected Dancing began with the new moon and the 3 . The Bushmen. Germ. never new and full moon. bns. on fixed days. that the feasts and religious festivals are often celebrated during the time of full moon. This is due not only to the full light of the moon but also to the world-wide idea that everything which is to prosper belongs to the time of the waxing moon. sunrise the dancing songs are principally of an erotic character On the Nicobars at new and full moon feasts were celebrated which great quantities of an intoxicating beverage prepared from the juice of the cocoa-palm were drunk 6 The Celtic Iberians of ancient Spain assembled outside their gates on the nights of full moon and celebrated a feast and danced in honour 7 of an unknown god Who can help thinking here of the well-known words of Tacitus about the Germans? . p."u-u. 12. cum ant inchoatur luna aut tissimum initium credunt . Arch. Moller. viz. was continued take at full the full moon In Dahomey the festivals place at 4 . government Timor on the night : moon. his possessions will increase l . p. ' 112. Coetmtf nisi quid fortuitunt et snbitum incident. p. Strabo. 238. 1913. 50. (p.

the thin' full moon and full besides the the third quarter are not identical. prove themselves to have been the two phases which w^ere first observed. therefore. p. and waning. by the religious significance attached to them. the whole period of the moon can be divided into two halves. . two phases are distinguished during the time of the waxing moon. Webster. New moon and extremely common.CELEBRATION OF THE FULL MOON. p. Thus the Andamanese call the new moon ogurthe full moon ogtir-dah. . OTHER PHASES. . in the counting of the days of the month. ch. Spencer. and the waning moon : the last-named they call the half-round 1 - moon 6 . lo-latika. and the waning moon ogurAnother writer gives different names. beloxv. Cp. so that three phases are given: waxing. 3 On the other hand viz. only terms for new moon and full moon 2 exist (malpa nigeri and mirrawarra malpa respectively) Starting from these two phases. The Indians of Pennsylvania distinguish by special names the new. for the Mendalam Kayan of Borneo full . Hence they can be described by the same word. It is certainly no mere accident that in a word-list of an Australian tribe. no doubt for . The phases are the same in both halves. In reality. or do so only with difficulty: instead of this they this division is distinguish still further phases of the moon. but follow one another in the inverse order. the round (i. p. p. especially among more highly developed peoples. p. and only one when the moon is on the wane. culmination. moon. vals. In the next place the crescent of the wasting moon is added. Homfray. first 'moon-body'. the Kakadu of North Territory. Lunar Superstitions and Festi* 5 Man. The Negritos With this section cp. the full). 61. e. full = moon-baby-smair. last quarter = quarter 'moon- The literal translation shews however that this author wrongly makes these phases equivalent to our quarters. to which I return below. Quite primitive peoples cannot count so far as 15. boi-kal 4 '. 456. Y. all to the days when it has reached complete moon. 527.- another tribe: New moon moon = f = = 1 'moon-big 5 . with an additional word for the half of the month: but this is only vouched for in one instance. Heckewelder. 337. 3 160. its 155 and above phase *. formed by the waxing and the waning moon.

however. 2 invisibility . ikona. the waning moon may-a'-mo-a bn'-an. 'the moon which becomes great or old'. . says our authority. The for was confirmed people however were themselves not clear as to the succession of the phases. 4 Schulze. the waxing and the waning moon. The Hottentots in which the moon as it were 'revives'. but without its being possible to obtain any accurate account. is called by a name with that significance. and for the time of the moon's . the full moon 1 In da-d-na bu'-an. 64. p. 3 Krause. guished. 57. The first two quarters have two names common to both of them. In regard to the further development of the phases it is be noted that this does not as a rule take place with any regularity. 'the moon which becomes wise'. they gave different orders and often corrected themselves 3 . ahandu lalali. since the earth-light disappears in the second quarter.156 of PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. but the phases are more specialised during the period The Karaya of the waxing than in that of the waning moon. In the last quarter only the slender crescent is distinguished: it is called 'the dying moon' 4 In exceptional cases no name for the full moon is 1 Reed. Probably the bright and the dark moon are meant. new moon. This last is soon as it should be introduced as equivalent to the phases and should thus complete the circle of the month. p. 370. Of these ahandu lalali ahandu alulana. not a phase in the proper sense: as it was natural that it Apparently five phases of the moon are distinwhich our authority obtained the following names First crescent. The theory however fits badly. ahandu loita. - Hambruch. and . hardly yet pera name which means 'unripe' and is also crescent ceptible by used to denote a premature fruit. djuluni liialali. but is very prominent in the first. Zambales have periods corresponding to the phases of the moon: the new moon they call bay'-un bu'-an. call the just emerging. denotes a phase between half and full moon: 'there are two moons'. The slender shining crescent. last crescent. of Central Brazil were overjoyed to note the first appearance to was recognised. p. not yet quite from an Indian: full moon. p. full moon. 339. Wuwulu and Aua there were words for the full moon. for - - This other Indians. of the crescent.

aluquirta are given for the waning moon. the obscurity. atninja quirka utnamma half -moon. S. full 157 but wanting. Anstr. in When moon it disappears.- the half-moon idadad. 3 333. new moon wurdu richer: . e. 283. new moon the moon is In the first quarter and at the half-moon they say: 'the dead'. to be white or brilliant. r . Cp. we can hardly conclude that An Australian^ tribe of the North 1 . E. 150 . Centr. The observation and naming of the phases of the moon long remain quite unsystematic! The names are mingled with Of the Thonga of terms arising from other circumstances. the moon is then found by the rising sun to be still in the sky. such a name was Territory calls the of the is moon igul. Eight days later it is said to basa. Thonga. acquainted with another terminology. 2 Junod. urterurtera three-quarter moon. after the full is about to become about to wane'. e. a.THE GREATER PHASES OF THE MOON. Spencer. far = = new moon. stands low on r the horizon. full moon is said to sima or lata batjongwana. moon 'the moon is days after full moon 'the moon has cheated it leaves in the lurch those who wish to Spencer and Gillen. three some 1 people'. a. p. 'is on the increase'. p. and the crescent The terminology in Central Australia q. to put the little children to bed. nothing of it is wanting. and is very much used in the terminology of possessions. The wane is called knshwela danibo. not having yet dipped below the horizon. It should be noted that in Central Australia. = iivummta = full moon 2 . 565. though it is also to be doubted whether terms for the half and threequarter moon cannot also be applied to the waning moon. Full moon is called 'the moon fits'. II. because when it rises it finds them already sleeping on their mats. shortly before full moon 'the moon complete'. a Zulu word which corresponds is - : Thonga. Africa is it the to moon tjhama When the first quarter appears. it is munyama. to have died 3 in the sky is also taken into consideration. but that they were entirely lacking is doubtful. reported said to thwasa. . i. the The position of the moon said to fa. i. given.. but not to such an 4 the latter however are also extent as among the Ewe tribes at last is . above. as the words shew the new and the full moon are the original phases. No terms whatever a. 4 since p. moon is half round' or 'falls upon the wood'.

crescent first formed. full. again makes pupils'. since it stands in the For the pagan races of the Malay Peninwords are given for the new moon. 1 . Brown. 'the pupil (of the eye) is dead'. 'a hook is made'. 5 In Buin the crescent as it becomes taro. it is called ingom. nobelc. . 'a bit'. 4 p. The number . the time occupied in cooking yams. no moon The Bontoc Igorot of Luzon describe three phases between full moon and the waning moon. 'it is ripe' or 'old'. 1 Spieth. p.158 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 'the great kobold moon moon dead'. . new moon they say mamarabui. and now the 'puffed out'. 5 2 Skeat and Blagden. but rarely make use of them in time-reckoning 3 The Nabaloi have other words for the same phases. the half-moon. and three between new moon and full moon. When the moon's is full. moon will die. 'it is equal'. the moon begins to wane. e. 219. II. eight altogether therefore. 660. 332. 556. play in the evening. 158. and rotikeu. 'moon when seen in the morning'. When mairen. buan-gubio-eiraubi. The 'puffing out' becomes weaker. i. is in the sky. When it appears again they say ekio rukm. away 'the 'the to the sun(light)-making'. 'it During the period of the '(the moon) During the time is is is on the point waxing moon about to pass of they say (ekio) duabegubi-eiraubi. Still later. e. to 'beginning wane'. They also measured time between sunset and moon-rise by the 'smouldering of a torch'. and have special names for them. visible'. since often to be seen as a dark disc when the Later they say motoguba. is dead'. the crescent of the 2 moon. etc. which they hunted for the land-crabs). disc i. or ekio btiagtiro. 'a piece'. full moon. From the appearance of the moon until the time of new moon they reckon 25 days. Throughout the period of the waning moon the expression used is of passing away to die'. in the last quarter 'the moon is like the tail of the cock' or 'sleeps in the open'. (in (Bismarck Archipelago) observed the phases and had separate terms for them. and also one for the moon showing a rim of light 4 The natives of sky at day-break sula . New the Britain moon (kalang). . ekio bitagi. 'moon not full moon' quarter of the moon (sic!)\ 'nearly visible is first called the whole moon is is rubm. * Jenks. p. and wild taro .however is not always the same. p. the end of the waning moon. e. 'first of g. Scheerer.

on the second day an armadillo. tribes of the Torres Straits 'tooth-moon'. until every day thus takes its name from the shape or the position of the moon. which is said to mean 'big one married'. Among elsewhere. T. must be supposed that thick clouds often hinder the obserThe natives count from the rising of the moon *. and it is only found among The most highly developed peoples.. In Mer the crescent of the moon when first observed was called dketi meb. i. so that within the month. the kasi laig. is since the crescent at little appearance is described as unmarried: a later the moon called kisai. 358. Of vation. Ibid. the days of a certain smaller division 1 Thurnwald. for instance. p. but It 159 is variously given as 3031 days or sometimes as only 15. Sir. expression. the full moon is badi. the the tribes of Central Brazil (the Bakairi). and then a Giant armadillo. . is to the point when each day has its sepapossible to proceed in two ways. moon in the third quarter is described child'. 'married as person'. as also phases of the moon have found mythological is represented as a shuttle-cock. is regarded as having one child. 'person with moon in the first quarter was meb full dtgemlt. the The and half moon is ipi laig. in /?. Commonly a mixed system obtains. and termed young. and moon gts meb 2 . The simple counting and the days of the month from the new moon is the most abstract method. p. e. either to develop more and more elaborately the concrete descriptions from the phases and positions of the moon. 225. In regard to the more accurate determination days moon-month up it rate name. such. 3 von den Steinen. p. presumably as being pregnant. from the starting-points offered by the phases. as that of the Romans. First a lizard comes and phases takes hold of it. almost full eip meb.FURTHER PHASES OF THE MOON. the from the full moon. the " . pp. 2 Ray. The phases are similarly explained among of the the Paressi of the 4 . we are told: of the - - In Mabuiag are used: its first the following descriptions of the phases moon dang mulpal. or else simply to number numbering of all up to 29 or 30 the days. 435. 330 4 ff.. whose thick body soon quite covers the yellow The moon start feathers 3 . in the third meb sisimi.

and with the addition of uli. eo mboeja. 440. the people count ka'isanja oeajoe. 'yellow' (among the To Pebato sompe. Among the Mendalam Kay an of Borneo the days of of different the period of the moon's visibility have the following names cial in the Busang language : (the common commer(pretty well) . others must therefore be lacking. I. 'the first of the eight'. to gin mbawoe kodi f 'the little pig . but in the inverse order. from the evening on which the crescent of the moon was first seen. taoe bangke. *1. i. Sumatra describe the days by the names of the planets (borrowed from the Sanskrit). 10. it is forbidden to work in the fields: other work is however permitted. dang . phase is distinguished by means of the second.. lekurdang. e. 1 Nieuwenhuis. then the second. a ok (little) butit halab aja (big) keleong (body) paja keleong paja aja.160 are PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 'the eight contradict this. 317. from koeni. days'. and kamat (full moon). on the horizon). woe/a bangke. taoe koi. The days of the moon's invisibility are not reckoned 1 The days mentioned amount to only 2X8. the third. beleling (edge) dija. tongue (eye) the Bukau) - njina (see) dang matau ok. To distinguish one from another they make use of additions some of which may probably be referred to ori2 A complete system exists among the Toginal Batak terms of the Dutch East Indies. . or oejoeenja. crete the first. . 'the beginner'. 'the little' and 'the great man moon'. 2 to 9 have no special names: they are called altogether oeajoeeo. 'lying'. 'the great pig moon' there is a danger that the pigs may break into the fields. halab (tetrodon. woeja mbaivoe *11. quoted by Winkler. and so on up to kapoesanja oeajoe. counted. On certain days. e. butit (belly) . kakoenia. moon'. 13. The Batak of . to go home. i. here distinguished by an asterisk. etc. in connexion with a fully deveradja loped day-superstition such as so often accompanies the moonmonth. repeated four times. or do the names given apply to moon-phases of more than one day's duration? The author's wording seems to trunk-fish) . 2 Adrian!. and even the third day of The following may serve as an example of a purely consystem. 14. 'the end of the eight'. *15. p. *12. in or a short adjectives the phase. 'day of the moon'. The days following have the same names.

full moon have separate names. then completely inside. kawe. and are of importance on ac. 10.DAYS NAMED AFTER THE PHASES OF THE MOON. the nights after when a little of the moon is once more visible this On the other hand the days up to and after the mu'a mu'a. 'the burner'. 11 . usimoa. 2 von Kramer. 29. i. In Samoa the period of the new moon has few names new moon is called masina pupula. e. toe' a marate. 'to wink'. tatelego. 2. Full moon. night after full moon. 17 to 20. Adrian! and Kruijt. caught with torches (sulu). one is the last third. since only the agricultural day is of any im*. e. 356 ff. who those annoyed by food). masina mauna. according to Stair the lesa. moon the position of the at sunrise. the moon goes past the sun. fantieleele. The days are named from portance In Micro. 'going inside'. *22. toe'a rede. 28. because 27. 'inside'. 264 ff. great palolo-day. 21. on the house-door. since foam (lefu) appears as the first sign of the palolo. and last kawe. long tree-trunk' (trunk the east a felled tree). masina'atoa. in a day in between'. 3. motu 'fragile'. the moon is 30 days. in moon the morning shines since the pombarani. 4. *26. enggeri. masina tafaleu. warn. which may also begin to fish. masina atatai. 9. also called salefu. polioenja. 'long nights'. masina le'ale'a. 8 (the first palolo- day). 'passing'. 'little cut away'. The crescent shortly before new moon is called = masina fa'atoaoina 1 2 . 'dark'. ta a little covered'. saga 'continuing'. masina fe'etelele. merontjo. II.and Polynesia this kind of terminology is best developed. the soea 'on this side'. masina mauna. the sea sparkles at the rising. which is then eagerly sought after. ojonja vanishing of the moon. popololoa. i. i. until the 'with saeo. inasma motusaga (second palolo-day). according to Stair . 'only masina tafalen. dark day. 'the short stump'. 'the the second. 12. to run to and e. 13. of 2325. f 161 fro' (of animals seeking run to and fro. on the 9th. the count of the palolo. sulutele. 7. from gengge. *16. 'full'. 11 (new moon). soea. the matfo-crab is poolesa. 1. Every second month has is called soea ma'i. among the To Pebato warn ofkapoesa mbani. I. 'wandering about aimlessly'. or more rarely pombontje. the *30th the second soea. 6. masina punifaga. night of according to Stair 'paling tide' 5.

muku. 2 Fornander. The nights in which the moon was full or nearly so were: 15. the night in which it disappeared. 24. mauli. over Hawaii the The month had thirty days. . 24 ff. kukahi.. hoaka. 21. 14. 9. corresponding to the increase. The which the moon's decrease bealaui. and the decline were: 1. because the part then seen was a mere thread. way up to 26. 'sinkstill above the ing star'. hilo. and when its roundness was quite obvious. laaupau. 17 of these had compound names had and 13 simple names (inoa pakaht). 6. 3. mohalu. kaloakulua. If hoku palemo. former times there into is said to have been a division . if. 28. 54 ff. on its becoming gibbous.). olekulua. 'to conceal'. 120 ff. pp. with the following additions: -. muku. olaaukulua. 23. it was called hoku 'stranded star'. As it continued to diminish the nights were called: -. 20. 27. I. 27. 10. htma. lono.162 In PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 'to of the days. The second of horizon.The 15th night had two names. hoku. 29. 4. 25. 'crescent'. system was very elaborately developed. kaloakukahi. olekukahi. hua. kaloapau. There were three phases . daylight came. kaue. the phases of the moon. olekukoln . marein kolu. mauli. night came perceptible was called 18. at midnight. It waning. the moon 2 The names of the nights twist'. Fornander (p. names were given to the different nights to correspond with.19. 22. Malo gives the same names as Dibble. olekulua.ano marking the moon's increase and decrease of size. of the month periods - of ten full. 28. 8. This is Dibble's list (pp. (2) the time of full moon when it stood directly overhead (lit.5. 7. the name of that night was 11. olekupau. when the moon was very small. akita. 16. 26. kupua. olepau. (3) the period when the moon was when it shewed itself in the east late at night. the next. (1) the first appearance of the new moon in the west at evening. kuhia. 30. the nights in which the moon did not set until after sunrise the set before daylight it moon was called it but when was 1 Malo. kaloapau. was with reference to these three phases of the moon that In names were given to the nights that made up the month the island) ! . These (inoa huhui). 17. Hi. 2. 13. was 12. 'God'. When the sharp points were lost in the moon's first quarter. laaukukahi. kukolu. olekukahi. 'egg'. 126) counts in the same and then continues. .

JRAl. 20. (the 16th) was called mahealaut. also Weg-ener. . marai. and when its rising was so late that it could no of the sun. 3 1. 16. 3 19. 'cut off. and the second of the nights in which the moon made appearance after dark was 18. omnddu (28 and 29 together matte-marama. some days in the middle of both halves of the month have the same names. App. When its knlna.DAYS NAMED AFTER THE PHASES OF THE MOON. 1. oturu. In New Zea- land there month is 3 waxing and waning moon I give the Tahitian names in order to point out that here. ororo- haddi. it was called 17. 12. 114. 18. 28.the moon ar- and the moon about are various be extinguished 2 . Alongside of these a mentioned . 24. 5. 88) are very similar to those of Tahiti. A to bare is list of the thirty thirty days names of days is given for the Marquesas bipartite riving. 3. tamatea. as also in Hawaii. 1 Fornatider. 'hinder' 5 and in the 'fore'. roto. 'in the middle'. 10. oro-mna. 11. tirrohiddi. 8. 29. delayed until after the^ darkness 163 the moon's rising was had set in. ra-aii-Jmddi. Res. The night day was kane (the 27th). pp. names Forster. . Thus were accomplished the and nights the month. 9. tarroa-tahai. on the Society Islands they say during these 4 In the islands just mentioned days that the moon is dead) the names of three successive days are often formed from mua. 22. it longer be seen for the light of the was called muku (the 30th). the moon had r now w aned so much when the moon rose the as again to at dawn of shew sharp horns. laaii-ku-kalii. frm?o. 2\. 15. Treagear. had come. ra-au.. 26. and was ing following night. 27. in which the moon rose only as the day breaking. ammi-amma-hoi. 6. tarroa-rotto. 17. 7. 439 ff. ra- an-hoi. 14. and miiri. . Polyn. p. A. Treager. cp. 19. Maori Dictionary. 211. oro-muri. lono (the 28th). The also sometimes divided into halves according to the tunately not always given. ammi-amma. When the moon delayed its risuntil daylight 'fainting'. 5 p. maharru. 23. w^hich are distinguished from the next following by additions the sense of which is unfor. I. cp. ororo-tat.2. orre-orre-hoi. tarroa-haddi. 25. Thus: 4.ororo-rotto. ohoddu. o-hatta. orabu. p. orre-orre. The . 4 p. 126. it was called mauli (the 29th). n. the nights of the moon. ohiia\ 13. tane. division of the month lists of *. of the days (Ellis. 2 Mathias G. hnna. 147.. maliiddit.

It is to be noted as in some cases Ponape. goes towards the west). ~ These expressions give the time of day. the 9 days. pp. 'the moon has cast a light'. Ponape. This must be the case. where the it month falls into smaller subdivisions. 5 of full no moon. 19 to 21. 'the moon has leisure'. full moon. fully 13 days. 'darkness'. .164 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. stands high in the heavens in the morning). p. 23 to 25. lumor. time days. . 11 and 12. 150. Lamotrek *. 'the moon has become warm'. 14. 8 days. 1. 'the moon is nearing death'. 13 days. and the Carolines of the lists it names Mortlock Islands that in differ only in the dialect. Three days are therefore lacking (the time of invisibility?). Yap 1. 17. 1 Collected by Christians. In 3. pul. 13. 'the moon is late'. 26 and 27. Yap. the lists for Lamotrek. 5 and 6. 'darkness'. 22. because the month always begins with the new moon. 'the moon has passed along (the heavens)'. mach. 'the people discuss the moon' (discuss whether it is dead). new 'moon. 2. 7 and 8. 'the moon has commenced to rise late'. 'the moon turns'. 2. begins after the rot. 'the moon has climbed up' (i. numbered consecutively. becomes From these plain how the names of the separate days have been first worked out from the phases of the moon. or 'the in The very not that the f . We further possess lists of the days of the month for the Mortlock Islands. the thirtieth day occurring only in every other month has evidently been left out. e. (morning) 'the birds have driven away the moon'. 29. developed system of the Nandi is curious phase but the time of the moon's risthe name of the day. the tanners have ing chiefly gives seen the moon' 2. pul. Uleai. 387 ff. . 28. 3. new moon. 'the moon has accompanied the goats to the kraal' 2 16 (full moon). When only 29 names are given. moon and consists nights when there which are moon. 'the moon is late up above'. 9 days. 18. and some for the Carolines. above. Uleai. (evening) 'the moon has disappeared for a short while'. botrau. full e. 'the moon is white' or 'new' 3 and 4.' the moon is high in the evening'. 9 and 10. 'the moon has turned' (i. e. i. of three periods: is 1. days are similarly combined in groups. cp. 'the herdsmen play in the moonlight'.

1012. 243. 'ajjam al-lajall l-bidi. 95 Wirth. p. Ginzel. dura' 'the white nights with black heads'. white nights'. *nshar. f the moon is dead'. 'the nine'. 'attack'. from srr. nufal. 1921. as-sirar. 30. 16 18. 'the bright ones'. the time of full moon. 'the very dark nights'. p. da'ad?. 7 9. fusci*. p. in which three or at most four days have the same name. America names of the nights reckoned from the phases of the moon nately are quoted. 2. 165 sun has murdered the moon'. moon' night after which is 'the first night For the inhabitants of southern Foris mosa the bare and therefore almost useless statement made that they reckon according to the age of the moon 5 . An example of the naming . al-falta. 'great moon'. .GROUPS OF DAYS NAMED AFTER THE PHASES OF THE MOON. lit. the nights of the month 2 and are called: 1 3. 'the black one'. nights' (?). 2 Hollis. unfortunately only very confused and inaccurate information could be obtained. According to some this last name is used only on the night before. sulam. from mhq. 'the . Hitherto we have observed the division of the month into small and the smallest phases of the moon. perhaps after mthaq. according to others after. of smaller groups days after the phases of the moon is afforded by the old Arabian names for The nights are grouped in threes. since the moon does not rise until the night. 'the dark nights' 1315. after the full the third 4 . and are numbered in that they may be distinguished. full moon or 1. 28 30. lowing days: 1. hanadts or duhm. not given. 3. or of f the moon's darkness' J . etc.. consists of the folad-da* dja. ghnrar. W. This looks like an attempt to regulate the insertion of the 30th day. a holy month. 2. 25 27. Of the 4 Wagogo 1 of what was formerly German East Africa we are ff. and only 14 names are given: new moon. 308. The time of the moon's invisibility. mihaq. Radloff. 'to extinguish'. 'the days of the white nights'. mihaq. up to 9. pp. 3 Boas. 4 6. 'the overlapping 'the ten'. 'sudden event'. 'second sleep'. 5 Nandi. 648. The Central Eskimos can determine the days of the month very accu3 the terms are unforturately from the age of the moon 2224. 'to be hidden'. 364. Other peoples count days beginning at the principal moon-phases. So also for the Kaigan of N. order the . I. .

In Swedish the distinction between ny and nedan. since they say too little about the method of the counting. Un- fortunately we moon. the inhabitants of Buin the Germanic tribes. besides a full list of the days of the month. halves follows from direct observation of nature. and therefore the fourth of a month. 158.166 told PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. The same moon 2 . p. 1 Glaus. This is so that the month is divided up into smaller divisions. 2nd. natural. 38. serve remark applies to an account for Sumatra. the time of the waxing and of the waning moon. and others. g. the new and the full moon. by this means the month is divi- ded into the two corresponding halves of the waxing and the waning moon. it generally happens that the counting proceeds from several starting-points. 2 Hag-en. These accounts are unfortunately of little use. other than the new as starting-points for the reckoning. the third night after the next appearance of the moon will be the day following the third night after the moon's appearance. since primitive peoples not only possess small capacity for counting but also prefer to keep the concrete pheno- menon in view. the 1st. i. 3rd day of the are not told what phases. pp. 3 e. have a second reckoning according to the light and the dark halves . g. Even when a complete list of the days or nights of the month does seem to be forthcoming (the Wagogo. The people count by the phases of the moon. and they are therefore known even to peoples which do not count the days. the Kubu). The Masai. The Central Sumatran Expedition has proved that names for days of the week and for months are unknown among the Rawa and the Djambi Kubu of Djipati Mando. that the phases as nights serve of the moon and the numbers of the more accurate determinations of time. and say e. 3 Above. or in respect of the appearance or non-appearance of the moon in the evening and early night into the The difference between these light and the dark halves. e. 154 ff. is still known. since the crescent is visible exactly on the first day of a month 1 . For instance. . It has already been pointed out that the counting frequently begins at the two most prominent phases. p.

qfiivojv ('rising' . \Yhen the gradual development of the moon is regarded as is done when numbers are used . which was publicly The Nonae proclaimed. TOO v. we also get three periods. since between the waxing and the waning occurs the full moon. but before their calendar settled into curious and quite irrational historic form the Kalendac must have been the day of the new moon. Coligny each month is divided into two sharply distinguished halves. In this manner we account for the not uncommon phenomenon that only ten months are numbered. XIV. AvesIn the old Gallic calendar of ta shews the same reckoning.uev Homer. the two others being called by special may 1 Merker. Asia reckon in the same way: of these systems of timereckoning the Hindu has exercised a powerful influence. 307. i. p. are secondary: the word simply means the ninth (day). 2 Op.and not the particular shape of it appearing on a certain day. The time of month appears. of 167 The Hindus and the civilised peoples of S. although not in the strictest sense. 27 and 30 f. The impulse to a tripartite division hereby given clashed with the decimal system of enumeration of most peoples. pp. the Nones (the 5th or 7th). as a rule the counting was suspended at the basal series of numbers. E. and this. 1. and the Ides its (the 13th or 15th). Hesiod once mentions a 'thirteenth 2 day of the rising moon' We have seen above how to the phases of the new and the full moon that of the waning moon is added as a third. well-known. n. reckoned so many days before the Kalends (the the month l . full moon therefore appears as a third independent period between the waxing and the waning.. . first day of the month).. Hesiod. lasts longer than a day. 6' iGTdtizvoio in my The twice-recurring verse rov . e. which position the day occupies in the inclu- The Greek reckoning in decades is sive reckoning employed. The Romans indeed. Cp. Entstelmng. in the form of their calendar known to us. and the Idus the day of full moon. 162 and XIX. 780. ' 156. Od. before the Ides. and unlike the waxing and the waning moon remains in the sky the whole night long. but in earlier times a bipartite division of the Homer divides the month into lord/neros and and 'fading').DAYS COUNTED FROM THE GREATER PHASES.

L . /. For originally JLWJV must here have had the sense of 'moon' which the etymology suggests. 4 5 154 ff. about 9 1 /z days (more corThe Sofarectly. Stevenson. 432. two of ten days each. in which however the last decade may vary between 9 and 10 days. f . the third - names . and not 'moon'. on a string 1 A complete enumeration of the p. no doubt. . Barrett. 773. in Yoruba. p. the waning moon'.) lese of East Africa must have done the same. 8 Stannus. pp. Merker. p. remarks 288. See my p. which must once have been used to describe the two halves of the month. and call them negera Greeks the division into decades displaced Of the names of the decades the first and third refer to the concrete form of the moon: ^r\v iOTctjuevos. since de Faria says that they divided the month into 3 decades and that until the new moon appears of the day of the first decade was the feast of the new The Masai. cades (alongside of other notable days). and IM\V (pftlvtov. v. and begin a the when the month is ended they put this stick aside and new one At the southern corner of Lake Nyassa days are counted by means of pieces of wood threaded 8 . older de6[jLevos 5 literally the appearing.. Hesiod. has doubtless lent assistance to the counting of the days of The Wa-Sania make a notch in a stick for every 7 .168 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 144. 188 and 206 f. waxing moon'.. 2 Below. neverthefirst 3 . The division into decades is not so common as the halvthe month. 7 108. each of which is called a 'ten' 2 Ahanta of the western Gold Coast divide the moon-month into which lasts three periods. moon less give special prominence to the initial days of the de4 . f . day. who number either the days of the whole month consecutively or the days of its two halves. The second decade was called jurjv juso&v. pp. The Zuni of Arizona divide the month of ing The into three decades. Religionswiss. Arch. This name is therefore younger than the two others. varying between 9 and 10 days. Thus arises the division of the month into three decades. Op. 14. 'the month at the middle': the epithet shews that utjv here means 'month'. days however * p. Ellis. 35. and do so still in Homer 6 The custom of reckoning on the fingers or on a notched Among the the older bisection. stick the month.

second division (the ele- venth after new moon) they say that 'the when twilight falls back of the house : moon it turns to the is already seen beyond the culmination-point. On the fourth 1 day of the of this day see above. the fourth day of the last called 'the four. 'the one. 238 ff. Finally a couple of curious East African reckonings of the days of the month are to be mentioned. brings zon). is connected a fully developed superstition concerning the days of the month. . which it away the when the moon vanishes. which dismisses the moon'. moon so that it is no longer visible': . the day on which the slender delicate crescent of the moon first reappears p. although they are not primitive but have a lengthy development behind them. as is so often the case. and the appears like of the floats first division. in favour of a simple among month. which was still often used in the Middle Ages (though indeed it had long smce departed from its concrete basis). of the third 16th after new moon) e. pp.DECADES. The Masai in ordinary life as consisting of 30 days. and the second and begins the already with the fourth day. Accordingly they begin to count the new moon at 'the fourth day. 1 'tramples into pieces the days of the God' phases of the moon therefore make themselves The natural felt in spite of the counting. and 1 number reckon their moon-months the days from 1 to 30 or Gutmann. only exists AFRICAN SYSTEMS. just as the civilised peoples of modern Europe abandoned the Roman system of time-reckoning. the moon up from below' 'it day that from the eastern horicalled 'the where is division first a pot'. 169 highly developed peoples who have discarded a more concrete time-reckoning in favour of an abstract system. after sunset: for the rites 153. With this. fourth of five days each. division (the The fourth day is (i. so that the counting of the days moon's invisibility. The Wadschagga divide the month into four parts the days of which are numbered. the first and third parts consisting of ten days each. enumeration of the days of the A common is feature of both is that the day of the new moon which can hardly have been the original practice. which brings the moon'.

en aimen. The starting-points in the counting the month also afford evidence for the which phases of the days as of to the moon section of the mpnth: to this quite were then added other phases. easily to be uncp. 407.. for the Andamanese above p. therefore appears very clearly: the only noteis feature that the days of the moon's invisibility are worthy included in the division which is called 'the brightness of the ses of the moon. originally into the Indian Archipelago it is stated that they divide the month four parts according to the phases of the moon: paik baleo. the new moon. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. be taken for granted that these phases . primitive peoples p. Both the methods of counting and the phases themselves are based upon a bisection or tri- common. 'the e. 'the red'. and to the concluding day. the moon. 'the greenish day'.170 29. i. Among us the quarters of the moon are common.'. pp. Further. gadet. as ours are. ol onjugi. 154 De Backer. paik plejif. Merker. en aimen nerok. of of the waning not. the 17th. the rising new-moon day. of the decades The people also emphasise the concluding days The natural foundation afforded by the pha*. moon An outside influence must no doubt be assumed. special prominence is given to certain days and groups Besides this there is a second way of of days. That the quadripartite division of the tically non-existent 1 month should be pracis among 2 ff. es sobiain. The 16th is called ol on- jori. not yet set. counting which begins at the 16th and reckons the days of darkness (en aimen). unsystematically. but especially to the days of the of the month. paik jouwar. 'the black darkness'. Among is the Masai also the selection of lucky and unlucky days of question are the oldest. 27 etc. ol moon 'looks over' to the sun which has eng ebor olaba. g. 155. the first are of equal length. 18 to 20. to the 4th. . and paik imar. 21 to 23. the ertaduage duo olaba. must quarter. hence called also moon is to be seen'. and were already utilised for this purpose. nige'in. e. the 'the brightness of the dark half moon'. to the 15th. the old moon 2 It course. but of their use among primitive peoOf the Papuans of ples I have found only a single instance.

The quadripartite division therefore is in its very nature a numerical system. The primitive peoples however start not with the abstract unit}* but with the concrete phases. is due to the connexion with the seven-da^7 week. e. . which is regarded as a division of the month. From from that the phases of the brightest phase of in moon no all. which was conceived as a division of the month. since it from the concrete phenomenon of the moon. quadripartite division can arise: the full moon. In mentioned). proceeding at first quite the unsystematically. and not constitute a turning-point like the full moon. of the nor is there in the phases any such suga quadripartite division as is offered for a tripartite. and only subsequently combining them into a system. That it has penetrated so profoundly even ethnological scholars and travellers are not always able to get away from it. Unlike the halving it is not based upon any very clearly distinguishable gestion of phases. the appointing of every seventh day of the month as tabooed: it has become common among us on account of the seven-day week. any notice of the concrete phenomena of the hea- The quadripartite division must therefore be described as not original (the case is different when the time of the moon's invisibility is added as a fourth phase to the three already To the best of my knowledge it appears first in and Babylonia *. has an unnatural position such a division. 2551. i.. VII. reality arises the tripartite division is also the natural one. It can only be understood as a halving of the halves of the month. The shape little moon on of the 8th or the 22nd day differs very does the previous and the following days.THE QUARTERS OF THE MOON. and this presupposes that the moon's variation in light is regarded as a unity and divided into parts. and not from any division of the month into parts consisting of a cer1 in Pauh'-Wisscnva See the passage from a Babylonian Creation epic quoted by Boll s Realcykl. Altertumswiss. and also to the fact that we so seldom into our natures that take vens. der klass. 171 derstood in view of the considerations already mentioned. gains ground together with the sabattu.

The limithe divisions to a definite number of days is secondays.172 tain PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. it of Here the full moon takes its dary throughout. tation proper misses in the quadripartite division. . number which of place.

But most peoples. as our days of the and be week in relation to the year. can count no farther than ten at most. before they have developed a definite system of time-reckoning. This has come about because the moon. The month has become a conventional subof the year. nothing hinders us from counting up to twenty or a hundred months. the years and the months. and keeps as reminders of its origin only its name and a length approximating to that of the moon's revolution. unlike the sun and the seasons depending thereon. The month however is a shorter period easy to survey. Jias_no^ immediate influence upon the events 1 and occupations of our lives. and in the time-reckoning the counting is of course always the latest and most abstract stage. it is quite independent of the moon. THE MONTHS. nor does it exactly fit into the }^ear (12 X 29 ^2. The months may be reckoned independently of the year. We have therefore come back division 1 . and such divisions are necessary in order to split up the too long period of the year. are enumerated without reference to one another. the days of the week falling on different dates in different years. (moon-)month has originally nothing to do with the] and the seasons: this must be clearly and definitely recognised.CHAPTER VI. It is impossible to combine the months with the year without doing violence to the one or the other. about 355 days). Such an enumera- The year I I J tion of the months may commence at any point of the year continued ad libitum. The time-reckoning of the modern civilised peoples has chosen this latter expedient. In itself the month has nothing to do with the year. in relation to the year it is not fixed but shifting. Both series.

even at an advanced stage of development. it will be the object of the following- sure of tne duration of time: upon the mind. in moons to the purely solar year. 6. Three months. little autumn-hunting month. It was the primitive peoples. I begin by setting forth the somewhat copious material for series of months. According to Ahlqvist the midsummer month is distinguished as greater or smaller. however. 1. sap-in-firs month. month of light (lengthening to the The names given from the districts of : of the days). 12. winter month. 9. For the names of months. Mausser. . are. wind month. abundant material is accessible. p. riants months by the Voguls. and middle and lower Loswa (tributary of the Irtysh). snow month. Schiefner lists in particular has collected extremely of the I of the names lists full and months among the various races of Siberia. elk-running month. These 222. and are for that reason inaccessible to me. 13 months. as is so often the case. have tried to adjust the year by the moon. 9. winter month. 11. month of young water-fowl. beginning from Sept. seem is to have district. 5. reckoning has arisen. which could only be done by adopting years of varying How this lunisolar length. with vaTawda. Konda. middle-of-summer month. whose time-reckoning with otherwise quite was so concrete. no special names in the Tawda and 11. For them the moon afforded the only fixed mea- from the reckoning its appearance impressed itself firmly These peoples therefore. but this not very surprising detailed *. sap-in-birches month.174 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. here reproduce. great autumn-hunting month. ploughing month. be 7. nos. ski month. chapters to investigate. 7. month of the naked trees. 2. month of the young razor-bills. month of thaw. For the peoples of North Asia I have hitherto been able to make hardly any statements: the works are for the most part written in Russian. 3. month of the thawing snow-crust. 8. autumn month. There must therefore. little autumn./Oct. 10. the little winter month. spawning month or month of corn-sowing. 4. of 12 and 13 months respectively.

month in which the Obi freezes. naked tree month (falling of the leaves). 3. marriages at that time.SERIES OF MONTHS: SIBERIA. month in which the tribute is levied twelve months. month of little steepness. 5. the maidens' month. compare e. month w^hen month 3. flax month. pine sap-wood month. comes. but the list shews many variants and does not seem to be in its right order. 7. 10. month of the short days or of the deceptive feet or of the -only dog's feet. the ducks moult. the grave-post' month takes its name from the feast of the dead. month month when the syrok (a kind of salmon) 8. 3. of the unstable ice. 6. 8. 11. summer month. 6. 8. therefore. 10. 175 1. since men go home on foot while the ice still remains. the following thirteen months: thank-offering month. 9. 11. translated. of celebrating f f The Ugric Ostiaks have 13 months: 1. 13. birch sap-wood month. month in which the njelma is with caught great nets. 4. grave-post month. free month. month in which the earth 7. month in 1. 7. is impossible. winter month. which is said to owe its name to the custom 2. 4. about May. or first autumn month. salmon-weir month. done in the fields. month of crows. ducks-andmonth. or geese-go-away first spring month. The maidens' month. little winter-ridge month. . the garrot moults. e. 2. 4. hay month. 12. month in which the willow loses its foliage. spring month. month in which men go on horseback. 6. 9. wind month. is also called 'fallow -land month is so called because in it no work is the free' month'. 9. 4. Another list gives the following months: month in which the Obi dies (?). 2. threshing-floor month. sickle month. middle-of-summer month. great. freezes. g. The Tchuvashes have very steep month. 11.^ beginning in the middle of November. 5. spawning month. cloudberry month. 8. which in the nature of things The Yeneseisk 2. sowing month. month in which the track (the road) of the Obi freezes. pedestrian month. 13. i. months 1 and 10. not when 5. month of hay -harvest. 5. about April. 10. which tribute is imposed. 12. 12. 7. summer month. 3. which is then celebrated on the graves. Ostiaks: 1. with gifts of every kind. month of the great snow-crust. referring to the same natural phenomenon. 6. month of the little snow-crust.

13. 2. in the Minusinsk Tatars: 2. month. bald patches of earth appear among the snow. 11. 4. this summer red. fall-of-the-leaf month. 11. 6. in which the dogs pair. spawning which the pike spawns. not the count seven to are said only Sym little reindeer-rutting month. spawnin which the Ostiaks set traps to catch the grass sturgeon. 15/1-12/2. Minusinsk district of the Yeneseisk gothe mild. the days) increase. 3. autumn month. 5. 17/1215/1. 13. 19/11 17/12. about September. 10. 9. the great month. 3. squirrel month. great eagle month. in which the earth 4. summer months. summer month. is i. birch-bark being used for the month. 2. 7. 8. 9. 2/7 30/7. 10. month in which the earth begins to freeze. month of the long rest. 6. month of frost. squirrel month. 5. winter months. variants which are not translated. such as is taken during the short days. 5. 13. great cold. 4/62/7. grass month. reindeer-buck rutting month. when the cedar is tapped with the hammer in order to shake down the ripe cones with the nuts. snow-shoe . ing month. since the people go hunting. or forest-month. when the birds fly out in spring. little cold. month. drought. month. The Karagasses. 9. 12. 7. 8. freezes. 4. month . houses. middle-of-summer or month in w^hich the grass turns yellow. when birch-bark is collected.176 freezes. 30/727/8. 6. month of the low grass. when people begin to trap sables. month of the the white grass-tips. 5. when the sun moves high above the horizon. in which the striped The Yeneseisk Ostiaks of the squirrel comes out of its nest. 27/824/9. becomes green. harvest month. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 6. they e. birch-bark month. the red month. of 12. which birch-bark is collected. They are: 1.1. 12/212/3. the little. dog month. hammer month. the little. in the great month. 11. 8. reindeer-rutting month. (perhaps) little (i. month in which the lily-bulb dug up. eagle month. squirrel month. who live next to 1/54/6. 7. 22/10 19/11. The Tatars vernment: 1. - 1. 10. There are also some 12. 11.3. 2. 10. Another list gives: . 7. easy month. month in which the lily-bulb is blossoms. high. 3. when month. great frost-month. 9. the mottled month. month eagle month. 24/922/10. 4. e. severe cold. sable month.

the month also called the white month. the wild fruit grows sonnaja. since this animal is then caught. 10. 8. red mountain-ridge. 5. 2. after-math comes. 12. okfi immediately after that the minever is good. 4. 7. month when the snow becomes sticky. the become red. leek month. fish-spawning month. since in this month deer month. ilkun. 13. the wild month. grass moon. month. \ 177 month. 5. 5. therefore. 9. cervical hnkterbi. as also among the Tunkinsk Buriats. bone). (fly. girauu (suggests giramda. when the sheep pair. roe month. 11. milk moon. since the animals. has days of noticeably increasing length. 10. white 11. (perhaps okto. 12. the proper flowering moon. month in which when the winter stores are seen to. when over the deep but rotting snow deer and elks are hunted in snow-shoes. the on account of the fierce heat. on account of the cold. spring moon. ripens. 3. 6. 8. it 11. milchfmoon. okton kira (time of the road). deer month. deer moon. the roe month. to serula sanni (perhaps month the red deer pair. sheep moon. when the deer is caught. wild so called little sable month. this is the time when. deer the new hair. owing to the night-frosts. 4. the nests. when the snow melts and the mountains 6. ripen). 4. for whom are translated only: 1. the blossoms early gnat). 12/3 9/4. winter. when The Nishne-Udinsk Buriats: horns grow on the roe. 2. when the roes pair. in this 3. 3. 7. month. which is not strong enough to bear deer The dates given by the author can at most be ai\d elks. the red ripe. brings vertebra). 2. when the deer pair. from the new year: 1. road). the brooks freeze. month in which people hunt with dogs. 3/4 7/5. Winter: 1. 4. ilaga The names of the months are: come out. ram month. bulb moon. nest month. 5. applied only to one definite year. squirrel month. The Buriats. roe month. a crust forms on the snow. creep into their dens and - Only twelve months. in this the leaves and is 2. when first snow falls: 12 . deer month. 12. The year of the Tunguses is divided into summer and Summer: 1.SERIES OF MONTHS: SIBERIA. is when 1. 9. mira (shoulder-joint). 3. 2. irin (from trim. month of the red ridge of land. first 12. roe moon. has the shortest days. sables are caught. 13. when the ice breaks.

For the Tunguses of the Sea of Okhotsk only lated: twelve - 1. when the cormorants tura (perhaps turaki. wuenui is said of fish when they come up-stream in great shoals. elbow. 5 8 that of a suggestion of an ascending. 8. geese month or month of calves. or month when the earth freezes. leaf -fall month. of which nos. 5. 8. 4. about August. no storms. Georgi. 6. the name of the twelfth month perhaps means of it This is only one method of reckoning: a hint already found in the preceding list. month to 11 (?). on account of the shortness of the days. becomes porous. But a year of eleven months is said months are: rutting to exist 1. possibly only because of the defective memory of his informants. the calm month. 7. month when the tax (i. Another traveller only discover eleven months among the Tunguses of the Amur. in which the rivers become clear: the last part of this period belongs to Our informant. 10. 7. the weather is favourable for trapping animals. the good month. month of the short days. and of these are transgrass month.178 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. literally wuenui-jiry. or else has run two months together. . shoulder-joint. can make only the thumb of a glove. eagle month. 2. mid. winds drive the snow along like sand. are named from out following a 911 descending order. is 7 10 are simply numbered and the other names are not could ex- plained. 6. Schiefner conjectures that he has counted tukun twice. months are enumerated. month with the long days. the great month. daw). e. 7. or thumb month. 3. month of inundations. when the of leaf-fall. nos. 2. reindeerthe dark month. atlas. 5. 4. when the sables are covered.since the days (or the month) are very long. speaks of thirteen the summer year. 3.winter month. schonka. the back. spring month. sand month. 5 the joints of the human frame. tax month. jackcome. For the Tunguses of the lower Amur twelve months are reported. 5. the beginning of the tuktm. about August. but only gives the above twelve names. The month month. fish-and-horse month. 11. 3. 4. . The Ostiak Samoyedes have 12 months: 1. among the Samoyedes of Yurak. when the ice 5. months. the deer) is caught. 6. ripening wrist. 9. since the wr omen.

from the arrival of the wood-cock. 9. ladder month. Another 11. 9. njelma-monih. bein . 10. geese month. or hornless month. must doubtless be axe-handle month'. the first dark month. or sea-fish month. summer month. moonlight month are month. maliz month. 3. 10 numbered. or the cold breaks an axe. fledged month. list of Samoyede months from the Bolshemelsk tundra runs. month in which fish are dried. middle month. 4. or the fourth month. 7. 'touch me not': it is considered a 8. 'I am rather cold'. the geese after moulting are again in a condition to use their wings. 7. 10. the Yakuts have only twelve months : . 6. wood-cock month. 8. New Year: 1. 2. 10. month which the summer animals arrive 9. 5. 11. 12. month of return. the crows come. kept month in which the ice floats away. nettle month. grass month. the ladder leading : the balagans becomes very brittle owing to the cold^. month pines. fall and plants begin and mouth to crime to drink in this month from springs and brooks with the or with hollow sticks it must be done with great wooden spoons or with shells.jll. when the sun has turned back to summer. since people begin to fish in the moonlight to wither . So also the Italmen of Kamchatka: Summer year. 179 month of crows. 12. beginning in May: 1. the porus-titmouse appears. 2. 4. from the catching of the omnlj. the axe-handle splits with the cold. 3. 8. hunting month. the nettles are gathered and hung up to dry. 6. in which the reindeer-does calve. 4. leaves away.1 spawnFurther. 3. month in which the fish spawn. 2. or the reindeer rub the velvet off their horns. 5 of the people collect pine-bark the in which the foals are shut up in the day-time and from the mares. so that the latter can be milked. when people begin to fish in the lakes. . -. ing month. which is afterwards dried and ground into meal. eagle month. 11. hay-fork month. the great month of darkness. 12. 5.SERIES OF MONTHS: SIBERIA. month in which there is water in the little brooks. titmouse month. eagle month. 6. The winter year begins with: 7. the geese begin to moult during the latter days of this month. month of calves. ginning at our f fish month. in which in the far north the sun does not rise. reindeer-rutting month. when the skins obtained from the reindeer are turned into malizes (an undergarment). cuckoo month.

1. island 5. birth-time of tame reindeer. 9.180 vent-hole PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. coalmouse month. the foremost. - snow-shovel month. 1. the summer year in May. the day becomes long. of the snow-crust. month when the birds grow fat. little month. whitefish month. 1. each with twelve months. 6. 8. seals. the great whitefish month. time of the long day. or birdof the Kurile Islands: The Aino snaring month. eagle month. 5. great month. . eagle month. 6. month. 5. month. snow-shovel month. the period people gnaw out there (outside the house). sin-purifying month. axe-handles break owing to the frost. since the snow around the vent-hole thaws and the earth again appears. 10. kaiko-ftsh month. 4. The Aleuts begin or 1. On little the of Sachalin: -. redfish month month. the time when people gnaw 3. birth-time of the the the rivers. said to last as long as three of our months. 3. sea-gull's eggs month. 8. 10. 4. 10. year month. 8. when these birds arrive. sin-puriaxe-handles burst. month of the falling leaves. For the Gilyaks two lists are given. withered. 6. fying month. or month when the grass of the short days. Near the Kamchatka River the names are: - 3. beginning of the heat (stc!)\ 4. or month in which another kind of salmon is caught. month the grass withers. sea-beavers. 5. salmoncatching month. 6. 4. The winter year begins in November. 4. month the of flowers. or harpoon month (?) in which another species of salmon is caught. foddering month. 2. belts. birth-time of the wild rein- birth-time of the beginning of the fishing. long days. month Among the northern Kamchadales the names are: - of the freezing of 6. 5. - in which a kind of salmon spawns (?). 10. half-year month (?). month 2. belts for the last time. 11. of-animals month. 9. 1. hunting month. 12. or the time when when one is youngfat. 9. winter month. water-wagtail month. 4. 5. the year in March: - 12. moul ting-month. is 9. 2. 7. 3. great month. month when young animals are . fish-and-squirrel month. - 11. 7. Two other lists for Kamchatka contain only ten months. 2. the-snow-fills-up. guillemot's eggs month.3. 10. 2. the snow melts. 8. 3. month deer. That for the Amur estuary has two or three variants The following are translated: for some months. 7.

the great month. It would be f in nets.winds month or snow*. however. second summer-month. isolated names are interspersed which have not this concluding word. . rutting-season-of -mountain-sheep . Koryak. 10. animals are caught. as appears also from the above translations. 181 the the warm month. p. suits only to moon-months. 9. sea-lion month. The year of the Koryak. when caught Unfortunately the attention paid to these names has not been extended to the word which means month'. first summer-month (of leaves) month. cormorant month. but the names of the months most commonly used are stormsmonth. it would be clearly proved that a moon-month is in question. ded into names in different places. 12. Some months have different ponds to the peoples of eastern Siberia. which is longer than this bird is any the others. 6. The first month the time of the winter solstice and corresbegins at our December. corresponding" Chukchee Jochelson. 2. autumn's month. which is translated 'month'. month 5. itself-ftead month or month-of-the-head-itself The Yukaghir names for their lunar months are given - in translation: 1 1 (July). (growing-of-)the-reindeer's-spinal-sinew month. month in which hair grows. valuable to know if the same word means 'moon': if so. reddening . months cited 2. false-making-udder month or reindeer-udder month rein: deer-does'-calving 7. 2 12. This is expressly stated by American travellers. and in one case (the Buriats) 'moon'. pairing-season-of-the-reindeer-bucks month or empty (bare)-twigs month. the middle-of-the-summer month. but this is doubtless a peculiarity due to the authority. as follows: -- 1. Upon the whole we are authorised in concluding that we have to do with genuine moon-months. is divitwelve lunar months (called 'moons'). after hunting-month. to whom we owe further information about north of Kamchatka. 428. 11. month. Except in the lists for the Minusinsk Tatars and the Tunguses the names end with the same word. month of 7. The number of days indicated in the list pp. when these 11. the Compare the 2 below p. when the feathers and coats of animals grow thick. cold. 8. 10.SERIES OF MONTHS: SIBERIA. 4. water-month. 176 f. 220. 9. 8. by Bogoras. hunting-month. 3.

time of cutting off. Very often several different names may be used to designate the same moon. before-the-ridge month. time of creeping on game (refers to the sealhunting on the ice). near Mission. develop larvae. 4. season for top-spin1 Jochelson. or the great butterfly month. time of the drum. if it should chance to be at a season when different occupations or notable occurrences in nature are observed: our authority has used the most common terms. 7. small mosquito month. The Eskicille *. after having melted during the day: this commences in April. 6. the time when geese get new wing-feathers (moulting). ridge month. time when the first seals are born. named from a game with a top. 10. 3. 3. 8. the e. 12. the little butterhere are meant the larvae of two species of gadfly fly month. 4. time for broodinggeese to moult. time for fawn-hunting. of the Behring Straits divide up the time according to moon: by the 'moons' all time is reckoned during the year. 11. Thirteen moons are reckoned to the year.182 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 8. and the other into in its nostril 9. Ytikaghir. 41. time for setting seal-nets. 5. For the lower Yukon delta. The list mos the to turn about'. 12. the mosquito month. the month. leaf -month. which in summer lay their eggs. the rutting-time of the fish autumn month. one in the skin of the rein. 2. in reckoning this month is denoted by the atlas. 9. time for is f going in kayaks. . although our authority could not always obtain complete series. the first cerwild reindeer. time for bringing in winter stores. the wild-reindeer buck month. time for velvet-shedding (from horns of reindeer). the because ridge of the spinal column 7. i. from the appearance of sharp lines of colour on the ptarmigan's body. the month when the winter festival begins. because the mosquito makes its appearance then The same system recurs in North America. and dates are set in advance for certain festivals and rites. the ancient : during the. arranged according to our months: 1. men month: cille means the icy surface formed during the night on the snow. 5. vical vertebra deer. name winter the eggs not translated. p. because the mosquitoes appear. 10. 11. the following list is drawn up: 1. 6. because fishing is then taking place for the winter stock.

warmer time). time of braining salmon. 644 ft. 9. 12. in the fifth the angmasset and the seals are once more young. geese moult. Cranz. Eskimo. at the end of this month the eider-ducks begin to brood and the reindeer-does to calve. 11. ff. time of musk-rats. the names of the twelfth. 183 ning and running of round the kashmi\ 2. of Greenland begin the third to count the moons at the winter After moon they remove from tents. the winter houses into their summer In the fourth they know that the little birds are again to be seen and that the ravens lay eggs. time of offal-eating (scarcity food). siringilang. other names of months are not given . month were not obtained 1 The Central Eskimos divide the year into 13 months. geese come. 5. 10. time of opening the upper passage-ways into the houses (this falls too early and is referred to an earlier.SERIES OF MONTHS: ESKIMOS. mush-ice forms. birds come. the flying time of velvet-shedding. I. away (migration of the birds). velvet 6. which the sun does not (sic!). time of whitefish. arrival of geese. swans moult. the time of taking hares in nets. 4. and doubtless also of the thirteenth. just south of the Yukon delta: the A third list named from was obtained the game of top. 3 Dalsager. . From this time on. 9. 293 ff. 3. 5. pp. One month. Eskimos solstice. 8. pp. 'without . or ^the cold moon. time for shedding from reindeer-horns. 4. 6. 54 ff. long nights. the time of opening summer doors. Nelson. 7. mon. 13. and thereby serves rise - - is of indeterminate length to equalise the length of the year. 8. i.the sun' name covers the whole period of the year in . 234 cp. time of salmon. time of the feast. 7. 2. time of eggs. the time of much moon. 11. the rest of this month is called 2 The sirinektenga. 8 Boas. 1. time for red saltime for young geese to fly. the names of which vary very much according to the tribes and the latitude of the place. 3. The name qaumartenga denotes only the days which are without sun but have twilight. 10. e. only those who live on latitude 59 can reckon by the moon any longer: the others count by the pheto be seen with their nomena 1 of natural life 3 . pp.

. 10. 11. 204. 'month before everything hatches'. the porpoises pair *. the ravens lay eggs. the sixth month. because the first snow then appears. perhaps so called because the geese 13. snow appears on the mountains. 9. dried fish is cut in pieces. 6. the ice breaks. 1 Schiefner. big moon'. 'real-flower month'. p. 'eleventh month'. 8. from Sitka. 2 'ground-hog-mother's moon'. 'tenth month'. doors. month when every animal OIL land and in the water . 9. 12. the thirteenth month is missing The author's report consists in part of extremely doubtful : . begin to shew life. 12. meaning unknown. For the Thlinkit two lists are given.) which stay about the island in winter The Konyag of coast lay eggs. people know that everything is going to grow. g. the rivers and lakes freeze. 10. 'moon child' or 'young moon'. 3. 11. the seals pair. 10. 8. 'month when all animals prepare their dens'. month when people have to shovel snow away from their 5. 12. 'month when everything hatches'. hoar-frost co1. the month when 'sea-flowers' and all other things under the sea begin to grow. ducks etc. nettles.1. beginning with August: . and bears begin to get f fat. 6. 'moon when all creatures go into their dens'. vers the grass. 11. fatten'. 2 Swanton. when when thing to flowers. 'silver- were then all at salmon month' their the reason of the name is unknown. 1. the birds (e. 'black-bear month'. 'big moon'. 4. 2. of the island of Kodiak off the southern Alaska count from August the following months: the Pleiades begin to rise. 7. pp. 7. the month when the black bear turns over on the other side in his den. 2. this is not proper month. 'black-bear month'. 9. 4. from Wrangel. etc. the first. 7. begins to have hair in the mother's womb 6. 3. The second the south. 'small moon' or 'moon-child'. the month when black and brown bears begin to have cubs and throw them out into the snow. 425 ff. because it is that in which the sun starts back and people begin to look for geese. begins with Janu'goose moonth'.. Orion rises. 8. so called because fish and berries then begin to fail. 'goose month'. 3. Tlingit. 'month when everyis born'. 2. 4.184 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 5. ary: 'month when everything born commences list. 5. 'month when the geese cannot fly'. the month of salmon. takes its name because all birds then come down from the mountains.

Frequent Chinook winds. 1. bucks cold. or (name not translated). People fish salmon all month. which the list belongs. or 'getting-ripe month'. 3. 185 explanations of the natives. The weather improves. and the people go into their winter houses. 6. and the whole seems hardly to be in order: here. the memory of the old names the months has begun to fade away. shed their antlers. and their special Among the classes of names. People cache their fish and leave the rivers to hunt. trout at the lakes. Salmon arrive. The weather begins to get going-in time'. named because most people went into their winter houses during this month. Snow Snow fast. 517 ff. 2. 'coming-forth time'. People characteristics. pp. and people hunt. 2. or (d:o). Shitshivap. 4. so named because the people come forth from their winter houses in this month. melting all the snow. AMERICA. or have recognised names derived from some characteristic. or going-in time'. translated). The grass grows. of The type to two Shuswap of British Columbia the months have They are called 'the first month' etc. 10. The deer rut. The people come out of their winter houses. People People dig roots. 'fall time'. or or 11. their principal the deer rut. or 'autumn month'. (d:o). are: 1. A few spring roots are dug. 5. although many came out in the fourth month. so named because Chinook winds generally blow in this month. 'spring (winds) time'. is well known. or f (name not 4. Thompson f Indians in the - same country. The snow begins disappear. as everywhere.SERIES OF MONTHS: N. The grass grows 7. however. Sun turns. and the spring plants begin to sprout. 9.. and many people leave their winter houses at the end of the month. 1 Teit. or '(little) summer (month)'. and characteristics. or 'midsummer (month)'. berries ripen. (name not translated). Service8. or 'spring (winds) month'. . and does become lean. disappears completely from the lower grounds. People hunt and trap game in the mountains 1 The moons used by the Spences Bridge band of the . 5. fish disappears from the higher ground. The names among the Fraser River division. are as follows: commence to enter their winter houses. Balance of the year. to First real cold. so 3.

warm winds. into their 2. Alternate cold and 5. camp out in lodges for a time. The deer drop 9.186 6. Autumn. of run'. people hunt. Thompson. 3. corresponding to our March onwards. people fish and cure salmon. The names of the months. and service-berries begin of the to ripen. first or 'nose' of ascending The sockeye or red salmon 'they reach the run.. so named because people prepared fish-oil. 'little coming-out'. People catch fish 7. Last into winter houses again for a short time. Their names are as follows: 1. 9. 10. ters ripe'. pp. pp. 'spring or warm wind'. sources of the rivers. in bag-nets. 2 Ibid. people commence to fish salmon. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. pp. Some people cold. trees put forth leaves. Winter houses left for good. The rals to get poor. As a matter of fact some confusion seems have crept into the series. 'first named because all The sun 10. . People go winter houses. They reach the the of Rest the 12. begin to run *. 8. the Next Moon. so returns. 7. the people catch the trout with dip-nets. the rutting-time of deer. 223 f. From obtained the Kwakiutl of four Vancouver Island series have been different tribes. the remainder of the year being called the autumn. Year. Teit. stice. and berries ripen. people go on short hunts. fish'. 238 8 ff. Lillooet. 'the last going-in'. 11. are as. rest of the year. summer Some of sol- the fish. 'middle time'. mes of the Lillooet Indians are similar. follows: to 1 Teit. 'going-in'. and the and bucks people trap hunt. and that it was difficult to obtain quite satisfactory evi- dence: is consequently he does not claim that his arrangement perfectly accurate. The Lower Thompsons also called the months by nume- and the salmon begin up to ten or sometimes eleven. eleven moons and the . People go 'going-in-again'. 'they are a little people dig roots. and the wa8. The author having states that the knowledge of the moons seems to be disappearfor 28 ing. The moons are grouped in five seasons 2 The natrapping. or '(poor) The cohoes or silver salmon source'. The increase. 11. the fall 3 . people pick berries. their young. the first and second tribes identical for the months names and 10. 6. 4. or 'fall time'. People hunt large game and go 'coming-out'. come. and begin to go to the lakes to trap fish. 237 ff. or 'to boil food a little'.

Under (elder No sap trees(?) in brother). [ " fishing sea- son. sea- 3. Next one under Raspberry (elder brother). (?) Sockeye moon Sallalberry season. Ill 187 II IV 1. Raspberry season. son. Season of ? Between good South-east wind moon. | ! 5. Huckleberry season. Sallalberry season. : moon.SERIES OF MONTHS: I x. 4. AMERICA. and bad . Trying- oil Huckleberry season. 2. or olacheni Tree-sprouting season. Raspberrysprouting season.

'salmon-berry' time. 34.- its peculiarities the counting - at and even the naming found ff. p. tern kaikq. This is everywhere the case. time when the fish leave the streams. very subordinate In fact seasons. 9. to our months: in these divisions the part. 3. 1. sallalberry time. but ten. 11. so called because.. be 412 among p. . tent tcim. Cp. the Hill Tout. dog-salmon spawning season. spring-salmon spawning 2. Kwakintl. dancing season. 'redcap' time. 10. and says that the solstice moons are called by a name which probably means 'split both ways': he adds that the readjustment is made in mid-winter Of the Siciatl of British Columbia it is said that they divide the year into twelve parts corresponding approximately 1 . as it is asserted. an unidentified bird of passage which retime of the lem. 34. as is suggested by the number twelve. The Stselis of the same district begin the year in autumn at October. the Romans 4 How3 Boas. pp. time when the leaves fade. budding time. and name the months as follows: season. the eagle hatches 2. moon seems to play a are to be described as they the same word. prefixed its eggs at this time. 7. Probably the native time-reckoning has fallen into decay and been forgotten under European influence. g. 6. 3. 178. time when the fish stop running. 4. a kind of raspberry. time of the diver. which in this month builds its nest and lays eggs. . 'cold time'. 12. Further: - time big lay their eggs. Between the tenth and twelfth the author inserts the winter solstice. However these divisions are doubtless origi- moon-months. ff. especially in regard to the moon-month.188 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 5. time when the raven lays his eggs nally 2 . eagle-time. 4. tern. fish when the mains about a month. January. 2 the ceasing of the first . since creeks were at this time full of dead and dying salmon 3 . season for putting paddles away from which they number from 5 to 10. since to their names is as to the three main seasons. The latter part of this was also known as the time of the d}dng salmon. The time between July and October was denoted by a word which means the coming together or meeting division the of the two ends of the year. 334 4 lists from the Yakuts JRAI. 179 and the Tunguses Ibid. e. 1. This of list of months - is curious. four months 1 are to pp. 8. winter. p.

'snow' . 8. January and February are the first and the second moons in which the bear brings forth its young. big chestnut. in calling to jnind all the names. 9. or Piscous is given to a small tribe on the little river which falls into the Columbia about miles below Fort Okanagon. In several is one moon ahead of the other. 11. 66. the moon in ff. a bitter root. 'going to root-ground'. big ripening. 12. 8. which the bustard moults. months from seasons (in the sense of chapter wide-spread over the whole of North America. 2 . shew that their habits are much the same as those of their neighbours. 6. The name Piskwaus that lives 40. 13. the Salish. little ripening moon An early French author relates of certain tribes in Nouvelle France (western Canada) that they divide the year into twelve moons which are named from animals but correspond to our months. 1 camass-root] 11. a certain 1. little. One of the chiefs the (viz. which may from a mistake or possibly from some slight difference of winter herb.1. 7. . in August. only under the curious civilisation of Arizona and neighbouring diof the II) is The naming stricts does the system present special features. windy. 189 ever it bears so little resemblance to all the other lists known to us from this district that it becomes doubtful whether it is original or a product of decay. blackberry moon. of the Piskwaus) made only twelve names. and 3. March is the . 10. falling leaf. 10. big spring. May that of the maize. moon June 1 of the carp. while other some difficulty the Piskwau chief arise Both had (of the Salish) reckoned thirteen. 'gathering berries'. 5. 4. obtained from a chief. 'dry building'. 3. AMERICA. 'exhausted 12 (missing in the Piskwau list) 'house5. big winter. little. 2. Their months. 'snow gone'. 4. 2 mulberry moon. for the names of many of the months have reference to some of their most important usages. the year immediately after the The Creek Indians began celebration of the busk or ripening of the new corn. 'cold'. salmon'. or big winter's young brother. 2. 6. 'hot'. 7. The list begins at the time of the solstice: not translated. seasons at the two places. 210 Hastings. little w^inter. April that of the crane. p. and 9. July the month 2 Hale.SERIES OF MONTHS: N. The moons are: . pp.

since it is then reaped. April is the moon of the plants. September is the moon of the maize. the. rutting of bears. October is the moon of journeys. elks. December. called and the benefits and good Thus the Lenope. month. January. The tribes who live Novemmoon in by the sea call September the moon in which the trout spawn. and begins as a rule at the new moon after the spring equinox: it is called the moon of the worms. since the shad then in the sea into the rivers to spawn. since the worms then leave their holes under the bark of trees or the other places where they have been hiding during the month of the year. Fe2 bruary. June. is added.190 of PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. August the rutting-time October that of of bulls. pp. November. they changed the name of the month and called it the district to came up from the juice-dripping 1 or the sugar-refining 2 month. A vania not the fairly runs: - contemporary account of the tribes of PennsylThe months have each a separate name but . because most snow falls in that month . 331. who lived by the AtMarch the month of shads. same name among all tribes. August. since the names refer chiefly to the climate of the district. the warm moon. but since which they afterwards migrated this fish is not found. to the other moons they give the same names as the inhabitants of the interior 1 . November that of the herring. beaver's moon. cold moon. which are then caught in great numbers. since at ff. lantic Ocean. Carver. things enjoyed in it. known as the winter. October the moon of the whitefish. 175 . since this ani- mal then goes back into its lodge after having collected winter stores. hunting-moon. II. July. this De la Potherie. May. Sep- which rutting-time of the roebuck. December the the roe sheds its horns. tember the rutting-time ber the of deer. since the people leave the of moon the the villages and depart to the district in which they intend to hunt in the winter. the moon of the roe-buck. the moon of flowers. snow moon. Another traveller at the end of the 18th century relates of the Sioux and Chippewa that they divide the year into twelve moon-months to which from time to time an extra March is the first lost month. sturgeon.

three important branches of the Algonquin. February. Menomini. June. and those of the Moonsey. October is the moon in which the wild rice is gathered and laid up for the winter. The translator adds in a note: ber. since these animals then come out of their holes. and Potawatomi have the wild-rice-gathering moon. October. 'deer half-month'. autumn month. January. der Heckewelder. August. since on warm days the frogs begin to make Novemthemselves heard. AMERICA. December. . Mission der evangelischen Brttder unter die Indianer in Nordamerika. call name one or two months from The Ojibwa of the gathering of wild August or September the moon rice. 191 flow. 1789. probably because the The names are therefore days once more become longer. October the 'drying-rice moon'. which among the last-named corresponds to the end of September and the beginning of October. mouse and squirrel month. not the same for all tribes. which is the time when all deer have shed their horns. tribes. month in which the stags shed their horns 2 Some tribes give to January a name which signifies 'the return of the sun to them'. hunting month. since the ears of corn (cobs of maize) can then be roasted and eaten. September is the moon when the rice is laid up to dry. time the juice of the sugar-maple begins to' April is called the spring month^ May. p. a tribe of the Delaware. hunting month. the summer month. the Ottawa. September is 'the 1 The translator quotes Loskiel. gathering or harvest month. according to Neill. month of frogs. September. corn-ear month.SERIES OF MONTHS: N. according to Long. . the Dakota call September 'ripe rice moon'. Barby. The wild fluctuating character of the terminology itself: rice is an important article of food for the tribes of the west by the Great Lakes. or also the month in which the hair of the deer is reddish. December. the month of plants. this and also smaller plant. July. do not even agree with one another 1 The following is very instructive both for the influence of the natural phenomena upon the terminology and for the . or the month in which the deer bring forth their young. 524. Gesch. or the wild rice moon.

is as follows: 1. the deer-rutting moon. moon when the wind shakes off the leaves. among the Teton. Diet. September is 'the moon when the wild rice gives: - January. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. the moon when the plums August. July. October the end { of wild rice'. Riggs. will have different names for the same moon. or when the streams are navigable. voi. and difif ferent bands of the same tribe. called also 'men's month'. the wintermoon. but many tribes Cheyenne name twelve moons have not more than six. 5. v. buffalo cows drop their calves. or when the geese shed their feathers. Teton. 2. when the seed-pods of the fndian turnip mature. Teton. according to Atwater is ripe* *. 9. s. 'moon'.Teton. are September. Knowing well the habits of the animals. Teton. November. . the moon when the strawberries are red. the raccoon moon. moon when the ducks come back. off. moon in which the leaves become brown. the moon when the deer shed their horns. the moon when rice is laid moon 2 . when the hair gets thick on the buffalo foetus. Teton. up to dry. May.192 beginning'. 4. 3. February. they readily recognise any special that may be mentioned. occupying widely separated sections of the country. December. Some of the tribes of the in the year. when the skin of the foetus of the the sore-eye moon. Teton. the drying rice moon. April. the hard moon. f getting large. or corn-harvest moon. the midwinter red. 1 Jenks. the planting moon. March. pp. list A of the Dakota months the moon in which the geese lay eggs. even though their name for it be different. and having roamed over vast areas. 7. or when the noipasoha (berries) are good. . October. June. Wild Rice. the harvest moon. beginning with the moon just moon before winter. moon when the grass commences to get green and some roots are fit to be eaten. 1089 '' f. moon when is the leaves fall when the buffalo cow's foetus the wolves run together. Teton. moon when the ducks come 8. moon 6. when buffalo commences to colour. the deer-rutting moon. or hard month'. the moon when the choke -cherries are ripe. the sore-eye moon.. . One of the nomenclatures used by the Temay ton-Sioux and the Cheyenne.

193 when the corn is planted. 'bud moon'. - 1 Clark. when the plums 10. seems to be placed too late. 16. Kiowa 13 pp. for the following there is disagreement. Beverley. 'little-bud moon'. are in season. 9. 12. 10. from January on: when the snow drifts into the tents of the Honga. . c 111.. 3. sometimes 'sweathouse moon'. 11. 7. 3. paw the earth. when the deer shed when little black bears are born. the names are not given 4 nor are those of the Klamath and Modok 5 or of the Occaneechi of Virginia 6 The Bannock call the earlier months: 1. if.. 5. are in agreement. comes from an Indian spelist. 8. Gatschet. 'summer-geese-going moon'. 2. the little frog 2. 11. AMERICA. f little-moon-of-deer-horns-dropping-off the deer begin to shed their horns. 10. 1. 2. p. similarly named. summer aganti: its full moon forms the boundary between spring and summer. running season for game. new year 'wait until I . when the buffalo bellow.SERIES OF MONTHS: N. p. after the full moon winter and the come' (aganti without the word p*a. the moon in moon. 5. . The which begins in Sept. which called 'the raccoon month' 2 . when the buffalo cows get red - the buffalo bulls are fat. 9. 368 * Dunbar. 'moon'). . the moon in which nothing happens. 12. the 'ten-colds moon 1 : the first ten days are cold. sometimes with 'great' prefixed. which they plant. p. 4. 1. 4. when 1 . the moon when geese come home (back). for the ninth all informants but one for January. except is The Kiowa have twelve months. the buffalo bulls hunt the cows. the first buds come out: the first half belongs to winter. their antlers. 12. 6. As to the first eight all are unanimous. 'summer-real-goose moon'. 6. cially well versed in the calendar. when the deer when the deer rut. 3 Mooney. when the elk bellow. or sometimes with the addition of 'great' with this full moon autumn begins 3 The year of the Pawnee varied between 12 and 13 months. 4. the names of which are repetitions of the others. 1. 8. Oct. The Oto and Iowa tribes use the same names for the months. but some writers give 14 or 15. big moon. 7. The Omaha name the moons as follows. 3. black begin. 2 Fletcher and 1. 'real-goose moon'. the second to spring. Flesche. 'leaf moon'. : . 5 La p. . p. 11. 'geese-going moon'.

moon of the nuts (which is added to complete the year). moon of the bison. 4. 1 Clark. moon the of of the water-melons. moon of the cold meal. wind moon. little grass. the latter in described as 'big'. although these have long since been collected. which at that time moon of the maize. II. Their year began in March. little winter. and the 'sore eye' month are quoted pairing: The Seminole of Florida count 12 months. moon of the little corn: this was often awaited with impatience. moon of fire. 2 Matthews. 10. to another.194 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 12 big 3. r big winter. or great from the thick woods into the open woods. which . ing) The Chocktaw of of Louisiana only a few could be enumerated: have forgotten their names. March. 354 . big mulberry moon. which are then gathered.* moon mulberries. occupy a special position. 2. lowing names are translated: and wind little. The nuts are crushed and mixed with flour to make bread 5 The tribes of Arizona. 3. come out moon 8. Febof moon snow. The women asserted that the year was divided into twelve moons. moon. moon wind. 9. bare-spots-along-the-trail (the snow vaplaces). 3 . 6. among whom religion and ceremonial rites have attained a pre-eminent place. 6 and 11 have single names ruary. 4. 12. corn (-plant- moon. and celebrated at each new moon a feast which took its name from the principal fruits gathered or the animals hunted in the previous month. p. moon of the deer. only the fol1. 3 MacCauley. 5. (it cold). 7. 11. 5. or the grass first comes up. 4. cold moon. 13. moon of the peaches. p. moon of the chestnuts. 5. 524. 17. moon of the strawberries. but our authority thinks 4 it The highly probable that thirteen is the correct number Natchez had 13 months. of corn. the turkeys. the 2 month. 2. their harvest of the great corn never sufficing to nourish them from one harvest . which are then hunted. 5 Du Pratz. July. 7 and each case being 8. moon of the bears. * Bushnell. April. p. I have been unable to obtain: the 'seven-cold-days' month. Mandan there is a list with twelve months. 372. for the months of the warm season they have no names 1 For smoke is nishes the in . 4. ff. 9 and 10 are also paired. p. their time-reckoning has developed into a ceremo. December. 1.

15. 5. 11. 12. 10. 1 ted also that the months are divided into 'named' and 'name*. genuine moon-months must be implied. 2 Stevenson. N. 195 However thirteen the natural foundation peeps through. is said to be called tu'hoe. But it is sta8. 1. but not in the same less' 11 to 13. October. . 5 to 7 order. still others It is to 14. west. short dry grass. The names months are not translated: several recur. 256. tives are given. January. zenith. cottonwood leaves. smell. . turning sources the six later months. Red. The same names are said to recur in the second half-year! 2 This can only be an entirely conventional arrangement. 7.December. ritualistic names (Yellow. AMERICA. 5. Russel. March. so that is names with the addition mu'tyawu. 8. of these sun-points there are 13. 10. but only points to the familiar instability of their names. 4. White. saguaro harvest moon. winter begins. big wind month. each consistThe months are:--. 2. 9. rainy. 1 Fewkes. there are 14 of them. That the yrtieat culture has been newly introduced does not by any n*ans imply that the series of months is of recent origin. though called 'the nameless'. 2 10. 11. * p. but seemsherV to have reference to the seasons. mesquite leaves. Black) derived from the colours of the prayer-sticks offered up at every full moon to the gods of the north.SERIES OF MONTHS: nial year. = = = The six Zufii divide the back (of the sun). p. cottonwood flowers. Among the Hopi are given. 6. short planting. no snow in the road. saguaro harvest. little wind month. 2. p. no name. 12. 6. 7. Variegated. from Gushing.are represented by these colours have 12 months. strong of colours recur. 8. p. leaves falling. if this recognised as a month. and The Pima planting. But according to other ing or looking of months. 108. big^ win4 The names ter. . year into two seasons. green. yellow. who . 4. The second part of iicu. (II): wheat harvest moon. others 12. 9. limbs of trees broken by snow. 3. east. dry grass. Two different lists from two na3 . Several of the priests say that there are 13 months. black seeds on saguaros. 189. February. gray. rainy. windy. . April.* be noted that the seasons and the festivals are determined by observation of the sun in relation to certain terrestrial of the marks. 3.. 'moon'. yellow. mesquite flower. (I): 1. * Handbook. 36. south. May. nadir. have Blue.

339. 5. 8. The ceremonies in connexion with this last 10. great growing moon. This is naturally correct. 2 E. small . moon of the Feast of the province of Ayamarca. There are however plenty of them. but it seems to me was unable to bring the moon-months into their proper position in the year by an occasional intercalation of a thirteenth month. g. which is collected from people alone. harvest moon. 3 Chervin. The first eight names alone shew N. various runs (beginning about January): - - 1. Garcilasso de 4 la Vega. moon of the festival various stages the 21st day. 233. 69. . became necessary. in meant. II. 229. . Kulturh. moon of the Moon-feast. 12. 6. For South America I find in the literature accessible of months recorded. Gilij. 7. Perhaps the other months. me no names sources. 11. flower-growing moon 4. 2 although older writers have claimed this knowledge for them . as among certain tribes of Indians. The 1 Hastings.196 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. were originally nameless (it was no doubt the time when there was no work in the fields) that the American .. and even in the Sudan the Julian months are also found. p. full moon. Feast of the province of Uma. and Nowadays the ability to bring the lunar year into agreement with the solar is usually denied to this people. names are shewn by the reference to various of the kingdom. moon of the Great Feast of the Sun. The tribes of Bolivia also have provinces 3 moon-months and among the Orinoco Indians months are mentioned 4 The Karaya of Central Brazil know that the 6 year has 13 full moons In Africa the lists of months are not so numerous as in the parts of the world hitherto mentioned. twin-ears moon. growing moon. p. p. except for the Inca to Their series of months. irrigation moon. . sowing moon. and the Incas solstices. Nordenskiold. influenced by civilisation: among such peoples the Islamite months have gained admission. 2. In Morocco. as a leapyear cycle is unlikely that the Inca people so far when the this civilised Indians of observed that. breaking-soil moon. The not nearly so highly North America could do this. 9. Krause. and that not among the peoples most deeply of late origin is . the commencing with the ninth day. 3. 219. southern Algeria. p. 5 I. 1 were made to approximate to the moon's phases. 200.

reproduce the list of Schulze. August. 197 a reckoning in months which relates to the seasons come from South and Central Africa. not translated. syringe the ear'. 2. sfl/so/fl-bush. the black month. the fresh young green shoots up. The author however could not be quite the ideas of the \vhites had not already influenced the number of months and their succession. months has fallen into decay. does not warm. p. month of the Pleiades. 6. 1 Schulze. 2. which Schulze claims for October. time of drought. 8. begins wounds with fat. AMERICA. or because of the girl. 370. perhaps from Uphalana. w^hich bevisible in the latter half of June. . the meadows appear to be named from the fact that when. 5. not translated. 12.SERIES OF MONTHS: s. and other statements come from an old Hottentot woman. the sun glitters. not translated. year. Wortschats der Khoi-Klioin (Berlin. only in the position of the name for July.circumcision. the black branches of the stripped bushes give the landscape this character. His February corresponds to Schulze's January. to from the loetsa. do the two lists differ considerably. Icshoina a kind of bulb which at that time begins to sprout. AFRICA. who mentions another in Kroenlein. 1 moon w^hich follows upon the its which is an important pasture-bush and has in spring. when principal flowering-season it begins to be cold. 3. since the winter is f broken and a mphalane. loetse. The list. For = the Basuto a native gives the following list: 1. The month begins sure that when the crescent of the (corresponds to about January). after the first productive rains upon the old and withered grass. 9. mphalane 'a leshojjia. which has only nine names. 1899). 3. moon appears in the western sky. to glitter. 11. 10 and translated. dappled phato anoint J . and are of importance for the natives journeying in quest of tsama. come the month when the leaves are curled up by the not cold. and therefore from examples of the districts which have been The Hottentot I series of more free from foreign influence. by older Hottentots explained as the month of increasing cold: when one sits so near the fire that the legs blister. the positions of the months. 4. which is announced by means of the blowing of liphalana-Rutes by the old little warmth comes. 7.

January. the month in which the antelope mhala brings forth its young (November?) . at least among the southern clans. hlolange. JRA1. tlhakola molula. plete By the Baronga the months or moons are now almost . bulbs and the stems of some hardy plants *. 9. 12.. pherekong. perform the operation. 2 Macdonald. 10. 931 ff. where the names have been better preserved. 1 Sechefo. grasshopper. time of falling leaves not is list given. nhlangula. footpaths being covered completely forgotten.descriptive of the season. grains: there- fore: ling fire the mabele plant has grains. phupjoane. tlhakola = wipe off. The following statements come from the northern clans. with grass. furnfu. neisoaba. 'bird-laugher'. 'mesa tseleng. they have names: the result only is frequent confusion it month cuckoo. the month of the when this plant blossoms. women who of 4. motseanong. e. diminutive pulnmo. 5. pulungoana. nwendfamhala. i. really is. thusia. perhaps 'interjoin sticks'. 2 Unfortunately the comhlangula. p. and difference of opinion as to which There is. 71 ff. gnu.198 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 19. phuphu. 11. 4. to be heard at this tsitoe. . molula also is means a kind used in basket-work. Of the Caff res we are told: They count in the year and for these twelve months. 7. sibandhlela. May. the month of the ery- when this bird is first heard. from phupu. since the grains are by now so firmly fixed in the ears that the birds cannot get them. green grass. 'bulging out'. to wipe off the molula: molula is the stage at which the mabele grain is still completely enveloped in the husk: now the grains shoot forth and hlakola. 5. of grass which from thlaku. with reference to a kind of bulb. either to warm themselves or to roast ears of corn. 291. kindby the roadside. 8. time to look for first-fruits. the month in which the flowers are swept from the trees. the month of much dust. e. tlhakubele. which is especially 6. The names of the mid- winter. cattle licking October. e. describes the first appear- ance of the vegetation. i. time. for example. moons are more or less. in which various trees blossom. which at this time brings forth its young. 'beginning to swell'. as is done by those who drive away the birds from the fields. green. 'mesa. g. probably October. to the molula disappear. September.

Pleiades month: the Pleiades become visible and then okuni. 'when winter comes'. 11. the time of nwebo. mudashtm. is probably June or July *. month of good luck. 2. when one spends the time in (March and April). 7. Ronga. last pools of following). hukuri is said to be the month when the fruits of the f nkwakwa are ripe It is ( December also?). the of month rain. Vley wa- ter. 224. hard moon 5. p. 9. This may be January or February. of spring. 2. In Loango the names of the months differ considerably according to the situation of the district and the influence of Month of expectation. wuisoand' in their joy at having plenty of almonds to suck (December). month of fog. 1 has: (January). 185 f. Sungtiti is also one of the summer months. the last month. l am coming'. e. 1 Junod. of men. when everyone and if in his fields is eating the new cobs a person will answer: "I come directly! Have patience! I am busy". lily month. ndjati or ndjata. is the time when the grass grows so high you call. Damara. spring. II. of the birds (nyenyana). of the vanishing the 3 * Francois. named because in the harvest month there are so many different kinds of food that you do not know which to choose (May or June). begins. first pools of water. because the people shout ^wuwana. Nama und Irle. 10. of women. fields is nywenywankultt are the months i. sibamesoko. 12. of the curse. . dry trees. 4. 9. khotubushika. last showers.. 7. the moon which closes the paths. e. e. of drought. and therefore the first month in the Herero reckoning (sic! probably of the spring. list dry. last raindry period. that it hides the paths. the milk-bushes become the rain begins. For the Herero the following list is given: 1 (January). 3. 12. also called dwebindlela or sibandlela (February). last moon namely Another 6. 11. of the water. of the harvest. of the great rains. season. 5. wet period 3 cold days. 6. chasing them from the 'What am I to eat? 1 so lambing month. nyenyana. rising of the water in the river beds. 8 t lambing a lily begins to bud. p. 142. birth-time of springboks. 199 mawuwana. 4. green. of mealies. quoted from Ginzel. 284 ff. first month. 10. water. II.SERIES OF MONTHS: AFRICA. Magdeburg. i. cp. 1895. 8. . 3. when the tihuhlu are plucked. i. Vley water. month of this upon the habits of life: - little rains. 2 .

commence reaping. another as the season when maroo named must be the risk cut. the second antgathering month. The land extends from and runs eastwards to the Nile at the most northerly point long. The month next to this has no distinctive name. 'ten' mubiti. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and the white-ant month. 139. wiuf month of sprouting. fallen that they see the they into to that they 4 . Akamba. of salt. both untranslated. therefore 2 Shilluk twelve months are enumerated without translation: The 'moon' and 'month' are expressed by the same word 3 Akamba of British East Africa assert that they reckon eleven . month began on August They say that the month has 31 days and 32nd. W.200 water. of mirth. Altogether 13. when greatest. of aid. and considered a great during of delicacy. mwa. Loango Exp. of the rice. of labour.. of the Congo Free State. a late sowing month. of mist. of trade. 4 Hobley. their so that too great importance must not be peculiarities. . they which white ants are collected. nyanya. pp. when provisions are scarce. 'friend' (sic!). 10). 56. of the huts. of fish. when catch elephants by burning grass. not translated. mveu. to the year. 8. time of the autumn rains. thandatu. Some of the tribesmen of Upper Welle" give to the months names in keeping with what is done in them. isoima. moansa. onkonono. 103 and 299.. 9. 3 Westermann. season assert is (in 1907 this of grass-burning. 6. 2. the hungry or water-month. of sleep. Thus one month is as that in which they sow maroo. besom-and-dirt month (great cleaning). the chief ingredient used in brewing native beer. and a second maroo month. cold month. between-month. 4. 11. of the burning (of grass and brushwood). planting month. Following fever is this comes the 'bad-water' month. Burrows. ekumi. and finally another For the with no particular title. 52 ff. 10. months 1. p. wood month. . and any other terms in popular use *. which the moon attached its seen new moon on the do not include the first day on The system has evidently already decay. kenda. and is succeeded by the second maroo-harvest month. pp. 5. when a second crop is sown. then the elephant month. ansiKa: 'nine'. Africa divide 1 The Wa-Sania of British East twelve months into three periods of four: 23 2 Ill: 2. 3. bud month. 7.

3 Hollis. threshing-month. 9. month when the harvest is ended. rain in showers. the Pleiades (Vapattin te-l-lengon. 'green valley'. : : nerneri. in which the sheep and goats bring forth their young. month of digging up the stubbles. ol airodjerod. mwesi we taga matoto. there is much rain. mkiri. 11. the. 'cold'. rob-tui. kipsunde.(i. Nandi. enjoying budding. * Cole. 35. about February: 1. 5. kiptamo. 8.. ngotioto. mwesi we we 6. epeso. 1 . wake. bolos airodjerod (kiperu). month of belitika. mtinye. and would be continually fighting each other in the meadows. 12. formed from the heat of the sun . or also (but more rarely) ol dat. first rains over). 10. 'cessation' (sc. ol gohia (loo-n-gushu). in the corn-fields. the hitherto scanty rain has been sufficient to cover with fresh green the valleys and low-lying spots of the otherwise still yellow withered steppes. (Ill). kudjorok (Viarat). ginning reaping. 'the tied-up bulls' owing to the abundant fodder of the last months the bulls have become wild. the days are dark and gloomy. pp. 8. le logiuija airodjerod (kara-obo). e. 9. 2. 'possessing'. mwesi we tutula. mitlkulik oieng. le erat (kuj-orok). 3. 12. cold weather distinguishes 1 Barret. most. 5. ol ncrnerua (loo-n-gokwa). offering to God God. meaning unknown. time of the scanty rain-fall ol gissan. first'. second strong wind. the lesser after-rains: 7. ol diimenl. jnnchilanhungo. mist. 6. 3. 2. 'general'. murisimuka. 7. 'gloomy' the sky is overcast. second offering to mnlktil. not The Nandi begin with the last month of drought. os somisso (oani-oingok). the . 94 ff. 6. ol adallo. strong wind.SERIES OF MONTHS: AFRICA. en gokwa. 7. mwesi we nhwanga. 'the dark'. 4. p. 3 . 11. iwat-ktit. for which reason they are sepa: rated. month of plenty. 323. cushion plant the Brunsvigia Kirkii or pin- The Masai (I). the months of superfluity) 4. black rain or black clouds. 2. also called oieni oinok. 'fat'. mwesi we ndawa mbereje. meaning unknown. 3. month of forest-clearing. the heart pushed on one side by hunger. 9. 41. JRA1. i. rains ' everywhere). 10. 4. 'partial' (sc. nget. 201 names are not given 1 The Wagogo months are: 1. p. 8. 'hot in the fields'. pttret. e. 5. about December. kipsunde oieng. partial rains. . general) 2 . (II). first-fruits. mwesi lisololela. nihalungulu. formed from er rata. divide their twelve months : into four seasons.

The year therefore begins with the season of the after-rains. and people try to steal from other persons' cows: at last the milk is not sufficient to satisfy the necessary demands of hunger. 156. ol aimeii. The three months of the great heat are not denoted by numerals. lack of food'. and for this reason this month is regarded as the beginning of the year.202 this 10. e. after having previously 'let the year open' by offering a special sacrifice to the spirits for good fruit and harvest. p. They are interpolated between the 3rd and the 5th months. uproar. 5 8 fall in the season of the great rains. Nos. the 10th. 333 ff. which unfortunately are not translated. gives in some cases other names. Hollis. and the months are divided into seasons. The name seems to be derived from the word en gushush. (IV). a hundred'. 9 and 10 in the dancing season. ol dongosh. iyana. 4 and 9 have exchanged names. month is fall in followed by the first. they are here given in brackets. A further variation is that according to Hollis the of first month is kara-obo. It is worthy of note that the month of the evening setting of the Pleiades (gokwaj is named from this constellation. 'stretched'. I have followed Merker. i. Only at the beginning of the 12th month. the counting begins at the fifth.. and most of the warriors go off into the forest with some of the oxen to eat flesh. the rainy season passes away. do the people come back to the kraal. The Wadschagga Kilimanjaro have likewise twelve months. pp. it probably had the sense now means of 'ten'. In the ninth the people say: 'It is bright'. the boshogge (ol-oiborare). the 1st and the 2nd months the first warm season. quarrel. since in this month too the milk is very scarce. month. the 3rd in the little rainy season. Nos. sacrifices are offered up at the gates of the country. the month . f The name of the following month. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. time of hunger. but formerly This. of drought: - kiber {pushuke). This lasts not only throughout this month but also during the next. The pasture is thin. 11. The first of these is called nsaa: a month known as the fourth is then said to be missing. gives permission for the beginning of the ploughing. but our authority conjectures that nsaa is perhaps a mutilated form of an old word for four. ten are denoted by numerals. the chief 'raises the field stick'. the milk scanty.

" The practice of beginning an enumeration of the months with the 5th month fcusamt arouses the suspicion that this may other year'. for for a thirteenth month. These last two months are clearly to be recognised as interpolations in the original scheme of ten months. since it has no they say: companions. like so many other peoples. one of which was omitted when necessary. But as a matter of fact this It has therefore been pushed from its former position in the course of the year after the rainy season to a position before the beginning of the period of greatest rains. But there still exists a name the course necessary which. month ushers rainy season." It is called nkinyambwo. be the actual beginning of the year. But the month iisi must J . The name nsangwe is almost everywhere explained by the people as arising from nsana-ngivi. The position of this month immediately before the rainy season misleads them into thus explaining the similar sound. which is left unexplained. and the next is nsang-ive or nsango. which can now only be translated f as f the ender of in the the rain'. lected. Then the 5th month comes again. The But now "The nkinyambwo is no longer necessary. which is of correcting of the lunar year. . 'to collect wood for The supplies of wood for the rainy season are colburning'. and was formerly actually counted.SERIES OF MONTHS: AFRICA. and the practice of beginning the enumeration with kttsamt is now the sole reminder of a time when of kitsanu really did introduce the chief new year first at the beginning the ploughing-season. 239 ff. not four as in olden times. When the thirteenth month (probably under Islamite influence) passed out of 1 Gutmann. "It is a sham month. once have been one of the starting-points of the counting That the two months above-mentioned are interpolations does not seem to be correct: for the nkinyambwo shews that the Wadschagga. pp. no comrades. The process seems clear from the statements given. To this the names of this month also point: on the boundary of the or maraya a kisie. that 203 follows nsaa is called muru. as the old folks say. since people say: the rainy season has now only three months. The year has only twelve months. have had thirteen months. and therefore it is superfluous.

7. Julian names for the months are also known. since much food is eaten. now another. especially the salla festivals. 8. month of the old people's water-drinking. or tshiki. month of the gflw/'-game. in the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. June.. hardly met with hitherto. 'month of the filling of the belly'. for and 3rd ware-ware. 3. ktikendu. 12. are found in the comparatively highly civilised Hausa states (Kano. April.204 use. 11. wata-n-takutika. where the Arabic and 1 (January). numbered months shew themselves to be a late phenomenon. it falls in the ninth month of the author's list. asumi-n-tsofafi. talks now reason they are called the 1st. in this month all (but especially the slaves) have much work for the festival of the following month. according to natural conditions. so that it was not known where place them. Sokoto). month of the takutika-game. 4. wata-n-tshika-n-shekara. 2nd. That the two months in question are inserted between the third (or fourth) and the first points to a conventionalising of the system such as is anything but primitive. or wata-nThe festivals. as always. The word also denotes a person who one way. wata-n-bawa-n-salloti. 6. wata-n-asumi. month of the slaughtering of the lamb. wata-n-gani. is is therefore doubtful to which element belongs. ivare-ivare-n-farin. month of fasting. or wata-n-wauwo. Ware-ware is the ware-ware-n-btu . And to so with these this which no games three months. in take place. a doubtful person. and is in keeping with the system of counting in tens. do not always take place in the . especially at full moon. or wata-n-takulufit. month of the little salla festival. is the beginning of the That only ten months are numbered and the others named affords independent evidence. 9. month of the slaves. May. ware-ware-n-aku. wata-n-karama-n-salla. 2. month of the great salla festival. Here. wa~ ta-n-baba-n-salla. which. month of the wawwo-game (with torches). latya. If point. wata-n- sha month of the fast of the old people. Curious names of months. year the months got out of place the fifth month kusanu keeps in reference the place in reference to the seasons to which its other names strictly lunar now to the seasons. 5. name of a small it it bird which builds its nest in a hole in the it ground. of a kind which we have year. 10. wata-nriia-n-tsofafi.

11. 8. The Merina have the Arabic months. the guinea-fowls sleep. for greater convenience caring as is they divide the it much about number into twelve lunar months. Madagascar has a comparatively highly developed civiliin which various influences cross. tama- Rowlands 4 had already remarked that the Betsileo months depend more upon the time of the sowing and reaping of the rice and upon the flowering of certain plants than upon the pha1 Madag. and on the strength of certain resemblances in the names of the months derives the calendar from S. 9. aofit 1904. 3 . de Thomas. India.. 148 2 4 f. 4. 7.SERIES OF MONTHS: AFRICA. at lavibola.. The year is for them the time which elapses between two phases of the vegetation. cut. in 1866. the gourds flower. who gives the following list. winter begins. which is almost identical with that compiled by Grandidier himself in the south-east. nies that take place at different times sation 2 . north are ripe. is a solar or lunisolar one.' This is an artificial system which was probably 'month') created with a leaning towards the Arabic months. the grains of the fano are the ripe. 3 Etudes ethnogr. 10. p. 18. which is commonly held to be a lunar year. Edo. 3. vide their year into 4 seasons and 12 lunar months. tamarinds the beans flower. p. 1. 12. p. with some intercalary days. 6. The history of the native calendar is said be very complicated: Grandidier in a detailed discussion to prove that the Malgassian year. Annual. . 205 months named after them: the time is determined by the priests in accordance with the position of the moon (ivata 'moon. Rev. Mischlisch. rinds and beans are ripe. 237. of 2. The rightly said of the Antandroy by Vacher months have names and millet is epithets: the latter are explained. In Edo too the familiar names of months are borrowed from the ceremo! . the bulls seek the shade of the sakoa. the the leaves fall. p. without of days composing these months. the Malgassian calendar is a solar one is the fact that it is in to seeks In 1638 Cauche says that the Malgassi direality agricultural. Atttan. I give the prinGrandidier says that one reason for believing that cipal data. 5. the rain rots the ropes (with which the calves are fastened). 127. the Cy there-tree flowers. 1886.

Moreover Indian and Islamite influences have penetrated deeply: the calendar in use arises from these. and (3) that of Rum. which are only to be got at with are extreme sula difficulty. the primitive peoples of the East Asiatic peninseasons of the agricultural year are very much emin comparison with them the moon-month plays no important part. - They are therefore calendar months. that the 'months' seasons with no relation to the moon. in which the months are named and at the same time the fixed with reference to the seasons. however. Merina ses of the moon. There remains one possibility. few. sula. with the exception of the last two.206 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. p. the Tanala. obstinately adhere month and plant their paddy at the annual return 2 The Guru of Sumatra know a division of the lunar month of the year into twelve months of 30 days each. 233. The facts are well illustrated by a notice from the Malay Penin- There are three ways of reckoning the months. Newbold. pp. (1) the Arabian. and 33 days for the difference day. are denoted by numbers 3 by their crops of rice only. (2) the Persian. with greater accuracy. What south dars is here said about the calendars of the peoples of the island is of the and the centre of also true of the calen. not moon-months. the first is the common method. to the lunar . 384 2 ff. and that the agreement with the months of the The same (i. To me it seems northern and eastern peoples 1 as though we have here a series of months of the ordinary type. 356 if. * von Bremer. the Bara. although I do not presume to decide upon the complicated question of the Malgassian calendar. and the Sihanaka. viz. II. intercalating every 3 years 24 hours. Among the ployed. between the solar and the lunar years. which is identical with that of the Betsileo. the Arabic months) is only approximate. But the majority of the lower classes estimate their year by the fruit seasons and Some Many. but this possibility does not seem to have been seriously considered by those who can make use of the sources. 31 days. . the months. e. applies to the calendar of the Sakalava. calculate their year at 354 8 hours. and are 1 Grandidier. 30 days. or one days to make up the deficiency. 29 and 30 days alternately.

. these are now 6. 2 to 3 for the harvest. boot. the cutting or harvest month: the maize is housed and a harvest sacrifice offered. Commonly they reckon 1 to 2 moons for the sowing. . 422 ff. madai boot. about October. but they indicate the occupations of the of . The names are in some cases the same. as they say. 7. p. 10. have a very interesting list of months. the first ten months are numbered. 1. leet. lakubutik. Among the Kayan the month. 9. while the many peoples last two have names. heavy rain. 2 Ginzel. 2. I. 207 a foreign acquisition.. narii. plays a greater part than the year: of the latter hardly anyone knows properly how many moons it contains. 12. Sumatra. names (funu. lakubutik boot. 3 Forbes. is planted and mountain rice sown. harvest of the mountain-rice. leet manuluk. ithi probably a corruption of ubi. madai. 11. fumt. The Kiwai Papuans. uhi. The different months have no special names among the Bahau 1 The time-recko. madauk. only in thisis gold sought for. 317. I. they are not translated and perhaps cannot be explained.. and three up to the next sowing. 1 Xieuwenhuis. uki kiik. 429. fogs and heavy rain. 87.SERIES OF MONTHS: EAST INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO. madai kiik. dug up and collected. hot: the grass It burnt off and the ground prepared for maize-planting 3 from a to have note how names the departed interesting . compiled from foundation: two common months. Friederich. maize.. tor a. In Bali these two names are Sanskrit words 2 For Timor two lists of moon-months are given. months. 5. fotan. Java. very hot. funu. and Bali shews a prevailing foreign ning or It is to be noted that among' (Indian Islamite) influence. the one from Bibicucu. madai) denote different Note also the pairs of months in both lists. little rain: during both these months little work can be done. warn. or. fahi. 'the great month'. lakabutik kiik. still month is is showers. who are well acquainted with the stars. vater. the former word probably a corruption of the Malay potong. honey and wax are collected. p. 3. the fields are weeded. the maize flowers. 8. leet all. 4. the five for time which the rice needs to ripen. the other from Samoro. sweet potato. the moon.

senge. abu. the matter of the succession of the months different statements were made. - keke (Achernar. of natural objects. . since two). Baidamu ('the Shark'). 57. It seems to be somewhat uncertain whether koidjugubo exists as the name of a special month or whether the word only denotes a constellation related to the months IK apt. The statements fluctuate as to whether karongo is the last month of the tiro or the first of the hurama. is connected with a definite constellation. 2 See above. have a special meaning. In the transitional period comes 9. this no doubt being due to the fact that all the natives were not equally masters of the calendar. the first of the uro. 11. and Canopus together). tagai (Crux). and it is to be presumed that this constellation is properly the one that is to sink down to the western horizon during the month in question. gotbaru. in the language of the natives called f moon'. The corresponding middle month in hurama is gotbaru. isoapi. W. 1 Cp. . is also related to a certain period during the S. p. and to abu. of names rate nally stars and. 5. 13. monsoon (hurama) includes: \Q. (The fluctuation is natural. nirira-dubu (Altair). rai (Orion). E. My additions are in brackets. our April). the Great Bear. as is shewn above. in which according to certain statements the head The sets. monsoon (uro) embraces the months: 1. 2. 4. 7. Landtman. and abu. particularly to hopukoruho. on account of the dislocation Even in of the lunar months with regard to the solar year). Accuabout this list has very kindly been persoas it . utiamo (the Pleiades). Sirius. The time of the koidjugubo is that in which the S. but several adaptations have been made. Perfect accuracy does not however prevail in this nomenclature. p. in which the back fin and the tail set. rnonsoon blows hardIn comes to est. 6. E. hopukoruho.naraniu-dttbu (Vega). The time of the N. hopukoruho. monsoon. korubutu. karongo (Antares). information seems. Each month.208 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and 8. E. 482. communicated to me by Landtman 1 The }^ear is divided into two parts in accordance with the monsoons 2 The time of the S. 12. (This is natural and necessary. this month falls in the time of transition between the any case this month. 3. koidjugubo (Capella. like keke.

Hopu means 'earth'. f creek: the name may perhaps refer to the beginning of the transi- tion to the period of the following to the fact that the fords at the monsoon. E. since the fish are then particularly stupid and easy to catch with the fish-spear. occasionally in tagai. and after both no have eyes is emerged in the east at morning. names are given. the period of the tagai-karongo begins. and larly great This month is held to be especially d. time is Hopukoruho insects an earth-wasp: colonies of these (Do they appear in particuin this numbers month?). The sense of abu is quite uncertain. 209 setting of each of the various parts of the body of the Shark in the west is accompanied by storms and rain. 14 . monsoon. pp. rous: men are exposed to sickness and death and are bitten by serpents. monsoon is at hand. 394. 389. and the time The turtles are caught of the N. The planting of tubers months. more particularly during the time of their copulation. ment as to the meaning of karubuti is given). The sense of goibaru is also quite (No stateuncertain. and naramu-dubu. 218 2 ff. It is also expressly stated that the name of the month refers to death and burial. Koidjugubo means 'great constellation'. the canoes suffer shipwreck. and this begins in abu. according to the meaning of the word. is said to refer to the transition from hurama to tiro. which arise in the period of the S. from Lamotrek and from Yap 2 but they are 1 . as it appears. even. 1 Below. pp. For the Melanesians well developed series of months are given: the very instructive statement of Codrington will be For the Carolines two lists of found in the next chapter. Abu means ford' in a is the name of dig holes in the ground.SERIES OF MONTHS: TORRES STRAITS. and the name is said to refer to the fact that finishes in this especially favourable for fishing. Unfortunately the meanin definite also takes place ing of the names that do not refer to constellations is not in all cases clear. Wapi in one Torres Straits dialect is said to mean 'fish'. Karongo. W. in which the sea-turtles are caught. Christians. (Or does it refer end of the dry season are particularly easy to pass?). to When the Shark its longer be seen at evening. reaches its height in ka- rongo. among the natives.angekoritho 'to eat'.

391 . Equuleus. ivaka 'root'.210 of PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. others 12 months. a group included in the Carolines. are: ni-ngasau likeli. 10. 7. The names are not explained. . the Pleiades. is given for the southern- Aldebaran and Orion. not 1 Christians. 11. Ibid. marther. 8. hahunga. 68. most group of the Carolines. 393. mbota 'to share out. 3. since they only give twelve names without any explanation. un-allual. la.-n. But the list for the Mortlock Islands. 5. 2. Here also we meet the already familiar phenomenon in which several months have the same name. ff. mbalolo-lailai '.-were-were. and are distinguished by the addition of 'big' and 'little'. learn that vttla means 'moon' and 'month'. in the tenth month the harvest takes place. 6. * p.-levu. According to H. . 6. se-nt-ngasau 'flower of the reed'. Aquila. they relate to the business of agriculture and fishing. 107 ff.-n. matt. r. pp. The sese- 1. 8. which for this reason also serves as a designation of numbering.-levu. Scorpio. s. the first ten. 3 Hale. after Kubary. and also the feast of the dead. sota. For the Polynesians many series of months are reported: some of these have 13. and are only denoted by numbers. Aries. yis. Arcturus. 12. aramoi. posterity'. In so far as the meaning of the names is to be perceived. Cormei-sik. soropuel. 4. levu='big\ lazlai= 'little'. were 'to till the ground'. meilap. and are distinguished from all others in only ry 4 we naming. 2. which is a favourite delicacy all over Polynesia. David's Islands months of the Fijians. distribute'.. the St. 11. 2 .-levu. lailai. beginning at February. mbalolo is the familiar palolo. Williams the months are counted from the beginning of the kumaraplanting. p. kawawaka-la&ai. kawa 'offspring. v. nunga is the name of a fish. The Maoris of New Zealand count 13. 9.'levu 3 . The names are: vus. with names in some 12. tumur. 5. vulai-mbotambota. gulated by it. Pegasus. use to us. pp. is of great interest. Sirius cases the same. ku. since every month is named after a constellation and therefore is also re- no 1. m. therefore. elluel.-ke- v. 9. 1 The same system. 2 Kubary. 10. k. Leo. nunga-lailai. but from the glossan. o Herculis. kawakatangare . 3. 7. keli 'to dig'. 4.

the kotnkn kowai. and uruao the this month. the great winter also denotes the beginand morning. rehua. mangere. the star range- whenua. knmara is planted. tenth of the month'. nga tapuae. of not star. 212. but after that no further first 1 . Society fers to Pipiri recurs as the Islands and Tahiti. 1 give a list of these points of reference. p. iv. to dig up. As an the example 'the. is said to rule the days. 1. there name it of a month in the re- is said that the name a certain thriftiness or stinginess.SERIES OF MONTHS: OCEANIA. ko ruruau. beginning at June: unfortunately the names of stars are were regulated by them. 9. arrives. the karaka flowers. 2 Cp. ning of winter: matariki. the rewareiKa flowers. tukii. spring pou-taiKahi. the windy month. hence the name te rakiht. taka-pou-poto . the taivera is ripe. nights of 1 an ancestor. koekoea. it begins. nor do the months on this account lose their connexion with the phenomena of Nature. the great summer star. IK. rehu uruao 7. 211 months are counted. which names are unfortunately not translated. 105. Although they were not named from the latter. perhaps in the supply 2 of fruit But the numbering of the names of the New Zealand months is certainly a later phenomenon. Meineke. the year. kopu. since the cognate tribes everywhere have proper names. harvest kumara\ the nomenclature I give The eleventh has the twelfth and thirteenth are called respectively ko-te-paengwaiva and ko-te-tahi-o-pipiri. 3. wakaau. the rata flowers. rangi. and rangiora trees flower. they . rangaivhenna. kamaka. etc. te iKakumu. same name with the hauhake kttmare. 2. Each moon is distinguished by the the rising stars. a rainy month. cultivation commences. tautoru. 213. papa. IK. early in the puanga. the arrival of migratory birds. 6. the cuckoo. the noisy or is windy period. kerekere. identified rises by our authority. tapuapua. 8. corresponding with our March. addition of marama-to-ke-ngahuru. 4. taka- begins to be warm. flowering of certain plants. . 5. pp. isoaakaahu nuku. since other sources give not indeed numbers but names for the last three months and the points of reference. the karaka and hou flower. up to This last statement must be regarded with suspicion. wakaahu te ra o taimi are also in the ascendant.

faaahu. diver- fork-shaped.212 the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 13. ngahuru. Taylor's statement that the twelfth star of this . the season of plenty. Martin. Taylor. mahina the end of anything 2 On 'moon'. . p. 7. 11. The seof months adopted by King Pomare and the reigning family was: 1. taaoa. 2. month Of Tonga scarcely tions: the often passes unnoticed deserves attention. it must therefore come from a more southerly so full. to die. to bury'. 8. The months are often grouped in moot the second. -moot] liha means 'nit'. 'moon. 'end. 1. matiti (indicates the autumn). pairs. moooi=*to live. v. nor as to the names of the months. fooa jemke anga\ 13. 9. oolooagi niahina tow. vy gele: hilinga 'watery'. tabecause in this 'to overwhelm. mination'. the grumbling month. fucca afoo mote. hilinga mea. pipiri. smoky houses. ter'dig'. mahina. 6. 1 are some descriptions of the months which There quarrels also seem to be their names. 1 6. the each island having a computation peculiar to itself. it is noted that the names of the months are known to order any except those who work on the plantaof their succession is not quite clear. vy-mooa. tow season is 10. dry and scarce month. paroro mua. kai waka. 362. oolooagimote. tanoo manga. paroro mttri\ 9. patu-tahi matariki. The list is Taylor's: Thomson's is and is distinguished from the other in assigning a later position the phases of the vegetation. 2 district. the season of scarcity begins. oolooenga. mu- not to Thomson. liha-mooa. 8. manga = anything open. tahi ngungit. the new moon that appears about the summer (viz. 12. 4. aununu. the harvest month for the kiimara'. gele-gele digging the ground for noo = month they cease planting yams. II. . s. month'. 11. mote 'the first'. the recover'. I. Vocabulary. = = = f = . our winter) solstice at Tahiti. 7. 1. the month in which the principal agricultural work of ging. but author with the name of the month. avarehu. apaapa. 'rainy' 5. the cuckoo leaves. 3. rehua. 'the end of things'. the winter-star koero is the chief little month. watery eyes. constant food. te kahut-rua-maJm. Society Islands the people were not unanimous as to the beginning of the year. not connected by the mooa meaning the first. 2. 12. 4. ries 5. wither'. bad weather. 198. fucca afoo moooi. finished. is vy-mooi. 10. hilinga gelesaid to be a corruption of hilianga. the days grow cold. is 3.

the first palolo fishing: palolo formerly took place in various months. 'the making of the arrowroot into the root now prepared). utuvamua. the season of scarcity ends. plant get dry'. which agrees to some extent with the facts. sour dough. 11. hurri-erre-erre. to flower. 1 . sc. olotimanu. since the bread-fruit that time eya. 3 Polyn. mureha. perhaps in the quesas Islands (Futuhiwa) 13 refers to a certain thriftiness or stinginess. and gave different names to several of the months *. 13. some of their wing-feathers palolo-mua. since there are still islands in which palolo is found in the last quarter of every month. contains an allusion to the sea. 'there is faaafu. riaha. 10. I. I know more only a bare enumeration of information. about the middle of May. 'there is Nov. bread-fruit. is names of months 3 For Samoa there . probably young cocoa-nuts. te-eri. 3 Fornander. Another computation commenced the year at the month apaapa. .SERIES OF MONTHS: OCEANIA. I. 'the last scarcity'. so called from the f bark. uhicertainly a reference to catching fish with a hook. March. 5. /?es. 12. toe taumafa. lo. I give von Bilor (Oct. 10. 4. in which ripe. as at has used for mahei. 5. is 6. 2 For the Marsupply of fruit 13. after 9. the month provides much fish. the young is bread-fruit begins the bread-fruit nearly ripe. 86. it is scarcest just when it is ripening. birds' (is 7. 'still uninterrupted'. . low's list: 1 once more abundance'. 'it is uninterrupted'. the first hunger or scarcity. . warehu. e-u-mtnu . 9. tauwa. 2. toe tituva. 4. the root 'the staff for the harvest of the bread-fruit'. 2. o-te-ari. 8. 'the leaves of the ripe. 213 12. starch'. 3. and taro are ripe. 6. yam is 'is brought into play'. the appearance of the Ellis. tema. palolo for the first time abundance for all': bananas. wa-ahau refers to the cloth made from the mulberry hurri-ama. pp. 8. 438 ff. te-tai. pipirri. toe palolo or palolomoU. 11. e. 10. 2 Forster. which just then are very numerous. 'repeated last palolo 1 have been removed. taumafa mua. hiaia. 125. the harvest is still not ended. o-te-tai. Another old1 gives the following series from Tahiti: o-porori-omua.). er list . i. o-porori-o-muri. is aununu. 'the cage of the to tame the wild pigeons caught in nets. newr crops of other fruit 3. have not yet appeared.

6. XXIII. also Hale. Dibble. from the fishing at the end of the year in October or the end of September. is adds: It seems as though vainoa. 121. The author f 12. hina-ia-eleele. the names list are in a great measure the same as the Samoan. mulifa. corres- For the SandAvich Islands abundant material particularly in the exists. 5. of whose dwelling-place we are told nothingmore than that he was a Hawaiian. Turner. reverberate. a kind ocean. Kapule of Kaluaha. von Billow. 1891. e. Lister. or overflowed the basket. 169 ff. from the coupling together of two canoes of worm. G. 'the banana-pole' (is hewn down). thunder. the bread-fruit harvest All the lists agree in giving only twelve months: over the seasons are two in number. in the first place those of O. 53. Some Folk-songs 1 and Myths from Samoa. the lo 1 is laid to rest . p. p. pp. 72 p. makes the same statement. A quite different list is to be found in a work inaccessible to me Pratt and Frazer. the two stars called kau-hia then rose in the east. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 4. R. but there was no 2 ponding to our March . For the Bowditch Island a of twelve names is given without explanation. 1884. because the rays of the sun then begin to shoot forth (welo) more vigorously: the leaves are torn to shreds by the enuhe. i. lotuaga. London. nana. pp. old Hawaiians which Malo has explanations . lana) 7. is the leapfor the eleventh month. and secondly. 3. those of Kaunamoa. cp. . I. is Soc. clamor of 2. Malo. e. so named from r to the frequent occurrence of thunder-storms. 239. of New of 3 worth noting that here two names 2 It S. from the frequent overcasting and darkening (eleele) of the heavens. iva-iva. kau-hia. from the fact that a canoe then floated (nana. months are said to mean a demon. 1 . another a forest spirit. welo. Wales. A hundred years ago and long before. i. work of the native writer. makalii (the Pleiades). 24 ff. Molokai. to stun the ear': the noisy month. versed in the calendar. 119. ka-elo. quietry on the calm sea: the young birds then stir and rustle about (nana-na) in their nests and coverts 8. 1. 356) differs very little from it. 11. Kramer (I.214 fishing'. the bananas are ripe. I more give the 3 with the list commonly found in other authors also together well obtained from. in the case of some months. ikiiki. name 9. storm. month. K. so named because the sweet potatoes burst out of the hill. according to the island. tktiwa (January). Fornander. the hot month (ikiki (kau-lua): . month no. Globtis.

SERIES OF MONTHS: OCEANIA.

215

or

f

ikiiki,

hot and
shift

stuffy'): 'hot
9,

and

sticky',

from being shut up

indoors,

by weather;
in

kaa-ona, because then the sand-banks
is

begin to

the ocean, ona

said to be another

word

for one, 'sand': (dry) sugar-canes, flower-stalks, etc., which have been put away in the top of the house, have now become very dry;

from the mists that floated up from the sea; 11, it was necessary to keep the canoes well lashed (hili); 12, welehu, so named from the abundance of ashes (lehu) that were to be found in the fire-places at this time. Malo gives six other lists, two for Hawaii, one each for MoThe differences in the order lakai, Oahu, Kauai, and Maui. of the months already mentioned are sometimes great, and some new names occur. The former circumstance is doubtless to be explained by the fact that under European influence the native months early passed out of use and were forgotten, and the right order has not been certainly retained in the memory.
10,* hili-na-ehu,

hili-na-ma, because

of these explanations are obvious improvisations, in some cases one of the two explanations manifestly shews itself to be This proves that the names of the months the correct one.

Some

so old that the original meaning has been lost. The forgetting of the native months is also responsible for the in-

are

logy

sufficiency of the information for other islands. might perhaps be able to go farther, if

Malayan
it

philo-

matter.

But where the meaning

is

clear,

it

took up the everywhere has

reference to the seasons, their occupations and climatic conditions, and to the stars; the Polynesian names of months are in

no

way

different

from those

of all other primitive or

barbaric

peoples.

The conclusion to be drawn from our investigation of names and series of the months is therefore the following. In order that the month may be distinguished from others it is named after an occupation or natural phase which takes place while the month lasts, being described commonly b\ means of the addition 'moon of the but not seldom simply or the name of the the natural by occupation respecphase
the
',

tively.
its

Any
to

name

natural phase or occupation can originally give a month, and hence arises an indefinite number

of

such terms.

When any

period of the year

is

without im-

216
portant
natural

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

phases and

occupations,

the

months

in this

period are not named. At first, therefore, the names of the months are of an occasional, incidental character: the orientation of them follows from the general acquaintance with the phases and occupations of the natural year. As the result

a gradual selection in the daily usage of the names a less unstable, and in the end quite fixed, series of months is formed, which on account of the length of the natural year must comof

prise

The result is a difficulty which forto 13 months. not was felt, owing to the fluctuating character of merly for the natural of names the phases and the moons months,
12

are pushed out of their mutual relationship, and this naturally leads to the question how many months the year includes, i. e. For the moon-month, to the necessity of the intercalation.

which begins with the new moon, cannot be broken up.

is

a natural unity, which

CHAPTER

VII.

CONCLUSIONS.
has had patience to read through the material in the previous chapter will now no doubt be clear as to the process by which the cycle of months arose. The necessity was felt of distinguishing the months, of marking them. After the fashion of primitive man this was done, not by means of an abstract enumeration, but by some concrete reference. But the relation to a solitary historical event, by which rather more highly civilised fjeoples denote the_years, can hardly, or only in isolated instances, be applied to the month: for the life of primitive peoples is very monotonous, and is not so rich in events which make an impression upon the mind that one of these will occur in every month, and even supposing that such events could be found, the months in a human life are too numerous for it to be possible to keep a series of this nature in mind. A second circumstance also proved decisive. The w^hose moon, phases always recur with regularity, served better than anything else to determine the date of any future event within a shorter period. The primitive peoples, with their undeveloped faculty of counting, could in this fashion numerically determine only a couple of months before or after the time of the moon that was then visible in the heavens. This is what we must understand by the statement made for the western

Whoever collected

tribe

of

the

Torres

Straits,

viz. that

they had no division of

the year into months or days and never numbered the years, in view of the following statement that they commonly counted

time in

'suns',

i.

e.

they numbered two
1

days, and 'moons i. e. months *. That is, or three months, but had no series of months.
,

1

Haddon,

p.

303; so also R.

T.

Sir., p. 225.

218

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

The same initial stage is found also on the Australian continent. The natives of Central Australia reckon time by moon-phases, The moons, and in the case of a longer period by seasons Kakadu of Northern Territory reckon in moons and seasons, otherwise everything is more or less vague with the exception
l
.

and the immediate past and future 2 Primitive man does not get very far in this fashion. In accordance with his custom and his whole habits of thought he must have some concrete factorjto enable him to conceive This is found in the fact that the of the different moons. moon covers a part of the natural year. Herein lies a connexion which constantly recurs. The moons were therefore distinguished and named with reference to the phenomena of the natural year, to the phases of nature and to the occupations, labours, and conditions determined by them, and further Within the series of from twelve to the risings of the stars. to thirteen moons the month was determined by these means. Or, expressed somewhat differently, seasons and moons were
of the present
.

mutually connected.
incidental.

Originally this grouping together of the months was only The original state of affairs is well illustrated by
description given by Codrington for the Melane-

the

detailed
ff

sians:
lt is impossible to fit the native succession of moons into a solar year, months have their names from what is done and what happens when the moon appears and while it lasts; the

same moon has
in

different

names.

If

all

the

names

of

moons

use in one language were set in order the periods of time would overlap, and the native year would be artificially made up of 20 or 30 months. The moons and seasons of Mota in The garden the Banks' Islands may serve as an example.

work
the

of

the

year
of

is
1,

the principal guide to the arrangement,

succession
the

clearing garden ground, uma,

2,

cutting-

down
nur,

trees, tara, 3, turning
4,

rakasag,
plants
1

burning
the

it,

and planting,
till

riv.

harvest,

over and piling up the stuff, sing, 5, digging the holes for yams, Then follows the care of the yam after which preparation for the next
2

Spencer and

Gillen, Centr. Austr., p. 25.

Spencer,

p. 444.

CONNEXION BETWEEN MOONS AND SEASONS.
crop

219

begins again. At the same time the regular winds and calms are observed, the spring of grass, the conspicuous flowering of certain trees, the bursting into leaf of the few deciduous trees. When a certain grass, magoto, springs, the
winter, as
is in
it

must be
it

flower,

is

are

names of summer and winter.

called, is over; when the erythrina, rara, the cool season; magoto , therefore, and rara seasons in native use, and answer roughly to

the palolo, tin, sets coincides pretty well with the time of the magoto qaro, the fresh grass; clearing, uma, of gardens goes on, the trade wind is steady. This is followed by the magoto rango, the withered
grass; both are months of cutting down trees in the gardens, vule taratara, and in the latter the stuff is burnt. In July the erythrina, rara, begins to flower; this is nago rara, the face
of winter;

The strange and exciting appearance of a wide mark on the seasons. The April moon

gardens are fenced,

it

is

a

moon

of planting

yams,

vule viitvut.
rina
is

Planting continues into August,

when

in full flower, tier rara, the

ering

at

the

same time

yams begin to month the erythrina puts
kere
the

gaviga, Malay wind, gauna, blows, the shoot and are stuck with reeds. In the next
;

the erythapple, flow-

the

S. E.

out

its

leaves,

it

is

the end of

it,

rara; yam vines run up the reeds and are trained, taur, upon them; the reeds are broken and bent over, ruqa, to let them run freely; the ground is kept clear of weeds; the

months
palolo
:

tendrils curl, and the tubers are well formed. Then come the of calm, when three moons are named from the mi,
first

the

////

rig, the little mi,

or the bitter, un gogomi,
It is

when

at the full

moon

a few of the annelids appear.

now

the tau matua, the season of maturity; yams can be taken up and eaten, and if the weather is favourable, a second crop is
planted.
full

The mi
for

lava, the great palolo, follows,

when

at the

one night the annelids appear on the reefs in the whole population is on the beach, taking up the swarms; This is the //// in every vessel and with every contrivance. moon of the yam harvest; the vines are cut, goro, and the tubers very carefully taken up with digging-sticks to be stored. A few //;/ appear at the next moon, the werei, which may be
translated
r

moon

the rump, of the

//;/'.

In this

moon they begin

again

220
to

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

uma, clear the gardens; the wind blows again from the west, the ganoi, over Vanua Lava. It is now November or December, the togalau-wind blows from the north-west, it is exceedingly hot, fish die in the shallow pools, the reeds shoot up into
is the moon of shooting up, vule wotgoro. The next the vusiaru, the wind beats upon the casuarina-trees upon the cliffs, the next again is called tetemavuru, the wind blows hard and drives off flying fragments from the seeded

flower;

it

month

is

reeds;

these

are hurricane months.

The

last in

order

is

the

the

month that beats and rattles, lamasag noronoro, the dry reeds; wind blows strong and steady, work is begun again, they rakasag, dry the rubbish of their clearings, and make ready
the

fences
grass

for

new

gardens.

By

this

time the heat

is

past,
re-

the

begins

to spring again,

and the winter months

turn." \

According to another report the natives of New Britain (Bismarck Archipelago) are still at the initial stage of the development. They numbered the months of the monsoons, five for each, and gave one month each to the two intervening periods. They had no names for each month, but only for the season. However they had terms for the planting and for the 2 digging-moon, i. e. the harvest Another example may serve to shew how near to one another lists of months and seasons may under certain circumstances come. The Chukchee divide the year into twelve lunar months or 'moons'. The year begins with the winter The solstice, the time of which is marked pretty accurately. dark interval between two moons is called 'moon interval'. The names are: 1, the old-buck month; 2, cold udder (month); 3, genuine udder (month); 4, calving month; 5, water (month);
.

6,
8,

making-leaves month;
rubbing-off

7,

warm

month, or summer month;
or

velvet

(antlers) "month,
10,

midsummer month;
rutting

9, light-frost

month;

autumn month, or wild-reindeer

month;
is

unexplained, perhaps 'muscles of the back', since it believed that the muscles in the back of the reindeer become
11,

stronger in winter: also called
(days)
1

month.

new-snow cover'; 12, shrinking The Koryak have different names in different
r

Codrington, pp. 349

ff.

2

Brown,

pp. 331

ff.

CONNEXION BETWEEN MOONS AND SEASONS.
localities,

221

but most of them call the third and the fourth months
'false'

respectively the
to

and the

'true reindeer-birth month'.

In

ordinary speech, however, the names of months often give place names of seasons, which are far more numerous than among

us.

Those most commonly used
(

are:

-

-

1,

'in

the extending',

6c. of the days,

of the year; 2,

corresponds approximately to the first month in the lengthening', corresponds to the second

month;
until
5,
'in

3,

the

'during (the days) growing long', lasts about six weeks, reindeer begin to calve; 4, 'in the calving-(time)';

the new summer growing'; 6, 'in the first summer'; 7, 'in second summer'; 8, 'in the middle summer'; 9, 'with the fresh air going out'; 10, 'with the first light frost'; 11, 'with the new snow'; 12, 'in the fall'; 13, 'in the winter' Certainly these are seasons, and one of them has six weeks, but our authority himself explains a couple of them by a comparison with the moon-month. There are just thirteen of them, which, if the number is more than an accident, is an accurate series of months. In every case the addition of the word 'moon' would make the names descriptive of a month. The names in both the lists just given are of a similar nature. Few travellers and scholars have been so unfettered and unprejudiced by our inherited ideas of the calendar as Codrington; accordingly they have usually striven to establish a proper series of months, or at least normal series. How much is lost to view owing to this tendency can hardly be ima-

the

1

.

to the fluctuating, manifold, tive naming of the months.

gined, but there are sufficient indications in the reports to point and unstable nature of the primi-

the great variability of the names. Man}- peoples have remained at the stage at which a fixed connexion between month and season does not exist:
of

One

these

indications

is

every every season - - taking the word in its broadest sense natural event and occupation may be associated with a month. If these relationships are treated as names of months, there
,

will arise a great

number
of
ff.

of

names

of

months, which will vary

according to

circumstances and to the
2

Thus
1

it

is

said
I,

whim of the speaker. the Eskimos of the Retiring Straits that
Above,
p.

Bogoras,

51

2

182.

222

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

very often different names are used to describe the same month, this month occurs at a time at which different occupations or natural phenomena are in progress. That the situation is, or at least was, the same among most peoples is shewn by the numerous variants which are to be found even in the preceding lists, and would certainly be much more numerous if the authorities, in their efforts to establish a normal series, had not passed them over. In the same fashion is to be explained the next surprising phenomenon, viz. that certain peoples, in the matter of the number of months in the year, give a far greater number than twelve or thirteen. This is not always to be set down to the inability to count. That

when

explanation serves when prominent Igorot declare that the 1 but not when the Kiowa numyear has a hundred months
,

too may have 14 months, second part of October receives a special name 3 Perhaps the month is halved, just as when among the Central Eskimos the days of a certain month, which has only twilight and no sun, receive one name, and the rest of the month another 4 A traveller of the 18th century states that the Tahitians reckon 14 months, and adds that it is a mystery how they count them 5 But these traces are here seen to be relics of an earlier state of affairs such as Codrington has "Months have their names from what is clearly described: done and what happens when the moon appears and while it lasts; the same moon has different names. If all the names of moons in use in one language were set in order, the periods of time w^ould overlap, and the native year would be artificially made up of 20 or 30 months". This fluctuating character of the nomenclature explains

ber

14

or

15

2

.

The Hopi year

since

the

.

.

.

the instability of the

names

of the

months; when anything

new

happens which

importance for the life of the people, it serves to describe a month. Thus the Lenope, after they migis

of

rated inland, where no shads were found, renamed the shadmonth the sugar-refining month 6 and the Pima, after they had
;

learnt to cultivate wheat,
1

named a month from the wheat harvest
193.
4

7
.

Jenks,
p.

p.

219.

2

183

5
.

Forster, p. 371.

s Above, p. Mooney, Kiowa, p. 368. 7 c Above, p. 195. Above, p. 190.

Above,

pp. which is found everywhere. Above. * Mathias . 192. They have not been fixed in a conventional series. as is the case with the months as we conceive them. Thomas. The reason for this is also that the seasons. Such a period is e. Ibo. There are peoples who do not even extend the reckoning by moons to the whole year. 1 G. they easily recognise any name for a month. year. p. which serve as descriptions of the months. when people only vegetate. nothing. The inhabitants of the Marquesas Islands had a ten-month river the tenth and last 2 others . pp. p. which begins with a chaotic mass of names of months. reckon ten months and an evulevu (idiot. which was reckoned and named according to the Pleiades 4 Even the Maoris are said to have counted no more months after the tenth 5 The Yurak Samoyedes and the Tunguses of the Amur count only eleven months. the depth of winter in the far north. Above.MULTIPLICITY AND ABSENCE OF NAMES OF MONTHS. the northern Kamchadales ten 6 . as well as they can. Among the tribes of the Kamchatka month is said to be as long as three The Amansi. 180. . or different groups of the same tribe. We different : see that at this stage the number of months is in- the question exist. Since they are well acquainted with the customs of the animals and roam over wide areas. 223 The best evidence is the multiplicity and diversity of the names of months. Above. different groups of whom for the months. does not the series of 1 . ours is the final point of the development. although as well as this they knew the complete year. are common to all and at once become intelligible *. 211. Most significant and by no means isolated is have separate names the case of the Cheyenne.. p. There is a time 'in which nothing happens which is quite without interest and in which no one takes the trouble to observe or name the moons. 210 f. even if they themselves do not use it. one of the Ibo-speaking tribes. 5 6 Above. even among the most closely related peoples and tribes. . empty month) 3 More often we find series of months with less than twelve names. 178. g. as is shewn by the above series of months from beginning to end. 180. 127. how many months the year has simply and consequently there is no need to make moon-months fit into the solar year. 2 3 I.

p. e. season of the year 2 Many Cheyenne tribes have only 3 the present condition of the calendar six months with names of the Hopi and Zuni points to the fact that this was really warm . *. of the month with somewhat ting larger divisions of the natuThus the ral year. 165. - - - when. 200. . 6 2 195. the Thlinkits a month before. p. covering a period of about two months. g. The Yeneseisk Ostiaks name only the months of one half of and so do many Indian the year. Above. p. pp. 5 Above. a big and a little winter. 174. 176. 3 192. the Minusinsk Tatars a little and a big cold. The Diegueno of S. p. etc. the Creek Indians a little and a big ripening moon. Above. 193 f.224 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 7 Above. there are traces of this earlier state of affairs. the Indians in De la Potherie a first and a second moon in which the bear brings forth her young. p. the Voguls a little and a big autumn-hunting month. little and big mulberry moon. perhaps also a little and a big midsummer month. a little and a big spring. CaliEven where a full series of . 193. a little and a big chestnut moon. f months has arisen. the case with these six tribes also 4 fornia have only months 5 . p. the Karagasses a frost month and a big frost month. the Samoyedes a first and a big dark month. 4 . everything hatches. in three the first is distinguished as the little. Tchuvashes have a very steep month and a month of little steepness. the latter also called 'little brother of big winter' (note the inverted order in this case). 8 Above. . the Ugric Ostiaks a big and a little winter-ridge month. Dubois. The Seminole have four pairs of months. the former and the latter. and a month . p. but on the other hand the big winter precedes 1 Above. the seven winter months The Bannock have no names for the months of the tribes. the Kiowa a little bud-moon and a bud-moon. Thus the Omaha have one month in which nothing 6 Of the 13 months of the Upper Welle those occuhappens' the 7th and 13th positions have no names 7 Among pying 8 the Voguls of the Tawda three months seem to be unnamed A further very wide-spread phenomenon of the nomenclature of the months the pairs of months. in which two months of the same name are distinguished as the big and the is due to the conneclittle. the latter sometimes with 'big' added. . Above.

series of months. 'sacrifice' and 'second sacrifice'. Thus arises a fixed. or tolerably well fixed. viz. little and big month. In Tonga there series pairs of months are equally frequent. So long as the description of the months remains quite fluctuating and occasional. Compare also the two Basuto months phupjoane. 'to begin to The two series swell'. such as appears in most of the reports handed down to us. the little. among the Thlinkits 'moon-child' or young month. volved of months exist where greater seasons are indetermining of the moons. and big month). 15 . on the Society Islands there is a first and a second palolo month. and phuphu. 225 what and a big wind-month. is to be explained is uncertain (cp. and they are in fact convenient. 'strong wind' and 'second strong wind'. which are distinguished by the aid of the common epithets. since their use obviates the unfortunate circumstance which has been a source of great confusion to primitive peoples.PAIRS OF MONTHS. or perhaps they are simply two months without names. In the Polynesian of months from Timor shew more pairs. In common speech a selection among the various names of months unconsciously takes place. but a very natural development leads to a conventionalising of the series of months. Somemonths of the Pima. that a natural phase from which it is the custom to name a month may fall on the border-line between Such pairs in the two moons. How the Zufii have a little similar are the pairs of 'flowers' of the cottonwood the the Siberian peoples. pair so frequently occurring among It may be that something is to be understood. this and similar inconveniences do not make themselves felt. are two pairs. including a first and a second rainy month. from phuphu. 'to swell'. and so also in Samoa. The Nandi of British East Africa have two pairs. so that those prevail which relate to more important occupations and natural phases. in Tahiti a first and a last hunger. 'leaves' and and mesquite respectively.

the much Inastronomy despair: for is disputed questions of the ancient Babylonian and calendar the non-expert is in a situation of whoever cannot himself make use of the sources referred to rhp often directly contradictory statements of the I cannot however shirk the task of investigating experts. which I here reproduce. 1.gar (-r a). 1 The names are : - - 1 . me only through Ginzel. What is here offered is in the nature of things only an attempt: but I may perhaps be allowed to express the whether hope that competent specialists. Unfortunately I cannot limit myself to matters upon which a certain unity of opinion prevails. 117 ff. not led astray by how far the chronological hypotheses. OLD SEMITIC MONTHS.) of each minor state had own months.CHAPTER VIII. bar-gag. chiefly from the latest work of Landsl At this time there was in use in Nippur a list of berger months the terms of which later served as general ideograms . but must also touch upon burning questions. such as the intercalation. may few but obvious characteristics of the primitive time-reckoning recur also in the Babylonian system. afterwards observe The a period list multiplicity and are found once as more in ancient variability of the names of the months Sumer. BABYLONIA. for the months. . to month The explanations given by Muss-Arnolt are known I. in Babylonian calendric systems traces of the primitive time-reckoning are not also to be found. together with the suggested explanations. C. In so comparatively laj^ of the kingdom Ur (in the middle of the second its half of the third millenium B.

261 5. Most interesting are the months from Girsu (Lagash). 11. su-kul-na. the driving of the irrigating-machine drawn by oxen: the moderns connect this name with the gu(d)-si-su is festival celebrated in this month at Nippur. 10. although the time does not fit: for displacements see below p. 'month in which description. 4. 3. 2. From the pre-Sargonic period about 25 names of months have hitherto been found. doubtless an accidental two months named from festivals at Lagash. It is very natural that the list of months should be regulated by ecclesiastical points of view. 12. Four names are given but are not translated. probably 'ploughing-month'. (2) isolated and foreign names of months : 'month the in which the shining the culmination-point'. 8. which fits very well with .dlnanna. 'month of the opening of the irrigation-pipes'. the derived by the Babylonians themselves from an agricultural occupation. . see above itu gur-dub-ba-a. 'month in which the granary is covered with grain' further a name not explained. gu(d)-si-sa. since Nippur was a great and very ancient centre of the religious cult. ne-ne-gar(-ra). the time of year. 6. apin-du-a. 7. as-a(-an). 'month of the corn-harvest'. from a festival. . kan-kan-na. from Uruk'. from a festival. du(l)-asag(-ga). shortened from seg-n-sub-ba-gar-ra. of which only 8 or 9 persisted up to the second and third periods. third people came (or white) star sinks down from a type familiar to us. under which he includes those which consciously named after the object or employment mentioned in the document itself. perhaps identical with the foregoing. seg-ga. but more are borrowed from festivals. of habitation or inhabitants of the 227 name sanctuary. (3) agricultural by-names: itu se-kin-ktid-du. named from an Istar festival. ab(-ba)-e(-a). 'month in which the brick is laid in the mould'. which also agrees very well with the season. taken from agricultural occupations. There are therefore some names of the familiar kind. probably 'sowing-month'. se-kinkud-(du). Further. or even improvised from the are domestic occupation in question. kin. 'month of the spelt'. These 25 names of months are sional divided by Landsberger into the following groups: (1) occanames of months.SUMERIAN MONTHS. (4) terms belonging to the religious cult. 9. named from a festival. .

8. among the Melanesians.228 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. g. itu esen 12. . ou agriculture.1. 'month 'mot's la in campagne resplendtf . 10. 6. but to draw up a fixed series from these 25 names is impossible. etc. 7. see above 5. a list of this nature occurs *: -. and Thureau-Dangin. a festival. according to Radau pour les moutons': i. towards the formation of such a series already der to facilitate a general understanding. 11. Of these no fewer than 17 exist. Great pains have been taken to arrange the months in their position in the calendar. esen har-ra-ne-sar-sar. since they have been judged by the lists of months current among ourselves. II: 1. itu esen gan- The development tends in this direction in or- mas. of uncertain meaning but connected with the cult 4. 'grain grow(n)'. The list has therefore thirteen months. . itu se-se-kin-a.. itu esen amar-a(-a)-st. 9. after the corn has been trodden out on the threshing-floor by the follows. 13. Certainly the months can be chronologically arranged. and in the second period. amar 'young brood'. Further. not counting those already mentioned: they are nearly all named after festivals. din the godur. = = = 'spawning month'. month of the feast in which the dim consecrated to the deity was eaten. tAvo points are to be noted. 1 The respective explanations are from Kugler. meaning uncertain. kud. it becomes clear that the naming of the months is here in the same fluctuating state as e. ou le ble monte 1 . according 'mo-is ou on leve le ble to de Genouillac. an agricultural occupation. itu mes-endu-se-a-na (?). at the time of the kingdom of Akkad in the 28th to 26th centuries. of the profits of 2. the perhaps 'month or of the reckoning'. month of the feast of feast. whom Kugler oxen. the stalks are taken up for the cattle. even if tendencies exist. itu esen din ^ ir Dumu-si. is seized upon in order to describe the month. pp. itu which the oxen work' 3. 176 ff. . and the superfluous names have been set down merely as doublets. the rising of a star. a 'to be full'. According to circumstances. 'mot's another form for se-kin- se-illa. itu mu-su-gab. itu su-kul. i. e. itu esen dim-foil. and therefore probably malu 'water'. When we compare the terms with those of the primitive time -reckoning. dess Bau. itu ezen dingir ne-su. e. . si itu itu esen &r month of the Tammuz Bait.

'month of the gazelle eating'. probably the 4th months. his successors. itu nr. 8. The third period is the tune of Dungi and The list of months differs only in that 7. that is to say. tion 11 its is 11. The most considerable deviation is that only two months instead of three intervene between the months su-kul-na and esen d Ban the order of succession is therefore broken. result is a . 11. such names are familiar from the Graeco-Roman period and examples still survive in the words Still another version of this list exists in 'July' and 'August'. 2. mas-da-ku. In any case the list affords valuable evidence of the instability of the months. it itu dir se-kin-kud.. This list is not completely preserved. The list is assigned to the town of Ur. itu se-illa. or 13). 12. was re-named as itu ezen din &r Dungi. In modern Drehem there is found a list of months in which each month is allotted to an official of the cult. 3. 1. in which six series of names of months are enumerated.afterwards the Nippur list \vas used. so that we have 10. so that the monthly regulation of the cult. In the first 229 place only eight months (nos. and the tenth month of the above list is missing. Landsberger conjectures that we have to do either with a later form of the calendar from Lagash. 5. 12. itu doubled. in the intercalaThe seventh month takes name from a is festival celebrated in honour of the deified king Dungi. itu ecclesiastical point clature of the amar-a-asi.AKKADIAN MONTHS.. at the time of the kings of Larsa and Isin . the so-called syllabar of months. at least ideographically with a local offshoot. and 13th. a 'feast'. 1. this : therefore the oldest example of a naming of deified rulers which originates in the festivals or else being employed everywhere. of The multiplicity and instability of the names months were therefore at an earlier period still greater than the indicate. perhaps nine . In the second place the word esen. secondary addition to the names of the 2nd. se-kin-knd .if itu ur is to be regarded as an abbreviation of itu ga-udu-ur-(ra-)ka are taken over from the and preceding period. a month from bound up with the cult. 3rd. the is known names of view has penetrated into the nomenmonths to such an extent that even months with names borrowed from agricultural occupations are explained anew by festivals.

to 'to move on. 'origin. 'month of Anu feast. dusu. 12. To none of the four local systems can itu asag-sim be fifth list is is allotted. send out. of which only . 6. 11 d origin are: Ne-gun. 'the dark (month)'. bar. esen Dungi. 9. doubled month of the in intercalation. The names of months refer festivals and religious ceremonies. At the time of the dynasty of Hammurabi signs of the the signs of the Nippur list are used as ideographic months. d and 3. a-ki-ti. 'the 9. The names are therefore borrowed throughout from natural phenomena. sabadhii. ses-da-ku. Ninazu. esen-an-na. u-bi-kn. 5. are all taken from feasts: the ecclesiasthe high feast'. the old harvest month. arah-samna. nisami. esen Dungi. therefore the month of blossoming and sprouting. 6. 9. at least for Sippar. 4. The months 1. d esen month of Nin-a-su. from aru. 'hostile' (on account of the heat). to sprout'. or Yr. 12. 10. month-ideograms Landsberger gives 12 of this time were not the only other names. dhabttti. esen-mali. The names. 11. our common pronuncia- ones in use. 11. unexplained. Me-ki-gal. 'the eighth month'. 3. with the exception of that of also many variants. to leap'. 10. 7. 2. sivamt. ululu. tical nomenclature has therefore been carried out very fully. airu. destroyer'. from nesu 'bright'. 8. 7. su-es-sa. according to MussArnolt: - 1. and 2. 'the gloomy month'. d d Dumu-si. 'to stir.230 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. mourning the feast. beginning'. The names are the common ones which were also cidopted by the Jews in exile. kislivn. 'son of life'. itn d has the variant Pap-u-e. 10. Numerous phonetic writings in legal documents are alone sufficient to tions of shew the that. and The list of months from Umma: Of undoubted religious 6 are borrowed from the Nippur list. from a festival ceremony. later ousted by ezen d Stt- d Sin. festival d of (joyful) festival borrowed month of the 4. itn 8. The explanations are. There are 12. 2. ki-sig Nin-a-su. see above. esen se-kin-kud. 5. and have not all been A known completely preserved. addarti. We have seen what a multiplicity prevails among the Sumerian names of months. named from a of Ninazu. The phonetic readings are known. tasrtiti. from religious festivals. and to only from the above-mentioned syllanot certainly localised. abu.

2. 'oven offer 13 names of it which Hrozny tries to explain away the last by identifying sometimes vary considerably. 'hand of the underworld'. since in accordance with the examples hitherto given a name like 'shepherd's month' All other explanations are quite problematical. perhaps 4. but are origin. name of an occupation (?). 3. 12. 85 ff. its carrying over Sibutim. pp. a few can be explained. with another. One or two are named from gods. We find . probably something like 'month of epidemics'. perhaps month of the moon-god. growth Pi-te-bdbt means 'opening tar-bi-tum (month of the) of the gate'. because the oven must then be arah heated. Therefore among the Semites of Babylonia also a fixed series of months was formed only gradually. The ancient Assyrian list of months is partly preserved in the syllabar of months. In the material collected by Assyriologists and the explanations given by them but from this it clearly appears that the development : 1 Hrozny.. ku-sal-li. above I have only been able to reproduce the ought to refer not to the occupation as such but to the pasture season. sa sa-ra-te. and partly from documents *: the latter year ki-nn-ni. MONTHS. The other names are missing or are uncertain. which come from of millenium at Kara Eyjuk in Asia Minor. it is the sibutu of the month'. (month of the) prospering of the harvest . The Elamite calendar is known partly from the so-called syllabar of months. by selection. as the name of a month therefore. and indeed under the influence of the Sumerian calendar from which the ideograms were borrowed. month of rain . refer to the seasons: se-ir(-t)-eburi. and probably refers to a religious ceremony. (of plants). sibutu is the name for the festival. The names in the two sources Babylonian chiefly of Several. 7th 231 day and . 6.BABYLONIAN ETC. In regard to the interpretation of the names from occupations a of name all certain caution should be exercised. qar-ra-a-tu. also shepherd's month. according to Hrozny's interpretations. al-la-na-a-ti. ka-ti-ir-si-tim. . : the some employment. shepherd's month. the idea to the year. and also occurs in the inscriptions the early Assyrian kings and in the so-called Cappadocian an Assyrian colony of the third tablets. tam-ti-ru-um.

and finally attain to almost exclusive predominance.in of and the other higher of the art writing possession branches of knowledge of the people. I . But the fixed writing naturally contributed to bring about fixed readings. however. of names of months has proceeded in the same fashion here At the beginning we find an indefinite number months borrowed principally from natural phenothese is mena. or would make the old Canaanitish months diviIsraelites. But these series. This is easily to be understood in the case of ancient Sumer. but the temples also had the largest landed property. the calendar takes on more and more an ecclesiastical stamp. Finally the series becomes quite fixed. 2. New names penetrate into them. a fixed series of months. city. Occupations and religious ceremonies. i. THE ISRAELITES. with an extensive administration. The Semitic calendars present the same characteristics as the ancient Sumerian. as the examples from Lagash shew. so that a variety in the names of months still existed. The months. a resemblance which is only slightly disguised by the fact that the signs of the now fixed Sumerian series of months are used all as ideograms of the months. different in each At first it seems as though series of 13 months arose. 'solar like all Semitic races. the result of which. Among a selection takes place. Everyone read the ideograms in accordance with his custom. as elsewhere. since not only were the priests alone here as elsewhere . even the position of the month can be altered. While this development continues. since months named from festivals are constantly ousting those named from natural phenomena. e. festival seasons and time-reckoning for practical purposes were more closely connected at that time than at any other. as the phonetic writings testify. were not fixed throughout.232 of the series of PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. reckoned in lunar need not discuss the views which ascribe to them a year. and with this seems to be connected the falling away of the thirteenth month: in the series of months now fixed at twelve the leapmonth becomes a doubling of the preceding month.

the month of of of corn.CANAANITISH MONTHS. where three building history . and so this falls earlier. is the month of the Yerash siv. one would think rather of the splendour of the sun. perennial streams. e. the second. p. beginning at the Feast of the Passover. corresponding to of the about September. and in the Solomon's temple *. in the regula- tions for the feast of the Passover. that have water. 2 Dillraan. Chap. but probably means the rainy month. though But in May the dry season begins. ha-etamm. yerash ha-etamm are mentioned and compared with the numerical months by which their position is fixed. which the we possess only in fragments. which has already taken gathering place. about April. already sufficiently familiar. of the which now at the end of the dry season Yerash bul.chodesh or others ycrash siv. since the autumn The descriptions are therefore of the kind rains now begin 2 to the of . are the only ones means month cannot be referred the fruit (bul). i. the eighth.. p. Like the Homeric Greeks. Konig. etanim recur among the eleven Phoenician names of months known from inscriptions. the Jews at their immigration had no names of months. was therefore at least in part r identical with the Phoenician: hence the term old Canaanitish' The explanations are also clear. sions of the solar year. VI and VIII. the month ears. . The in latter appear in the oldest portions of the law. 926. Of these y. corresponding to the first month. 612 ft. 233 From early times the day of the festivities new from moon was celebrated with general and rest labour. which is only replaced by the 1 I Kings. about May. Chodesh ha-abtb. Yerash ripening of the seventh. and the old feasts of the agricultural year seem to have been postponed till the time of full moon. Hence they took over the old Canaanitish names. flowing. bid and v. which ears - is to be celebrated chodesh of - ha-abib. of But in the writings of the Old Testament the numbering the months. yerash bul. having regard to is justified. is referred to the splendour of the blossoming season. The above-mentioned series of months. brightness (though certainly the etymology is not certain). the position of the months in the year. and elsewhere. is the common method of description.

234 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. . of the months. Test. two months: sowing.139. it be- comes 1 possible to calculate Above. A. p. how many months 3 ff. of connected that the with again beginning of the year. two months: vintage. 2 Schiaparelli. 3 first demonstrable among the writers of the Capti4 For our purpose the chief point to note is that the vity .Two months: bringing in of fruits. concrete descriptions of months must also have prepared the way for the introduction of the Babylonian names. It helps to regulate the calendar. one month: harvest of all other kinds of corn. which will be dealt with below. and according to what has already been shewn about the num1 bering of months this is always a phenomenon of an advanced The inclination of the people towards stage of civilisation. pp. the agricultural work just engaged in the present month recognised: and then. Babylonian names of months after the Captivity. This agrees with the course of the agricultural occupations. 110. con- siderable difference of opinion: at the time of Solomon 2 about 600 B. will elapse bep. one month: pulling up of flax.. Well- hausen. . It seems to be fairly generally recognised that the numbering is later. Proleg. 636. As to the date of the introduction of the numbered months there is . The purpose of the list does not seem to me to have been clearly recognised. C. yet there are also indications of an earlier beginning in autumn 6 New evidence both for the beginning of the year in autumn and for the months is found in an inscriptional calendar from Gezer. C. 4 204. See below. two months: late sowing. 6 Konig. with the aid of this calendar. p. one month: fruit-gathering. reckoning from about the bringing in of fruit is not the harvest but September. - drawn up From is for practical ends. 272 G Finally discussed by Marti. the carrying home of the harvest from the fields but is so as to cover months. . For if the series of numbered months begins in spring. Whoever the naturally systematised drew up this list knew neither fixed names nor a fixed enumeration of the months: the question can only be whether this state of affairs must have been general at the date 600 B. dating from about the year 600 6 It runs: -. It is obvious that such a list must have been numbering is more recent than the naming This question is . one month: barley harvest. p.

is much later. XL VII. Isaiah I. II Kings have examined the pas- of Elisha. 'new moon'. If this calendar came into general use. and 3 Kings (in the expression yerach yamim ). 'month' is yerach. the numbering of the months. Of course. 2 Exod. XXXIII. p. and this is also a sure evidence for the practice of counting the months. II Kings IV. 151. 13. XV. 5.ISRAELITISH MONTHS. 1 1. 110. for the significance of the word 'feast of the new moon' in the old narrative of Jonathan and David 7 in the combination new moons and sabbaths' 8 and in the regulations of the Priestly Code about the burnt offering earlier books of the . e. 23. XXI. and 38. new'. from chadash. also Well' 8 First in the somewhat later narrative I Sam. 23. . II. e. The word f had no reference to counting the months was it for moon latter is only this 'new moon': Among the Phoenicians chodesh means yareach. 4 and a few poetically. i. f . him three months'.. pregnancy. . p. has been remarked above that the Israelites at their immigration into Canaan had no names of months. then in Amos VIII. In the Old Testament word also occurs several times: in the account of . VIII. names of months of the usual type would arise from it. known literally That the practice of proved by the common word for month. Above. though not from a definite point of departure. counting was a is e. . 37. to or after this or that event. 13. they occasionally reckoned a It few months up This the solar year. in Exodus cally combined with the in Deuteronomy and lastly. chodesh. 'hid I Kings VI. 'newness'. g. Proleg. Deut. i. XX. 14. 1 the building of Solomon's temple (in three cases characteristi2 old Canaanitish names). vv. 3 i. When it is remembered that the months are counted not only continuously but also by the appearance of each becomes clear how the word chodesh has come to new moon 5 it mean 'month'. fore 235 some other occupations begin. etc. 13. LXVI. The Old Testament provide interesting material 6 Chodesh means 'new moon'. e. like all other primitive peoples. in Moses' departing blessing II times in Job and Zechariah. Moses' mother days'. hausen. The latter process. shifting one. 13. aid of Mandelkern's Concordance and the analysis of sources in the sages by Kautzch's translation of the Bible: for the numbered months cp. 2. 'month of the 5 2. 6 * I Deut.

used in a calendarial sense. Num. 31 6 The Elohist. 2 I Sam. for clear The sense 'month' can be 6 which is an older by the addition yamim . XIX. In the regulations for the Passover Feast also the sense is not to be determined to is given to the idea of duration 'month' clearly appears. 27. 2. and bewail my virdepart 3 definitely of . XXIV. 14. XI. V. in the Yahwist. 62. 15. Deuteronomist. 8. Num. 7. XXIII. e. 18. Jud. and in Amos IV. 47. that chodesh stands for 'month'. 11 V. XVI. early as in the Yahwistic part of the old History of the Kings. ff. XXIII. with as days added. 14 (in the history of Solomon). Gen. VI. 22. 6. and his reviser. and later times is often used rendered idiom. Judges XI. 8. after the 4 new moon'. XXIX. 3 XXVIII. 2. . 14. 20. 8. . and in Ex. 7 (the old History of the Kings). e. (often). XXIV. 18. XII. 11. even where the yamim is completely excluded. it came to pass about e. 16. 'the morrow 1. 4 XXXIV.236 of the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Deut. g.II Sam. XX. "when there were yet three new moons (months) to the harvest". Ill.. Shana perhaps means the seasons. From the new moon the days of the month 2 this is done in one case The number and can be counted. that I may of Jephthah's daughter: and down go upon the mountains. XX. is yamim originally an 'change'. First the Yahwist. the of new moon numbers 14: "And he 1 sent them 6. ten thousand a month by 11. If the word is The idea result of is is a practical explanation. to Lebanon. of months is determined by counting the new moons: thus certain passages can be understood (though not necessarily so). 5. I Kings XI. empty addition. 13. XIII. . neither with cJwdesh of nor with shana. II Sam. the Yahwist.. XXXVIII. XXIX. g. or in the history of Solomon. 37 One month: Lev. 'recurrence'. several months: I Sam. XXVI. II Kings XV. e. ff : regard the latter supposition as correct. the sense Thus the word in earlier ginity. XXIV. IX. i. I Kings IV. Another point is whether at the time in question the word in this connexion had the sense of new moon or of month I should be inclined new moon l . three new moons (months) after"." in the counting of the months 5 . Gen. 8. 'year'. further the 6 XXXIV. XXVII. Ex. Here 'new moon' and 'month' are essentially identical: in this manner a change of sense has come about. II. 'nine months and twenty days'. XVIII. XXVII. 1 Kings V. If prominence time. 24. in the story 4 "Let me alone two months. . g. 16. 7. ff. Num. 28.

rajab. I quote Wellhausen: 3 "For the season afar the Lisan 6. of them. so that 1 no translation 2 . . ramadan. pp. first took place under Islam. old 1 See hausen. dhu-lThese Irijja. had acquired a more than local extension and was adopted by Islam. 10. Gumada often occurs in the poetry and always refers to the worst winter-cold. note 1. 4. greatest number of cases chodesh stands combination w ith an ordinal numeral. Reste. rabi I. 9. in so far as they are explainable. In by far the in T ser of the Pentateuch. courses: 237 a month they were in Lebanon. sha'ban. 134 gives abundant examples. pp. 6.The series of months cient in the is others are handed down. and two months at The older senses belong in general to the older writings. Espeit. safar I. This is best seen from the three pairs of months which form the first half-year. not in Deuteronomy. 'the holy Arabic author. Hence it follows these numbered months are a late innovation. partly by Arabian writers. 7. w^hich. now used by the Arabs is the anMeccan series. the dear time in which the poor must be fed by the rich. 5. Besides this series . 3. below. shawwal. and rains which fall 8. since there they are of no use for my The Meccan series is: purpose 1. 12. 11. in the last Revi. it gives a name to plants which grow at that time. dhu-l-qa'da. l . ff. in the Priestly Code. in It falls in the autumn. WellWellhausen.ARABIAN MONTHS. THE PRE-MOHAMMEDAN ARABIANS. and they will be spoken of again in connexion with the matter of the that beginning of the year 3. now called a re-naming which. 3 Enumerated by Ginzel. Bucljari. and partly Sabean inscriptions: the latter I pass over. refer to seasons and festivals. on account of the importance of Mecca as a centre of trade. it is however to be presumed that before the begin- home". 97. Reste. 2. cp. I. jumada I. according to an witharram. ning of the literary period the change of sense had already advanced rather far. names. 94. 272 p. animals which are born then. - . rabi II. 96 (with note 1). safar II. jumada II. 240. but in Jeremiah and the writers of the Exile.

the snakes. to the vegetation which appears simultaneously with the autumn rains. jumada II. is certain. Since two months appear between safar and the cold season. . and thereBut commonly the Rabi' is the season when. in which sacrifices of camels and sheep were offered up. As for the other months. where the camels bring forth their young and the rich milking-season The camels are pregnant in the tenth month'. the date-harvest. f month. the last six months are made. The attempted explanations of sha'ban and skawwal are all very uncertain. and it alludes to the warm season. indeed. but partly to the richer pasture which springs up with the increasing heat after the winter rains. the hot'. it is partly used to describe a period in autumn which is often identified with charif. which are otherwise out at night-time. f f the pasture-season in spring. and partly to describe ding to the calendar. since ramadan is the third month after jumada II. and the traveller eagerly looks out for a friendly fire. cover the winter half since They do not exactly but fall somewhat earlier. approaches and bring forth their young in February. the pasture-season. which suits the jumada time of the sharp cold. accor( afar and Gumada. partly.'' This statement is supported by the etymology. In rajab a festival was celebrated in all holy places. and are thereThe root from which fore the worst period of lack of food. Out of these three seasons. remain in their holes. Safar comes from a root with the meaning 'to be empty'. The explanation of this fact is doubtless that the word refers to the sprouting vegetation. between in fore late autumn. Avhen the dogs do not bark. the month is therefore called the 'holy'. of the year. to reverence'. after the autumn and winter rains. belongs to the cold period. cially favoured is the description of the evil night in Gumada. in fact to its beginning. before a more abundant vegetation has sprung up. the steppe becomes green and the tribes disperse to the pastures. the sense of raniadan. comes has the to sense grow stiff. according to a familiar precedent.238 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. The other three names refer to festivals. Rabi as a season has a double sense. The root means 'to fear. the two months of safar include the end of the dry and the beginning of the rainy season. The Rabi falls.

the first month of the holy peace which prevails during the time of pilgrimage. dhu-l-kijja. since the noise of weapons is stilled.ARABIAN MONTHS.- that the month was so because - in no expeditions or predatory excursions It is took place - is doubtless correct. . The second month is named from the feast of pilgrims itself. or the f 239 The names mage called deaf and dumb'. Dhu-l-qa*da is 'the month of sitting'. of the last two months refer to the great pilgrito Mecca. and the for it explanation given the name .

IX. Dalsager. 105. This problem The the is central point of shall now investigate more its the older scientific chronology. and then begin to count the moons. 2 . the remainder of the year being called the autumn or late fall. Where there is only a series of less than twelve months. 185 . Also the Shuswap and the Lillooet in the same country counted eleven months and then the fall-time'. Nevertheless the months can be fixed in a more accurate fashion. The Lower Thompson In- Columbia counted up To ten~or~sometimes eleven months. The series is begun on the appearance of the signs from which the first month is named. the problem of calendar regulation does not exist. cp. p. doing so until the moon can no longer be obfor instance. however. The vacant period serves. and is continued from that point until the end. Among most 1 peoples. (^unconsciously of course. 141. to bring lunar reckoning and solar year into agreement. 54. JO. Above. 293. 1. We and what has been development among the primitive peoples. closely how the problem has arisen. which was the balance British f of the _ year Cranz. The Eskiof mos the Greenland.CHAPTER CALENDAR REGULATION. I. THE INTERCALATION. This indefinite period of unnamed months enabled them to bring the lunar and solar year into harmony. mark in the bright summer 1 nights . p. f. position of the and continue served dians in the winter solstice by sun. a series of Holm. months coverand 39. 2 respective!}'. circumstance that the lunar months are among almost all peoples named from the phases of Nature involves the necessity of an agreement between the two really incommensurable periods given by the sun and the moon. pp. p.

cp. the flowering of the erythusia. of the(Pleiade^>just before sunrise always Dunbar. 241 arisen. it is stated that they sometimes became inextricably involved in reckoning. 99. the geese lay their eggs^al a slightly different period according to the character of the year. from the first the dust in the cry of the cuckoo. Riggs. and since all these phenoat mena <may appear appearance 1 somewhat different dates. 165. the matter is no better. Since the natural phases are bound up with the solar year. - Thejirst rectifies p. The racqoons do not come Uput of their winter holes at the same time every winter. who had an intercalary month. and therefore towards the end of the winter there is dispute among the Dakota as to the correct current date l If the people has a thirteenth month. midwinter. If on a certain day of the solar year. in the following year a new moon will occur about 11 days before or 19 days after this day. p. Of the Pawnee. the tions. reported of Their months are The same named e. Mallery. or even . and in the year after that about 21 falls a new moon days before or 9 days after it. 1. even the Caffre in. that the fact the phases of Nature. TAvelve moons do not bring them back to the same point in the season as that from which their reckoning began. is in consequence the of irreconcilable differences of opiof their calculation *. ing the w^hole year has often 13 than 12 months. 4. /H*'- * e broken up. g. and the accustomed order of succession of the months is broken. 16 . nion as to the correctness Caffres. they get out of place in relaThe situation is still further complicated by tion to the moon.UNCERTAINTY AS TO THE MONTH. and this series has more Here the difficulties first begin. Hence doubt arises. and with them the occupa- vary somewhat according to the peculiarities of the climate in different years. dry season. Councils have been known to be disturbed. and were obliged to have recourse to objects about them to rectify their com_ putations. 1 i conditions wjiich cause inflammation of the eyes do not appear a^jhe same time every spring. Of the Dakota it is said that they often have heatecT7 debates as to which moon it is. astrologers do not knpjw^vhat moon they Grammar. are really p. And this is not a mere theoretical piece of reasoning: primitive peoples are not seldom in perplexity as to which month they are to ("count.

difficult to now 1 p. Thus. the number of months naturally becomes 12 or 13. p. 4 Winkler. 2 The months of the rectify the lunar calendar Sumatra are regulated by the constellation Scorpio 3 Bataks of : cians. without a vacant interval the case of some peoples. 8 7 Below. I. is as say whether the ancient Yukaghir made some adjustment by adding a month to accomodate their lunar year to the solar one. that this point did not interest them. Maes. from the answers which I received from the Yukaghir to my inquiries. Even peoples who have a developed. were the to or even the date stars observed but also the flowering of certain plants. peoples But if a definite series of months such as occurs in is established. astrono- mically regulated. 317. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. s Thomas. In the third month a black flyingant is accustomed to appear in great numbers. who control the calendar.. 627. let matters go as they The people having been reported of the Yukaghir. lunisolar calendar sometimes have recourse In Bali not only to the natural phases in order to rectify it. p. the dates the magicertain as to the certain migratory birds are known: they come in the fourth and go in the first month.242 the confusion 1 . Be- verley. 181. . . 439. they do not properly know of how many moons the year consists: such peoples are the Dyaks 5 the Warumbi of Central Africa 6 the Ibo-speaking . Friederich. Generally a month is the time from one new moon to another. Even in this case the people sometimes . storms are very frequent in the eleventh and twelfth 4 . p. 6 2 Macdonald. 7 the Algonquin 8 . when the white ants got their wings. p. in order . It seems to me. but it did not matter to them whether twelve such months made up a full cycle of the year or not. for instance. are not position of the months. and the turtle-dove is silent in the eighth. christianised. Many peoples slip over the difficulties. Ibo. I. The bird sosoit sings in the eleventh month. c Nieuwenhuis. but look for general points of reference in the phenomena of Nature. 88. 127. 250. says our authority. The presence of the bird of prey lali piuan makes known the sixth and seventh months. p. 291. it is will. The west monsoon of proclaims the third.

and the natural conditions have brought it about that this characteristic has been preserved in at least one particular. or not clearly so. months. it is performed counting climatic variations of the soon happens (apart from the years already mentioned) that the months deviate from the 3 . Therefore every now and again some month must be left out or a month added. p.DIFFICULTIES IN RECKONING MONTHS. i. i. the months are pushed forwards or backwards according to circumstances. 428. recognition . viz. and the first one begins at the time of the winter solYet they are very stice and corresponds to our December. Koryak. being far ahead it *. at first not recognised. The and the number of months were from the beginning unstable. But a year would sometimes come in which the oat-harvest took place about at the 1 Jochelson. . viz. This necessity. is the chief cause of the above-mentioned For when the disagreement in the reckoning of the months r the w ith series in accordance only. 2 Jochelson. the oat-harvest at the end of August and beginning of September. the month which should have followed is left out. Yukaghir. mastering them. In general the whole process is not even so conscious to as the desire for theoretical exactness has led me represent in using the example of the Dakota. series Let us. p. troubled bv the fact that in the interval between two little The very winter solstices an extra new moon may occur 2 above a described great advance. * Above. the beginning of August. that in certain cases a month could be passed over. 241. e. e. 42. the implies perplexity which the first stage towards is of the difficulties. take a fictitious example As a rule the rye-harvest falls at from Swedish conditions. Thus an intercalation comes about without it being suspected what is really done. the potato-harvest at the end of September. or a month is added to the series. 243 When of was necessary they simply ignored some of the names The Koryak have twelve lunar months. natural phases from_which they are named. p. These occupations might very well be distributed among three months named after them. The arguments in the dispute as to which month it really is are based on the condition of the phases of nature the result is a correction : j ' of the counting. for the sake of clearness.

the Masai . p. intercalated. month' 2 this points to the fact that it is an addition to a twelve-month series. this is loo-'n-gok-wa" Should the say: . is named 'the lost *. 175. conflicting opinions. continue at the beginning of the following month. just as in Babylonia. between two moons. Hollis. p. p. where the same method of expression recurs 3 The Masai have twelve months 4 The great rains cease with loo-'n-gokisoa. 2 Carver. teen months of which one must according that fact most. . as end is made to as to it. the rye-harvest at the beginning and the potato-harvest at the end of first moon. 201 f. 4. When this intercalation is left we have already seen. An disputes and order is established when the decision is placed in the hands of definite persons. 4 Above. they say: It is clear that ol-oiborare" 5 . affords a particuwhich. this is through the dead reckoning the months are advanced in relation to the seasons. will be~ repeated. is and in response to this an empirical intercalation arises. a month of the oat-harvest. ~~Thus the necessity for modifying the series of months felt. out of religious conservatism. . p. as among certain Indians. which is named from Should the rains still the evening setting of the Pleiades.244 interval PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. of them have a to circumstances be passed over in certain years. the of There would therefore be no place for the second moon. arise these to itself. it must simply be omitted. pp. forgotten. . i. "We have if forgotten. Experience teaches the peoples who have only a twelvemonth series that this is not sufficient: so we are told of the Mandan and Minnetaree that they have generally recognised When the inthat the year has more than twelve months tercalary month. 334. hot season not be over at the beginning of the month following ol-oiborare. they kept until well into the post-Christian 1 Matthews. the regulation of larly plain whose calendar example of this empirical intercalation. 3 Beloxv. one month The preceding month is. 262. e. This was done among the Jews. That this is the case among in the primitive peoples is proved by the series of thir- fact many."We have forgotten.

that the fruits also were not so far advanced as they accustomed to be at this time of the year. issued to the this saw and . According to the Talmud the! appearance of the crescent of the new moon was determined by deposition before a court of justice of three members. so that it seems right to me and my brothers to add to this year thirty days. perhaps not until medieval times. Dalman.EMPIRICAL INTERCALATION. was since Passover on the 14th of corn were Nisan the first-fruits offered. of the birds are tender and the time of has not yet come. If they that the crops were not yet ripe at the Passover time. and the Dispersion at the date 90110 A. and the task of determining the intercalation has been handed over to a comtive peoples. It is mittee of the Sanhedrin. 3. There 1 exists a possibility of a 2 somewhat different deve- Ginzel II. p. but the cult on its side was dependent on the natural phenomena. For at of absolutely necessary the Feast of the the for the celebration of the purpose the court of justice visited the fields. Galilaea. suitable inter- A calation feasts. and finally at an uncertain period. On small the and the young corn-harvest rare occasions II. Adar. Adar of Nisan. THE JEWS. when it had begun." The intercalary month was the last month of the year. inhabitants of Judaea. . later by couriers. 41. 245 period. was altered into Here the intercalation took place in the interests religious cult. from the second century. a mitigation of the original rules. 44. After || I that the beginning of the month was signalised in the country in earlier times by fires. The intercalation is of the same empirical order as that which we have met among the primi- the only that the development of the ecclesiastical laws has led to a judicial procedure. they inter[were (calated a month in accordance with these two signs: if only one of these signs was to be observed the decision was made 1 to depend on other minor circumstances By way of example I give an official document of Rabbi Gamaliel II. and the two other great feasts were also of an agrarian character. 2 "We make known to you that the lambs are D . led to a calculated regulation. in fact until the necessities of the Dispersion compelled.

until at last twelve months have names and the vacant interval remains only as This seems to be the case among an intercalary month. So it is Island of . . 3 Dunbar. and adds that the readjustment is made in midwinter 2 Unfortunately the author does not tell us how the readjustment is made. the intercalary is month has thus One other example author who gives the list of the months fixed. 4 1 Boas. lary month series. If the former be the case. 412 ff. beginning with March. There is rarely any rule for the position of the intercaWhere the sources simply enumerate a thirteenmonth. is left out. Eskimo. necessitated by the natural phases. and when consequently little attention is paid to the time-reckoning. 2 Boas. pp. or an additional month inserted. I. of the year The Kwakiutl of the Vancouver. from the . 86. if hardly any twilight: it is said to be of indeterAfter an interval of a few years this month new moon and winter -solstice coincide 1 When . 1. 4 3 Ellis. monly omitted The first regulation of the calendar is therefore roughly empirical. Res. 644 . it is to be presumed that no fixed position for the intercalary month exists. pp. and says that the solstice moons are called by a name which probably means 'split both ways'. inserts between the tenth and eleventh months the winter solstice. But such a month can be found. its position in the of this method may exist. said put in the Pawnee that the intercalary month was usually the summer months 3 On the Society Islands month corresponding to our March or our July was comof the after . they have a 'sunless' month. and in fact is nothing but an occasional and arbitrary deviation. p.246 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. whether the winter solstice moon or some other moon is the intercalary month. since naturally a month named from a natural phase of less importance will be omitted. at a time when there is little work going on. the explanation is given by the above. the Central Eskimos. lopment among peoples who originally had less than twelve months and also counted a vacant interval: it is conceivable that the unnamed months may be named. which covers the time when the sun does not appear and when there is also minate length. Pol. Kwakinti. ff. arisen.

197 and Dubois. as saw in chapter IV. Of the Diegueno stated is followed six by one it of S. before the month in question. The Pleiades month therefore of starting-point the the beginning of the year. touched upon. pp. 5 208. are determined in more accurate fashion stars. 4 becomes the the months. the series of months by the is immovably fixed. 210. e. as is done by the Maoris 4 or even named from stars. existing series of 247 we months. the lists of chapter VII.- the latter furnishes the stars in question are usually the the means of correcting the reckoning of the months. since the risings and settings of the stars accurately determine the date. as need arises. Where only one month is named after a star and determined by it. and the intercalary month is consequently introduced. 1 reckoning of Immediately after the discovery of 199. so it is also in the naming of the months. 211 f. b} tribes . Above. for the regulation of the calendar only briefly it is of supreme importance. 184. p. r of the Torres Straits 6 . p. The Konyag have a month named from this constellation. and particularly by their risings and settings.CORRECTION OF THE MONTHS/BY THE STARS. so that the fluctuation of the natural phases is excluded. Consequently the months also can be named from stars. Where only one month however. . p. Just as the Pleiades play the most important part in the determination of time from the phases of Nature. is it . becomes of itself 3 3 Above. is an exception. The names of months are given. i. but unfortunately there is no information The Hottentots and the Herero both have as to the sense 2 On the islands of the Pacific' Ocean the a Pleiades month 3 is far that in some cases every month is carried so practice described by the rising of a constellation.- with in this case Pleiades . as among the inhabitants of Mortlock's Island 6 and. Above. pp. Above. and a considerable number of such names of months was found This phenomenon has hitherto been in. 165. Above. named from the rising of a star or brought into connexion This. that divided the year into months and ob- five chief stars. which named after Orion *. The natural phases. however. p. California is they served the morning rising of . . for most of the months.

passed unobserved . Mao Trea- donald. the rainy star. p. offers a means of correcting the reckoning sidereally. are observed for the purpose of correcting the calendar of moons by intercalation: thus the month fcftftika is (joublefl. 2 Loango Exp. or the month asada is prolonged until the Pleiades appear at Moreover certain natural phenomena are observed 4 sunset. served as an intercalary month. months and the year do not fit. Basileae > 3 7 1521. In New Zealand. Taylor. . when it appears again in the 8 it is a The sign that the new year is beginning ^"north.446. p. which happens about every three years. . and that the most accurate way of calculating the beginning of the 3^ear was of to observe the 7 . manggouamja. 1. De Backer. 1. p. . America it was already reported of certain tribes on the Mexican coast that they kegan the }rea-at. Thomson. 291. and the reckoning goes by the/morning on smot>t thly__jpr_aL_time^ until thejnonths once more get out of place and it becomes necessary to refer a^ain to the stars 3 In Bali the Pleiades and Orion in order to correct them . With the first new moon which sees Sirius rising in the east their new cycle of twr elve months begins. the year began with the new moon following on the rising of the winter star puanga (Rigel) 5 the thirteenth month often 6 i. 362. 407. Friederich. first new moon after the morning rising The Papuans limit the year by the constellation of Rigel the Serpent. p. The confusion is always rectified the/me rising of the Pleiades. 138.. 86. 1 Petrus Martyr.the setting of the l In Loango the Pleiades and divided it into moon-months months are counted from new moons. 6 111:2.198. where all months were described by stars. Elsewhere we are told that the displacement of the moonmonths in relation to the year was rectified through the observation of the rising of the Pleiades and of Orion. . note B Carolo repertis insiilis. when the Avandering spirits are at their worst The Caffres have twelve moon-months with the usual descriptive names: on this account uncertainty often arises as to which month it really is. . This is the 2 evil time. 1. and this must run . gear. but Sirius. 114. 4 8 De nuper sub D. p. a thirteenth month must be inserted. When the cycle of as well as it can until the new year.248 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. quoted by Ginzel. e.

g. e. may be independent reckoning of months. of About the regulation thorities are not the Hawaiian calendar the au(p. as will be shewn below. west of the Gilbert Islands. but asserts that the year of 360 days was rectified by the intercalation of 5 days at the end of the month welehu: these were tabu days. 119 ff. This writer also remarks that is calated a a well-established fact that the ancient Hawaiians intermonth about every third year. Each month had 30 days. though not common. makalii. This phenomenon familiar in other places. 'the twins' 2 . count by moonmonths. owing to which the native calendar has early fallen into disuse. however he adds that in practice the number of days varied between 30 and 29. in which a round number of 30 days is given to the moon-month. . Fornander (I. D. unanimous..CORRECTION OF THE MONTHS BY THE STARS. the real length of this being a little is the more than 29 variation. The time that elapses until the Great Bear returns to the same spot is reckoned as a year 1 The last two reare so condensed that it is ports impossible to see whether the stars serve for the rectifying of the calendar of moons . 78. but that the rule governing the intercalation is unknown. Similarly an old woman of Maui stated that eight months had 30 days and four 31. 59.) states that this jz days. p. 1 Brandeis. dedicated to the festival of the god Lono. 3 Quoted by Malo. W. and l that these additional days were called na mahoe. Alexander it 3 . in Greece. Fornander has probably mistaken a feast for intercalary days. found ginning among of the year. Certainly there was no such rule. as is pointed out by the historian of the Sand- wich Islands. Dibble says 108) that the month welehu completed the year. - Male. The year varied between 12 and 13 months. This statement cannot be correct. but the intercalation was empirically treated. p. etc. of the these peoples. did occur. note 7. and regulated by the appearance of the Pleiades. Such contradictory statements as the above are due to the influence of the European calendar. or only for the fixing of the bewhich. p. the among Bataks. 59. and the new year began with the following month. 249 people of Nauru. since the month was strictly lunar and must have been wholly disarranged by these intercalary days.

and in the second half gets nearer and nearer to it. the largest star of The months are regulated by which is Antares. As a means 30 holes of control the soothsayer uses a buffalo rib with 12 X X (four times repeated). The week is therefore not shifting but is im- movably Scorpio. have names of another kind. and the month is decided by it. the proper day. presumably in the twelfth sion. In the first half of the year the full moon goes farther from Scorpio every month.250 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and every day he draws a string through one hole in order to keep account of the days. the taken. four times repeated and distinguished by various additions. fitted into the month. the sign of Scorpio is registered at times 13. It is clear that the calendar can give no certain help in the establishing of the month. is the thirteenth month is not available. days. although it is likely that to it origi- nally fell is This the task of equalising the lunar and the solar years. Our authority says that the surplus month is no intercalary month in the European sense. Only the 28th and 29th or the 29th and 30th days. a following month is If is involved in the decifirst the thirteenth also included so that an intercalation takes place. some30 squares. since this the moon-months vary between 29 and 30 is For reason the soothsayer 1 . In the Batak calendar. But an intercalation of the natural same: the observation Above. and refers to the natural phases in order to correct it Hence in his selection of days he looks not only to the current month. often uncertain in his reckoning of the months. . of the months the days among the Bataks of Sucalendar indeed originates in shew the familiar names of planets in corrupted Sanskrit forms. but also to the preceding. as the case may be. The year be- new moon at the morning setting of Orion and the contemporary morning rising of Scorpio in May. and that the means of control must be directly misleading. is necessary all the phases and of the morn- 242. so as to equalise the number of the days of the moon-month. p. The treatment matra India: is of the calendar The of great interest. 1 we are told. month. which has 12. When. The full moon fourteen days later then stands in the constellation Scorgins with the pio. indeed the only correct explanation.

Reste. . 99. following upon each other in dhu-l-qa'da and dhu-l-hijja. 436 ff . 88. safar I. 237 ff. It is significant that the indispensable thirteenth month has often been lost: the people do not even understand the difference between the months and the year. and must have been approximately fixed in their position by the sufficiently familiar empirical method. cally regulated intercalation of months. and commercial intercourse was first made old Arabian of The as names has been shewn already . In pre-Mohammedan times the pilgrimages were at the same time business journeys. pp. not as a genuine calendar 1 but it is of great interest to observe how the soothsayers. was also included in the time of peace. and yet they cannot avoid the necessity of the intercalation. 1 Winkler.CORRECTION OF THE BATAK YEAR. upon the seasons. There are two historically important cases of this empiriof decay. The dispute has arisen from a failure to recognise the empirical intercalation and workings. The Batak calendar is a product and is used exclusively for divination. month of the gathering in Mecca the dhit-l-hijja following month. 2 Above. pp. The same thing is shewn by the naming of the last months from the pilgrimage to Mecca. 3 Wellhausen. trade and cult were. and act according to circumstances. which must be dealt with in detail. Origitherefore the months must have been connected with the nally solar year. pp. the other that of the Babylonian its calendar. really possible when by religious sanction a time of peace was established during which journeys to and fro could be taken month of the peace of God is dhu-l-qa'da. And this can happen because the people are uncertain in the reckoning. . since they are much debated. months depend in great mea2 sure. fall back upon primitive methods. 251 just ing rising of Orion serves for the correction. in safar there was a corn-market in Yemen 3 The gay life of the great fair of Mecca is described in safety. as so often. and was therefore called rmtharrani. During all three months there were fairs in the neighbourhood of Mecca there was a whole succession of them. The one case is that of the old Arabian calendar before Mohammed. united. The first is and the : : . since they do not possess the knowledge necessary for a proper management of the calendar.

both on account of the journeys and for the products bought and sold. have drawn the people almost more than the religious ceremonies. it cannot of course be denied that this later. is often adduced as evidence that Mohammed abolished the intercalation: "Truly the number 1 of the p. Wellhausen. pp. differently from the others. vations occasioned by the business intercourse of that city. twelve months 96. An annual fair is however dependent upon the seasons. the date to the purely lunar year. The two names dhu-l-qa'da and dhu-l-hijja are formed with dhti. in ff. and for this the abovementioned occasional correction of the position is quite inadequate. but in about 33 years the months would pass through the circle of a time of whole solar year. fell in autumn and the autumn The passage in the Koran 9. This leads to the conclusion that these names were innoArabic sources . when the had already attained could be fixed by reference predominating position. it seems to . and that in the late summer it was not to be expected that corn which had been cut at the beginning of March should be taken in to the markets 1 Because of the markets that were held in them. the Sprenger. Vakidi.252 in detail in old PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Sprenger has already remarked that the winter months are quite unsuitable for merchants' journeys to Syria. For although it lies in the nature of things that the market should originally be connected with a definite time of the fairs year. Reste. months with God 2 is p. This importance of Mecca explains why the Meccan months became so widespread. so that the spring months months came in the spring 2 . which he abolished. 144. Mohammed prescribed the strictly lunar year: by this means the every month was definitely fixed. The question is whether before Mohammed an ordered intercalation. and were coined at Mecca. It is certain that in the years just before the prescription of the lunar year by Mohammed the months were inverted in relation to the year. the months must also have had a fixed position in the solar year. 36 ff. 17 . or the lunar year existed. and first gave Mecca its real importance. For the purpose of determining the time of the peace of God and of the gathering in Mecca unity must prevail as to the position of the months.

nmThis is the right religion. This opinion may be left out of account. e. The nasi is in truth an addition to unbelief (or. but refer to Ginzel." It is claimed that the emphasis laid upon the fact that there are twelve months is directed against the intercalation. Moberg has and he leaves the nasi out of account. 1 r &ga om an-nasi. since they make no distinction in fighting against you. . dhu-l-qa'da. while the intercalation was governed by a hereditary naslthe Jews. in Ginzel I. e. and one year they explain it as unlawful. in unbe- book of the earth. in Babylonia. since the cycles differ among themselves and are therefore invented. rajab.245..) is suggestive recently too dogmatic.. i. The sense depends entirely upon what is implied by nasi. and it has been asserted that the intercalation was borrowed from ise (bring into f . Tegn. who was called the qalammas. which served to bring the months into agreement wr ith the solar year 2 Some authors have even attempted to establish an intercalary cycle. 2 For quotations also Albiruni. the months) which God has commanded to keep holy.THE PRE-MOHAMMEDAN INTERCALATION. away'. in order to equalin agreement) the number of that (i. see Sprenger. Be not unjust harrani) are holy. . but fight against the heathen without distinction. 465 ff. If the intercalation is controlled by a central cycle 1 is I authority. on the day when He created the heavens and Of these four^i. pp. 'Sea of Wisdom'. They allow it one year. On this point there has been from the earliest days of Arabic literature a dispute which has been still further com1 plicated by modern hypotheses According to one view nasi is the intercalation of a month. More examined in detail the Arabian traditions: tor particu- lars of his researches I refer to his paper. pp. St. to push aside. therein towards yourselves. Etymologically the word is derived from nasaa. Wellhausen's treatment c. controller from the tribe of Kinana. and the intercalary month itself. an intercalary unnecessary: the central authority supplies its place.. which the unbelievers go astray. though (1. Den muhammedanska His conclusion is traditionen f that original!}' nasi also was partly the term for the insertion of probably the name ff. go further into this. and know that God is on the side of the faithful. as e. dhu-l-hijja. he has far from exhausted the subject. but this is no proof. lief). I. But they declare lawful what God has forbidden. 253 God. g. cannot but 243 ff. 145 of the intercalary month. . e.

is certainly incorrect. A third view. according to which the feast of pilgrims was held eleven days later every year. who at the end of the feast of pilgrims in dhu-l-hijja rose and in an address to the assembly arranged the re-distribution. The treatment it e.. according to Ibn "O God. until after a cycle of 33 years it came back again to the same month. p.254 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. . 47."The safar not names of months shew that the feast was connected with a definite month. before Mohammed the and Mohammed only forbade year was the disar- made known difficulties Several sources give the words in which the qalarnmas the re-distribution: they are affected by later contain are a views but must kernel of truth. or "free". to According the other view the nasi consists in the trans- ferring of the holy character of one month to another. g. and the proclamation takes place in dhu-l-hijja. the declaring of muharram as free and the pronouncing of safar This view is based on the supposition instead of it. g. and yet keep the number of holy months unchanged. since the feast was connected with the phases of the moon. J Sprenger's hypothesis that the preMohammedan Arabians had the lunar year but that the feast of pilgrims was held before the full moon preceding the spring equinox is also false: for the 1 According to of this year even noticed by the authorities. and I postpone the other next year. safar II already belongs to the next year. since they shew which is declared holy". namely the first. These authorities also ascribe changing the holy month to the qalamwias. Arabs found a time of peace lasting for three successive months burdensome. the Kalby expression runs simply:. I declare one of the two months called Ishaq: safar." What is meant by postponing safar II until till Since the next year is unexplained and unexplainable. to be free. and in order to be able to make predatory excursions in a holy month. Safar the See my Entstehung etc. year begins with safar I. rangement of the holy period. of the karneios by the Argives l and of the daisios is by Alexander the Great was very similar. Therefore. a purely lunar one. they made another month holy as holy that the instead. e. The theory is extracted from the comparison between the lunar and the solar years 2 the right of . maintained.

and belongs as a thirteenth month to the current year. Later authorities add that the holy character of safar was moved to rabi I. This a system. according to the series. which must once have existed. with one and the same month of the lunisolar year. "I remove safar of (viz. and none can I blame first me or put me to my de- God. that not only fence. "The heathen were accustomed in every month of the lunar year to go on pilgrimages for only two years. matters become clear. In the Out flits the expressions runs: "O God. and not 'the holy character of the months'. Safar I is doubled: I a is an intercalary month. and that the months of the Mohammedan lunar year and of the old Arabian lunisolar year." authentic. But if by the expression safar safar I is understood. O declare the safar to be free. if rajab. but we can hardly insist so far upon the expression. It comes from Modjahid. and therefore not holy. since the words are 'move the months'. // of is 255 in itself not holy. second holy. have the same names. third year is in relation to the Mohammedan two years a rough approxi- . namely rajab and slia'ban. doubtless refers to an intercalation. not an expedient to render possible a military expedition a holy month. It shews. / b begins the new year and is holy. Modjahid's statement can only be understood thus: that the heathen pilgrimage was re-arranged every lunar months. who was born in the year 21 of the Hegira. I am authorised to move the months or to leave them in their places and con- firm them. How this is to be understood is shewn by the oldest report which has been handed down to us. namely. and the determine in respect of the two time in rajab was safar I was moved shifted to safar II. / b) to next year" is an incorrect but intelligible way saying that the new year begins with this month. so that here there can be no question a changing of the holy character of the month. is but at the same to sha'ban.THE PRE-MOHAMMEDAX INTERCALATION. The same do I The first sentence. The last sentence is more conclusive. and that the process went incidental on from month to month until every month in the year had at one time or another been declared holy." It must be realised that in the course of a cycle of 33 years a month of the lunar year will coincide two to three times.

after the second the names are pushed another stage rabi forwards. therefore the after the second rabi /. say transferred from mttharram to safar and from safar to rabi I. in consequence the next following month (rabi I. which adds rabi I brackets as an explanation. according to the year. nasi. a sentence of the distinguished chronologist Albiruni. I after the first intercalation safar have added a reference to the original = situation. and safar was called by this name and rabi I by the name safar. 73. and from this they The second nasi fell in safar.256 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. the safar or rabi I of the lunar year corresponds to the nmharram of the hallowing of the was the lunisolar year. But it the pilgrimage took place in a definite month. place. this involves the shifting of the whole A genuine intercalation therefore takes series of months.upon this follows that not this month is 1 I give here the English translation of Sachau. sometimes three years' . is The term wide description 'forgotten'. until the nasi had run through all twelve months and came back again to muharram. - mation for 'sometimes two. and so on. If the months lunisolar year are compared with those of the lunar confusion results. since both series have the same names. p. this means that. of 'to push it aside'. of all the months were changed. Moberg for the literal translation of the passage: . The second the names all way rabi I intercalation applied to safar. and in this harram." As a result of the first intercalation rabi I became safar. I am indebted to Prof. who represents the opinion that nasi means the applied to intercalation of a month: 'The first intercalation muharram. resembles the worldSafar I but . the intercalation of the month. and so on. When in the speech of the safar I and rajab are simultaneously shifted to the qalammas month following in each case. not so well month chronology."The first nasi fell in the nmharram. therefore rabi 11= rabi I. year Let us take. . the original rabi II) 1 was called safar. and therefore the of months the also belonged to a lunisolar year.because was to be kept in place in regard to the solar year. in month following that (rabi I: Sachau) was again called safar. in consequence safar was called ninwas called safar. original II. and the let the months revolve in the series. and this went on till the intercalation had passed through all twelve months and returned trained in to muharram" When that other writers. for example.

*. to which the qalammas belonged. it followed that not this month but the next was holy. which is now also called safar I corresponds to safar II of the strictly lunar year. 349. inhabited the the district its Koraish. any more than elsewhere: the empirical intercalation sufficed. The sanctity or non-sanctity of the months was for the people the all-important point. employed. The people understood him: if the month month as free himself. the nasi was a genuine Probability therefore also points to intercalation carried by a person appointed for the purpose. and the famous tribe most distinguished branch. p. that Hence has arisen the misun- the nasi consisted only in a transference of derstanding months. ever the entrusting of such power over the calendar to one individual lends itself only too easily to abuses with a view to out of the 1 Caussin. tual if better. and the qalammas. the month with which the new year began. as after dhu-l-hijja was free. 257 but but the following one. Besides this would make matters no have concerned would have months. and the following month as holy without exwe should have wished. holy. whence the knowledge spread all over. was obliged to refer to it. who was a religious Hence he declared the authority. of the the sanctity The tribe of Kinana. The intercalation therefore involves a transference of the sanctity of the month following the feast of pilgrims to t the next but one after the feast. around Mecca. and it is quite ridiculous to the sanctity of a month was transferred to another order to merely in render possible to a predatory excursion. safar I. was supreme of in Mecca interests say that The calendar regulation therefore took place in the of Mecca and its trade. 17 . since all the tribes peace or war in the same A shifting of this nature it offered a means of would only be really effecsurprising an unsuspecting neigh- bour the in time of view that peace. in the technical pressing terms of chronology. so that the dates markets and the pilgrimage might be fixed at the proFor this no intercalary cycle was per times of the year.THE PRE-MOHAMMEDAN INTERCALATION. and it was made known to the people at the Howfeast of pilgrims.

000 B. C. the misuse which he saw. means star 'root of the sprouting wheat-stalk.. These evening of this constellation. . is but what little there is is sufficient to establish it. is therefore nothing to wonder at that the calendar should in have been disorganised during Mohammed's stay Mecca. The stock exampl e is It afforded by the Roman pontifices at the end of the Republic. II. rising.. Hence also the attempts at determining the calendar from two three or certainly known dates are vain. 226 ff. took place about the 28th of of our modern calendar. February Circumstances ting. The Pleiades are brought into connexion with the annual inundations^ which took place about the time of the invisibility of these 2 stars. point. ends which have nothing to do with the calendar. 2 Kugler. and with the morning set- date Above. exclude the ripening.258 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. It however much to be desired that specialists should pay more attention to the matter and if possible procure more information. which took place in the second half of 3 April. which took place some 16 days later. pp. . as always. but the usefulness of which he failed to fashion It recognise. p. has been pointed out above that the Sumerian months completely correspond in character to those of the primitive peoples *. I. between their evening setting The name of the constellation Virgo i. and did so in of radical by forbidding the intercalation. The misuse thus to be explained: - Mohammed's action - of the intercalation had destroyed the dependence of the pilgrimage upon the time of the year: Mohammed wished to create order. for when a system is lacking or is broken up it is impossible to compute a calen- is dar systematically from a couple of dates. 35 ff. or corn'. not from the position in the series of months. 153. 88 ff. The establishing of the months in their definite places followed originally from the reference to the seasons. Erg. that of the Spica at names agree with which the 'proclaimer the of the sprouting wheat-stalk'. 3 Kugler. brought into relation to the phases There is indeed little information as to this of the stars. Consequently the months were also determined by 1 2. and morning rising e. The seasons on their part were.

according to the times of the year fashioned he the groups of stars. inverts matters when he says. i. signs of the zodiac. e. 228 ff. I. wherever they may be cluding 1 list_of fixed stars which determine months. through consistently. was fixed by one or more risings of stars. ff." On the contrary. ecliptic. among the Maoris._inalso stars situated /outside the ecliptic. g." Among the Maoris all the stars suitable to the time in question are used in the fixing of the month: in Babylonia there was probably a gradual limitation to the stars^f the ecliptic. 3 The connexion of the Erg. months he set down three constellations. p. but each month. of Kugler. or even three of the fixed stars are assigned to each of the twelve months 2 In Tablet 4 we read: "For twelve the Creation epic. but in my opinion erroneously. signs of the zodiac with the months has often been con2 A Above. as the examples from the primitive peoples shew.THE BABYLONIAN MONTHS AND THE STARS. i. the 12^ . the system which allows neighbouring bright stars or constellations to step in instead of less bright constellations of the zodiac. with reference to a list in which. the number of which points to the fact that they owe their origin to the endeavour to fix the twelve months astronomically 3 . p. e. 'the l . it marks rather. as Weissbach has already pointed out with reference to NewcombBut this is Engelmann. There are several lists in which now one. 169. but constellations the most easily recognisable stars and are naturally preferred. the beginnings of a scientific astronomy. g. V.. Weidner. just as e. 21. instead of the fainter constellations of the zodiac. p. the phases of the stars: 259 names of months there is month in which the white The star (bar-sag) sinks down from the culmination-point' naming of the months from the stars has not been carried among the one which points to this fact.. is primitive. 227."The bright stars are given (e. This is an important advance of Babylonian should be separated from the others. . that the constellations of the ecliptic system of the paranatellonta is xalso^found already.. number the 12 tested. now two. Sirius instead of Cancer): stellar science. no longer primitive astronomy. neighbouring . in the utilising of stars to fix a point of time or a month(no &>tice is originally taken of the position of the star withm or without the situated.

260
it

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

out of the question that a constellation outside the ecliptic is referred to instead of a sign of the zodiac in the proper that in which the constellations of the zodiac are sense
is

After the signs of the zodiac to be regarded as the priiis. have been fixed, so that a systematic duodecimal division of the year has been obtained, the stars situated outside the

compared with the signs of the zodiac in order to indicate with accuracy to which month they belong, or in other words the system of the paranatellonta is found.
ecliptic

are

It is

of the intercalation, but

indispensable to enter into the all-important question here opinions are so directly opposed

another that Weidner establishes a very accurate 38year intercalary cycle as early as the time of the dynasty of Ur, while Kugler denies the existence of any intercalary cycle before the year 528 B. C. Kugler again publishes a document
to

one

;

in

which an intercalary
after

time
of

504 B. C.

a

much
at

rule is recognised as dating from a Weidner regards this as a copy while *, older original. An impartial opinion can only be
this is im-

arrived

possible for
to the

by working through the material, and anyone who is not an Assyriologist I
:

am

all

the

more compelled,

myself comparison with primitive conditions

therefore, to limit

to suggestions
2
.

and

Where surplus months exist, there is no intercalation in the proper sense, although the same name, e. g. the 'harvest month', will recur sometimes after 12, sometimes after 13
the

months, since owing to the fluctuating and unstable nature of naming of the months the latter are distributed according to circumstances 3 This covers the difficulty. Such seems to
.

have been the state
Lagash.
Certainly

of affairs in the pre-Sargonic period at
(11,216)

intercalary years: this is possible in the

has tried to demonstrate sense given above, but the since starting-points for the arrangeactually very uncertain, ment of the months are anything but certain 4 Only the arising of a fixed series of months makes a genuine intercalation possible, since as a rule the general custom is to intercalate

Kugler

.

1

Kugler,

Erg.,

view
44
ff.

I

refer

to Bezold's essay.

2 For a general 131; cp. also Weissbach, pp. 281 ff. 4 3 See 243. Landsberger, pp. above, p. Cp.

THE BABYLONIAN INTERCALATION.

261

a definite month (in Babylonia, at least later, there were two The process is either an such months, adarru and iilulu). omission of one month in the series of thirteen, or an interThe former calation of one month in the series of twelve. in the time in in time of the latter the Lagash Sargon, appears We have found that the intercalation among the of . Dungi.
t

peoples takes place as need arises. If the series months is fixed, but the intercalation is neglected, the months must get out of place in relation to the seasons: this can be demonstrated in a couple of cases. So if the translation of the name of the fourth month in the list from Lagash* is corprimitive
of

rect

-

-

sn-kiil-na,
is

'sowing

month'
is

the

harvest

month,

se-

therefore at a distance of eight months instead of the five which the natural conditions shew *.
kin-kud,

the twelfth, and

Dungi shews a disarrangement of with the the months as compared Sargonic list, the tenth month having dropped out and the following months being now pushThis difference can be explained ed one place forwards. either by a neglect of the intercalation, or by the fluctuating nature of the nomenclature: in the latter case there is really
Further the
list

at the time of

no genuine intercalation.

At the time of Dungi and his successors we have docu2 mentary evidence for a number of years with intercalation. At this date Kugler stoutly denies and Weidner supports the "If we existence of an intercalary cycle. Weidner says: denote Dungi 39 (the 39th year of his reign) by I, the following years are proved by documents to contain intercalary

XIV, XVI, XVIII, XX, XXIII, XXVI, But between Dungi 43 and XXXVIII. XXIX, XXXII, XXXV, 49 there is at least one more leap-year to be added, most probably Dungi 46, i. e. VIII. For the period of 38 years we should then have 14 intercalary months attested. This is thereA 19-year fore an intercalary system that works quite well. in that case, since cannot it however be, intercalary cycle
months:
-

II,

V,

XI,

corresponding
in the latter

to

the former part, the years XXI,
to

XXIV,

etc.

be leap-years. assume a 38-year intercalary cycle, which
1

would have

We have

in perfection

therefore to far sur6,

Ibid., p. 30, note 4.

2

Kugler,

II,

187

ff.;

Weidner, Memnon,

65

ff.

262

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.
It is

passes that of 19 years.
cycle of Callippus."

The conclusion

the half of the well-known 76-year is unwarrantable from the

premises.

For the intercalation which takes place just as need months firmly in their place in the solar year, same result as an intercalary cycle. A period the and attains of 76 Indian years will contain just as many months as a Calarises keeps the

lippean

cycle.

The only conclusive
this
is

factor therefore

is

the

not proved. Through an accident of the tradition leap-years are known for a period of 38 years, and it is obvious that during these 38 years an empirical intercalation, regularly carried out, kept the lunisolar year in order.
periodicity, and

The evidence

that

even under the Hammurabi dynasty no

intercalary cycle existed is given by Kugler *. But there is also direct evidence that the intercalation

Ungnad has shewn this from a comparison of the known leap-years. Best known of all is the letter of Hammurabi to Siniddinam: - "Since the year has a deficiency, let the previous month be entered as
took place empirically,
i.

e.

as need arose.

Elul
to

II.

And
2
.

Babylon,

let

instead of bringing the taxes on the 25th Tishritu them be brought to Babylon on the 25th
of the position of

Elul II"

For the empirical correcting

months

the stars are used

among

Babylonia.
ing
in

A

tablet in the British

the primitive peoples, and so also in Museum 3 gives the follow-

"The constellation dilgan rises heliacally injunction: the month nisan. As often as this constellation remains

injunction is given in regard to other constellations from which months are named. The expression that the month Nisan is to be 'forinvisible, its

month

shall be forgotten".

The same

gotten' reminds one of the description of the intercalary month as the 'lost' or 'forgotten' month among certain tribes of N. American Indians, and of the expression of the Masai. The

forgotten month is not the intercalary month in our sense, i. e. not the second of two months that have arisen by doublingjjt_ month must be passed over, not counted, _is^the first. This its name must be transferred to the following month, forgotten,
so that
1

the year
II,
3

may run
ff.
2

properly.
II,

The

establishing of the
passage
is

Kugler,

248

Kugler,

253, and elsewhere: the

often quoted.

Schiaparelli, Bab., p. 229.

EMPIRICAL INTERCALATION

IN

BABYLONIA.

263

months by means

of phases of the stars is so abundantly demonstrated for primitive peoples in the preceding pages that no words need be wasted in describing the method of its carryIt is

ing out.

a method that works perfectly well but

is

entirely

empirical, and where recourse is had to this method we know that the regulation by a definite intercalary cycle does

not exist. a
still

With a more extended development

of the

method

better result can be obtained, and this is the direction that the Babylonians have taken. The regulation runs: "If on the first day of the month nisannu the constellation of

moon are together, the year shall be an on the third day of the month nisannu the constellation of the Pleiades and the moon stand together, the l The meaning year shall be a full one (i. e. a leap-year)" rule are and effect of this explained by Schiaparelli. But this too is an empirical rule, aimed at an empirical, not a cyclical, Where an intercalary cycle exists, no such rule intercalation.
the Pleiades and the
one.
If

ordinary

.

is

needed.
Since

indisputably established that the intercalation took place not in years previously determined but at the command of the king, those who
it

by the

letter of

Hammurabi

is

in spite of this

would maintain the existence

of

an intercalary

cycle hold to the assertion that the 27-year intercalary period was not a strictly fixed but a free cycle. In other words the
intercalation rule only runs: "Within a period of 27 years 10 intercalary months are to be inserted, but the choice of the
2 But this is nothing open to the astronomer" The purless than an abandonment of the intercalary cycle. to of such a is to render it compute the pose cycle possible to calendar beforehand for any number of years come, and

leap-years

is

left

.

this

purpose
that
for

says a rule

in

by a regulation of this kind. It only months occur: this is not intercalary years 3' intercalation but an empirical observation, which
is

frustrated

x

from a proper treatment of the empirical intercalation. Such observations must have been made by the Babyreadily results
Schiaparelli, Bab., p. 230. question see below, p. 264.
1

2

Weidner,

p.

73; for the 27-year period

in

264
lonians. In

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

a tablet published by Kugler

it

is

said of Saturn

and

of the fixed star kak-si-di, respectively,

"

the period

of the visibility of Sirius

amounts

to 27 years.

Turn back and

consider

ding to
shalt

day after day," according to Weidner, p. 73; accorKugler I, 47 the inscription runs, "Day by day
see
(the

same phenomena as 59, or 27, years beBoth Kugler and Weidner find here a 27-year interfore)." calary cycle regulated by the star; the former places it before
thou

But in C., the latter at a considerably earlier period. accordance with what has here been said about the empirical regulation of the intercalation by phases of the stars it follows that there is no intercalation at all, but only the empirical verification of the fact that the new moon and Sirius come back after 27 years into the same mutual relationship this will actually be the result with an accurate treatment of the intercalation based on the observation of this constel:

533 B.

lation.

Under these circumstances it would have been an easy establish an intercalary cycle, but the demand for this is an affair of practical life: astronomy is concerned only with the calculation. The failure to observe this fact has led the discussion astray. The calendar is of course the most
matter to
conservative of
all

human

things; centuries after the establish-

very accurate calculations of the course of the moon and the introduction of a good intercalary cycle, the Jews adhered to the empirical observation of the new moon, and we know how difficult it is in modern times to introduce
of

ment

any improvement into the calendar. Because in Babylon there was a central government which could arrange the intercalation in proper fashion, the lunisolar year was kept in order, and in practical life there was no necessity to be able to calculate months and days for several years in advance. The empirical intercalation worked well, and there was no need to replace it by an intercalary cycle. The latter is indeed a simplification

undertaken on practical grounds, an intercalating rule being substituted for the immediate astronomical observation: astromony is concerned only with the calculation and with the further refinement of the rule. In so far as I am able to pro-

CORRECTION OF THE YEAR BY SOLSTICES AND STARS.

265

nounce upon the material Kugler
intercalation
it

is

in

no
of

is right: no cyclically regulated existed before the Persian period; but from this way possible to arrive at any decision as to the

the Babylonian astronomy. The regulation of the months by the phases of the stars was a suggestive problem forthe astronomers, and it led to the recognition of the perioposition
dicity
of

the

phenomena.

This

is

the prius, not the desired

establishment of an intercalary cycle. second means of fixing the months in their position in the solar year is afforded by the regulation by the solstices and equinoxes; but since, as will be shown in the following

A

chapter,

the

observation

of

these

is

difficult

and

is

seldom

undertaken, a regulation of this nature is correspondingly rare. 2 and It can be demonstrated for the Eskimos *, the Kwakiutl
,

the
13
to

Hopi,

whose
3
.

months

13 'sun-points' doubtless correspond to the Of the Basuto it is said that an attempt is made
tjie

determine the time of sowing from

people commonly go wrong dispute are obliged to fall back upon the climatic conditions and the state of the vegetation as more certain marks for the time of sowing. Intelligent chiefs, however, rectify the calen-1

in their reckoning,

moon, but that the and after much

dar

(i.

e.

call the

summer house
risings

the moon-months) by the of- the sun

summer
4
.

solstice,

which they!)

The

and settings

of the stars, as

has been shewn

above, are brought into relation with the seasons. There is a possibility of bringing these sidereally determined seasons into
a
system.

Thus the year

of the

Luiseno Indians of

S. Cali-

which are determined by the 5 This is however an isolated stars of certain morning rising has penetrated almost months case, since the reckoning by everywhere, and both seasons and risings of stars are brought into connexion with this. The most complete example is seen 6 Moreover the creation of such in the months of the Maoris
fornia consists of

2X8

divisions,

.

.

a system was not possible among the primitive peoples, since for the purpose of determining time they were only accustomed
*

1

Above,

p.

183.
5

2

Above,
p.

p.

188.
6

by Frazer,

p. 117.

Dubois.

165.

Below, p. 313. Above, pp. 21 J f.

4

Casalis, quoted

266

PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

to observe a few stars, principally the Pleiades. On the other hand the observation of the stars plays a great part in another

matter not necessarily connected with the reckoning of the
months,

now

the beginning our attention. turn
viz.

of the year,

and

to this

we

shall

CHAPTER
CALENDAR REGULATION.
2.

X.

BEGINNING OF THE YEAR.

The

question

difficulties,

what meaning is For us the new year is the great division in the cayear'. one which is emphasised by a special festival day and lendar, and by various rites. This is an inheritance from ancient Rome; in particular the extremely wide-spread and popular
astrology has powerfully contributed to the importance of New In ancient Greece the New Year's Day was of Year's Day 1
.

beginning of the year presents some since it is for the most part quite uncertain to be attached to the phrase 'beginning of the
of the

no great importance:
the
the

its

position
little

varied greatly in each of

small

states;

it

was

annually
in
itself

changing

officials

more than the day on which entered upon their terms of

new year need be regarded as a very important division of the calendar: it has however become so among more highly developed peoples. For instance, the enumeration of the seasons or the months must begin somewhere; for this reason a
office.

In the case of the primitive peoples the

not

year must be supposed, but it is not therethe new year acquires any special imporOf the inhabitants of the Torres Straits Islands Rivers tance. says that when asked about the seasons they more than once began their list with surlal, and he is of the opinion that the beginning of this season is for them practically the beginning of a new year 2 Of the Kiwai Papuans Landtman writes to me: - The year has no beginning, since there is no term to describe this, and it cannot be said that one season more than
beginning
of

the

fore

certain

that

.

1

See

my

article
ff.
*

particular pp. 68

Kalendte Januarice, Arch. R. T. Str., p. 226.

f.

Religionswiss., 19, 1918, in

In September. beginning and end practically coincide. be well to begin our investigation with the naIt will of divisions one tural divisions of the year. the harvest. Among it shall the Carolina Indians the feast of the first-fruits or harvest was most splendid of all: year and begun the new. the period of vegetation and the time of rest intervening be. into here. pans. 202. 2 Grabowsky. sometimes with karongo. the year is at an end. new and other household 1 utensils. The people begin their list of months sometimes with keke. Their year falls into two parts.268 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. since I transgresses the limits of this investigation. the former however more rarely. a New Year's vest. p. In the literature of comparative religion festivals of this nature are a much-discussed problem which cannot be gone is unknown among them 2 . . But this is not the case among the agricultural peoples. reckoned continuously. the plough-stick' is also the 'opening of the year' More frequently the harvest and the great festival associated with it form the turning-point of the year.For them the rice-harvest is a principal division of the year (njelo). all pots. according to preference. the beginning of labour and the conclusion of the period of vegetation. another marks an occasion of greater importance. in August when As a preliminary all bitants provided themselves with new clothes. which marks the transitional period between the dry and the rainy seasons. the it appears to have ended the old the cornthe inha- It began harvest was completely over. tween the harvest and the resumption of ploughing. p. Both occur as the beginning of the year. their old Above. give only a few selected examples in order to make clear the relationship with the beginning of the year.. A However when the year is Day. as is remarked by one writer in regard to the Dyaks of south-east Borneo: . as when among the Wadschagga 'the raising of ! . and then collected 102. There are therefore two natural main divisions. The changing seasons give several or other of which. the first month the dry season. at the completion of the hardefinite beginning. Probably however we should rather speak of an end than of a beginning of the year. can be chosen as the beginning of the year.

after the maize-harvest. luma. that the old passed away with the year that is 3 In the neighbourended: the new its own heaven with fair regularcelebrated is hood of Mombasa the new year ity in September. 406.). where the whole populace was fetched new in new clothes. with'fire. . the wife of grains offers 1 reaped. and a general amnesty was proclaimed. fire. At the end of the year new staffs are set up are instead of of the the old ones. Eating went on. The New Year festival of the Konkau of California The a funeral rite which has undergone transforma'Dance for the Dead' took place at the end of August. spirits of his p. 266. strings of shell-money. on to a heap. to p. by which means every house in the town was then provided vest-field. is ripe. 438. the 483. swept and cleaned their houses. pp.NEW YEAR clothes FEASTS. 4 Powers. into until daybreak the people danced around which food. and fasted for three days. When the Caffre heaven year has year has .413. corn. mabele. and on the four following days visits were paid to neigh- assembled bouring tion. prepared it. p. to which they afterwards set After this they took physic. date was fixed. and threw clothes and refuse. Then the women went to the har- pomp to corn. ancestors with the words: Callaway. 2 The 3 the chief grinds the first chief eats a little and some Bartram. for a whole week there is dancing day and night 4 Among the Thonga there are several feasts of the first-fruits. together with all the remaining supplies of food (corn etc. towns is 1 . and other small Our authority does not know how the articles were thrown. and at night they danced. everywhere set up in order to prevent 'heaven' from entering. On the fourth morning the chief priest kindled fire with pieces of wood at the public meeting-place. John- stone. but the festival marked the new year. The festival lasted three days. and this opportunity was taken to wipe out all old debts and settle accounts for the year that was to come the feast of the first-fruits staffs is 2 called the Among the Amazulu 'New Year'. and brought it with the meeting-place. places of assemblage. and cooks them. 269 and other worn-out things. Medicine . and the whole town. from evening a fire. then the people know . especially among the men.

the year 2 On the Society Islands gratitude for a good and fruitful year a with celebrated a festival was great banquet. some of the "This is the new year. e. the appearance the palolo. among the feast of roasted yams. Yoruba odun means year. the turn of of the 6 year varies accordingly A festival of this nature is originally not a calendar . On the terminated by Lower Niger. and this was 3 The greatcalled 'the ripening or consummation of the year' . 1 Junod. 239.270 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. if. Res. At the ripening plum. the fesis suspended Among the an annual festival celebrated in . In this way the of the year acquires great significance. 150. Thonga. I. from which a drink is exdrink is poured out on to the graves of tracted. (! 3 Polyn. p. god of the harvest. Yornba. p. fes. A festival of this nature forms the great division of the year. 368 161. Ellis. but usually there is one prin- sowing-time and consequently only one festival. pp. but this is not universally the case. 434 ff. . the celebration of the new harvest. . est feast of the Dyaks 4 . October and the time between two such festivals 5 The new year is equivalent to the new harvest. the new supplies of food which through the raising of the taboo are blessed and made accessible. rice-year tival is after the dangei. 4 I. I. Let dead chiefs with the words: us not fight! Let us eat in peace!" Among the Nkuma the the Caffre - ceremony of of the first-fruits is is performed with a special kind the pumpkin. and called 'eating new 1 year' is . von Biilow. 2 3 Ellis. and this fact is emphasised by the ceremonies which aim at clearing cipal away everything change old and beginning again. and prays of for fruitfulness. 351. as among the Thonga. Nieuwenhuis. is "Here the new year come". but if the harvest fails. which also serves as a public announcement that the labours of the field are to be resumed. 5 Leonard. Homage is paid to Ifejioku. the favourite delicacy of Samoa: but since the palolo appears at different times near different islands. in token of the Owu-Waji. g. Where there are several fruits which ripen at different times there may be several 'new year festivals'. More rarely some other natural phenomenon gives rise to the celebration of the change of the year.

tival. which was signalised by the or snow-fall. 366 9 ff. after the wokash-harvest 3 the Chocktaw of Louisiana in December 4 the Natchez in March. although most of them entered their winter houses a month earlier 7 Among the Hudson Bay Eskimos the year . 6 189. p. and corresponds to our December 9 It has already been mentioned that the East Greenlanders also began to count their months at the winter solstice of the . Yukaghir. Many of the Lower end of the rutting-season at the particularly Thompsons begin with the rutting-season of the mountain-goats. but some begin with the others.BEGINNING OF THE YEAR. p. 202. p. c Teit. marked out by Nature. the Pawnee with winter. Some moons are called by numbers only. 518. but those following the tenth moon are not numbered 6 The Shuswap in the same country connected the year with the same moon as the Thompson Indians. when they celebrated a great festival 5 As a rule the Thomp. Many peoples of the Lytton band begin when the ground-hogs go into their winter dens. Jochelson. 2 Mooney. the sun has reached first its lowest position at the winter Koryak of N. pp. begins when 8 . . p. Asia begins at the time of the winter solstice. . JO. end of November: Shamans. 10 Shuswap. p. the Hopi with the 'new fire' in Novem1 The Kiowa began the year at ber. Holm. In different districts the position of the beginning of the year varies greatly. 8 354 p. according to other statements a month earwith the first cold. p. seen It will be but later at the morning rising of Altair 10 that the beginning of the year has no common position . 105. Among the North American come Indians many tribes began the year at the spring equinox. others in the autumn. Sioux and the Cheyenne immediately before the winter 2 the Klamath and Modok in August. 141. Thompson Indians. p. Du Pratz. 4 Bushnell. E. II. the Takulli in January . 17. 237 428. Kiowa. 7 17. commencement winter. the Tetonof . ff. Turner. 271 and only on account of its special significance does it beof importance for the calendar: it is not a universal phenomenon. and 39. 3 Gatschet. p. the first lier. . with the rutting-season of the big-horn sheep. although we may perhaps say 1 that it Handbook. . The month solstice. son Indians of British Columbia count their moons beginning at the rutting-season of the deer in November. Teit.

peoples little attention seems to have been paid no special prominence is given to the beginning of the But where these year. usually falls somewhere during the period of rest. 234. p. reckoning the months from an arbitrary and accidental point of departure prevailed and long sufficed. The beginning of the year in autumn was no calendrical division. When in the fluctuating and capable of many interpretations. wine. p. See Dillmann. and the Exod. above. year when a no months was known 5 the Canaanitish months The old custom of not having been universally adopted. See above. ginning must be made somewhere. 22. Among many to the matter. the beginning. pp.. although lists of months are given. . XXXIV. 4 Cp. Israelitish is very characteristic of the matter in end of the year or that it marks the 'turning' of the year 3 Dillman is right in describing this year as an economic one. of the beginning of the calendar fixed Even in the year 600. . 234. 268. of the year. pp. Konig.272 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. From the very beginning the feast is a feast of the end of the 4 Only as the agricultural year is extended into a comyear plete year does it become a feast of the turn. and a fixed initial month very easily of arises. 3 3 authorities 5 there cited. at least in Gezer. and it is desired to enumerate the months. p. The beginning of the agricultural year. it became obvious that this beginning of the year would also be available for the calendar. L The dispute already touched upon the 2 . though certainly it furnishes occasion for the establishment arises. 16. 914 ff. as to the beginning hand year easy to understand why no unity has been arrived since the conception of the beginning of the year is at. XXIII. while the peculiar natural conditions under which the Eskimos live make it easy to understand why their year should be begun with since the eagerly awaited return of the sun. still does not imply a calendar year. but only the series of When a calendar was year. a belists exist. introduced.. 624 ff. The calendar now conclusion of the agricultural 1 Above. and oil) that it is to be celebrated at the It is . oldest codes of the law it is said of the feast of ingathering (namely of fruit. however. and finally of .

273 of consists of moon-months. and we do in fact find indications that the first day of the seventh month was regarded as New Year's Day. months: ning like reads This the Passover month) shall be unto you the beginit shall be the first month of the year to you. The be- was promoted to a feast l . 1 Passover and Feast Feast of Tabernacles Unleavened Bread. On the other hand the numbered months mentioned above. and became ever stronger during and after the Exile. the festival itself could not serve as the beginning of the year. This calendar can hardly have become popular. and is contemporaneous with these: it is nothing but the starting-point of this enumeration of months.- of the feasts of Weeks. XXIII. p. it was more closely bound up with the religious cult. begin in spring with the month in which the Passover is celebrated. 234). The systematising tendency which arose at the end of the kingdom of Judah. fell at the time of full moon. according to " ancient custom. since it must have been supplanted quite early by the Babylonian names of months. shadowed in the fixing of the date of the Feast of Weeks by counting the weeks from the Feast of Unleavened Bread. seventh month. 2: . Feast and was already fore- Lev. This was the fixing of a calendarial beginning of suggested by the customary succession of . and this also was done. necessitated a caha-abib). it day and was made known by the The year therefore could be reckoned blowing of trumpets from this point. e."This month of (i. ginning of the year in spring is therefore associated with the numbered months. its beginning must therefore be a day new moon. The rule for the beginning is given in Exodus XII. all If this tendency was unrelated to practical life. but only the day This was the of new moon of the month in which it fell. we have lendar. the the novelty the consisted in year. 18 ." prescription for a reform of the calendar.THE ISRAEL1TISH NEW YEAR. when it is remembered that in all places the Feast of the Passover was dated in relation to the month of ears (chodesh a That the numbered months did not arise till later already seen (p. Since people were now accustomed to numbering the months. Since the festival of harvest. 24. 233.

rise to the Jews." Days. it evidently follows that they also determine the beginIt follows further that the year lasts not ning of the year. . and for the Sabbatic year and the Jubilee years. In matters pertaining to the calendar they have always been very conservative and backward. vailed right These two beginnings to the year existed side by side. for the plants and the vegetables. 248 f. This Pleiades year is especially common in South America. cp. the civil calendar). too.274 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and this depends once more upon the observation of the stars. and hence the sidereal year is obtained at once with the greatest accuracy that is possible without scientific observation. Where the still beginning of the agricultural labour is determined by the Pleiades. On the first day of the month Shebat is the beginning for . e. pp. for the years (i. In later times. There is Among another important type of beginning. therefore.Four New Year's the tree-fruit. at the Judah. ecclesiastical conditions gave a calendarial beginning of the year. beginning of the year in autumn has preto the present day. which successfully rivalled the beginning given by the agricultural year. Konig quotes p. On the first day of Tishri is the beginning tithing of cattle. 644 a very significant passage from the Mishna tractate - "On the first day of concerning the beginning of the year: the for the of Nisan is the beginning year kings and for the On the first day of Elul is the beginning for the festivals. which is not surprising in view of what has already been said about the beginning of and the popular down The one is the civil beginning of the year. where there are no series of months. at least for some time after the Exile. vanced by the structure of the calendar. they did not succeed in grasping the idea of end of the kingdom of the on beginning of the year as a solitary event. to end the of the only period of vegetation. The Jewish calendar therefore arose very late. therefore. the other the beginthe ning of the series of months. until that time the Jews were content with a chronology which was as primitive as that of many primitive peoples. adyear. but also until the next appearance of the Pleiades. and in Oceania.

'star' in general. p. and they begin The Lengua Indians . quoted by Frazer. 275 of Paraguay connect the rising of the with the beginning of spring. . The Cariay of the Rio Negro call the Pleiades eoiinana and the year aurema-anynoa. 49. . among . 139. 116. from old sources difficult of access and in part in 6 manuscript. and hold feasts during 1 this time The Guarani of the same country determine the time of sowing by the observation of the Pleiades. Teschauer. especially the Pleiades. these people reckon the years in 'Pleiades'. the Pleiades as shcrick. 309. The word occurs in various forms among most of the Carib tribes. 736. they say. call the feast of the 1 first-fruits 2 the new year. and we read in brackets: "The return of the Pleiades above the horizon together with the sun forms the solar year of the natives. in the wide-spread Carib idiom of the Guaianas: in a Galibi dictionary 'star' and 'year' are given as serica. p. which seems to be a development of the former word. and 'year'. p. and reckon the new year from the morning rising of the latter 6 Although the Amazulu the neighbouring Caribs tshirika is . quoted by Frazer. 'cold' 5 The Caffres recognise the time of sowing by the position of the stars. and hence the people say that everything is renewed 3 The Indians of the Orinoco determined the new by these stars 4 the But still further. quoted by Frazer. it is said that they used to worship this constellation. Pleiades their new year at its appearance in May 2 . p. in ordinary life however the year is usually known as roi. p. Kidd. 'beehive'. Liebstadt." Among the island Caribs the Pleiades are called chiric. Steinen in Globus. Certain tribes of Venezuela reckoned the year by stars. since they reckon the year from the point at which they see the Pleiades rise after cock-crow. The Guarani call the Pleiades eishu. and the year has the same name. den 6 von Gumilla. Gilij. 310. at the 8 Grubb. a star. = found many times as a The connexion becomes clear translation of 'the Pleiades'. and in fact by the 'Year' is tshirke. . siricco. 4 p. a year Pleiades. above. Among the Arawr ak wijua means 'Pleiades'. the evening rising of the Pleiades year by year is called by the name of the Pleiades. In the Amazon valley the rising of the Pleiades coincides with the revival of Nature. cp.THE PLEIADES YEAR. 'star'.

g. new year was eyes above'. 397. The beginning of the year in our sense is the starting-point of the series of the days of the calendar. but were acquainted with a year of Pleiades 3 . Friederich. several feasts of firstfruits. as ourselves. The first. Ellis. and they begin to dig *. the rising of the Pleiades and When one the feast of the first-fruits among the Amazulu. 312. Mathias 147. of the Pleiades. which they called by the name of the Pleiades. upon the position of the day in the calendar. 342.276 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. whether the complete year or the phenomena of the time of vegetation only. p. though the significance of the occasion does not depend. . it appears more like our New Year. I. g.. 211. began at the evening rising of these stars and continued as long as they were visible in the sky in the evening. among the primitive peoples it is the beginning of any year. given by the evening rising of the Pleiades in 5 In the Society Islands there were the middle of December Pleiades. The inhabitants of the Marquesas Islands had a ten-month year. Nature. p.. p. And when a phase of the stars. as among the Thonga. phenomenon the others of this kind. There are several such phenomena appearing side by side. 4 On Hervey Island the maka-iki or mata-iti. G. Polyn. the year In Bali the appearance is renewed". e. It follows that a fixed beginning year does not exist universally. 2 In of the Pleiades at sunset marks the end of the year Bambatana (Solomon Islands) the year is reckoned by the . the stellar (Pleiacomprising the time between one of 4 Callaway. Among twelve months. but upon the natural conditions. matarti i nia. . the after named seasons two . the other matarii i raro. p. 'little eyes under'. began after the evening setting and extended over the time during 'little which the stars were not to be seen in the evening of the 6 . 3 Thurnwald. Wegener. 87. e. f appearance of the Pleiades: The Pleiades are renewed. e. so that there can also be several beginnings to the year. coincides with the beginning of the among agricultural year des) and the renewal 2 year 1 5 is obtained by p. prevails over and is perhaps brought into prominence by the greatest festival of the year. p. 'the little eyes' . the Polynesians the Pleiades year was extremely wide-spread.Res. and therefore is not the general norm. the corn-harvest. g. 86. 6 3 Ibid.

By this means we pure but undivided solar year. like the other natural phases. which became the beginning of the year. total into the of series of twelve so that series thirteen. or omitting one from the the months named from natural phases might remain in their proper places. were needed to determine the months. rising 277 arrive at or setting and the next. the quite peculiar Egyptian time-reckoning I have a few remarks to make by way of addition to the clear only Upon of its origin given by Eduard Meyer. On the other hand the phases of the stars. but this matters little for our present purpose since these names are more than two thousand years younger than . The intercalary month ob- was given a lunisolar year which was however empirically regulated by occasional intercalation. APPENDIX: THE EGYPTIAN YEAR. This difficulty wr as first of all blended with that arising from the fluctuation of the natural phases due to the varying climatic conditions The expedient was crudely empirical. With regard to the intercalation. months. Gradually it became the custom to introduce the intercalary month at a of definite point. since tained its place before this month. phase. it may also be associated with a so-called 'va- cant period'. certain star.THE REGULATION OF THE CALENDAR. as to the disarrangement of the names of months familiar to us. which are borrowed from festivals. the problem first arose when there had been developed a fixed series of months which it was desired to repeat without interruption. Then arose the necessity of introducing an occasional month . and here the result was more imthe portant. the equalising of the number of moon-months and the solar year. since the reckoning started with it. the different years. By this means Where a month was named from a phase of a the correction was given automatically by this this month was fixed. I must admit I am not and convincing account quite clear. occasional leaping over or addition of a month.

together with introduction five additional days. seed-time. time of inundation. Hence the same word wepet ronpet means both the first day of the . and then by degrees established itself as the civil calendar because the rural life was so closely dependent upon the administration and its accounts. have been in no notice should is that Egypt surprising thing taken of the moon.278 the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and harvest each of four months containing thirty days each. and succeeded in establishing itself as the civil calendar owing to the close connexion between the religious and the political life but the old reckoning from the phases of the stars persisted alongside of it. it is continued in the practice The of our modern banks in calculating interest a I'tisance. and theoretically the round month and the year the round year. the epagomena. which by multiplying the round number of the months in the year by the round number of days in the month gives a total of 360 (12X30) days. and that the month should have been carried through as a mere numerical unity. The use of round numbers in the arithmetical application of the calendar is familiar in all quarters of the world and has been known at all times. For at the stage not included in knowledge presupposed by the regulation of the calendar Egyptians must have known that the number of days in the moon-month varies between 29 and 30. standing outside the year The month is therefore it. I am therefore inclined to think that this form of year was first introduced as a means of counting in administration and the making of returns. time appearance of the moon originally persisted. In the same way we must suppose that in Egypt alongside of the numerical calendar the old method of reckoning by the concrete of the . but since by this it had lost its practical importance it vanished without leaving any other traces than the length of the arithmetical month (as a round number) and the name 'month'. On the other hand it must have been intended to give to the year the length of the solar year: the five extra days were accordingly introduced outside the series of months. three seasons The Egyptian year consists of of the year. We may compare the fact that the lunisolar calendar of Greece was introduced as an ecclesiastical calendar.

while the stars on the other hand were accurately observed by them. There are calendars which give the position of the constellations in accordance with which the hours of night were determined and proclaimed *. Which of the two methods the either is the Egyptians adopted fore tion is not in doubt. only of the closest The knowledge to made the correct number of by the observations of the solstices and equinoxes. hence too the three four-month divisions of the year are called after the seasons. the conservative minds of the Egyptians enabled them to toleA contributing factor was the practical convenience of rate. approximation that can be days in the year. that ivepet ronpet acquired two meanings and that e. 20. whole arrived can be only days. the calendar. since the actual morning rising of Sirius. g. The consequence was that the Egyptian year got out of place in relation to the solar year. which method adopted e. Here Egyptians went wrong because they did not realise that 'the year does not consist of exactly 365 days. was always celebrated. pp. 248 f. e. 1 p. The error is included in the well-known formula of the Sothic period (1461 Egyptian = 1460 Julian years). Meyer. 2 Cp. or by means of the rising of a star. and in particular the morning rising of Sirius was at all times observed and celebrated. but so slowly that no inconvenience was caused in practical the life: the linguistic difficulty. reckoning at in one of two ways. above. 274 ff. but contains an additional fraction of a day. The dislocation must however very soon have been recognised. Ed. The first of these. the time of inundation. This is primitive 2 . i.THE EGYPTIAN YEAR. the season called the time of inundation might fall in the actual seed-time or harvest. by the Hopi.. No notice has come be- me of which suggests that the Egyptians observed the posithe sunrise or sunset on the horizon. Chron. and especially the .. so far as we know. Pleiades year. began exactly with the morning shifting rising of Sirius when the Nile began perceptibly to rise. civil 279 shifting of rising year and also the day of the actual morning Sirius. pp. g. it was a movable different feast in relation to the calendar. The duration of the solar year is not reached by way of the lunisolar year.

although its year was a shifting year and in spite of the fact that the year underlying it was a sidereal and not the actual solar year. which has been altered so as to remain in agreement with the seasons. owing to the influence of the Roman months. but not so the counting of the days between two risings. For in practice it is more necessary to be able to reckon conveniently than to remain in accurate agreement with the incommensurability of the motions of the heavenly bodies. like all the greatest achievements . it I to IV.- and it can be considered no less is - - with time-reckoning part negative. whole days has been astonishingly early recognised. specially pointed out. part positive. The Egyptian year therefore lies at bottom of our year. Hence the Egyptian calendar held good. but a numbering such as that of the is unexampled calendar and shews once more a Egyptian desire to get away from the moon-month. began with a Sothic period. The months within each season are numbered from i. The calendar has been detached from Positively. the length of the solar year in the concrete phenomena of the heavens: thereby it acquires a numerical character. but the greatest advance is in the negative direction. must have begun to run its course in a year in which the rising of Sirius and New Year's Day coincided. The breach the primitive . and the Greek astronomers reckoned by it on account of its convenience. not as an actual month). The Egyptian calendar is the greatest intellectual fact in the history of time-reckoning. as Ed. as Among the first primitive its season gives name frequently happens that a to two months. this being necessary in view of the spread of the historic sense among the people but has also unfortunately been spoiled in the division into months.280 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. just as our astronomers still reckon ideal the by the Julian calendar. e. and only so is the genuine time-reckoning created. The so-called 'months' are rather subdivisions of the seasons. perhaps this was The calendar therefore. The latter process would be facilitated if the reckoning was previously carried out in numerical months of 30 days (naturally the as a round number. Meyer has first stage. which are distinguished peoples it and second.

it was radical simplification. a practical utility calculation.THE EGYPTIAN YEAR. in which also practical convenience played great part. of this 281 attained through a nature. e. is more welcome than refined astronomical . g. the alphabet. It should not be forgotten that astronomy and In matters of the calendar the calendar are not identical.

These statements are well illustrated by the names given to the months by the Greek peasants of Macedonia.. the feast of Saint George. The names are . Seed-time. iPAefidQys. and even at the present day in lands which outside the path of the great leveller. and these have impressed themselves upon the names of the months. the number and duration The of which are determined by the conventional calendar. nothing but seasons. civilisation. They are. striving after concreteness which characterises not too highly civilised man leads to the abolition of the obscure and unintelligible Roman names of months. 105. the names of which are a matter of in- difference. the months taken over with the Roman calendar are not numbered Inlie divisions of the year. ancient times. or more rarely taken from some falling within the month. Only the Hungarian after ecclesiastical festivals *. derived from yevvovv.1 FswdQ^g. also called jLisydAog or TQavog juty'ag in opposition to February. 2. the midsummer fires are some of the notable occasions in the life of the peasant. .CHAPTER XI. 1 Grimm. and the substitution of other names describing great is festival the season. 'Vein: . but are concretely conceived and named as seasons. in fact. months are entirely named also found that the Latin It names are as far as possible ren- intelligible by popular etymology. harvest and vin- dered tage. p. It is said of the latter that they measure time not so much by the conventional calendar as by the labours and the festivals characteristic of the different seasons. and KAadevrrfe on account of the pruning of the vines. POPULAR MONTHS OF THE EUROPEAN PEOPLES.

6 (povouodev. also fy'eOT endos. month of the Virgin of Struga. (*A)/. ALBANIAN. 'AyuyetttQyfrqg. 5. the veins (cptefles} of the earth are swollen with wathe English folk-name for this month. 3. 6. 'short'. Zjcooiag. fern or ear month. 4. . TQvyi]Tii}s. KOVTOoqpAe'pagos 3. 10. month of St. threshing-floor month. y . 12. 'AAwimris. from the phenomena of the vegetation. first autumn. month of drought. 8. FddQTi^. NtHoAcUrrjs. 12. !4jijo&ty. from the feast of Saint 11. 'O^rw/^o^. Saint Demetrius. 3. 11. on account of the bitterly cold wind. month of month' second autumn. 'threshing-floor Greek loan-word). from the feast of Saint Nicholas on the 6th 1 The Albanian names of months are similar: 1. 111. binding up of vegetation(P). held on the 14th. (a harvest month. Koooiuov. probably 'cherry month'. (Kalendae). oe Ndeoz. BASQUE MONTH-NAMES. KaievdovQi. ZTavQi<bvi]$ from the Feast of the Exaltation of the Precious Cross. from the feast of Saint George on the 23rd. G. 2. gathering month. bull or wolf weeding or fasting-bread month. 5.ovdQi. from the feast of Saint . since they are very disposal. bean or barley month. sowing month or forest-clearing. 11 2 ff. 283 ter swelled. oe Meoi s ZTQOvysg. 10. ZKOVOTI. T. Maoai.MACEDONIAN. T(osk) [A^yiodrjf&jTQi6Tr}$. Bj'eorea. Mdr]g. T. <PQOVQI. G. harvest or wheat month. 3 Grimm. 4. I and no new material that is my shall only remark and of native names. month. 12. sowing month. II. Maji. IMKQOS ^vag. e. month of St. 101 ff. the latter being taken. harvest month dQiTys. oe Mirge. They refer therefore throughout 1 or black month. 'the flayer'. Md@Ti]$. also fa'scir e dvre. 'February fill(cf.6. also fy'sor TOSTC. 5. 6. f the tree-sweller'. Michael. 11. 8. AvyovGrog. Andrew series 2 . G(heg) i. autumn month. 'AAtovdgijs. Andrew on the 30th. 9. vintage month. Abbot. oc Me/iA. at least in part. - Jevvdot. The various obscure Celtic I omit at 3 . pp. 4. IlQUr. T. roan. von Hahn. The Basque names of months they of distorted Latin shew a mixture are: - - 1. seed-time (sic!). 10. 9. 7. tepid month. 7\ t Demetrios on the 26th. QsQiorf^. or dyke'). G. literally 'bare month'. 2. pp. New Year month leaf month. Kjsooovoi. 8. 'AVTQS&S. New Year month 7. third autumn. 9.

104. leaf month. in addition to which there are a few unexplained and three Latin names. 8. 18 in number. 9. The Lithuanian and Lettish names to natural month are: - of clods. or birch water-flowing. 10. and how the latter are crowded out by native names which in the have purposely placed by but their relation to points of reference seasons. and festivals offer easy to remember. linden month. 98 ff. collected by Miklosich along with the names of months of a number of other peoples. leaf-fall. Since it is my purpose to give an idea not only of the variety of the names 17.284 to the vegetation tin PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. cuckoo month. 8. autumn month. 2 Grimm. 1 also in use . dryness (frost). 2. the length and situation of which are regulated the Julian calendar. . Yermoloff in his great work on the popular Russian calendar gives only a limited number of names. 10. pp. 9. w olf month or Christmas 2 T . The Lithuanian series is: -. dove month. 4. 9. occupations. (3) from natural phenomena in general. (2) from the animal kingdom. 5. 3. The Lettish 3. 7. hay or linden month. Very similar but much more numerous and fluctuating are the names of months among the Slavonic peoples. month 4. unexplained. rye month or 11. dog frost (-days). birch-sap month. of months refer exand the occupations of agriclusively phenomena culture. snow or fasting-month. For four months the La- foreground these mingled series arising in modern times. The latter writer has classified and discussed the names under their proper headings as follows: (1) names taken from the vegetable kingdom. 7. names are I and to agriculture. dove or 6. 12. month. 1. heath-blossom month. fallow or sowing month. or blossoming month. since they shew how little the people can reconcile themselves to the unintelligible Latin names. 6. snow-crust month. jackdaw month. The months are nothing by seasons. of 2. autumn month. from periodically recurring actions. and these are rarely translated: with a few exceptions these names will be found in Miklosich. 10. 25. names fallow winter month. p. 11. hot month or rye-cutting. 12. 5.1. (4) but also of the fluctuating relationship with the Julian months. birch month. 1 Grimm. (5) from customs and festivals.

.? Serb. since f given to two the country... SLAVONIC MONTH-NAMES. refers to the *'grass month r 1 .? Old Bulg.). I am also in- Kazarow of Sofia for detailed information io the as Bulgarian names of months. February. *'the dry month'.. Ruthen. October. Pol. the asterisk different months in that f refer to: -- the month'. . Kaz. *'month of clods'. *'grass month *Slovak. shews that the name country.. Yermoloff and others less well to the piercing cold. 4. 1 koloseg. three different forms). 'oak month'.. Slovak. warm then. which Miklosich rightly refers to the felling of trees. 'the Fleecer'. The name cannot be taken as referring to the disc of the sun. to i. Slovak. Kaz.. (Kaz..). Bulgarian. Pol. 3 According to Yermoloff.) latera .. *Slovak.. Old Russ. If the statement as to the corresponding Julian month in Miklosich is not clear. (laisko. 'the or 'the month that deceives the grass'. 428. f Russ. Serb. Old Bulg. 1 *Bulg. ice month'. 54. 'the Little Cutter'.. 'time of deceitful weather'. 'wedding month'.. I add a mark G. 'begin*' birch month' (in ning of summer' (letnik. and Kov. Pol. April. * f kindling of the wheel 1 . Bulg.. popularly it is said that once it was so cold during this month that the people had to burn even their waggons in order to warm themselves. the snowy month' 3 *'the Cutter'... meteorology. 'the e. 2 Ruthen. cold Bulg. Bulg.. * the dry month'. 3.. Bulg. 'the Fleece-seller'. cale- themselves in the open (Miklosich) the savage month'. Czech. *Old Bulg. into leaf.. *Croat.LITHUANIAN. of interrogation. and for extracts from tne Bulgarian work of Kovatschev on popular astronomy and debted to Prof.. sap of the birch which now begins to flow. because the oak comes Liar'. 'the Great Croat. 1 lasi-tre-v. the cattle leave their stalls in order f . the time when (Yermoloff). Bulg. Croat. Old Bulg. The names Czech. Cutter'. also December. these sources are referred to respectively as Kaz... . LETTISH. An asterisk prefixed to the name of a month means that the same name is given to another month also. *Slovak. *Croat. omitting isolated and uncertain names... Bulg. Old Bulg. Ru. Ruthen. (Kov 7 . *Serb. Slovak. *'the Cutter'. *Slovak. . *'birch month'. Side-warmer'. Czech. hard frost turns the earth into clods. Croat. if prefixed to the abbreviation is denoting 1. I 285 arrange the material of Miklosich's first four groups according to the months. p. March. p. faciens. 2 Yermoloff. *'increasing of the day-light'. 2.. January. ^'blossoming month'.

) gadfly 'AAcovdQrjs). *'linden Slovak. *'heath-plant month'. p.. month'. ears'. Slovak.... Czech (earlier). *'grass month'. *. June. ^'cutting month'. 'hay month'. Ruthen. (Kov. Bulg. Slovak. (?). (Kov. the Albanian July) . 'time when people are carting' (no doubt on account of the bringing in of the harvest). (Czech. 9.).. Old Bulg. 'sowing month'. High Sorb. Bulg. 'fallow month'. Greek-Albanian month'. 7. Czech.). *'rose-blossoming month'.. of lowing'. Czech. Serb. Bulg. Bulg. Old 'the hot (month)'. Bulg... and July respectively. f 'beanblossoming *'cherry month'. 'grasshopper month'. 'the Harvester'.). Old Bulg. Bulg. Sloven. 'threshing-floor 'fruit month'.. (Kov. ^cochineal month'... *Slovak. (Kov.). 'Mower'. (cercf. Low Sorb. *Slovak. Bulg. Old Bulg. *'sickle month'. 'month of gathering Bulg. * f . Old Russ.. Pol. Serb. July or August).). Russ. May. Bulg. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. in Moravia and among the Slovaks. 6... ^'cutting month'. Czech Ruthen. Slovak. Ruthen.. The Czechs have 2 for some 394. *'blossoming month'. Bulg. Pol. 'dryer up of the rivers'. *'cochineal month'.286 cf. Ruthen. 'hay-cutting'. 'beginning of the lowing' (i. month'.' as June c. *'cherry venijat.. Low Sorb. 'month of the (winter-) sowing'. month'. because the cochineals used for red dye are then collected.. Bulg. = June. Pol. or also: -Yermoloff. Bulg. cornel month'. (Kov. Bulg... 'the great . 'month of ripeness'. (rujan. Slovak. * f 'maize-hoeing'. *'time Avhen the goats rut'. (Kov. tember. *Croat. refers to the hay-cutting. 8.. * rose-blossoming month'.. Bulg. 'of rutting'..). 5. and kindred words) Old Bulg. Ruthen. (sdm) *Czech. Slovak. e. Ruthen. August. (Kov. cf. Slovak. since month'... 'autumn'.. Bulg. *'sickle month'. the rutting of the deer. Bulg.. Ruthen. (Kaz. Serb. Czech. 'gathering of the clusters'. 'milk month'. ^'harvest month'... (Kov. Old Bulg. (Kov. f f Greek ydaQTyg}. July. centuries distinguished cerven and cervenec 'the little c. Russ. Czech. Bulg. cochineal month'.).. *Bulg. High Sorb.. (Kaz. Bulg. (Kov. Bulg.. Russ. Serb.. . 'old women's summer'.). Low Sorb. Czech. Slovak. Old Russ.).. (Kov. *Slovak.. 'barley month'.). sarev). (Kaz. Czech..). * linden month'. 2 *'month *'gadfly month'. Ruthen.. Ruthen.). High Sorb.. Serb. Bulg. Sep1 .. 'the gloomy month'. 1 Pol. *Slovak. Kov.. Slovak. Bulg. Old Bulg. ^'harvest month'. Pol. 'month of Slovak. Serb. *Croat..' = July.. the linden blossoms then.

. yellow (month)'.. Old Bulg. November. the numerous asterisks shew the fluctuation and variation of the nomenclature between two or even three months.. 287 Serb. Bulg... November. since among the same people . Croat. Ruthen. Old Bulg. mena and country names refer to natural phenooccupations.p).. Ruthen.. gorestnicr of months only three have been borrowed: May Slovak. Czech.). of the Ruthen. g. *'increasing of the day-light' Czech. *'leaf-fall'. (common).'the autumnal *'leaf-fall'. r of the flax). 16th. (Kaz.. gorestnik viz. 'the *'time when the goat ruts'. and 17th of July. Russ. Slovak. (?). It must be so.. 'month of dirt'. (Kov. 'threshing month'. Ruthen. 'month of is the festival of the birth of the Virgin. *Bulg.. (Kov. This (?).. to Bulg. Ruthen. the snow-storm'.. 10. 'gathering of the maize'... 11. Russ. Pol.SLAVONIC MONTH-NAMES. High Sorb (rutting-time of the wolves).. and a further explanation of the variety is to be sought in the well-known phenomenon that when the seasons correspond only imperfectly with the months. Czech. ( Martinzi. by the exThe great majority tremely various climatic conditions prevailing in the countries occupied by the Slavs.). see above). December. Candlemas.. the equalisation is carried out sometimes with one month. Bulg. = July) Kazarow w rites r to With regard me: "gorest .. Pol. Croat. Pol. Serb. *Slovak. The variety of the series need not be specially pointed out.. (Kaz. Russ.). (Kov. April. lia e. (Kov..). Croat. Old Bulg. time of flaxpreparing' (the name comes from a term for the waste products October. Sorb. *'month of clods'. and with 14 saints' days. Bulg. the and the feast of the RosaSlovak.. (Kaz. Slovak.. LOWT Sorb. Ruthen. 'wolf month'. All Saints' Day. Pol.). *'kindling of the wheel'. *Bulg.).. *'month of clods'. Pol. High Sorb. *'month of the lowing' (rijen). and March. Serb. *Slovak. (Kov. names Of the Latin the 15th. (month)'. Bulg. 'vine month'.. sometimes with another. 'hot'. Russ. as is indicated by the mention of the countries in which the names originate. *Bulg. Much is explained. more rarely Ruthen. in July the people celebrate a fire-festival of three days' duration. the goat ruts'. case with Christmas. Czech.). 'winter month'. Czech (present day).. 12. *'time when Slovak. Sorb. Bulg. More rarely the festivals give their names to the months. Serb. (= Whitsun)..

Laumonat last winter month. April: shepherds' month. 5. Old Bulg. SloOld Russian. the rough month (Riimaend).. In the same way I give a summary of the German months. 'harvest-month' (August). pasture month. May: June: ass month. rose month. *hard 1. second ploughing month. . January: my month. from the abundant compilations more partiHere too I make no claim cularly of Weinhold and Ebner. fallow month. *Volborn. pruning month. naked month). to completeness. .. some names have been deliberately omitted names of purpose being only to give an idea of the variety and To this end I choose the forms which instability of the names.bare month (the bare. Hence the fact that month is very rarely added. vernal month. grass month. (the last three unexplained). Lusemaend (Luse probably = modern German Schildlaus. month of flowers. Russ. cuckoo month. and rjujin and cognates. Sporkel. Czech. The character ting and therefore the second rutting-month... Sprokkelmacnd.(first) ploughing month. the little and big 'cochineal' months (June and July). sowing month. 'the lowing'. drying month. which is inchoative and means 'beginning of the lowing (the rutting)'. fox month. 'Little Hornung. are most easily intelligible. i. Czech. month of joy. month of calves. wood month. Czech. March: month. *wolf month. spring. *winter month. Slovak. bean month. *Volborn. though it appears the translation. so that the places. Bulg. Bulgarian (Kazarow). of the in in names is only too obvious. the full rutvak. ice month. *spring 3. Pairs of months however rare: 'the big' and 'the little' secko (January and February). *dog month. threshing month. are same name describes various months. *spring month. Serb. Lasmaend.. 6. February: Horn'. Selle (maend). and satvar.288 the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 2. 'the little grass-month' (March) and the 'big' one (April or May). 'Great Horn'.. distinguished in the calendar of to-day as c erven names have changed and cervenec (diminutive). Redmaend. Rebmaend. 'reaper' (July) and zatvarskijat. 4. These names have proved so vigorous that Czech and Polish they have ousted the Latin names (with all these word for the exception of May). Old Bulg. e. . Here also must be placed sarev and cognates.

^slaughtering month. Augstin. Zts. The Latin names March April. who bases his researches upon extensive inThe much-disputed name Hornnng is rightly explained by Bilfinger. *sowing month. pp. 289 . * *cutting (i. month of rime. (second) month. ^slaughtering month. The same has fewer days than the others: cf. Bismaend (when the cattle. boar month. barley month. Laubryssmaend. Fassnachtmaend or Olle Wncermaend (February). first autumn. f. Klibelmaend (Conception of the Virgin. Sellemaend takes its name from the sale of the hides. 19 . (*first) 9. Heuet (hay-harvest). cutting of oats. 'cochineal'). tormented by the heat and the run about (biset) the fields as if mad). 263 ff. the name Rebmonat has the same sense. 1900. Wfirttetnberg. month. deutsche Wortforschung 5. *Arne. Beil. Laeset.second Angst. It describes the month as 'the one that has been curtailed of its rights' (cf. *Arne (harvest). November: (*second or third) *autumn month. Smeermaend. Bes.. the last-named has for special reasons been included in the ? above list 1 . *sowing month. September: ^autumn month. *hard *second) *autumn month. 11. cutting month. month. history of the German names of months has been elucidated by Weinhold and for the Alemannic district by the work of Ebner.autumn. bean-harvest. harvest month. des Staats-Anzeigers f. Further he conjectures that as November is the slaughtering month and Loir&maend (= January) is the tanning month. -. pp. leaf month. March). e. month of dirt. July: *Augst. month of fruit. *Laupreisi (leaf-fall). over. month of winds.AarzeIniaeitd(smce the year turns back). *dog month. 7. Kochmaend. hare month.(first) summer month. *Fiibnacnd. Holy Month or Christ Month. explains satisfactorily Sporkel as the month in which the vines are pruned. such as (New) Year month and the synonymous Kalemaend Calends month( January). hay month. spelt month. flies. *winter month. May. and August have also become very popular. December : *winter *hard month. the Flemish term het kort mandewriter. month of bacon. autumn sowing. *wolf fourth autumn month. ^-slaughtering month *Folinaettd. acorn month. 12. 193 ff. since it 1 The ken. hornungr). (secondj autumn. Icel. October: (*first or first winter month.GERMAN MONTH-NAMES. 10. *wolf month. *cutting. 8. oi the hay). fallow. second winter. *full month. Arnemaend. August: (second) Angst. *Laupreisi. Hanfluchet. There are also many names borrowed from feasts and saints' days. 1903.

man names for the months shew once more the variety and influence. leaf-fall). in dem suite ('in the sowing'. September Uberherbst.. ander Winter. harvest time). Witum. Lenzinm. divided into three.. on the contrary it under the pressure of the agriculIn spite of this early attempt at unity the Gertural terms. collected among the people. ('in monat hay-month'). Herbstsaat. Hornunc. since wmdumemdnot ('vintage-month') had long since died out. Herbst. ('in ('harvest-month'). late autumn. Laupreisi (second autumn. hemp-gathering. August (fallow)..^ Windumem. autumn-sowing.j Herbistm. Hewim. series of As early as the time months had been created in order to bring the Julian months more closely home to the people. "In our sources the general statement in der erne p. December ficance is the state of affairs found in the Alemannic sources Laeset = = . attaches to the fact that the sources make interest special how the names of months arise from the follow to possible - terms for the seasons.. 'in ('fallow-. we can see the uncertainty with which laubbrost and laubrise ('sprouting and falling of the leaves') contract into names of months. 1 We months. On this point Weinhold says. March Arne (harvest). the hay-harvest') hold their own alongside of brdch.. June as names for the months. and also the non-German augst. Brdchni. Of great signiautumn." Accordingly the above list shews that alongside the names compounded with 'month' the simple terms from seasons and occupations of the year are frequently found Bracket Lens (spring). 2: ernemanot ('in the harvest ) preponderates over the month-name itn houwet ('in the fallow brdchet mi ). This series attained great : Charlemagne a German universal. July names of = = Bonenarve. Heuet (hay -harvest). The names are Wintarmdnoth. first (Leseseit) (bean-harvest. October ander Herbst. but did not become was subjected to alteration fluctuation A it with \vhich the reader is now sufficiently familiar. cutting-month ).and housimple 1 1 the vintage') persists. = = = Hanflucliet. Wunnim. From the phrases in der sat. Aranm.290 formation of PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. erst Herbst.. so that the list was based largely upon a popular foundation. autumn. im isoimmot the cutting') are painfully evolved a sdtmdn and a schnitmonat find autumn and winter as ('sowing-.. Heilagni. Ostarm.

31 ff. p. 3 VVeinhold. g. that alongside also month-name which exactly circumscribes a lunar period must be a Julian month') a simple conception of time appears. The same phenomenon shewr s itself in the single fragment of a Gothic calendar which has come down to us. pp. 1 Ebner. especially in the old laws. This shews the method . He adds: . to-day they are in dialects 2 There is therefore an attempt to general time-indications" render popular the unfamiliar Julian divisions of the year by . . giving them popularly intelligible names. viz. Mon.GERMAN MONTH-NAMES. where Novem- ber is equated to fruma jiuleis. brachot der tnattod ('fallow the month'). and enter into association with the conception 'month'. 9. p. Towards the end of the century they then begin to a loose connexion with the conception 'month'..Angst comes to mean simply 'harvest' 3 hence July is called 'the first Augsf and August 'the second Augsf. such as 'autumn' for Sepalso appear as general time-indications. * Ibid. or hear of a 'first' . but in the end lose their force as definite names of months. In this sense as definite names of months tember. can often be made f in the sources. These simple terms. side by side with the compound forms simple often appear. by which these names have become names of months."This observation of the (sic!. When we and a 'second' May. of 291 the the 14th century *. Charlemagne by his series of months had already tried to systematise the process. e. the name is a general term for the early as evidently loosely regarded summer. and they shew it even to-day. 5. but always as definite names of have months. the simple terms live for a long time in the sources alongside of the full terms (those with 'month'). They originally have this character. . and did not clearly distinguish them from the latter as divisions of time with a definite number of days. has sympatheti- The fact that the people cally affected those Latin names which became really popular. regarded the months as seasons.. and Ebner judges the process quite correctly when he says that the definite names of months were only secondarily -evolved from the general time-indications. Little by little they become stereotyped into fixed names of months.

is 4 evidently to be explained rat. a special refutation of Tille's thesis unnecessary. 2 these divisions of time began in the middle of the Julian month The fluctuation in the names of months is shewn by the fre- and the pairs of months are: the first and second ploughing month.: made especially . note Beda. 3. otherwise: cp. roots in of months were great measure the life of very multiplicity. Thus October and November are called respectively third and last autumn month. Obviously the seasons never had a definite number of days before they became names of months. ' Tille. 3 This pair 1. 15. 4. suffices to prove that but their they have had attempts to give way to the Latin names in spite of the in modern times in the popular calendars. eostnrm. list. 19 and 15. or Haberangst (oat-harvest). named Angst and September is called Ander Angst. 289. which has its the people. 2. to establish them throughout. the first and second Angst. big and little Horn the first and second May. p. passage of Bede 1. 77. where the name of the month was taken from a longer season. De temp.292 the latter is PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and under the influence of Romanticism. quent asterisks in the above 3 . The Anglo-Saxon months are preserved in a well-known 4 I give each name with the explanation. c. pp. or Angst and Augstin or Haberangst. Bilfinger. The German names genuinely popular. and first and second autumn. This explanation is opposed by the statement of Tille that in primitive Germanic times there were sixty-day divisions 1 from which the pairs of of the fluctuation in the names months have months is due arisen. 1 Above. and that to the fact that . p. the people counted three or four months with the same name. In our own day they persist in popular usage chiefly in Switzerland. Accordingly. solmonad: mensis placentarnni. Augstin. ginli. above. to Our researches ought make both phenomena find their explanation in the indeterminate length and position of the seasons upon which the scheme of the Julian months was superimposed. December is fourth autumn month. February in third or last winter month.. . qnas in eo diis suis offerebant. hredmonad: a dea illornm Hreda.

on . like giuli. der angelsttchs. mainsm. and 2 The Menologium Poeticum 3 does not translate 12 are missing The series is: . serein. Grein. - monad. blotmonad especially of lent to the is the slaughtering month. 1 6. herausgeg. Cottoniensis. 2.: mensis immolatiomim . but unfortunately. others doubtful. 6. Finally I give the list compiled by Hickes: 1. - ccftera geola. 7. Februarius or solall the names. = = the weather. probably not by accident. tiredness is 'roughness'. lida: blatidus sive navigabilis. Junius or cerra Julius monad. 8. was transferred to a Christian festival.. 9. are now merly played with reason suspected as being an explanation of Bede's. For instance one would rather connect Febru- vicibiis eo 'dirt' ary with the word sol = 'sun'.. 7. Gottingen.ANGLO-SAXON MONTHS. M. For halcgmonad and wintirfyllid see below. 4. eostermonad and the second month of each of the pairs. wmtirfyllid: composite novo nomine hiemeplenilunimn . a dea illornm. hlyda (see below). 5. Juninsm. Poesie.. C. giuli: a conversione soli's in aiictum diei. October or ivinterfylled. cerra lida. Martius or hlyda. 10. nos. midstunorm. ally written This interpretation however involves the difficulty that hrede is usus 2 Bibl. Hred monad is 'the rough month' *.. Aprelis monad. a great part in mythological discussions. quae Eostre vocabatur. 7.: mensis sisamorum ('weeds'). Maius.Januarius. Delida. November or blotmonad. September or haliginonad. weodm. In the case of costur one might think of some lost name of a season which. There are missing therefore. cember or cerra jula.. 1. medm. A the calendar in Bibl. lida. Augustus or weodmonad. assigned by Hickes to year 1031. in 293 5. 9. 'blolm. 12. blustering month'. solmonad. Hampson. halegm. I. 1858. W. II. 3. without h (Ekwall). 11.: mensis sacronnn. easterm. pp. 422 ff. hlyda or hlydmonad ('the loud.. account of damage caused by the great fire. has the same names. (on The goddesses Hreda and Eostre. Of the explanations of Bede some are obvious. pnmilci: qtiod tribus per diem pecora mulgebantur. the explanation of giuli is fatally wrong. who for'cake' is known. . v. 1 ff. or perhaps with sol of the since no of the word sol account melting snow). quod ea tempestate maxime abnndent. the name is therefore equivasecond term for the same month. on account of the storms).

this night the heathens called ob causam. 16867. 12.. the name would then mean 'sheep-shearing month'. haligm. and is perhaps a normalising of the spelling. because. but are absent in the second. id est matrum in ea ceremoniarum quas pervigiles agebant ("that 1 the night of the mothers.. where the word is equivalent to August sible that Hickes used sources which have perished in the fire at the Bibliotheca Cottoniensis. meadmonth: "an alleged O. we assume that seremonad sceremonad. The form searmonad.. It began on Dec. noctem 25th. Of these variants upon blolm. harvcestm. 194. weodm. v. The name 'dry month' (mod.. 3 It is posexample. Ekwall proposes to me.294 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. appears only in Bosworth. 8. 2 The quotations are given in the Oxford Dictionary. 'sere') corresponds as badly as possible to June. As far as I can see they come from Hickes. so far as I know. Bede's further statements as to the Anglo-Saxon year are very important and have been much disputed. D. Augustusm. harvest-monad both August and September. doubtless because the sources are unknown.) the word means August 2 The two others are doubtful they . ceftera list harvestm. which Weinhold used. ut sttspicamur. In Robert of Gloucester (1297 A. s. A satisfactory explanation would be given if. and in the fluctuation of the names. sear'. I. as Prof. 10. occurs frequently and indeed is attested from the year 1000. se teodam. (hay -harvest month). Eng. midvinterm. So far the AngloSaxon months present the usual characteristics in the nomenclature. Bede's lida. name for July". Hickes. 9. 3 Aubrey. cerre geola *. mcedm.. hcerfestm.. and is not f much more suitable for August. they are missing in Hampson's Glossary.. 215. Gentilisme.. is modra nect. giuli. . 11. see further Hampson. Of seremonth it gives a late . Fluctuation in the names of months is seen here also: haliginonad means September or October. JuHusni. s being often written for sc from the 12th century onwards.. haligm. Rom.. jitl is position: this is explained by the fact that an old word for a shorter season. II. E. The Oxford Dictionary says. He represents it as a lunisolar year with lunar months. A point worthy of note is the agreement in name with the Gothic frtima jiuleis but difference in jiuleis. : appear in the first edition of Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Dictio- nary.

Here and here alone have we an account of a heathen Germanic lunisolar year. lunar year. in leap-year the thirteenth In an ordinary year each season had three months. elaborated his system upon the following points of departure: the derivation of the word 'month' from moon'. as 295 in we suppose. XI. 25th. 125 ff. In the last centuries of heathen than the many report whom certainly not at a lower stage of civilisation other peoples in various parts of the world among this form of year did arise. but the trustworthiness of is far from being established by this general con- sideration. it was a third lida and a year of this kind was called minus thri-lidi. Unters. . Even in modern scientific handbooks we read e. The learned Bede. Tacitus.THE ANGLO-SAXON LUNISOLAR YEAR. has. according to Bilfinger. which is assumed by Bilfinger to the ecclesiastical beginning of the year on Christmas 1 Bilfinger. month was intercalated in the sum- mer. 1 it to be a construction of Bede's he says. the phrase mmns thri-lidi. of some ceremonies which they performed the night"). A priori such an account contains nothing surprising. II. a lunisolar year that But this is done in does not choose an}' ex- pressions with pedantic accuracy. which really means a year so favourable chronologist. Bilfinger. had already stated that the Germans observed the lunar month. and in another that winter begins has subjected the account to severe criticism. Germ. The question is whether they also named the months and arrived at a fixed series. and on internal evidence states The account. which is an abbreviated and incorrect expression for f at the first new moon after the summer solstice'. whereby the empirical intercalation of a month would times the} were 7 arise of itself. g. f f that three of the be sea-voyages can be made in it'.. of six months each. for instance Bede says in one place that the year begins on December 25th. with the description lunar of month wtnttrfyllid. that the Attic year began with the summer solstice. the year was divided into two halves. fluctuates between the solar and the . and the beginning year on Dec. Further. winter and summer. and winter began with the month wintirfylltd.

II. Wmtirfyllib there is means. f . and what was the goal of these voyages that there should be only two of them. of names of months on the introduction of The criticism is acute. arising out of the months themselves. weak points. and had a very good knowledge of matters chronological. proved. according to twelve months 1 Bede Dec. Kluge. 1899. why then should he claim lunar knew quite well that the Latin metisis months for the Anglo-Saxons if to his knowledge only solar months existed among them? In regard to the explanation of thri-lidi we require to know from documents that two seavoyages were usually made in summer. this word really means 'new moon but in later Greek any festival. 25. but is obscure. that Ulfilas should have put 'full moon' for . which point to the heathen origin and lunar character of the months. . p. //<3.296 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. cannot be explained by Christian influence. 16. However this carries the name back to pre-Christian times. are accordingly nothing more than native terms for the Julian months. Hence it is not very surprising F. The is difficulties lie elsewhere.. halegmonad. translated by 'full moon' 2 parallel the lunar character of this month is also . Such a formation wall 'journey'. have short i lies Lid. and no such word exists on the other hand prilidi. And further. The beginning of the year But where a fixed series of it with a fixed intercalary month. 'seafarer' and could not give Nominate Stammbildnngslehre. with three lida\ is perfectly regular 1 Further the holy month'. as Prof. exists. Bilfinger's probable. and therefore first became Day. Ekinforms me. connected Gothic /#///. 1 . 2nd ed. With this is By this according to Bede. The Anglo-Saxon names at that time used in England. 5 'ship'. he concludes. months. The word is used in Coloss. Bede connected with ^]v and properly means lunar month. Such evidence is not forthcoming. but is not without the its is Roman calendar. since no great Christian festival in September: the origin must be sought in the heathen cult. f explanation is linguistically im- would presuppose a word *lld. and translates Greek veojtirjvia. '(first) full moon of the winter'. It is not improbable that the festival of harvest was intended. In opposition to Bilfinger's theory it therefore appears that there are a couple of facts. 66.

because one month The Icelandic months. the case is isolated. p. his Although. Got. in the 297 nature of things that the month which is doubled in the should be the beginning of the year. did with their intercalary month. in conformity with the peculiar coincide with the Julian. but do not arrangement in the middle of these. this to of agreement with the Gothic calendar. according to Bede. the intercalation in question is in this case lida. like most peoples. 6. any more than the two cases each case.^ they are not diminished by scheme is a construction of his own. 3. Gankindnadr (cuckoo month) or Scidtid (seed-time) or Harpa (unexplained). Einmdnadr. does not necessarily coincide with the beginning of the series The beginning of the year in this case. that Icelanders inserted their intercalary week in the summer as the Anglo-Saxons. But even if this was so. in summer. The or either before begin shortly series is: 1. of months. however. which corresponded to the Scandinavian Yule festival celebrated at the same time of the year. In my opinion there is no denying the trustworthiness of the account or the probability that the heathen Anglo-Saxons had arrived at a fixed series of months with empirical intercalation in the summer. 2. had no sharply defined beginning of the year. We are therefore driven to the conclusion month that of Bede erroneously substituted the year at the Christmas the festival. is on Bede's own testimony the beginning of winter. ecclesiastical beginning and that the cause of error was the fact that at this time the heathen AngloSaxons celebrated a Feast of the Mothers. 4. therefore. before the. 5. since this is month regulated by a fixed point or season of the year. This only may be pointed out. beginning of summer. as among the Scandinavians. Bede's account presents great diffithe assumption that the culties. Eggtid is left or Stekktid or Skcrpla (unexplained). Now the beginning of the year in the sense mentioned above. Solmdnadr (sun month) . of the year. But since the form of the year is so enthe just tirely different in support further agreement cannot be made conclusions. porri.THE ANGLO-SAXON LUNISOLAR YEAR. whereas in reality the Anglo-Saxons. and does not advance our knowledge of the form of the year among the other Germanic peoples. 276.

(hay-time). (month of . 12. in 4 Edda III. Swnartn. of the (as in Denmark. (m. or HeyTvimdnadr. Madkam. Ridtidarni. 48. Skamdegism. February sometimes Thorre. 2 Worm. Suinartnoatmr. moanar. Haustmdnadr . is of winter. 2. 23. 5 p. 11. 12. 17th century gives 1 months the learned Olaus Worm in the two series 5 The months of the first series . ff. (beginning of fasting). (m. Torre. where the reckoning is performed in weeks. Mon. 2 In Norway. older hay -time). Selmdnadr (cowherd's hut month). Mtdsvetrarm. (month of the short days) or Jolam. 1 Some of pairing of the sheep) or Morsugr ('the fat-sucker') these names are also used to describe seasons and have been With the exception of porri. whence the translations are taken. 9. and Einmdnadr. 10. Gjo. or month). . in the slaughtering). Bilfinger. the short nights) or 8. Worm. Midstimmar. Gormdnadr (slaughtering month. gor the refuse thrown away Frer- mdnadr (Yule-month) (frost-month) or Yltr (cognate with Yul).. Unters. (because it is the legal time for moving). Haustmoanar. 74. Slatnmarm. (the nightless month). 6 and 7. on account of the . month cesstiatum Heyannam. Fardagam. 11. Stuttncettism. . Kornskurdmdnadr (barley-cutting 10. 3. 2. 3 Finn IVTag-nusson III. since two months are left to beginning 9. ne- (slaughtering Gardlagsm. month). June Gro (sprouting month) I shall return below. I. Got. (spawning month). (midwinter explained above. . 5. 12. p. Fostu(in)gangsm. (month of the equinox) 4. annir 7. Weinhold. - - short days) 4 Of the Danish . (month apportandamm) . 4 and 5. p. without giving source. Weinhold gives a complete Krikla or Kvine . 1044 ff. 8. Jafndograni. Edda pp. 6. Voarlist: 1. (beginning of summer). p. 7.1. Jolmdnadr or Hrtitmdnadr (ram month. 10 and 11. March sometimes Gjo. here and there also Krikla. 302. according to Finn Magnusson 3 January is sometimes called Thorre. dern times the Icelandic months have other names but keep the same position in the year:. Jolenioanc or Skammtid (time of the month). 43 1044 ff. . these months are not used in pracIn motical life. scepium struendarum).298 or the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. however.. 7. Addrattam. 8 and 9. Nottleysum. Vinterstid. of worms). 3.. now and again also Gjo. to the explanation of the variation.

3. on account 6.. 10. 2. 8. They ran: Swedish year 1901. he says. Ism. 10.. on account of the pairing of the animals (at lobe i Rhed). . 11.. Riidm. 7. the late month'. are said to call the first four months: 1. mild month). In the loc. (autumn month).. Helmisse ('holy mass') realty means All Souls' and then an old worn-out horse. 3 12. 5. Madkcm. 4. The 3. Sowmann. 6. Maym. Sommermaen. Gqjcm. but it is precisely names of this sort that oust the Latin names. Hostm. Blidel was until our own time in popular Blidel. Faarem. = nature of by-names. Feilberg in his well-known Dictionary of the popular speech of J}^lland gives some characteristic modern popular names... Winterm. Vinterm. 10. Glugmanet. Sommerm.. since they are intelligible. written Blindemanet. Blomstcrm. Polsemaen (sausage month). Scedemaen (seed month). 12.. (spring month). Glug. 2. 1044 ff.: 8. hence September or October obtains the name helmissemducd. March is called kattemdned. of the journeys. Sccdem. 6. 1. Vdrm. Hostm.. 299 are lunar months. Horn. (the Skcersommer. 1 5 Edda III.. 11.. 11.. 77r0r. Ism. The northern Danes and the inhabitants of Skane Christm. Thormaen. Farem. Dyrem. has as variants 1. Ormemaen (month of worms). Torsmdnad. Skordem. Fiskem. Kornmaen. (riding month). The intercalary month is called Sildemaen. but it denoted February and in this 1 in Hickes The same series is found in appears position 2 but with certain variants: Finn Magnusson 1.. Torm. (ice use in southern it . (sheep month). (hay month). 9. Ridem. or prangermdned (pranger 'dealer').. Maymaen. 9. cit. 11. from the pairing of the cats. until it was modernised in the names stood beside the Latin. f Julian months are 3. Blidem. Julemaen. . . and begin with the first new moon of the new year: 1. 3 Hickes. Faremaen. (grass month). Skane. Grcism. 12. 4. 8. 2. 7. 4. Fiskemaen. Swedish almanac. (harvest month). Slagtem. 215. Ormem.. Horn.SCANDINAVIAN NAMES OF MONTHS. 2. 7. These are evident!}' more in the month). I.. Jnlcm. exhausted in the autumn ploughing and who dies in consequence. (month of flowers). 5. Hickes. Goje. Hoemaen (hay month). 10. because most business is transacted then. whose last strength is Day. called: 4.. Diur Rev or Renden.

. 'harvest'.300 Slaktm. . It is true that The series has arisen from an used. and 5 retain their Latin names. 173 ff.. . 2 pp. the Dog-days'. When the of it is remembered be that Augst means seen to consist only in the for Jenner and of the fallow month' and the (Brachmonat) renaming Hornung from midsummer. which as early as the 15th century was common to all Germany. Tegn. f when Leo of it is very It is .^ Julm. (July 22 it fixed at the time in f keep meat and other food from which the sun stands in - Aug.- difficult to going bad. In the latter three . December Christrndnad These names shew that the series is of German origin: in Sweden vines are not cultivated. October is named Winmdnad (vine-month). 8. pp. Marsmdnad.months have Latin names. Vinterm. which is in Sweden a great popular festival. Ibid. from the period of the Etesian in the 1 The history of the Swedish list of months is dealt with in detail by the present writer in the essay De svenska manadsnamnen. viz. rotnidnaden ( the rotten month'). and it was not till the 17th century that it was generally equated to the time during which the sun stands in Leo 2 The Swedish list of months is therefore largely of foreign or learned origin. Aprilmdnad. about July 13 as Aug.a translation and the position varied considerably. Stud. The list agrees with one given by Weinhold. 177 ff. variations substitution the old names Tor and Goje f and Julmdnad were substituted for Win... and . one which is first attested for the year 1538. these older PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. p. and December 24th is never called Christmas Eve but Yule Eve. outside the usual series. case in German the months further will also in this point that. names were never (slaughtering month). Formerly dies was known caniculares The period descends ancient Greek calendar. . so named because it falls in the most sultry time of the summer. as is often the 3. to which the reader is referred for the documents. 14. The only popular names are Tor and Goje. Majtndnad. the agreement is shewn lists. old style).and Christmdnad in 1608 by the almanac -maker Forsius: the three Latin names were first exchanged for Swedish in 1 There is moreover one 1734 by the almanac-maker Hiorter Swedish name which is still very popular and which falls The more suitable Slakt- . 4. 23.

beard. they say in the in the south the same thing is said of Bliel north of Sk&ne. pp. 1910. porri. Bilfinger. the Yule moon is in reality the moon which is in the heavens on the day of Epiphany. . Volksknnde. ff. Thor (= March). g. beginning of these three months was with popular celebrations both in Iceland and elsewhere in Scandinavia 2 And now attempts have been made to prove that these Norwegian months are old lunar months. i. with the long 1 . e. i. 3 Zeitschr. and so in Iceland. Then in order to fix the date of the important movable festivals the most convenient practical means was to begin from the first new moon after the day of Epiphany. the festival is the calculation of the following moons are regulated accordingly. Unters. 38 and 58. e. des Vereins f. I. The Icelanders have made Thorri and Goi into mythological figures In Sweden the people have personified these names. p.were use. (Blidel = February) - and drives them in and then Far Fcijeskimi (= April) comes again. I. Goja shakes her robe. Certainly the heathen Germans must have been acquainted with lendar lunar month.. after the Yule moon. The old rule says: on the of "Count the moon which is in the sky day Epiphany as long as it lasts. and then ten days onward from the new * 1 Weinhold. so that moon which is in the heavens during the Yuletidetermed the Yule moon if it continues until the end of the festival. 49. 301 which also often occur without the addition of 'month'. The terms and e.OLD SCANDINAVIAN LUNAR MONTHS. Gjo. entices the children outside the wall. When it snows. In Aasen's Norwegian Dictionary it is stated that the country people even to-day still count and name the moons. but in this case we must unreservedly agree with Bilfinger 3 that this lunar the reckoning is of Christian origin. hailed Thorre. Mon. the day of Epiphany: and if it does not last till the end of this period. and Krikla -.. possible that in far the monthIn Norway the names same three months in the only ones common The . and Einmdnadr.. Axel Olrik. 20. 57. then the next following moon is the Yule moon. Unters. Goi. 32. and the existence of the lunisolar caamong the Anglo-Saxons is not to be denied. The latter month is conceived of it - as 'Father Sweep-skin': but is name Fare-manned (= of the April) appears.

which is A a direct heathen temple 1 continuation of the great sacrificial festival at the in Uppsala. the names must What they meant before they originate in an older period. for fixing the date of the fair at Uppsala known as the (listing. although the heavens did not exactly agree with the rule of computation. the disablot. Since in spjte of many ingenious attempts these words remain etymologically unexplained.. since the lunisolar year as regulated sure indication of by empirical intercalation. There would be nothing surprising in this. pp . and not because they began. an Old Swedish heathen reckoning in lunar months has been acutely pointed out by Beckmari 2 in the rule. and they had attained a much higher stage of civilisation than many peoples who were familiar with the it were the case. and the calculation was most moon of simply performed of the in the fashion just described. certainly somewhat remote. p. 298. although the computa- Christian. . Beckman. and moreover are not borrowed. that the relationship of the first three Norwegian names of months to the Julian varies in the manner shewn above. is the age of the names porn (Tor) and Goje. A further question.302 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. like the Icelandic months. Tegn. however. that their is pre-Christian. attested from the time of the Reformation. 65. but there nothing to shew that they are not old names of months. in the middle phenomena of the Julian months. The third of these moons was followed by the Easter festival." After this follows the disting\ On account of the ecclesiastically prescribed period Lent and the Easter festival it was absolutely necessary to be able to calculate this time. 211. whether it be young or old. Germans were acquainted with lunar months. pp. is There tion if use as names of months is a possibility. It is because they are lunar months. 200 ff. as has * Celsius. received is their present application we do not know. The rule. is moon. For this reason these three months have stamped themselves upon the minds of the people in all the Scandinavian countries. Stud. and you have the terminus Septuagesimce" Hence "The moon which is derived the Swedish peasant rule : in the sky at the day of Epiphany shall be the Christmas moon.

This certainly goes back to ancient times and cannot arise from the Christian computation of Easter. when Snorre wr as staying in Sweden. 301. how late in medieval times the runewho knew nothing about this rule. fair but that after the introduction of Christianity the date of the was altered to Candlemas (Feb. which may lead to a different result. the year 1219. After Christianity was introduced. and In Snorre has generalised the single case. The fact that the moon of fasting was calculated from the phenomena of the heavens is expressly stated at least in the rule as given above. cit. and is ingeniously explained by Beckman. says that the disting shall be held following the Epiphany moon. of it insertion of the intercalary month was so that no error might arise in regard to the moon and with the the disting. 2).reason for arranging with reference to Easter the date of a fair so long before Easter and originating in heathen Rather is the explanation given in the words of Tatimes 1 . was it was still better than nothing to have one that approximate and easy to make. 2 Saga of Saint Olaf. and therefore above. which would also apply val and the popular assembly presupposes that the fixed in to the great sacrificial festiof the Svear. The latter statement contradicts the rule. that the Germans held their assemblies at new or full moon. 76. already been indicated at the full of the (p. the latter the rule of computation. the computation of the three moons before Easter. ch. the full moon of the disting fell on the first of February. Unfortunately this conclusion cannot be considered too binding. tries to prove the heathen origin of the computaand its independence of the Easter reckoning by the statement that the former follows the phenomena of the heavens. tion of the disting appeared we do not know. This however some way. but certainly not at the beginning of the Middle Ages it was still absolutely necessary to determine in some degree the time of fasting and the Easter time. And if the absolutely correct calstaves culation could not be made. 303 moon fore rule exactly two 302). loc. and theremonths before the Easter full moon. citus. Snorre says that the disablot was celebrated in Goe. 1 Beckman. Goe. A statement of Snorre 2 however causes difficulty. but the G5je new moon has been shewn to be the second after Epiphany.OLD SCANDINAVIAN LUNAR MONTHS. p. since for the people in general. computation of the dt'sting-moon was also modified in accordance with these. since there would be no . as has been seen is the name of the month.. .

called Goe. On the contrary the distingit. But the almanac-makers never follow these rules. 'intruder'. vertently. In accordance with the custom the ecclesiastical computation the new moon is (nearly alafter the following ways) named ceases: in month. Now certain years receive new moons. is which was later fitted into the Christian computation of the new moons before Easter. Easter has very often the Christian computing caused the new moons to fall after the period (Yule. (January). 2 inkombling = Ny 'new-comer'. Sometimes. the i. Tor. and so on. did not entirely correspond either to the Christian porre or to Goe: Snorre has made Goe equi- valent to The necessity made equivalent to porre. . doubtless inadfalls. In two or three of the oldest almanacs L the inter2 but its position calary moon is certainly described as such in the year does not correspond to the rule of the computers: in 1603 it is simply placed in the Julian month in which two . for which the computers give rules. Petrus Giseeus. and was re-arranged accordingly. In the other Scandinavian countries also the enumeration of the moons between Christmas and Easter was neglected after the Reformation had made the observation of the fast superfluous. This is certainly a survival of an older pre-Christian computation. which is identical with new moon. however. that the arrangement of the heathen lunar months must have been different from that of the Christian Easter moons. therefore falls Torsmdnad e. It is to be presumed. and therefore one intercalary moon. or rather it was replaced by another: the New Year's Day appears as the regulating point instead of Epiphany. the new moon of Goje. otherwise of it has been moon the very moon in which the disting is held. and that this must have been the cause of the difference in the position of the moons. new moon is named after the month in which it 13 Ny Goijemdnat falls in February. 1600. The heathen dt'sting-moon. Goe) from which they are named. Herein lies an unexplained difficulty. 1603. that in which the moon Ny Goijemdnat. The Swedish almanacs of the 16th and 17th centuries give the new moons in words. the practice ceasing in the se- cond of half of the 17th century. the Tor moon following the disting-moon.304 the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 1 Olaus Andreae and Gerardus Erici.

2 See above. is contrary to the rule placed in January. Worm exmonths were still in use and began lunar that these states pressly with the first new moon of the new year. e. 'new king played a very important of the year (nykung their hats and the women curtseyed off took men The part. in the further enu- meration the that after new moons run over into the month preceding which they are named. through the use of the rune-staves recording the golden numbers. Here. III. This method has become popular. Apart from the almanacs. which use the names of months introduced into them. and its popularity has been assisted by the fact that the people. or after p. which fact certainly has something to to do with the naming of the new moons according the usual computation. 101 ff. 1660: Tprsmdnadsny. p.the East Finns has been translated and communicated to me by ProThe authority makes a man of the people fessor Wiklund. from it were taken oracles for the new year. e. 111. I find in Swedish only one example: Torretungel (tun gel. 20 . to the first of January. this is doubled and serves as an intercalary moon. account of connected lunar months among. 305 new moons fall. 3 Celsius. part equivalent or similar to those of the solar series. . Hayka. when they saw it. and the thirteenth and last new moon is again called Torsmdnadsny. Another way out is chosen by Herlicius. the new moon of January. 3 "The moon which is born while the as follows speak : An winter day is still in his house (December 1822). were accustomed Above all the first moon to the calculation of the new moon. The question is whether a popular name was also given to the new moons. but in the first half of the year they occupy an earlier position. 1630 and 1641. 299. J. therefore. Otherwise the difficulty is got over by leaving uncounted the intercalary moon or some of the new moons.LATER SWEDISH MOON-MONTHS. dialect for 'new moon') The Danish chronologist Worm gives both a lunar and a solar 2 The names are for the most series of names of months = 1 ) 1 . i. the insertion of the the new intercalary moon depends upon the position of moon in relation to the beginning of the year. i. andThuro- nius of Abo.

beginning with the When we first reckon heart-moon. the winter solstice. same name. e. given conditions. e." At first sight it is very tempting see in this to account old Finnish moon-months regulated by e. it so. December 21. which would be quite conceivable so far north. g.(middle-) moon. it is therefore 'forgotten'. although there are only twelve book-months. among the Siberian peoples. I. in leap-year the second heartfollowing tables give the answer: the limits begin is the two extremes of new moon on the first and on the twenty-ninth of January. there is no second heartfoam-moon (so called snow-crust moon. In this way the Christ- mas festival sometimes falls in the first heart-moon. as ordinary years moon? at The the heart-moon. gets in front of the regulating-point. but there follow the like foam). is an intercalary moon. the sprouting moon. and not the whole 'house'. 1 . is the first heart. the Day.306 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. that. we sometimes get thirteen months in the year. However this is not The heart-moon is in the given instance doubled. and then we hope for a good harvest. e. the first of the two months with the intercalary month. Now it is a familiar fact that the i. etc the moons of the year. But when the first heart-moon is born late. From Jan. g. after Twelfth moon in this year. the because the snow looks melting moon. i. We must therefore ask: Within what under the will the moon fall which in limits. and a second moon with the same name is inserted after it. we must of course reckon one day for the solstice.

etc. 11. tree-felling month. have taken this process from them also. winter solstice. 18. > * 27. this regulation leads to such a position of these months as is given in the account. but the already mentioned adaptation of the lunar reckon1 ing in accordance with the new year of the Julian calendar . p. the Swedish 'rotten month'. autumn month. sible for the first solstice. 307 From Jan. Dec. 6. A similar but somewhat different complete list has been drawn up by Lonnrot in Karelia: 1. heart-moon ever to begin before the winter will be found that in regard to the position of the heart-month. dung or dirt . but in Finland it has not been driven out by the influ- who from the earliest times have owed their cul- ences of later civilisation.FINNISH MOON-MONTHS. were assumed the first heart-moon and would therefore not come within the 2 Schiefner. > 12 12 Jan. In Old Scandinavian times they borrowed the word mano. 7. and in leap-year the second heart-moon. which long remained comparatively untouched by these influences. 29. 10. 2. melting or sowing month. hay pus month (cf. 8. above. heart-month. The first ^regulating-point is therefore New Year's Day: the heartit moon. II. just as in Norway. Jan. harvest month. foam-month. Christmas month the heart-month appears doubled. month of clods. The Lapps also have taken their reckoning from the Scandinavians: of the reckoning in weeks we have spoken above. 2 Here too month. 25. as the account says it must. 3. 9. 13 14. The Lapp word means both 'moon' and 1 There can here be no moons by the Epiphany Day. The calendar is therefore not a native lunar one. 12 12 Jan. 300). heart-month. 27. 5. question since if this of the Catholic regulation of the could not begin earlier than Dec. and in leap-years of the first heart-month. the Catholic lunar reckoning has been preserved. p. 12. 13. 4. begin with the This rule however makes impos- new moon It after this. 12 moons to Jan. ture to the Scandinavians. 3. month. The Finns. 217. . The above-quoted source unfortunately does not preserve all the names of months. Lapp inanno (moon). 7. moons to Jan. summer month.

also *'month when the hair has grown thick has *the same name rutting-time covers the end of of October). pp. because the swan comes in *'month of calves'. soc. since the sap rises in the *'fir firs. Wiklund. freezes at night into a hard crust. The Lapp names occurs. sometimes without. They appear sometimes with.j. *'swan month'. has again'. on account of the coming of these birds. . the thirteenth basse m. 300. a loan-word there*'swan month'. first week in Advent). the month manno word the adopted of the Scandinavians must have been a lunar month. scient. Swedish rotmdnad) tioned by Wiklund gave this month the position of the ninth . new day (month). 8. 6. 1883. *' Advent month (passatis(m. or *'rutting month' (the September and the beginning as 8. 'the in. modern Swedish i. 8 See above. 'moon'. the addition 'month'. is also generally called *'month when the male reindeer are powerless'. or else 'autumn month'. which melts in the daytime in the bright sunshine. or juowla (mieska 1 The Lapps were also acquainted with the 'rotten month' 3 A Lapp woman menmanno. only PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 11. '(hard) *snow-crust month'. of months were not collected until last century. Year's new month. since the surface of the snow. 5 ff. 2 Act. Therefore at the time when the Lapps term for 'month'. Lapps is there found a nar which one dictionar} also uses as a aske. . p. 'month'.308 'month'. 'flesh month'. new year Day month 2. rarely *'Advent month'. New fore). loan-word). 12. rarely month'. rarely (knowa. They among the southern tive word are: 1. when the reindeer bring forth their calves. 10. month without a feast'. for 'moon' and 'month'. 7. 3. Gojem. rarely mar asm. *'crow month'. March. and so In some authors the form inannod also among the Lapps. 4. 166. (month). or *'month when less' (after the rutting). *'month of calves'. p. or first Advent Sunday and the l . 'Yule of the month' Qvigstad 2 calls the' twelfth week-month Lapps bdse-tcebme manno. 'calf month'. called *the same. *'month when the reindeer has shed its hair'. 9. rarely *'crow month'. 5. (mars. e. mdnad. 12. the male reindeer are power*the same name as 9. rarely *'snow-crust month'. '(mid)summer month'. fennicae. means the *'rutting month'. *'fir month'. p.

as in Denmark and Finland.LAPP MONTHS. in the series. dary and late 'development . at least in ancient The statement that on the basis of the reckoning by times. in which he speaks of thirteen week-months of the Lapps.. with which last the Lapps were acquainted. loan-words: for the March. which they called a month. have become really popular. It is only the fluctuation found everywhere when names of seasons are transformed into names of months. were lunar months which began at the first new moon of the new year. as also among the Scandinavians. but the statement is inconclusive. he says. it might then be supposed that these. 309 and explained it as the month in which the grass fade and rot. and so their reckoning was 13 months. so that were 13 sides of four weeks each. That this is so is supported not t only by Qvigstad but also by Hogstrom in his description of Lapland of the year 1746. It would be a quite isolated case: everywhere else the months are either the Julian or lunar months. the ourselves with the fact that Lapp names of months shew the same fluctuation as is shewn by all names taken from natural objects or phenomena and applied to the months. Wiklund has accepted this four-week month. If the Lapps really had thirteen months. and these are either essentially or literally that the also often do the Latin name even appears in one instance There is consequently borrowing in the case of the three names which alone. It is quite possible there Lapps called a period of four weeks a month: we same when an approximation will serve. weeks a four-week month could have arisen is certainly not . Only the names of the first two months are quite fixed. but only one side of the seventh was written on. the 'rotten month' having certainly been placed erroneously begins to as a separate month in the series. According to this authority the Lapps drew their rune-calendar on seven discs of reindeerhorn..but the fluctuation of the names of months is no evidence for this. On the strength of this Wiklund assumes a thirteen-month year. T . But we find no trace of lunar months We must therefore content in Lapland in historical times.if this is so. but that the names of months mean periods of four weeks seems very questionable. it must be a seconabsolutely to be denied.

and the seasons have neither fixed position nor duration these names of months derived from natural phenomena and occuto the fact that names of the : pations have not therefore in themselves the precision which the chronological system demands. Such precision will only be introduced by an external factor. Although the Julian months have a fixed position in the solar year.310 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. in the one case by the lunar months. This is due in the desire for concrete observations the seasons and of their occupations have been kept. yet the names of the months are unstable and fluctuating. This brief survey of the popular months of the European peoples is instructive from the point of view of a comparison with the names of months among primitive peoples. and do not fluctuate to and fro like the lunar months. in the other by the Julian months to which the names of the seasons are transferred. .

are everywhere employed in the determination of time how in the moon . therefore. AIDS TO THE DETERMINATION have seen in the foregoing pages how the phases of Nature. We there lies ready to hand a clear. especially of the solstices: the observation of the equinoxes is a much more difficult matter. these. keep pace with the natural year.demands a fixed place and - ' special aids to determination. are not subject to climatic variations but are astronomically fixed.CHAPTER OF TIME. account phases but. of the solstices It follows that the observation and equinoxes belongs to a much higher stage . unlike that of the stars. being dependent on the sun. with their somewhat variable dates. The observation of the solstices can be performed in a 21. and how out of the fusion of natural and moons there arose a roughly empirical lunisolar year. p. in which noon is similar to that mentioned above. stable (at least within very narrow limits). and constant unit of time which could be turned to in calculating. way but carry out and requires far more accurate and delicate methods. determined by the position of the sun. which everywhere. viz. It is however possible astronomically to fix the solar year by a second method. the observation of the annual course of the sun. XII. unlike the phases of Nature. An observation of the annual course of the sun. can be performed immediately . SOLSTICES AND EQUINOXES. For the more accurate fixing both of the seasons and of the months the phases of the stars are employed. other methods are still more complicated. Two fixed points at least are is much more difficult to a standing-ground and in the simplest case a necessary mark on the horizon. no matter where.

than does that of the stars. where it sets consecutively for four days at 1 Cranz.312 of civilisation PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 293. month 5 The tribes of Arizona observed the course of more particularly to determine the dates of their . Turner. 141. but also from the position of Altair in the morn2 ing twilight They begin their spring when the sun rises at the same spot as Altair 3 This is a quite isolated. passes the moon at ayonaiva yiilldne. Older say that by the rays of the sun on the rocks the Eskimos can tell with tolerable accuracy when it is the shortest day *.and that accurately to the day not only from the solstitial point. who have a very highly de- veloped sense of place. Above. but an determination of the course of the sun from the fixed accurate. p. . and for a time altogether disappears beneath it. Moreover where the sun in winter stands very low on the horizon. 4 Dalsager. After all . the conditions very favourable for the observation of its return.. 5 54. 142. 2 Holm.. Ibid.that the only natural observation of the course of the sun should be in use only is it is among It certain specially gifted peoples. since a race which leads a nomadic life and changes dwellings and camps without the necessary fixed points of observation. Among the Zuni the winter solstice begins when the rising sun certain point at the south-west end of 'Corn MounThen the sun tain'. p. p.and this actually is the case . more recently we have been told of the Ammasalik that they can calculate beforehand the time of the shortest day . and know how to make good maps. 202. 105. The Hudson Bay Eskimos of Labrador recognise the arrival of the solstices by the bearing of the sun with reference to certain fixed landmarks 4 The Central Eskimos must do the same. . but also to decide the time of secular occupations. moves to the north. 3 I. is used by the Eskimos. p. 104. and a great feast is then celebrated. 246. religious ceremonies. 39. . 10. It can only arise among a people with a ^xed dwelling-place. p. which is called 'Great Mountain'. since they are acquainted with the winter solstice and when this and new moon coincide they omit their intercalary are authors - . the sun. stars. and strikes a continues round to a point north-west of Zuni.

by means of which the seasons are determined from the ecliptic. At the spring equinox the maize was sunset the shadow was reaped and a feast was celebrated. arranged in groups of four. pp. 3 Garcilasso . There are 13 landmarks. It would in that case be a quite isolated example of the regulation of the months bv^ie observation of the sun's position 2 artificial marks. Stevenson. which lies just under the equator. The two middle ones were smaller than the others. the sun. This last account is for Quito. or twenty feet. In order to verify this the Inca chose a favourable spot from which he observed carefully whether the sun rose and set between the little towers to east and west. For the observation of the equinoxes richly ornamented pillars were set up in the open space before the temple of for . 199 ff. There were in Cuzco Ti^Incas erected sixteen towers. eight to the west and eight to the east. 1 de la Vega. cf. and the distance between the towers was eight. of the sun. . The number suggests that there is some connexion with the months. pp. Long ^experience had taught them where to look for the equinoctial poinfT^nd by the distance of the shadow from this point they judged of the approach of the equinox. When was line carefully observed. 2 I Fewkes. the shadow^ of the pillars The open space was circular and a was drawn through its centre from east to west. 256 ff. for planting. 148 ff. When frorn sunrise to to_be^ seen on both sides oF the pillar and not at all to the south of it. the time approached. ten. 313 the sani_4)a[nt. The space between the little towers through which the sun passed at sunrise and sunset was the point of the solstices. 108 I. they took that day as the day of the equinox. TheCHopi^stermine the time for their religious ceremonies. ff. The last day is the summer solstice^^Qn this occasion also a great festival is celebrated *. The winter ceremonies are determined by the^ position of the sunset. and sowing by observing the points on the horizon where the sun rises or sets.OBSERVATION OF THE SOLSTICES AND EQUINOXES.. the summer by the position of the The two points of the solstices are called the(*houses) Sunrise. at the autumn equinox the 3 The people celebrated one of their four principal feasts months were calculated from the winter solstice.

and it does not pass beyond these two it places. We say that when it winter place it is fetching the summer. it enters few days. and intelligent chiefs adjust the 2 reckoning of the months by it For the Bismarck Archipelago the following details are given. explained turn again and would finally attain its A how George's Channel. again. call the summer . the summer house a now fetching the summer. 395. The spot denoting the turning-point in the Baining mountain is chosen rather far off. When the sun had its greatest southern amplitude it rose over Birar on St. we are told. 117. and the observation is therefore not.314 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.. time after the solstice and usually at the beginning of January the exact date depends on the weather . and indeed it when the summer has grown. native magistrate. In the whole of the north-eastern part of the Gazelle Peninsula the fact of the solstice is known. when it comes out goes southward to its summer place.a festival the object of which is to regulate the course of the sun and to secure good weather. To Kakao. the path of the sun in winter is different from its summer path: for it travels northward a mountain or a forest (where till it reaches a certain place. quoted by Frazer. although no festival is celebrated.. . fetching the winter. These are its houses. and so the sun is observed at its setting. for it stays in its winter house a few days: and when it quits that place we know that it has ended the winter and is travels southward until. it it comes out of its winter house. in solThe Basuto also stice the house of the sun. In Valaur the view is completely cut off to the east. in constant succession. On the island of Vuatam there is celebrated some constant succession *. p. Another southern turning-point is furnished by still another mountain. very accurate. we say so. the turning-point in the south being formed by two mountain peaks situated close together. and then quits it again. until it its reaches a certain mountain or tree and then it turns northward quits . the sun would greatest northern amplitude on the horizon when it sank between the volcanic mountains 'South Daughter' and 'Mother'. Among the Amazulu. p. rises and sets) . Casalis. The solstices are 1 brought into connexion with the variation * of Callaway.

p. but certainly they did it like other peoples. like the for the : understood the annual course of the sun. In Tahiti the place tataheito. but during the time when it was situated in a northerly direction (May to August) the south-east monsoon prevailed. pp. The Moanu the year ( the Admiralty Islands name the divisions of according to the position of the sun. shining road to the navel of Wakea'. 706 ff. and of the sunrise so was the fact that all these points of the daily approach to the zenith lay in a line. 127. p. 436. division is ( named morai begins 2 ._ the sun from the south towards the was called The annual movement of north was recognised. black. When the sun stands above in f kauas sun of the of and of mutual visits. 3 Forster. since it is during this time more parti- cularly that the equator wars are carried this on.OBSERVATION OF THE SOLSTICES. . and above the horizon.ih dt of the sunset topa-t-era. the June solstice rua-poto. this is time friendship'): peace When the sun turns southward the colder season. p. the northern point of the This meridian opposite point it tu-errau. was called fera-hwattea.when the sun sets WSW. The Hasolstice northern limit of the sun in the ecliptic of Kane'. toa 3 . ! Parkinson. the north-west trade blows To Kakao the blew all the time WNW . 315 said that the north-east trade-wind sun was in the south (November to February). shining The equator was named the of road Kanaloa'. One would suspect knowledge latter of the stars. . 378. In Valaur the south-east monsoon blows as long as the sun sets (May to August): but from November to l 'February.^ by observing the solstices and equinoxes at ' certain(mndmarksy That the Greeks also recognised the solstices by means 1 Meier. morai unonou. was called According to other sources the December rna-maoro or rua-roa. or 'the bright road of tti_spider' waiians 'the called the c 4 How the Polynesians equivalent to 'the centre of the world' came to recognise the tropics and the equator is unfor. tunately unknown. If it stands of f north of the im paiin equator the division in question is called moral war sun'). or the south. 4 For- nander. is borrowed from the Polynesians r that this Melanesian science. and the southern limit 'the road black. the monsoons.

6 it stands in the eykt and that south of Iceland and Greenland the sun at the time of the shortest days inhabits eyktar- which stad and dagmdlastad (that it is true. Hence it should not be denied that. 157. the solstices and equinoxes might have been approximately determined in the same way. It is said. the idea is that it lies in the direction of the at its turning rises or sets. Now the sun. e. and it may be that the regulation of the calendar profited 1 determining time into heathen times. pp. For it has been shewn that . odi TQOjrai . the position in . 21. 'OQTvyii]$ uativneQfiev. vfjOog rig 2vQii] 2 403. Flateyjarbok. an assumption A much which must be adopted by anyone who regards the Yule Their acquaintance with these has been denied and with this view I myself have conpoints curred 3 After my researches in primitive time-reckoning. I can no longer maintain this opinion for the later heathen times of the north. 1 . The evidence. so also Ginzel. Edda. 564 " and 663 respectively. I. that autumn lasts from the sun sets in eyktarstad. 539. even though in the realm of sun turns" observation of certain landmarks In the a passage in Homer. for equinox until the example.316 of the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. . my liga fester. e. the horizon. 3 Cf. although nothing of the kind has transpired. III. may be gathered from Odyssey Eumaeus says of his native above Ortygia.v Op. 4 Above. it is 'the house of the sun'. p. fable. Snorre's above. /c ^<. . g. Hesiod. however. . of is of native origin and certainly goes back by this. f . m.) 6 . 21 p.and primitive peoples especially those living far north. comes down from Christian days: but the method is to say at 9 a. discussed question is whether the ancient Germans were acquainted with the solstices and equinoxes. festival as a solstitial festival. cf. I. Od v XV. 150. Arets folk* 57.. where the land: "A certain island Syrie Wherever Syrie lay. It as a landmark. the Eskimos observed the solstices well from certain points on - has already been seen that the northern 4 and peoples observed the times of day in the same manner this observation was also extended to the annual course of it . i. Hesiod is so familiar with the winter and summer solstices that he reckons time which the sun spot at therefore serves from them in days 2 .

. pp. This date then decided the time for the beginning of the sowing 4 sun would .. Paul or Candlemas. first summer peoples in particular have developed various methods of this kind. *Ibid. to important days of the year. 317 other day of the year can be fixed by observation same way. I. sets behind the opposite hill. 3 Xieuwenhuis. The rice-cultivating peoples of the Agricultural in order to determine the Of the observation of the stars we have already spoken 2 Among the Kayan of Sarawak an old priest determines the official time of sowing from the position of the sun by erecting at the side of the house two oblongstones. e. Any in the / which the people repaired for these observations.OBSERVATION OF THE SOLSTICES AMONG THE SCANDINAVIANS. the sun. In other respects the time-reckoning is a more or 3 Of arbitrary one and is dependent on the agriculture the~hollo\\'s in a block of stone at Batu Sala~ in the river-bed moment when less . the festival of St. in the lengthening of the line of connexion between these two stones. or noted when it touched the brow of a mounThence they were able to give the tain or a certain stone. and then observing the East Indies use various methods important time of sowing. 317. As late as the beginning of the 19th century this method was adopted in Norway as a check to the primeOn certain farms there was a definite stone. Our authority says that the observation was very inaccurate. the to sit it is fact that priestesses of the said that they originated in the neighbouring tribes used for- merly the on the stone every year in order to observe when set behind a certain peak of the opposite mountain. I. or when its last rays touched this or_that /summit. tThey noticed when the sun rose and shone out above certain /mountain peaks. But it was not so bad as that. though the observation of the solstices is probably the oldest. . 1 Riste. 160. 6 and 8. one larger and one smaller. 137 ff. thfc earth. so that the Christmas Day of the people might fall on January 2. g. ^fhe sowing-day is the only one determined by astronomical methods. . They also observed the length of the_shadow on the face of a cliff. - Above. buried in staff. since they still followed the 14) old day (April The sun-mark for the with the 23rd of April l agreed style. of the upper Mahakam. pp.

having a dial divided into twelve midday. In this case the was much simplified on account of the situation the below equator. of ff. and measures the distance of thepatch of light from_the point vertically below the hole. 3. no. The pole is a little longer than the is outstretched arms of its maker and stands on a cleared space by the house. in of light a beam Thus they obtain a measurement 1 . of which one marks the greatest length of the midday shadow. I. n. Various Modes of computing the Time for Planting among the Races of Borneo. and the approach of the short dry season before it in w^hich the timber from the clearings must be dried and burnt. an in- strument of immense importance for the scientific astronomy and accurate time-determination observation of antiquity. The Kayan use a somewhat prophet lets different method. surrounded by a strong fence. the next one its length three days after it has begun to shorten. the possibility of its sinking deeper into the earth is prevented. 106 ff. The Kenyan observe the position of the sun. The shadow is measured every after reaching its maximal length with special care. Their instrument a straight cylindrical pole of hardwood. the Royal Asiatic Society. The pillars of Quito were a kind of gnomon. fixed vertically in the ground and carefully adjusted with the aid of plumb-lines. As it grows shorter it the man observes . Singapore. The method is used again in Borneo. The observer has further a flat stick on which lengths measured from his body are marked off by notches. The weather- through a hole in the roof of his chamber in the long-house. Crawfurd. and announces to the l village that the time for preparing the land is near at hand In Bali and Java the seasons are determined by the aid of a gnomon of rude construction. 1905. Journal of the the Straits 2 Branch I. the first example we have artificially erected marks instead of the usual natural landmarks: compare also the towers at Cuzco. 300 . unfortunately I have not had access work of Hose quoted by Frazer on p. 2 parts . and so on. The other side has a larger number of notches. 314. just where it is very important to determine the right time for sowing the seed. similar to that given by the to Hose and McDougall. 42.318 In PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

104. each stick attainIt is otherwise with the ing so to speak an individual life. . The same reckoning may also occasionally serve a second purpose. It has never attained real importance for the regulation of the calendar: the development of the calendar to greater accuracy among proceeds by the indirect way of the lunisolar time-reckoning. . It is set upright again. but it is much too refined to be a primitive invention. By way of appendix a few notices of the aids used in calculating may be collected. . e. 3 p. and from there the practice came to Borneo.. 2 Ibid. They are almost always quite knots in a string. and when the level of the water coincides with the mark after the inclining of the vessel towards in the vessel the star. it is the time for sowing 2 The writers omit to say that the observation must take place at a certain time of day. the In Bali and Java observed the priests sun-dial. Still until it star. is is points directly towards and the level of the water the seed-time the vessel measured. the tally. or the joints of the body. II. p. In order to determine provided with an empirically given certain mark at a height. Then it becomes possible to season by the height of the star above the neither primitive nor native. 139. 1 Hose and McDougal]. Where the idea of using a vessel of water for measurement originated I am unable to determine. 108. but only certain peoples. This method is found Brahmin and Islamite in all parts of the world. 319 shadow on a used by some sun-dial of the from the position with water and then inclined a certain left more elaborate is the method Klementan by which time is determined of a star. The only genuinely primitive method is the observation of the annual course of the sun and the solstices by the aid of certain landmarks on the horizon.SEED-TIME DETERMINED BY OBSERVATION OF THE SUN. morning or evening determine the horizon. g. 109. simple The use of the tally in counting the years has already been dealt with above 3 this use is certainly later. A tall bamboo vessel is filled 1 . All this is twilight. counting or of the days. of mine the number where the question usually is to deterdays which will elapse before an assembly some other undertaking previously agreed upon. I. so that all may arrive together.

p. Powers. 9 Mooney. Du Pratz. Claus. x star or night. used this method in counting the number of the cattle earned 6 Among the if it was desired to count the days. one of which was to be withdrawn and destro}'ed each day. p. p. Barrow the Caff res nexion with the sitting of a court of justice. he dispatches the neighbouring rancherias. but the Hottentot servants of the colonists. each bearing a messengers string wherein is tied a number of knots. they joyfully set forth for the dance . in conWagogo According to assist their . so. 5 p. is 4 sun. . e. a dance in his village. 7 Alberti. 229. months. so that they might strike their blows at the same time 3 The Pawnee used the tally for counting nights. among whom were several Caffres. 1. p. 2 Sticks serve the same purpose. 3 III. The Baganda. tie in order to keep in mind the days of the month. 68. p. St'ouan Tribes. * means day or . and children Once when the Natchez and the Chocktaw wished to attack the French in Louisiana. 352. 6 2 knots 1 in a 4 Dunbar. and years. g. 8 237 ff. In Nigeria palm-nuts are used in counting 7 just as in southern Brazil the years are counted by means of acajou nuts 8 and as the tribes of Bolivia count with grains of maize 9 . Above. 104. Chervin. but had advanced so far as to employ picture-writing in doing . . . 93. 38. piece of plant-fibre and afterwards count the 32. and when is reached. C moon. each tribe received a bundle of sticks. The Peruvian quipos mark the culminating-point of the method of counting by knots in a cord. men. . Something similar existed among the Nahyssan of Carolina. 'Every morning fornia decides to to hold the last one thereafter the invited chief unties one of the knots. women. although this authority did not himself find this custom among them. p. Above. as many knots were tied in a string as there were nights to elapse before this date. month the forerunner of the Indian picture-calendar already 5 . Time was measured and a rude chronology was arranged by means of knots of This system proved so convenient in dealing with the Indians that it was adopted for that purpose by a governor of South Carolina l When a chief of the Miwok of Calivarious colours. This men- tioned memories by means of a tally. p.320 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.

They have notches on the edge and on the former denote flat. months. ETC. wife.. knots 1 . piece of wood or a small stone to In the Nicobars notched sticks in the form of a scimitarin use. . begins with after they say. they eat first. For takes place from 20 to 30 months afterwards. p. on which the appointed days are marked by the pinching off or 6 According to turning down of a leaflet as each day passes another authority the moons are counted. p. 78. Ibid. 22. Gilbert to Islands. knots were tied in a string e. At the coming of may as be. 7 64. The Shompen when a child take a piece of bamboo and make as many bends in it as 3 The Negritos of Zambales in they mean to reckon days order to count the days make knots in a cord of bejuco and cut off one of these knots every day 4 On the Solomon Iscords are also knotted used for the lands same purpose 6 The blade are the . p. p. 5th. p. The eating the 'his gana matea. 3 p. in finding out of the owner learned to walk. . counting great death. g. the}. the thousandth. 21. west of the soon as 3 or 4 months afterwards 7 time up oung people . 8 . the latter the days of the and moon. is feast particularly necessary for the celebrating of the of the dead at the proper time. one in the hands of each party. 6 Codrington. 7 Ktftz. Thurnwald. Baganda. 21 p. it 10th. Up are then counted. they eat 'his days' after that every ten up to the hundredth. The object is to calculate the great funeral wake of dead chiefs. 331. even so For counting the days. so that the guests from distant villages may arrive on the proper days. Brandeis.DEVICES FOR COUNTING DAYS. 353. . 272. when days were be counted. 321 In New of notches cut in trees: the Guinea the months were counted by means New Zealanders are said to have little added every month a a heap 2 . waxing waning They are used e. for an unimportant person as In Nauru. 8 * Reed. Swoboda. and far or mother. g. and the burial. for old people after 10 months. in the case of a father. . the young moon in after the death of a is man either a knot is made the 3 r a thread or a notch to thirty moons to it cut in a piece of wood. the 15 days of the confinement of a woman 1 Roscoe. as that the graves'. 6 p.use cycas fronds. 42.

is The counting to the that is that of the lunar moon. p. but in this the primitive peoples hold to the concrete phenomenon of the starting-point. The line the lapse of time and can meet on the The curious names of months of the of second row The the joining they call July. since the days are counted independently of the latter. 17. They bend the third row of phalanges of the fingers on both hands. The people touch various parts of each other's bodies . March. the .. 27.322 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and the knuckles of the second row of phalanges on the left hand. Thus two or more groups can accurately determine 2 . pp. which means 'all the joints'..joint on the left arm will be February. the elbow-joint. Only seldom is it mentioned that the months are counted on the fingers.each of which stands for a arm. the head special day. The day of an assembly is determined in this fashion by an Australian tribe which in words can seldom count more than four.. Austr. p. between the head and the backbone will be January. June 4 . although obviously this must often happen. 40 ff. the wrist-joint is October. beginning at an arbitrary and important for the calendar according days month. the intended day is reached. 3 Above. the joint between the fingers and the palm. December. The subject is monotonous is of little importance for the calendar. day agreed upon 3 Tunguses of the Sea of Okhotsk are similarly to be explained. Yukaghir. The reckoning of the months by the joints is done in the following manner. p. as is shewn by the method of counting the year used by the Yukaghir. the shoulder-joint. . the shoulder. between the phalanges and metacarpals represent joints September. 178. Then the knuckles of the of phalanges on the right hand will be August. until . the wrist-joint.the wrist. 4 Jochelson. The habit of reckoning in this fashion may however be partly responsible for the fact that among certain peoples Gatschet. April. 1 2 Thomas. These examples may suffice. and put them together. They call the year n-e' -malgtl. the Klamath and the Modok used to do so formerly J Certain very primitive peoples use not only fingers and toes but also other parts of the body in counting. May. the elbow-joint is November.

make a notch for each day. 35. the other oblique. One end is pointed. which are tied into two bundles corresponding to the two seasons of the year. * Stannus. a with is top-knot and feather. . that of karongo provided has a mark cut in it and a top-knot like that of keke. such as new moon. 288. full moon. etc. Barrett. 323 every day of the month has not been given a name. and at the end of the month the stick is laid aside and a new one comes into use l Similarly at the southern end of Lake Nyassa pieces of wood strung on a cord are used in counting the days of 2 the month that have passed The Kiwai Papuans count the months by means of little sticks. The Wa-Sania of East Africa. 8 Landtman. but no . p. . and when a month has passed. who as subjects of the Galla and later since the invasion of the Somali have been exposed to all kinds of civilising influences. the stick corresponding The stick belonging to the month keke to it is turned round. p. communicated by letter. feather 1 3 . Very rarely do we meet with a genuinely calendrical use of the tally. but the days are counted from certain points of departure.DEVICES FOR COUNTING TIME.

nkenge. are number shifting only periods of time with a definite Such also is our days. arising detached from its natural basis. e. calendar has been of the Mohammedanism. and nkandu. which. the origin of which it is very easy to understand. All the markets held on a certain day all over the Lower Congo are called konzo. ARTIFICIAL PERIODS OF TIME. These have given their names to the four days that comprise the Congo week. chiefly through the agency of now of also been widely extended among of lower stage development.. the market-week. the next day's market may be ten miles away from the first town. and are so arranged that one in four will be within two or three miles of a town. etc. and then only one.CHAPTER XIII. are not sel- more fully developed calendar there Indom found periods of time which are reckoned without reference to any of the factors given by Nature. all the konso markets are held on different sites from all the markets held on the three successive days. konso. These artificial pepeoples a from natural often period which for purposes riods. independent of the moon. has of a belong to a highly developed stage ofjdme-reckoning.in West Central Africa. though historically arising from the lunar month. our months. Among the Bakongo the markets are four. the FEASTS. and in certain of the East Indian islands. g. all on the next day nkenge. seven-day week. but . viz. for example. which. The market-week appears in two widely separated districts . semi-primitive peoples does an artificial period of the simplest kind first appear. Only among certain comparatively far-advanced. Such are. These markets are held at different places. nsona.

I.THE MARKET. Weeks. 111:2. 139. 199 4 2 ff. . corresponds to our Sunday The Yoruba have. 18. . 200. 156. Hammar. Occasionally. (This is therefore the familiar round number. but the names applied days clearly shew that a four-day week was One of the four days is commonly known the primary one.) The r 1 Weeks. r . 325 near some other town or towns. 6 Thomas. These are the same names as those of the Bini.. the next from 15 to 20 miles./A'-ZL'o. as the rest-day. e. p. Loango Exp. 7 i. * 6\7. as in the Ida district. ndnka. therefore. nsilu. go to market as usual 5 Among the Ibo-speaking the names of the four peoples days are eke. a longer one of 16 (or 17) days. every village has at least one market during the week within a reasonable distance of its doors. besides the market-week. In order to describe the markets the place-names are sometimes added. The same among the Edo-speaking peoples. and six of them are supposed to make a lunar month. Each market has its special wares have the same names 2 Three Bantu tribes of the Congo State have the four-day w eek. which how ever always begins with the new moon. and . 4 days long. Ibo. eight days is the case 4 a doubling of the period. among whom the - - week is everywhere a recognised period of time. Women. Bakongo. p. 127. and is. though farm-work is not absolutely forbidden. but afo and oye are in the inverted order. . it is a day of rest. e. which names are also often applied to the open spaces where markets are held on the days in question nssona . variously named. ntono. The Of these two periods Ellis says: . g. nsona l The Babwende Xgitugn. 413. . Thus the next perhaps 25 miles away from the first town. one of the days is market-day which must have arrangement. Edo.WEEK IN AFRICA. to the intervening eight-day markets are found. regulated gradually practical There are also greater markets which are held every itself. but in certain cases with dif3 This is a very ferent names. and on this day men frequently stop at home. I. ~ pp. it is idle to speculate on the origin of the names 6 In Loango the four days are . this being the interval between the two markets at any given spot. but principally they are called nssona. 36. on the other hand. 3 Torday and Joyce. - Yoruba week consists of five days. 47 and 277. oye. properly speaking. afo. Thomas.

the temples are swept and water is brought No business of imin procession for the use of the gods. These clubs are so in common measure diction. the periods are four-clay periods. but never on the ako-ojo. i. the first day. namely by periods of 17 days. sacred to Ifa. the second market would fall on the 6th. ojo-aiuo. is counting inclusively according to the linguistic usage of the natives. as the Greeks also did. 4. is counted again as the first of the next series. day of general rest. called eta-di-ogun ('three less than This is the outcome of the Esu societies. in a to say. The first and fifth market-days are counted in. This is who writes of as follows: Some say the opinion of another authority. and recurs in the some of five. counting that day as one. when he says that the market is held every fifth day. custom has arisen another mode of computing time. 5. on which the members meet. The natives rest on the fifth day. Yortiba. and for them only. ever undertaken on this day. assume that the word ako-ojo is applied to one of the four Ellis enumerates fifth We days. ako-ojo. Some say venteen days that is the first 1 day of month. e. added to the word 'day'. supposing the second day of a month to be a market-day. This same mystinumber of days said to complete one there are sixteen and others se- their months. and the fifth on the 18th. but akoMarkets are held every fifth day ojo is a day of rest for all. ojo-Obatula. the memtwenty'). 'day of the secret'. denoting it to be a day of rest. days are: considered unlucky. Each of these four days is a day of rest for the followers of the god to which it is dedicated. pp. Ellis. become a kind of auxiliary The account contains an inward contra- five days and says that the market but when he reckons the days again is held every day. The fifth market-day. the Yoruba week is composed fication of four days. the third on the 10th. 142 . having counted four days. portance is From this different townships. 3. the fourth on the 14th. they really rest on So the next week. and that Ellis. ojo-Ogun. ff. 1. must probably below. ojo-Shango.326 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. that the 17-day period has of time 1 . For instance. 2. and thus the number 17 is obtained. bers of which meet every fifth market-day. the name of a god.

which is a great market-day. p. and that on which the new moon falls is an absolute rest-day. so- are also periods 2 of time of other durations. 327 say that they rest on the seventeenth day. p. . 3 Ellis. the period of the great adae must always embrace 42 days and the little adae must fall 18 days after it. The Tshispeaking peoples usually reckon time in periods of 40 or 42 into five of six . The great adae is always celebrated on a Sunday. This mode of computation is a far from primitive the refinement.WEEK AND GREATER PERIODS in their next great division of time they IN AFRICA. But Trie months complete the ancient Yoruba 224 days l . every fortieth or forty-second day being a festival termed the great adae. the real object of which is the fitting of the seven-day week into the lunar month. at one point in Northern Nigeria. 90. 18 or 20 days after which is the little adae.THE MARKET. Tshi. 15. and this is. weeks days. If 3 . of course. p.. a twenty-day month seems to be used 5 The former mode of reckoning is connected with the seven-day . The first day of the 'week' is rest-day. week adopted by order that it Tshi-speaking peoples. Adeli of the hinterland of Togo divide the lunar month days unfortunately the brief account tells us nothing of the nature of this six-day week. though this. is reckoned in a cover ma}' curious fashion so that each week consists of 7 days 9 hours. the natural day however being abandoned. I. There is connected with it a strong daysuperstition. the first day of what is their second so-called month. 133 ff. The natives consider the number 40 particularly lucky and always endeavour to the last condition connect planation it with some that 40 is is 4 The probable eximportant event used as a round number instead of 42. Edo. 216. 18. Fourteen of these called year of there . 5 pp. each so-called day is therefore somewhat longer than the natural day and consequently also begins at a different hour of the natural day. Ibid. 219. 2 Conradt. 4 p. the follow1 Above. . Thomas. and the little adae on a Wednesday clear. But among the Edo-speaking peoples also. Dennett. Hence the two adae also begin at different hours of the day. The same curious reckoning is found among the Ga-tribes. in the lunar month. Once again the statements are not must be absolutely fulfilled.

328 ing PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 1 Ellis. In the Malay Peninsula there is a fiveday period for the determination of lucky and unlucky days. in Bali also a four-day tjttfurwara*'. a kind of year of 210 days. this is always the heathen among market-week 3 In Java and Bali the pasar-week is combined with the 7-day week in divisions of 35 days. held markets every third. which is counhave here nothing to do with the ted as 30 days 4 these there are for the still . p. But wherever tribes a week' is spoken of. when the country-folk ceased from labour. 3 6 Ibid. Of the Burma among market-days in Polynesia there are unfortunately only uncertain accounts 6 In ancient Mexico a market was held every fifth day at every important place. e. I. 149. 197 ff. and the Inca peoples every tenth. ff.. assembled in the towns. the 1 second for the fishermen. I. p. pp. 199.. day. In other parts of New Guinea and in the Gazelle Peninsula of New Pommern the market takes place every third day. g. Yoruba. also will be found more about the African market-days. just as in Africa on different days in neighbouring districts. We highly developed time-reckoning of those peoples that drew their under Indian and Islamite influence. further in Celebes and in certain parts of New Guinea. Besides of . 103 ff. 414 ff. in the Lao states of northern Siam. The Muysca of Bogota in Columbia. where References in Webster. the day was a rest-day. pp. 2 Wilken. being days of rest only for certain trades.. 289 . and Sumatra there is a five-day marketcalled pasar. 200. four-day market-week. on the other hand. which are of importance The non-Islamite Lampong of Sumatra sooth-sayers. the third for the agriculturalists is clear that the only period which can pass as native is It . . with period. week side Java. alongf these the seven-day week is in use. Bali. p. other divisions. This systems up week has a very extensive use in Further India: we five-day it meet in Tonkin. combine the pasar-week with the lunar month. This five-day market-week appears also in other parts of Central America. Wilken.. in Upper Shan. Crawfurd. Six of these periods form a wuku. and with the market games and amusements were associated. and perhaps also the too the In its little development the 16-day known 6-day week. 4 Ginzel.

as we should expect. and the seventh day was specially distinguished. as in the East Indies. Garcilasso de la Vega.THE MARKET-WEEK IN ASIA. order to secure the agreement with the moon. but as a fixed subdivision of the month. In Babylonia one day in the month was called shabattn.and ten-day periods are said to be brought into connexion with the month. ROME. sive reckoning. A cylinder of Gudea already mentions a festival of the opening of the month in Lagash. the day called shabattn. but the certainty cajinot be ascertained. they are not continuous periods. 1 AMERICA. This is were offered on the fifteenth day. but is an invention. e. of the ff. The marketweeks. I borrow the material from Landsberger's section on the month in religious worship. the and of later. and the market-da}' must sometimes have been pushed out of place in and engaged in traffic and games . too. Webster. 329 These three. At the time of the dynasty of Ur. the agricultural year has been thus divided. may also occur independently. that of the Yoruba. The market-week exists therefore. and later day of the new moon is a great festival-day. alongside of the calendar. 119 . is often heard. At all times. it is introduced into an already In Africa larger divisions of time existing calendarial system. pp. These are We the three days 1 marked out by the great phases I. The statement that there the seven-day week existed. The question of the Israelitish sabbath is complicated and has been much discussed as a point of connexion with the Babylonian civilisation. like the Roman nundinae. festivals in honour of the goddesses Bau and Nina are celebrated in special new-moon houses. which word in the time denotes the full-moon day without any Assurbani-pal also religious also find at the time of the implication. under the empire of Khammurabi. however. dynasty of Ur occasional sacrifices on the day of the 'going to sleep'. and in one case. sacrifices of full moon. of the disappearance of the moon. The rule attains greater importance for the time-reckoning^ only when. which were held every eighth day and took their name (from novem) from the incluhave arisen on the basis of it. moon. 6 and 35. only among peoples with a more fully developed commerce and trade. if this statement be correct. i.

the number 7 is made an unlucky number. the 7th becomes a day of taboo. in regard to the word. so far offers two difficulties: - - 1 Quoted from Hehn. five days. A Babylonian peculiarity is that the seventh day of the month. is crescent. 1st. It is called The sibulu.Ann. since these give no other naturally grounded divisions than the halves of the month. They might arranged according to septenary a quintuple scheme.. tablet 5. and 19 of the following month is formed (30 -f 19 Hence the 14th is also sometimes designated 7 X 7). Assyrian sibittu. five days. and this cannot be referred to the phases. 3 1 . as at the time of the dynasty of Ur and under the empire of Khammurabi. According to them the month is divided into two halves."Sin at his appearance from the first to the fifth day. in fact the fifteenth day of the lunar month. and the schematic series 1. from the sixth to the tenth day. from the phases of the moon. Ea from the eleventh to the fifteenth. of the 14th we have the 15th. The derivation of the Israelitish sabbath from Babylonia of the moon have been arranged : - . 28. teenth day thou shalt reach the half of the monthly (growth). 14. Later. to make known On the seventh day halve thy disc. 114. Here the numerical scheme has been at work. but on the contrary the phases in accordance with the also be scheme.). the 7th. 'seven' (fern. after ancient Babylonian times. for example. 49 as the day of full moon. they do not divide themselves into symmetrical groups of days. therefore 1. f instead for a similar emphasising of the 21st testimony is as yet lacking. 12 ff. he covers himself with the shining royal cap. becomes a day of special sacrifices. Thus. vv. and Hebrew shabbat.: shine in the land. Thus the tablet III R 55. no. On the foursix days. Beam with thy horns. the seventh'. since they are originally concrete. Babylonian shabattu means the day of full moon." It is significant of the phases of the moon that have arisen on genuinely primitive grounds that. in the Creation "At the beginning of the month epic. 7. 21. and the 28th are therefore of religious importance. . . cp." in what follows the It is indications of the days are unfortunately clear that the septenary division has not arisen missing. he is kidney.330 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. five days. p.

so far as we know. continuous. tion to the lunar we know. 2. The earliest evidence we have of it is the story of one of the miracles of Elisha l from which it appears that the adherents of the prophet were accustomed to gather round him on this . among the Israelites it is. and independent of the lunar month. 5. or else it was something dif- ferent. 23. It has further been stated that the sabbath must be a fixed day of the lunar month. however formally interpreted. The writers during and after the Exile are the first to mention the sabbath as the seventh day of a continuous sevenday week. 1 II Kings. IV. where the rest is not a joy but a duty. new moon. It has at that time the character of an ascetic rest- day. in the Babylonia septenary scheme is a fixed division of the lunar month. Isaiah 13. further advance can only be made by way of hypothesis. doubtless since both were rest-days. but evidently the expression 'new moon and sabbath'. Both statements are hypotheses. And if it was something different to 'it we the are driven to a it decide what was. . But this obviously proves nothing. since otherwise it would sometimes coincide with the day of new moon. Further sabbath and sliabattn are the same word. in regard to the period of time. 11. does not in itself exclude such a coincidence. day and In at the same together as I.SHABATTU AND SABBATH. way sabbath and new moon are mentioned festival days in Amos VIII. Hosea II. the last day of a seven-day period that was shifting relation to the lunar month. Thus the sabbath of the times before the Exile was either. I have emphasised the phrase 'so far as we know' since in reality our sole knowledge Exile is in this direction of the Israelitish times the before the that a festival and rest-day called sabbath existed: of its nature we know nothing. shifting. as 331 the seventh day of a period that is shifting in relamonth. and consequently a day of full was moon. The further hypothesis in order suggestion most in favour is that still The sabbath is said to be the second principal day of the course of the moon simply because sabbath and new moon are always mentioned together in the days before the Exile. Any in as later.

the 14th. In the light of the .332 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. put a question a satisfactory answer to which is demanded by the hypothesis just mentioned: -. A shifting reckoning of this kind can only be understood chronologically as a breaking away from the concrete phenomena of Nature. put in place of the solar year. etymology is if the disputed. it clear that this day. Now the Israelites have always had the lunar month. has the septenary period arisen from the day of full moon.How is it possible for a period which forms a fixed subdivision of the lunar month to we may become detached from will still the moon and be made pendent there period shifting in relation to the lunar into an indemonth? And how the preliminary question to get rid of. has been carried over the is to the rest. however. is second hypothesis the in that 'sabbath' as well as shabattu day itself of full moon. I suppose. 15th day of the be a month? The answer will be. The question whether any late Babylonian speculation in numbers may have exercised a determinative influence upon the Jewish legislation must be decided by experts. That a day determined by the moon should be detached from the living lunar month and made into a shifting seven-day week is quite incomprehensible and entirely without analogy. and not the 14th. so that it gives no help. The proof 'full must mean means word only binding the is however moon'. was taken as the day of full moon and that Babylonian influence introduced the septenary division. that the 14th. The Babylonian septenary days do not help us here. From the unsatisfactory answer to the preliminary question I return to the main question. so that the name the of one of the septenary days. not the 15th. and bringing with it months of thirty days in the place of lunar months. an incomplete calculation being established instead of the as empirical observation. as was the case. It is not difficult to establish a general fundamental sense which will fit in both with the festival-day of full moon and of the seven-day period. for instance. with the Egyptian shifting year. On the ground of the researches here carried out. since they always remained days of the lunar month. was at that time taken Exile the day of full moon. viz. But since in the legislation of great festivals were appointed for the 15th.

if we may If character of the sabbath. hence the numbered months. a festival-day of uncertain position. and apto the seventh day of a shifting period. we must cling to the other hypothesis. There are market-weeks of three. And this is it equally difficult either found that a new to prove or disprove. on which no public meetings were held and the schools were civilisation. eight. But if the shifting sabbath is old. viz. the market-weeks. since the people go market: since they rest and gather together it is therefore a festival day. six. So also with the Roman nnndinae. . of which the legislation has transformed in its own fashion. the question arises whether analogous periods exist in primitive time-reckoning. four. but systematised and cultivated already existing tendencies.ORIGIN* OF THE SABBATH. the market-week. and they are periods of a quite definite nature. and ten days: that seven does not appear in any example must therefore be an accident. Especially in matters chronological would it appear that the Jewish legislation did not radically break with antiquity. of the of the seven- makers of the the who took the name plied ancient sabbath. Certainly the y do. It is seldom creation proceeds entirely from nothing. five. judge by the few points of departure from the handed down earlier period. therefore fundamental grounds are lacking for the creation a shifting seven-day period by the legislation of the Exile. to the The dispute of Roman scholars as to whether the mimtinac were religious festival-days or business-days is signiclosed. that in pre-exilian times also the sabbath was the seventh day of a shifting period. 333 foregoing investigations into primitive chronology such a process would be a sheer miracle. It day week of remains therefore to regard the creation as an act of pure volition on the part refined exilian legislation. The market-week is spread over the whole earth at a more advanced stage of The market-day is a rest-day. but of the chronological question. and no analogy to the shifting seven-day period is anywhere to be met with except in one case to be mentioned presently. hence the fixing of the great festivals on the day of We are speaking here not of the changed religious full moon.

From post-Biblical with towns. Backer. universal and appears particularly clearly in heathen Arabia 2 true that no market-day is attested for ancient Canaan. made a taboo day on which work The connexion between the market and religion is is . and sold on the sabbath unto the children of Judah.. be applied to the In original purpose of the market. 21 I.334 ficant . 16. and all manner of burdens. 5 Nehem. tion. 2 W. that we them on the sabbath. There which they brought into Jerusalem on the sabbath day dwelt men of Tyre also therein. ." Nehemiah reproves the nobles: "Did not your fathers thus. and in Jerusalem. X. f. - Macrob. and figs. ." etc. altest. ff. times at least three great annual markets are known. 3 Above. grapes. one was held at the terebinth of Hebron. 31.. was of certainly not carried out at that time. and all manner of ware. XVII. Jerem. but the command for the absolute sabbath's rest trade. 251 f. through a new interpreta. Zeitschr. viz. Nehemiah. as also wine. nor yet in the time 4 after the overthrow of the Jewish monarchy the Jeremiah . which brought in fish. In Midrash it is allowed to visit a heathen yearly market at the half-holidays of the Passover and 3 Since the day was a rest-day. and bringing in sheaves. It is but even in pre-Israelitish times the land was already covered so that the conditions for regular markets were the same as in ancient Greece and Rome. West Africa. that we may sell corn? And the sabbath. d. 29. .also. 148 ff. 5 the traders complain: will the new moon be gone. "When Amos VIII." ". three centuries after Amos.. pp.. . PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. trade of the markets on the sabbath revived. of the feast of Tabernacles the command for rest might gradually. that we may set forth wheat? making the ephah small. 1909. 28 ff. which was at the same time the object of a cult. and did not our God bring all . it is as in forbidden. Since the market-day is a day of rest. 1 . if indeed it had ever perished. however. . and lading asses therewith.and if the peoples of the land bring on the sabbath day to sell. 4 Wiss. has to -give the injunction: ware or any victuals would not buy of "In and the breach of this law is sternly reprimanded: those days saw I in Judah some treading wine-presses on the sabbath. or on a holy day 5 .

of the moon's invisibility. notwithstanding this. partlynotable days in the experience of human life.. . XIII. the sabbath. The work of Webster culminates in an attempt to explain The author brings together abundant material for the practice of assigning certain taboos to certain days. etc. Among these days are found both the market-day and the days of the prin.. and further also the days of the darkness. which are dependent on superstitious and religious ideas. There is no reason to suppose that the day of full moon could become detached from a process would seem genuine lunar month. though certainly it does not follow shut 1 . this evil 335 upon us. and upon this city?". and he has the gates and guarded when it grows dark before the sabbath. this taboo character was emphasised the still 1 Nehem. He has not felt the decisive difficulty. which lies just in this point. in a lesser cipal phases of the moon.the day of new moon. and such more strange since the day of new moon remained a genuine new-moon day. But it would be quite in keeping if in smaller matters the sabbath had once been the proper that the sabbath w as r the principal market-day of the we are of a market-day. degree the day of full moon. 15 ff. On the other hand the development of market and rest-day into a day of taboo is everywhere natural. and is attested in the above examples from Africa. them away At this time work was performed and trade with threats Carried on on the sabbath. such as birth. and partly those regularly recurring days is moon. the merchants once or twice encamped outside the walls on the sabbath. Webster does really the day of full not explain: he merely makes the statement. because he has not attacked the problem from its chronological side.THE SABBATH A MARKET-DAY. How this separation was effected. week: where doubt there no large town. but is nevertheless of the opinion that the sabbath death. he drove. When. which in this character was overlaid with certain taboos and has become independent of the moon. He rightly distinguishes the continuous Israelitish week from the 'unlucky days' of the Babylonians. speaking was a market every day.

the festivals of the new moon. e. Jewish and exilian legislation in merry-making. e. g. They are closely associated with the breeding of the animals and the flowering of the plants with which each totem of is the ceremony it is is respectively identified. Festivals are already held at definite times of the year by peoples who know nothing of a proper timereckoning. In most naturally held the at a certain season. A detailed discussion would lead us too far away from the main theme into the domain of the history of religion. so far as the animals and the flowering of plants is concerned. How many pages have been written about the New Year festival alone! The connexion between festivals and time-reckoning is Festivals grounded in the fact that both are originally dependent on the phases of Nature. inseparably been dealt with. which had fallen out of the scheme. the full moon. and as the object to increase the number of the totemic animal or plant.336 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. the much-discussed Intichiuma ceremonies of the aborigines of Australia. The suggestion that the sabbath arose from the market-day is certainly only a hypothesis. but it has the advantage of remaining within the limits of primitive time-reckoning. and a rainy one of short duration and often irregular occurrence The latter is followed by an increase in animal life and exuberance of plant growth. which knows no other continuous periods than a the market-weeks. . and time-reckoning are from the beginning Some of the former have already bound together. was at the same time rejected and proscribed. breeding to two a dry one of uncertain and often great length. and the beginning and end of the year. Central of Australia seasons are limited. g. In the case of many of the totems it is just it when there is that is customary promise of approach of the good season The exact time to hold the ceremony. It remains briefly to sketch the development of this connexion and to illustrate it with a few examples. The new-moon opposition day. since and inculcated by to the late the old festive definite market-day is not demonstrated for Canaan.

so that a 4 The southern tribes of cycle of agricultural festivals arises . from nugal. who the good growth of the seed. and there may be several of them in the course of the year. 5 Martin. pp. . But during the need protection and blessing. at the time of the planting of camotes loskod\ in the same division before the the end of f ( 1 68. the festival poheld. . At seed-time a festival is celebrated in order to secure The Bahau of Borneo. 68 f. Nieuwenhuis. which however fixed . 3 Above. 4 P. At rice the harvest has failed. on the day on which the first 'fruit-heads' have shown themselves on the growing rice there is the festival ke-eng. Nat. full. on Feb. and on the following day tot-o-lod. another after the formation of the fruit. and one after harvest. . Above. is 337 by the alatunja (the chief of the local group) *. with which should be compared the section on the agricultural year of this is is . it is the climax of the both festivals the people gorge themselves to the if being given even to period of growth also the plants the animals. 336. The ripening of a plant which is an important article of food is often accompanied by certain ceremonies by which the eating of the fruit is first made lawful. the festival of the new rice-year. At the rice-harvest and the beginning of the period called li-pas no more rice-harvest') lislis is celebrated. 22 p. is not held year. Malay Peninsula celebrate three great agricultural festivals one after the transplanting of the young rice-plants. have the agricultural year 3 celebrate two great festivals. 'to sow'). After the conclusion of the time when rice- seed chang (held germinating beds.FESTIVALS AND SEASONS. I. dangei. pp. which have been touched upon above 2 are therefore* dependent upon a definite natural phase. 5 . Tribes. 161. 1903). and a third after the harvest of this As an example I kind tribe 6 give the of a fully developed festival-cycle festivals of the Bontoc Igorot. beginning of harvest. 290. 169 ff. These so-called sacrifices of the first-fruits. various plants require and obtain different festivals. pa-chog. one at the sowing (lugal. Spencer and Gillen. introduces the harvest. after the transplanting of the rice the festival chaka put in the 10 in and after that an unexplained festival su-ixat. p. sa-fo-sab. the in the year.

338 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. communion of the new yam. . the feast of 3. and the reindeer have lost their antlers. pp. of the year. pp. hold gods. god to recommence. to ensure that is 2. The cycle in sacrifices and adoration anticipation following festivals: the great spirit or creator. 434 ff. the sun marks the is approach then of summer to the winter solstice: a sacrifice offered to the sun. honour of the public appearance of the king. 2 March. the the al- ways made good. crumbo. 206 Leonard. when the fawnthe ground. sacred of the fire fawn festival is celebrated. I on the Return the first of the snow covers is ing the period over Herd from the summer pastures. when black beans are planted. or remnants of yam. for their herds. a three day's rest. Finally at the end of this division we have ko-pus. as a token of gratitude on the part of the community for a fruitful and prosperous year. the termi- marking the end of the native year and the form of public notice that farming has This is a festival in honour of Ifejiohu. It is usual for the king to give a month's notice before each ceremony takes nation feast also serving as a place 2 . a festival to the house4. when In spring. hunters. the feast of roast of this yam at the close of the year. ofala. 2. Other festivals are when slaughtered reindeer. in the month is does commence 1 fawn: a sacrifice ff. in 5. reserved for the king only. when the offered to The-One-onof Jenks. a celebration to Ofo. 1. The out and a new one started by means in the Some tribes pile up the antlers observed: after - of the 1. pastoral people may also have a well-developed festival-cycle marking the points of the year which are important A quote as an example the main festivals of There is a ceremony the Reindeer Koryak of Eastern Siberia. it of new crop. of the crops. 6. god of justice and the 7. just before the work of 1 An African example from the rice-culture is begun again . house is put fire-board. communion of first-fruits. right. neighbourhood agrarian of the Lower Niger consists 'to will festival-cycle other feasts arise of shew how which may in this in part - be older. the festival o-ki-ad. called bait-ling.

it is therefore a very busy time. L' saisonnieres les variations sur Essai Cp. W. to think. 305. when supplies for the winter must be collected. they naturally crowd closer toge- and has no leisure for festivals. obscured in the course of the development. 4 2 Powers. America . the Tlinkit. shews that the great nature of the festivals difficulty lies in the is fact that the real unknown. Hence the winter is the time of the religious ceremonie's among the Eskimos. This example clearly . The summer the good season. in which the people live on the and have much leisure. 'the dry 2 and 'the burning to the dead' about the first of September 3 The connexion winter festival' about the last of December with the seasons is clear. Cp. the point deserved noting among other peoples also. p. in spring.CYCLES OF FESTIVALS. when the grass commences to sprout and the leaves appear on the trees. the religious life has had an especially strong development. which is used for religious ceremonies and for games. anne'e sociologiqne. 3. A phenomenon peculiar to the peoples of the far North is But often where detailed the original reason for it becomes that the winter is the time of the festivals. . p. northern California have four seasons and four festivals found'the open air festival' in the ed by the hero Oankoitupeh: season festival' about the first of July. so that the original connexion between festival and season cannot be estabThis is especially the case with peoples among whom lished. Mauss. work is for itself the time of already collected. when each family is has to winter supplies ther. pp. . The rest. 'the spring. . pp. Here the development is among many peoples where agriculture simple and clear. 4. 86 ff. That the time of freedom from work should become a festival time is obvious and is simpler than Mauss seems 1 3 Jochelson. 1904-5. 96 ff. des societes Eskimos. 339 High. 269. when mosquitoes put in reindeer are then slain as an offering to their appearance lest the mosquitoes scatter the herd 1 The-One-on-High. and 4 and hence the Yule festival other Indians of N. Koryak. but we do not even know whether the names are of genuine native origin. 9. above. accounts of a festival exist. but not so or the raising of The Maidu of cattle does not occupy so important a place.

2 Pp. are determined is it already found among the Central Australians that the tural phase or place. Thus the day of new^ moon. winter becomes the greatest festival of the l . 161. have spoken some occupation. my 4 Du Pratz. limits assigned by Nature. 320 3 ff. people assemble together distances. 354 ff. in In the especially that that of the full of the 3 . which are connected with a nacome long particularly if this is agriculas to Hence time. new moon Thus the and. pp. time. The moon herself has her festivals. celebrated at each day of new moon a feast which took its name from the animals and plants which the preceding month had by the moon. Significantly enough. tural. The Natchez of Louisiana. was that 1 Cp. as In itself a principally brought forth. but not accurately. was bound to be preferred. are found also among peoples with a fixed calendar. the Roman feriae conceptivae. within certain. though more seldom. but the greatest festival held at the new moon of the first month 4 . 151 ff. . g. for instance. II. but custom and superstition cause certain days to be preferred. Such festivals. the question is properly to find a means of accurately fixing the day within the short periods given by Nature. This purpose is served by the calculation from the moon. But where a calendar exists. Above. on account year in lated by of the change of position of the lunisolar relation to the natural year. Periodically recurring festivals. this is the given means of regulating the festival dates so that preparations can be made and the people can assemble at the right the natural and agricultural years the festivals are proper sense conceptiTae. Arets folkliga fester. e. since it was often already a feast-day in itself. Scandinavian peoples When who a festival takes We often have to above 2 of the devices adopted in order to ensure that the day of an appointed non-periodic festival shall not be missed.340 celebrated in the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. could not well be reguthe former. appointed exact day is fixed by the chief. these are agricultural festivals which. moon festival times are regulated any suitable day of the month can be appointed feast-day. p.

120. It is not only on account of the fair light which costs them nothing that the In Dahomey the negroes dance on the nights of full moon. associated with it. In regard to the since it is Feast of Unleavened Bread with this chiefly that we with the preliminary Feast of the Passover do. and the Passover on the evening of the day before (the fourteenth of the first month) The only other information we have from ancient times as to the date of the Feast of Tabernacles is contained in the earlier 5 . P. the Feast of Unleavened Bread on the fifteenth day of the first month. 18. cp. Hence the proper time for a festival is the bright half of the moon. 5. 5 3 Kotz. 331. It 341 a very wide-spread idea that things which are to and grow should be undertaken during the time of the prosper waxing moon. p. the handLev. XXXIV. Tasmania. they. le moed chodesh ha-abtb. XXIII. also preferred the of moon A fixed day Bread and for the Feast of Tabernacles is first prescribed during and after the Exile. the antiquity and pointed has already been The Jews here follow a w4de-spread custom. 6. and the days are determined by the native government l In Burma all religious festivals with the exception of the New Year festival. moon. and Forster's essay. 4 . XIII. and especially the time is at wtiich the moon has attained her full shape. and Melanesia the festivals begin either at full or new moon 3 festivals take place at the full of the . 6 Exod. 1 Foa. full many peoples. the last-named on the fifteenth day of the seventh month. take place at the time of full moon 2 Throughout Australia. and 34. Exod. Ezekiel XLV. 4 ff. which was a feast of a different nature the order of the Yahwist runs 'at the time appointed in the month Abib' 6 as a motive is adduced the fact that the jews came to have not . cp. festival like new moon other Whether time tion. it was celebrated after the conthe fruit-harvest and vintage. 15. 2 Xisbet. books. .REGULATION OF THE FESTIVALS BY THE MOON. and that anything begun when the moon is on the wane will dwindle and die. 21. . the date of which is regulated in a special manner. is a more difficult quesfor the Passover and Feast of Unleavened name of clusion 'Feast of Vintage'. 21 ff. for their festivals. p. XXIII. In great regard importance of the out 4 . to the Israelitish festivals. cp. II? 287.

appointed time'. 3 (XII. Exod. Linguistically chodesh can here mean new moon' in that case we could also translate 'at the time appointed after the new moon of the Feast of is f . rule that in . but at the same time by the moon. a the festival.342 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. XVI. Now if we know what part was played by the time of full moon in the festivals of other peoples. 4 The regulation by the weeks. 5 Judges IX. but since the sense 'month' is so old and the original sense 'new moon' appears unequivocally only where monthly new moon festivals are in question 2 it seems reasonable to . this to the preliminary festival. But the Feast of Vintage at least was a general festival even in Canaani3 tish days and nioed properly means 'determined. translate the word here simply by 'month'. of The Deuteronomist The time therefore. culture. 27. 1 transfers like that determined by an event in agriVintage. according to which f. Abib'. 2 Above. 19 IX. the time of prescribed so that those who were prevented from was celebrating the Feast of the Passover at the proper time might do so on the fourteenth of the following month 5 Unfortunately . Earlier the date full moon was not so accurately observed. 'Feast of Weeks'. 4 I. the date of the passage in 1 I Kings f. 32). Now it is often stated that the festive seasons both of the Unleavened Bread and ral of circumstances: the Feast of Vintage were regulated purely by natuthe former was celebrated when the first and the latter when the fruit-harvest was at each according to local conditions.. XXXIV. it seems always probable that the regulation of post-exilian times for the fifteenth originated in an old tradition in accordance with which the time of full moon was specially favoured for the feast. Nowack II. 151. pp. an end. chag shabiwt in the Yahwist is late and artificial in comparison with that by however. XXI. 11 ff. It was therefore not accidental circumstances but ears ripened. . Numbers . early times called the people together to Chronological regulation is proved by the name of the festival of harvest (chag haq-qasir). the moon. 235 22. in spite of the differences in date re- sulting from the observation of the time of full moon. and indeed for the agrarian peoples also. out from Egypt in this month.

14. 343 Jeroboam celebrated the Feast of of eighth month. n. if the affords valuable evidence that the time of the Tabernacles on the 15th day passage is old. moon was the 1 proper time for holding agrarian festivals Among the Greeks all the ancient festivals with the ex- ception of the feasts of Apollo. and the organically arisen has of independently among different days superstition of the Toba Batak of the sacrifices As an example peoples. 2 Cp. 350 ff. by observation of the stars and of the solstices and equinoxes. lead to the result that the time-reckoning.. has among certain peoples passed completely under the influence of religion and has been further developed from at the time of full 3 . 151. 441. it full . since everything undertaken then increases with the moon. to which great religious importance is attached. my in Arch. and my Entstehimg etc. is doubtful. The huntsman sacrifices to his god at noon-tide about the time of new moon. this is in general the favourable time. ecclesiastical viz. of Perhaps Solomon also celebrated the dedication of the Temple and the Tabernacles in the same month: Nowack. p. 33. were concentrated in the period The selection of days the lunar with connected reckoning. which arose in the first place from the events and necessities of practical life. which always took place on the seventh of the month. 3 Warneck. and this fact is for the practical character of the observation significant stars. to celebrate the festivals on the proper days.. II. the fisherman at noon while the moon is waxing. the No religious ideas are associated with the phases 1 of the stars. pp. At the felling of a tree for house-building shortly before and during full . before a military expedition a certain sacrifice is offered (preferably in the early morning) moon. . 1911. although star-myths innumerable are related. There are however other ways of exactly fixing a day. which involves the accurate knowledge and observation of the days. standpoints in the service of the religious cult.The as a means of former method is hardly ever used directly very of determining religious dates. moon 2 is sacrifices must be offered during the waxing moon. and the injunction.. Sumatra may serve. 2. f. and another at the waxing moon This superstition. Religionsixiss.FULL MOON THE TIME OF FESTIVALS. Feast article p.

and even the great festival of the sun in December was re3 The Zufii determine gulated by the days of the lunar month . pp. and also that the stars always give only a single point of time and do not form cyclical periods within the year. on may be conjectured account of its connexion with the popular festival seasons and with the selection of days. entertained one another in the best possible manner. . is easy to discover. to of December. A contributory factor although the observation of the stars is widemay spread. p. instance did the flnca^ people. and that consesolstices the quently the religious importance of the sun is also great. are far from being able to compare with those of the phases of the moon. 195 and 313. Thus for of the observation of the solstices and equinoxes. 312. and the most obvious of colours . it is yet not a matter which concerns every man. explanation is the sun really serves Above. 229. p. be the to that reckoning of months. has been from the beginning chiefly carried out with a view to religious considerations. but they ~had lunar months also. pp. 196 and 313. They collected together all over the country in great parties. and when they had gorged themselves to the full they got up to play and to dance a Certain Jridian__p copies have made quite a special custom from . the festival times by the observation _of thirteen different positions of the sun on the horizon.344 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. It is only among certain peoples that the observation of and equinoxes plays any great part. and 2 Cranz. but they have also lunar months. five which are named Irom natural phases. recurring at regular intervals in the course of the year. about the 22nd observe the winter solstice 1 . 4 Above. 3 Above. though on the other hand they are intimately connected with the phases of The reason be not that The principal reason the natural year and with agriculture. and six from borrowed from certain rites 4 The ceremonies are therefore still distributed among the months. But the festivals of the solstices and equinoxes. It has already been mentioned that the Eskimos were able accurately At this time. they held a festival to rejoice over the return of the sun and the good hunting weather. 1 that the observation of the thirteen positions of to determine the thirteen months.

or among those who name them. is found all over the world. pp. and even in the examples here given the process is not consistently . . the regulation by the moon. the rest take their names from the occupations of agriculture 2 Of the tribes of Bolivia it is stated that their knowledge of the calendar is not . pp. 1 Ginzel. 196. In the Babylonian calendar the names of months derived from festivals spread more and 5 The phenomore. 3 according to days. p. Among the Greeks of only some of become named from who have no names of months. 229. 4 Above. 204 5 f. p. and one from the great sun festival. Of the Inca months one named from a moon festival. Because the calendar is principally looked upon as the concern of religion. ff. as has been mentioned above. positions of the sun is a comparatively isolated separate develop- ment among certain peoples. but in GinzeVs opinion this does not exclude the possibility of an earlier development on the basis of a relationship with the course of the moon 1 In any case the regulation of the festivals by the . 436. the months appear in such close association with the festivals held in them that it is sometimes found that the relationship to the phases of Nature falls into the background. like the Homeric period. two from provincial festivals. 2 Above. Consistency is found only in one case. on the contrary. Thus. Above. and is all the more striking since in the hundreds of varying calendars of the town-states no names which do not refer to festivals have been with certaintv demonstrated. . The old Mexican calendar seems to have no connexion with the moon. 3 Chervin. but according to the principal festivals 4 those of the Hausa In Africa two examples have been given states and the Edo-speaking peoples. I. six months of the Zuni year are named is from the colours of the prayer-sticks. carried out. 345 with them the times of the rites.FESTIVALS DETERMINED BY THE COURSE OF THE SUN. at the expense of names of other kinds rare and is found menon is therefore comparatively only among peoples who have a highly developed religious cult. 228 . it may therefore happen that the months peoples the festivals or perhaps that such names supersede those which refer to natural phases. the calendar of ancient Greece.

Where on the other hand the place of the lunisolar year . p. my Entstehting etc.. 1 Cp. it is found that the lunar recis still used in the establishing of certain festivals. ff. 51 2 in the matter of Easter and the festivals depending thereon. 88. Friederich. as instance in Bali 2 . few calendars with numbered months are of more recent l The certain conclusion is that the Greek calendar origin was entirely regulated from the point of view of the religious cult. . and by the Christians pp.346 the PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. is koning for taken by another reckoning.

/\ s long as the determination of time is adjusted by the lT~\. anybody can judge of them. Chases of Nature which immediately become obvious to everyone. The observer must be able to judge. The accudispute racy the in therefore determination demanded by time-reckoning proper is Accuracy becomes possible as a result of lacking. but it is not a matter that concerns everyone. and this observation the even at begins primitive stage. In this the individual differences of men soon come into play. along with a regular science which introduces the learner to the knowledge . observations.CHAPTER A XIV. so that the heavens can This is especially the case with the commonest be known. and should different people judge differently there is no standard by which the can be settled.of the stars and its uses. Thus Stanbridge reports of the natives of Victoria that all tribes have traditions about the stars. The \ accuracy of the time-determination from the stars depends thereupon the keenness of the observation. but certain families have the reputation of having the most Ijaccurate knowledge. It requires a refined power of observation and a clear knowledge of the stars. one family of the Boorung tribe prides itself upon possessing a wider knowledge of the stars than . by the position of the other stars. when the star in question may be expected to observation twinkle for a fore moment in the twilight before it vanishes. because the natural phases run into one another or are at least not sharply defined. THE CALENDAR-MAKERS. of the risings of stars. those of the morning rising and evening setting.

it is the duty of the old men to watch. are the phases of the stars both occupations and seasons regulated. it is known that in a few days kek will shew himself.When is expected. the evening setting of the Pleiades announces the coming of winter and therefore affords a means . so also probably in the case of other important stars and constellations the appearance of certain other stars is a sign that the star expected will soon appear. they may then say in winter that one or tw o months are incredible to r yet (will I wanting. 26 f. but the next day will But because the months tural the observa- set all right. are fixed in their position in the na- year through association with the seasons. . when they appear on the horizon at dawn.348 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and are there even increased. 8 I. the indefiniteand fluctuation of the phases of Nature penetrate into the months also. Of the Torres Straits tribes Rivers says: -. 224. at the most there may sometimes be some doubt for a day as to tion of the new moon. and the observation becomes The setting of a star is observed in the especially keen. An account has been given above 2 according any other *. As in the case of kek (Achernar. II.. For kek the stars in question are two named keakentonar . R. T. they rise when the birds begin to call and watch until daybreak. the most important star). 21. the rising of a star same way 3 . 132 f. 4 Gilij. pp. and thus a standard is furnished by which to By judge. 2 Pp. the ness 1 Brough-Smyth. 432. Cause for doubt and disagreement is given. Str. and a limit is set to the indefiniteness of the phases of Nature. An old missionary relates of the Orinocese that it is how confused their minds become if they neglect observe the signs which make known the approach of winter. the time-reckoning 4 Jof correcting The moon strikes the attention of everyone and admits of immediate and unpractised observation. to which an old chief instructed the young people of the tribe in the knowledge of the stars and the occupations which these announce. the and in the height their of summer they sometimes spread report among countrymen that the winter soon be upon them. p. quoted by Kotz. for the reasons stated above.

Among the Indians. the 3 calendrically gifted Anko. 349 in problem the of the council meetings regulation of the calendar arises. 10th. in intelligence already make themselves an felt at early stage. the 10th as the final day decade. determining the time of sowing are not guided by the lunar but fall back upon the phases of Nature. for example. 241. the 16th as the beginning of the dark half of the as month. as the beginning of the counting and of the brightness of the that moon of the (sic!). - Jenks. e. reckoning. 24th. The Basuto rising of the Pleiades decides the question. Above.CALENDRICAL OBSERVATIONS BY CERTAIN GIFTED PERSONS. pp. the 17th as the chief of the unlucky days. and are still more plainly shewn when we come to a genuine regulation of the calendar. 17th. . p. others a hundred months. the that it has thirteen 2 less does it become a common possession. there are special persons who keep and interpret the year-lists illustrated with picture-writings. pp. intellichiefs however know how to correct the calendar by the gent summer solstice 1 . 169 f. . the 20th as the final day of the second decade. 3 Above. first the 4th a^ the new moon. So also the Caffres become confused and do not know what month it is. p. who even drew up a list of months It is very significant that even where a complete calendar does exist. g. Only the following days and groups of days are in regular use: . and 1st are 21 23 as f 1 Above. . it will be found that this is not in use to its fullest extent among the people. but among the old men who represent the wisdom of the people there are some who know and assert The further the calendar develops. es sobiaiu. 103 4 f. Some of the Bontoc Igorpt state that the year has eight.The 1st day. the 24th as the beginning of the black and from the 24th on to the disappearance of the darkness'. 219. of the Pawnee and Dakota Hence it is often hotly often the in disputed which month it really is. The Masai days of the month have 4 but the nomenclature of the days is not already been given so popular throughout that any Masai on any day could de- The differences . 1820 mgein. moon. termine day with perfect accuracy. the 15th as the final day of the moon's brightness. Of these days the 4th.

We are not told that the Kenyah who charge of the calendar is a priest. The people therefore count in a more concrete It are learned in the_calendar. Crawfurd. follows that the observation of the calendar is a spe- fashion than those who occupation which is placed in the hands of specially experienced and gifted men. His separate position is in part due to the fact that the determination of the season is effected by observing the height of the sun. 5 Ellis. determine the seasons by observing a crude sun-dial 4 Of the Tshi-speaking peoples it is said that the priests keep a reckoning of the time. 106 ff. and thus the development of the calendar puts a still wider gap between the business of the calendar-maker and the common people. if the development has proceeded so far that value is attached to the calendar for the selection of the proper days for the re. 300 f. in Java the village . for which special instruments The process is a secret. 'ligious observances. 4 pp.350 especially PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 291. | every village the task is entrusted to a man whose sole occupation it is to observe the signs. I. p. I ways followed 2 . . Behind the calendar stand in particular the priests. 3 p. and moreover the calendar is peculiarly their affair. for he will receive his supplies from the other inhabitants of the village. c Mischlich. using different methods for the purpose. 2 Hose and Me Dougall. p. but among the Kayan (also of Borneo) it is a priest who determines the seed-time from the observation of the ecliptic. 127. In Bali the Brahmins. above. He need not cultivate rice himself. Above. . 318. . For they are the most intelligent and learned men of the tribe. pp. 216. 318 and 317. and make known the approach of the annual festivals 6 Among the Hausa the priests determine the time of the festivals 6 here also the months according to the position of the moon priests. Tshi. Among the Caffres we read of cial 1 'astrologers' Among the Kenyah of Borneo the determination of the time for sowing is so important that in special . common. It is only natural that this individual should keep secret the traditional lore upon which his position depends. and on the upper Maha- has kam a priestess 3 . and his advice is alrare required. cp. 1 Macdonald. p. .

son. T T*\ D. are also found among of the priests. responsible for the calendar. Hawaiians 'astronomers (ktlo-hoku) and priests' mentioned to . priests determine from the observation a very general extent it is Indians of Arizona. In the latter country the nobles determined the days on which the corn must be sown and reaped. p. Bastian.- Ste Stevenson. above. kilowahine. 258 . .-1 'U-n- H^stlx* i . they handed down their knowledge from but women. 313. pp. own 1 convenience. 312. p. 63. t?oofirr-> quoted by Kotz. above. to the sun rises over a certain point rising of the Corn Mountain he informs the elder brother Bow priest. it them thus 4 Elsewhere the nobles appear alongside Tahiti is in calendar. p 6 ^-. where the centre of the life of the tribe. E. p. The summer solstice and its festival are who determined in similar fashion 2 . for agricultural labours the religious ceremonies and for the Among the Zufii the priest of the sun alone vations village. in New there is said to have been a regular school. and thus its members compared their views upon the heavenly bodies.THE PRIESTS AS CALENDAR-MAKERS. like the religious ceremonies are the that the priests are the calendar-makers. which was visited by priests and chiefs of highest rank. Every year the assem- that are responsible for the Zealand the priests. the notifies a certain religious When body. A 1 _ cp. White. . Among father the observations and keep the calendar in order. He takes daily obserof the sunrise at a petrified tree-stump east of the offers his matins which he sprinkles with meal when he sun. cp. 3 W. quoted by Malo. 1 . . 62.Q *% 59. Each course lasted from three to five 5 months For Loango it is reported that the king's star-gazers apparently took observations from a little wood. p. Among duty are it the priests there is formed a special class whose is to make 3 . are true 351 named after the among peoples festivals. the members of this society come together and the great feast of the winter solstice is then celebrated. To Among of the Hopi the the solstices and equinoxes is the time 1 . 7. for they gave out (probably when the sky * 5 Fewkes. i p. Alexander. ff. quoted by Kotz. *7 108 "4 4 f. further that they sometimes knew how to arrange matters to suit their bly ' .. n.

pp. professed The king himself also takes charge of the calendar. 313.. note. but the account is significant in that it speaks for an artificial retardation . . the stars however cannot of themselves be brought into only applied follows that the observation of the solstices and equinoxes has. since European influence has doubt been brought to bear upon this case. f. Here the four solstices and equi- everywhere takes the chief place. First of all and recurring lunisolar calendar cyclically. the priests assembled to of the calendar. 2 peared Pomare no certain. p. the being kept in place by certain fixed points. and thus gained a couple of hours for the rising of Sirius and could postpone the dreaded thirteenth month until the end of the In these districts.only at a quite undeveloped stage can questions of the time-reckoning be dealt with in a deliberative and our researches are concerned with primitive the calendar-maker has in view is peoples.. cp. Such a manipulation is characteristic of the calendar-maker. 111:2. above. since we have here to do with the treatment of a genuine calendarial science by certain peoples. For noxes are distinguished by their recurrence at tolerably regular intervals of time. and this corpriestly office a for this purpose is did the same is responds to the actual state of affairs. 212 . determine the equinoxes was fixed in The calendar of the Society Islands and Pomare his family 3 That the Inca apby King . that doubtful. external influence is doubtless probable.352 . The Inca observed the solstices in person. p. Above. 3 a system with equal intervals of time. the establishing of an ordered series of days marked out into diviassembly - - The end which series sions. this and it is one which purpose the calendarmaker must become accurately acquainted with the course of the sun and with the stars. 248. 138. . 2 Above. The examples just given are not numerous. and was assisted in so doing by the cleverest of his people. Loango O ~ Exp. is his the regulation of the principal task. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING was clouded) that the moon was several days old. where a strong day-superstition next year 1 prevails. but are Hence it to such a system in order to fix it. .

p. practical life. pp. cp. the Moanu the Admiralty Islands it is the chiefs who are initiated by 2 On the Mortlock tradition into the science of the stars Islands. Among . Nevertheless the knowledge of the stars is a secret which is carefully guarded in certain families. 126. however. 377. 16 ff. and kept from the common people - as of is reported of the Marshall Islands 1 . 23 . w hich was regulated and recorded by the moon. From the necessities of sea-faring the greatly advanced knowledge of the stars possessed by the South Sea peoples has arisen. became the official civil calen- which is of especial selection of T . sailing. where religious character. It was only later that the stellar calendar of the fully was syste- matically In brought under the influence astronomy and of the Julian calendar. dar. the know1 Erdland. p. * Parkinson. in a certain opposition to the lunisolar reckoning. at least in single cases.. as one more profanely determined. and for this the stars afford the Hence it happens that sometimes the reckoning by best aid. so that they come to be accurately known. the stars appears. this is because practical ends are served not by a priestly wisdom. by the Polynesians. The calendar and practical life become to some degree separated from each other. but by a profane. rthe stars served for the time-reckoning of Bailors and peasants while the lunisolar calendar was developed and extended under sacral influence the festival calendar. g. which has a more This happened in ancient Greece. importance on religious grounds for the the fixing of the right day for the reliand days in gious observances. there was a special astronomical profession. the first lays the principal emphasis upon the correct ordering of the series of days. e. both of which depend upon the solar year. where the science of the stars is very highly developed. and the planets are even discovered. 353 been erected into a calendric system^ but the observation of the stars not so except in Babylon although they also are observed.SACRAL AND PROFANE CALENDAR-REGULATION. developed the stars afford to the peoples the only means of finding their way when primitive sea-faring the land can no longer be seen. the point of chief the times when the various occupadetermine is to importance tions may be begun and sea.voyages undertaken. above.

knowledge of the stars. although as a matter of fact in the Carolines and the Mortlock Islands it has led to the nam- ing constellations. in order that the calendar adapted to the needs of practical life. and used their stellar science principally for sooth-saying. the object of which must be. 64. p. any improvement of the calendar. 62. who accompanied Cook on his first voyage. and only communicated to specially chosen individuals 1 Only a few can determine the hours of . The improving of the calendar. above. 910 Above. since the religion must keep to the existing lunisolar calendar. to return lead to to the solar calendar. cp. however. and was later confirmed by Arago.. . and he pointed out to his pupils the direcOne tion which they must follow on their various journeys. native could also represent on a table by means of grains of maize the constellations known to him 3 This is a nautical. non-priestly astronomy. was a man of this kind. 210. only vague ideas were imparted. 125. in Hawaii and in Babylonia. and therefore to a 4 systematic sidereal regulation of the calendar On the other hand the priests also have observed the of all . lendarial matters in general. p. had a kind of globe of the heavens on which the principal stars were marked. mentioned by the Spanish missionary Cantova in the year In every settlement 1721. in one of which the boys were innight by the stars. 2 Forster.354 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 3 Kotz. however. p. there were two houses. n p. ledge of the stars was a source of respect and influence. . T be better becomes henceforth the may p. and in the other the The teacher girls. which has really little to do with castructed in the . it was anxiously concealed. task of the lay scientific astronomer. The Tahitian Tupaya. months from stars as e. But neither does this g. after the full development of the lunisolar. specially 2 The distinguished for his nautical knowledge of the stars elements of the science. although in one case of the most far-reaching importance the astrology arose from it. 441. and from the Caroline Islands comes a curiIt was first ous account of a general instruction therein. J Kubary. seem to have been pretty generally known.

CONCLUSION. the month days are denoted by the phases and position of the moon. and 'a sleep' for 'night'. even the power of counting is A little developed among primitive peoples in general. when 'a sun' is said for 'day'. i. but the develop into the period of time that elapses between a season . numerical conception is abstract and not primitive. he finds his way not by counting mena the recurrence of but by referring to the concrete phenowhich in definite succession experience has taught him to expect. and is often not a complete year in our sense. and among the lowest peoples it is extremely limited. dawn.. The system ment. time-indications. etc. SUMMARY OF RESULTS.CHAPTER XV. g. it must admit of numerical treatmust consist of divisions of which the length is strictly limited and which. In matters of chronology. sunrise. when they belong to the same order. 1. it embraces time between sowing and harvest. and its in the produce of the year: e. Their character clearly appears e. The first time-indications are therefore not numerical but concrete. Only gradually does the year particular). g. the primitive man clings to the concrete phenomena of the outer world. The year is originally neither a period of time nor the circle of the seasons (which is first gradually developed under the influence of agriculture is usually called 'a moon'. are as far as possible of the same length. and the equally concrete The lunar position of the sun or the occupations of the day. therefore. hours of day are denoted by the concrete phenomena of the twilight. Counting is abstract. concrete nature of the of time-reckoning Any genuine e.

The years also acquired are not numbered. and the succession of these. which for their de- termination are not numbered but are brought into connexion with a natural phase and named accordingly. but this connexion is achieved by the phenomena in question. The seasons are composed of occupations and of climatic and other natural phenomena. a method antiquity of in throughout years. could not keep their names. but are named from an important event. the latter period the genuine solar year has arisen. the Latin name the concrete significance of a season. The latter are not conceived of as divisions of time of a definite length. in others they leave gaps. the Slavs. they and overlap in some cases. Even the Julian months.. etc. The time-indications are not directly connected with each other. Hence the indications are not circumscribed by one cross another. and the recurrence of the same season. The starting- point for the time-reckoning is therefore afforded by the concrete phenomena of the heavens and of surrounding natural objects. but the phenomena as such are regarded. they do not appear as parts of a larger whole. and still preserve this concrete relationship and are therefore not definitely limited in duration. given by the primitive peoples to their lunar else. so that the twelve year can be fixed as regards position and succession. in order to provide for this the months were re-christened with indigenous names which are of the same to thirteen of the months kind months.356 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. but much more seldom. so that their succession follows from the historical succession as those Or of events. as they were introduced among less cultivated peoples such as the ancient Germans. denoting the year which prevailed the limmu. archon. etc. serves as a guide in the chronological sequence. limited on both . since these had no intelligible meaning or reference to a concrete phenomenon. fixed as it is by experi- ence. This re- From lationship is also extended to the moons. or more rarely between a phase of a star and the return of the same phase. and consular Discontinuous and ^aoristic' time-indications. These phenomena extend over periods which are very dissimilar to one another and are individually of varying length.

but this is not the case. General measures for shorter periods of time are therefore not given by the timeindications proper. think. The immediate fusion of the chronoconception into one logical phenomena another. points on the horizon are sought out as an aid. a discontinuous example. since they always refer only to the position of the sun at the immediate moment: disconti- they are is only later and in an imnuity is perfect fashion that the complete day and the year are joined adopt a grammatical term further shewn in the fact that it to f aoristic\ The together in continuous circles. or the years were of shorter duration than the solar year (agricultural years. for abundant sub-division of the times of day in We in the night the morning and evening. is lacking: the time-indica- by their of continuity.). where the length of of the sun varies so greatly. of the time-reckoning. the time needed to traverse a well-known piece of road. e. but are derived from actions or occupations. 357 connexion with other divisions of time. The times of day are often given by reference to the position of the sun. etc. In the same way the reckoning was The means of of accurately is determining the times and oc- afforded by the phases of the stars. although not quite correctly. and the small number of sub-divisions and day-time. of We may speak. g. there arise divisions of very unequal length. matter of the seasons. cupations which always recur at the same time of the year or at a time subjected to only slight variations due to the conditions of observation. g. e. which are hardly suitable for a genuine time-reckoning.DISCONTINUOUS AND sides f AORISTIC' TIME-INDICATIONS. often long carried out in half-years. the tions are discontinuous. where only those of practical are importance rendered prominent and are circumscribed. the year A time-indication from phases of stars is properly . When in the a systematising of these time-indications takes place. of the many very unequal seasons which encroach upon one another and overlap. Both these methods of indicating the times of day may seem to afford a foundation for a continuous reckoning. the daily course In northern countries. winters and summers. Day and night were combined so late into the period of the complete day of 24 hours that most languages are without a proper word to express this idea.

they do not regard the part for the whole. and not to its duration as given by the limitations^ imposed by other phenomena. I. which also means day opposed to night. most languages the complete day of 24 hours is expressed by the word 'day'. the nine months of are at an end: whoever has slept six nights on the pregnancy way has undertaken a six days' journey. unequally moons risen after conception. but only counts an isolated phenomenon recurring but once in the same period. When a native wishes to say that he has been absent for six weeks on a journey. which really means new moon'. since they are distributed very moon-houses over the year. Society Islands. he is ten years old: when nine new of the zodiac. and the to it Weeks have been as a unity. . significant of the deep-rooted tendency to the pars of counting that when peoples 'who are at a pro less developed stage adopt such a continuous unit of time as is toto method our seven-day week. so he does not reckon the periods of time as a continuous whole. or as in the Hebrew word for month. since a definite phase theoretically to a certain day and prac- tically is also kept within very narrow limits. When he has seen ten harvests. of the discontinuous of and a star belongs 'aoristic' order. he usually 1 Some of the says six sabbaths or a moon and two sabbaths . 89 ff. 3 . this being due more particularly to the limitation in practice to certain specially prominent stars. it is however less frequently used by the people than the word 'sabbath'. but put introduced into the word hebedoma has there been adopted denote a week. The regular recurrence of the periods at once impresses itself upon the notice of man: he may also feel the necessity of counting the periods. The pars pro toto counting of the periods. As counting-points are especially the times of rest the nights and the winters have employed. It is only with great difficulty and some violence that the phases of the stars and that at a far-advanced stage: signs can be systematised. 1 Ellis.358 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Pol. Res. Popularly and in the language of poetry f when this usage It is still farther extended. As he always directs his attention to the single phenomenon in itself. as Linguistically this in method of counting still exists.

form a period which is quite sufficiently long. and the native methods but still of is reckoning weeks that here performed by the pars pro f appear. the months of pregnancy. which are so frequently counted. days. like other periods of time. are counted by the pars pro toto method in new moons. . ever these phases and positions also are at first described concretely. but viz. This is in itself a shifting mode of reckoning. the Islamite. which proceeds from an arbitrarily chosen incidental point. Empirical intercalation 1 of months. and limits.nor yet from the year. toto the counting method. The it lunar month in length. though sub-divided. the consistent length of which is at first concealed by the variation of the - natural phases.. and not numbered. but has day to come daily mean 'week' 2 . others again in market-days *.THE PARS PRO TO TO COUNTING. others in Fridays. The months. THE CONTINUOUS TIME-RECKONING. p. With primitive man's undeveloped faculty of counting it can only embrace a few months. The continuous time-reckoning arises neither from the which indeed is a unit but has no course of the sun natural sub-divisions . When a month not Maass. however is that not only is the a limited and continuous period of fixed has also a natural sub-division into parts of equal decisive factor itself length. p. these are there- fore the Christian. as the days are counted in suns. each of which is clearly distinguishable from its predecessor and successor by the shape of the moon Howand its position in the sky at sunrise and sunset. It is a fact of importance that the course of the moon from the first appearance of the new moon to the disappearance of the old is so short a period that it may be surveyed even by the undeveloped intellect. 2 Feist. Sunday. Moreover the year. The Old Bulgarian means without w^ord nedelja really work'. or commonly in 'moons'. is divided into parts (the seasons) which are indefinite and fluctuating in their number. The only natural phenomenon which from the very beginning meets the demands of the continuous reckoning is the moon. 359 Islamite Malays of Sumatra count periods of time in Sundays. duration. 262. 512.

Linguistic custom leads to a natural selection in first menon may be used to determine number of names of months is at a month. Since any season and any natural pheno- quite an arbitrary and uncertain matter. a month soon falls behind the natural phenomenon from which it takes its name: one month must therefore be omitted. the series sometimes consists of twelve. of the into the solar year. and since a month covers a period of time which is relatively long enough for the natural conditions seen in it to be clearly distinguishable from those of the preceding and following months. When phases the the series natural has twelve months. thirteen months.360 lying in PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. primitive man has no conception. Then is the month its 'forgotten'. and still less do they the months. The problem then arises lunar months fit arising is nothingsince the months year. is i. the concrete mode of reckoning comes to the fore in this case also. or at most only an extremely vague idea. Thus a fixed series of months arises. than the lunisolar connexion with the course of the sun. from which e. the following month. it i. and is far greater than that of the months of the year. takes the name of a season. e. which never happened so long as the relationship was occasional and fluctuaThis defect must be corrected. If the months are allowed to follow one another in their traditional order the connexions with the of nature are soon put out of gear. sometimes else of thirteen months. the immediate past or future is to be indicated. and the seasons limited in length and duration. and since the year contains more than twelve and less than thirteen lunar months. length of the solar year. the month is named after these natural conditions. a month soon gets in front of phenomenon from which it takes its name. But this is not done without confusion. it is . and name given to regarded as non-existent. This is the extracalation of a month. it follows that the which the names describing phenomena of special importance are preferred. through their seasons are bound up with the annual The period thus how to make the Practically the difficulty first appears in a disguised form. When the series has ting. for both seasons and months fluctuate in reference are not cover to their position in the solar year.

the month is 'forgotten the next month brings round the phase in questakes and its name. e. as to the inter. which is derived from the name of the star in question. as among and in Loango. and a very accurate and practical means of regulation is thus afforded. there thus arose a fruitful problem for the rudimentary and still quite empirical astronomy. By means of of this nature the series of a properly treated empirical intercalation months could be kept in fair agree- ment with the phases of nature. assumed. Where. A series of twelve months is here tion. and also. When a phase of a star does not appear in the month to which it gives its name. the sense of the observation of the heavens was developed. the the seasons are regulated by the phases of the months can also be named after these phases and stars. that the astronomical points of regulation for the arrangement of the lunar months within the solar year had to be deter- mined by more and more refined observation. Hence there often arise hot disputes as to which month it the series This is the really is. consequently the month-name which is in the series is crowded out by the following month-name. Since 1 . C. when its a body of officials. fixed order arises in this inter- A calation or omission priests. i. as in Babylonia. intercalation of a month. The necessity for the omission or intercalation is recognised in the first place from the natural phases: their fluctuation makes matters still worse. really. So accurate an empirical regulation must keep the intercalation in very good order. theoretically speaking. with the solar year.EMPIRICAL INTERCALATION OF MONTHS.or extracalation of a month. as it did in Babylonia as early as the time of Dungi in the latter part of the third millennium B. point 361 once more runs on correctly for some time. Meanwhile there must have arisen of itself the knowledge that in . regulated by them. Cases of doubt seldom arise here. especially when the phases of the stars were used as an aid. in the series of thirteen the phase of the star appears too early. since they can only occur in the exceptional instance when the phase of the star falls on the border-line between two months. or arrangement is entrusted to the even to a single person apthe ancient Semitic peoples pointed for the purpose. viz.

. ff. attention phases 1 of stars are paid to the birds of passage. but also smaller ones. This is in practice seldom necessary often. and this is specially easy in northern latitudes only. . but these are difficult to observe. the g. a certain number . pp. 33 72 110 ff.. days are counted by dawns.. Very few natural times of day are recognised. 2. here not only the independent appearance of a time-reckoning which is in all respects genuinely continuous. Certain 2 The lunar known.. Seasons and months may also be regulated by points of the annual course of the sun. Hence the -solstices two and equinoxes play a comparatively unimportant part in the history of time-reckoning. but there was no reason for departing fell there from ancient custom. e. where a 46 f. THE GREEK TIME-RECKONING *. and for their observation land-marks. I pass on is The problem finally to speak of the Greek time-reckoning. according to the pars pro toto method. * etc.362 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. and also the solstices is . is it necessary to-day to determine beforehand the position of Easter? but for scientific years astronomy it is a necessity to be able thus to calculate in advance. since the old method worked well and was no need to be able to calculate the calendar for a long period in advance. fuller disf. Four larger seasons are known. With and this section compare my Entstehtutg given. but also the cyclical regulating of the intercalation. are required. C. cussion authorities are Above. of years a certain number of intercalations the simplest relationship is three intercalary months always The intercalation might then very well have to eight years. been cyclically regulated. - for instance. Hence it agrees very well with the flourishing of the theoretical astronomy in the time of the Persians that an intercalary cycle should be introduced about the year 528 B. and therefore a how. In the Homeric poems the time-reckoning stands at a primitive stage. Even then it is only the solstices that are accessible to primitive observation. and is indeed lower than among many barbaric peoples. fixed dwelling-place.

months appear in sharp contradistinction to the world-wide lucky official religious cult. 118. The idea of the selection of lucky or undays prevails not only in superstition but also in the Most of the old festivals fall. the festivals of Apollo form an exception and are all celebrated on the 7th. of This appear. sometimes in decades. partly to its later date in particular. in that they all. itself. according to universal custom. a fact which is due partly to the nature of the contents of his poem. and The regulation of the Greek calendar has throughout a sacral character. 2 Above. and further the days of the month are 2 counted. and it is a great advance that . the intercalation is cyclically regulated. months with the seasons and the naming after these which. in so far as they are ?. the day of new moon is celebrated. so that in a history it is period eight viz. either during or shortly before the time of full moon. the Greek time-reckoning as we a lunisolar year with named lunar months. The investigation of primitive the time-reckoning has crucial led to the perception that herein lies the point of the problem of the origin of the Greek timereckoning. the 6th. In my opinion the Greek calendar cannot be ex- plained from preniisses originating in the country therefore cannot have arisen of itself in Greece. ance is of an ordered form year and a cyclical intercalation We miss that association of completely unprepared for. phases of stars and . g. sometimes in half-months. 363 months are counted. they are counted in one case from the solstice. years (Oktaeteris) a month in is three times in- tercalated. XIX.EARLY GREEK TIME-RECKONING. method of nomenclature II.smaller seasons are frequently mentioned. alone gives rise to an empirical intercalation. 5th. the 3rd. but not named. as the preceding investigations have shewn. pp. e. and 8th years. In Hesiod the same time-reckoning appears further developed. In the appendix of the Days an exceedingly strong day-superstition shews it itself. 313 and 167. the months of pregnancy *. 'the days are numerically reckoned. When know in appears: of which begins. . those of his twin sister Artemis The names of being held on the preceding day.

which belongs to later times. However the authenticity of the older portion of the list of disputed. and then. 177) tries to explain this alternation by the intercalation. FevtiTog. the eight-year period according to our method of expression) of certain festivals. and the Isthmian and Nemean games were even held every second year. The inference that may be drawn in regard to the months from their names and from the ordering of the religious cult is These cases are further established by other matters in regard to the cyclical The eight-year intercalary cycle cannot be disfrom the Ennaeteris period (so called according to tinguished the Greek inclusive method of reckoning. such as all quite isolated and cannot disturb the rule. 'AAiorgomog. Such festivals are only known at Delphi. But a peculiarity attaches to this festithat it is celebrated alternately in one of the two 1 . Aivwv. i. The Olympiad reckoning will go still farther back. quite recently. are derived from festivals. the period was divided into four. Several hundred names are known from the various states of the mother country and the colonies. Since eight years seemed too long an interval. Studies. numbered months were first created the among leagues of states of the period after Alexander the Great. besides a few unexplained names. and among these there is only a single exception to the rule just stated. every fourth year. where three of them were held (Charila. if the traditional starting-point.364 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. the solstice month. which were named from some of them. of Hell. i. 39. viz. Herois). consecutive months. if a month was intercalated the games would be transferred from Parthenios to Apollonios. The Greek feasts were bound up with the months. The great Pythian games themselves were originally held every eighth year. e. viz. intercalation. in order to introduce a means of common understanding such as was necessitated by the multiplicity of the local calendars. e. explainable. is to be accepted. 1919. this association . though the criticism certainly Olympian victors has been sharply seems to have weakened a little val. This is in my opinion impossible. from which the Pythiads were counted). after the first holy war (probably in the year 582. Apollonios and Parthenios This can only 1 Fotheringham in his interesting paper on Cleostratus (Jonrn. Stepterion. C. the year 776 B. the period was halved in order to secure a more frequent celebration.

sacrifices and festivals. not to its number. Thus the seer Lampon.SACRAL CHARACTER OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. the month of the festival necessarily varied in the given manner. ante legislation shall in his Laws prescribes that the festivals the according to the decrees arrange Here. and with them the calendar. but the date was simply arranged by the numbering of the months of the Oktaeteris. a later period also. those who superintended the calendar were men learned in sacral matters. as elsewhere in the Laws. i. four years have 49 months and the next four 50. but only the Oktaeteris period. were noted down in calendrical succession and in some cases also described. Solon in the year 594 arranged the sacral fasti of Athens. be explained as follows: 365 The Oktaeteris has 99 months. he returns to the quern. yearly". certainly close connexion with Delphi. at the prevented a feast from being transferred to a month with another name. Plato general Greek custom. When the chronological arrangement of the Olympic games was introduced. in Oktaeteris calendarial calation was given 50 months and Oktaeteris. monthly. The evidence is however valuable as a terminus of Delphi. the feast was fixed with reference to the name of the month. i. and Solon also had superintendence he stood in other respects in done the for same. follows that when the old custom was to be preserved once regard to the date. which the periodically recurring notable events of the cult. and similar fasti formed part of the legislation of Solon. In addition to which Geminos mentions "the commandment of the laws and the oracular decrees. e. there is an interhalf and twice in the second. e. there is no evidence to shew that the specific peculiarities of the Athenian calendar were introduced by him. That he was the first to introduce the calendar cannot be stated. to At sacrifice in three ways. daily. in the first which the first the second half of the 49. e. i. In the the first it hence in on the other hand. . the The fasti of were therefore arranged under Delphi. Fragments of these fasti from later times have in several cases come down to us. viz. in. the Oktaeteris calendar therefore was not known. Originally the Olympic festival was not fixed according to the calendar. The introduction of the calendar was effected in the form of the establishment of fasti for festivals and religious cult.

And. all this it follows that it was first regulation of the religious cult that The succession of days in Greece.fall on the 7th. viz. in which the dates are of the and performance was greatest importance. Otherwise. 22.. who met twice a year for deliberation. and this arrange- ment was followed by the official civil calendar. Die Exegeten und Delphi. It is the business of the oracle to maintain peace with the gods. too. brought forward a proposal for the intercalation of a month. . but the its necessity for the regulation was aggravated therefore supported and superthere. no less important indeed than the expiation of murder and the veneration of the heroes. and this is above all achieved through the proper cult. Lunds Universitets Arsskrift. on which day also the birth of the god was celebrated at Delphi and elsewhere. Persson. It is clear that this is a definitely intended regulation.366 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. as has been remarked above. vol. Nr. that. 14. time of the Peloponnesian War. Apollo is the patron of the reckoning in months. especially the above-mentioned festivals of seem to shew that this regulaDelphi. the necessity for the created the calendar in the year was in the first place arranged in the form of sacral fasti. the gr)yr)Tal xvfioxQrjOToi of Athens. etc.. Even in Homer the day .and they are not few in number . tion originated at Delphi. he was an exegetes and perhaps even From jrvi)6%Qr]6TO. 1918. such as the Pythioi of Sparta. it is only thus that the consistently sacral character of the Greek calendar and names of months in general can be satisfactorily explained. Only in Delphi could the requisites for the carryingout of such a work be found united. In the pylagorai and hieromnemones. while the peasants and sailors kept to the reckoning by phases of the stars. There remains something to be added. not that it was actually enjoined by the All indications - oracle. 1 Axel W. above all. and in the exegetai there was a circle closely connected with Delphi. the dictum of Plato. all the festivals of Apollo of which the date is known . each member of which could spread in his own state the ideas he there imbibed 1 Certain states maintained special officials who fostered the connexion with Delphi. intended.

we may go back to the 8th. The initial day of the third decade was also dedicated to him v for which reason he was called Einddiog. and. Whence enigma Greek time-reckoning. new moon is a feast of Apollo. new-moon god. In my opinion the question can only be answered in one way: it has. if order was to be created. on the strength of Hesiod and of Homer (who in the Odyssey knows only the in his the development. Here we are met with the difficulty that an intercalary is come? of This the real of then has the connexion with the problem the origin the Babylonia before the 6th century^ But. the whole movement started with this idea not should be binding in the future. the knowledge that in eight years the lunar months could be brought by the intercalation of three months to fit into the solar year must have been reached long before.. and originally from Babylonia. although in Babylonia. come from without. the empirical intercalation must soon have led to variations in all these different states. which is dependent upon the reckoning in months. and there must be established. he receives sacrifices on the first of each month. as NSO^YIVIO^ e. through a regular administration of the intercalation. of 367 i. the cyclical intercalation was introduced before the beginning of the 6th century. The land was split up into a great number of little states in one of which it might often happen that there was no one who could properly manage an empirical intercycle into was not introduced there were. Now. if And even and hopeless confusion must have arisen. In Greece matters were quite different." viz. Apollo as the god of the new-moon festival). much more latter of the cyclical. as we have already remarked.INFLUENCE OF APOLLO AND DELPHI. most probably in the 7th. where the intercalation was managed by a central authority. and later. He is without a rival importance for the selection of days. there was no reason for erecting this knowledge into a rule. are lacking. from the east. at most. calation. . a cycle which. according to the data given above. But it has already been pointed out that in Greece the preliminary condi* beginning of tions for the arising of even the empirical in intercalation. Since Delphi wasa central court which could look after the intercalation.

p. agrees exactly. But the Ionian astronomy has . But. 397. and the signs of the zodiac.seventh day of the month in the cult of the god. g. C. The calendar also shews a second trace of connexion with Asia Minor. According to one isolated notice he also concerned himself with the lunisolar calendar. and it has been proved that this goddess too originated in Asia Minor 2 When the intercalary cycle was introduced from the East about the 7th century it did not come alone. But even with Delphi the lonians had early connexions. 2 See my Griechische Feste. Besides Apollo there is one that is only deity. 1 Above. of which at least three can be shewn to be of Babylonian origin. the way from Ionia to the mother country is long. and long . Hecate. it is said.368 It PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING.a Babylonian foundation. pp. This is shewn e. seems to Apollo came there is is to me a well-authorised view that the god Greece from Asia. viz. Even in astronomy Oriental influence can be demonstrated. statement in Archiv is ffir Reltgionsivtssenschaft. but formed part of a mighty stream of civilisation which poured into Greece from the East at an early period. and the shabattu also are distinguished as such. and even apart from this reason to suppose that in the religion of Apollo there a Babylonian element. 435 and 448 n. 585 B. It 1911. In the sixth century the eastern -Greeks established splendid treasure-houses at Delphi. to be tested by this. 14. closely connected with the calendar and the superstition of the days of the month. the prevailing importance of the . we may remember Croesus of Lydia. evidences of this are the division of the day into 12 hours. who foretold the famous eclipse of the sun on May 28. the other shabattu being a later development from this 1 most of the Apollo festivals were rites of expiation and purification. 330. A similar preference for the seventh day of the month is seen again in the shabattu. p. . where all the styles formed under Oriental influence displace and transform the native geometrical style in vase-painting -and the minor arts. . and the development of the mother country is in arrears. in art. Astronomical science begins with Thales. And in point of fact it is originally only the seventh day that is brought into prominence. and one is an Old Ionic transformation of a Babylonian ^original. My 1.

and how fruitful this by such names as Meton and Kallippos. though cycle now upon eight-year was inaccurate.BABYLONIAN ORIGIN OF THE GREEK CALENDAR-REGULATION. The introduction of the cyclical regulation of the calendar has again introduced problems of far-reaching significance for scientific astronomy. 24 . the problem more exact one. as well as can be expected from the scanty nature of our sources for this period. 369 and intimate connexions must have preceded buildings of this nature. All the necessary conditions for the development assumed can therefore be demonstrated. way difficulty for the emancipation of the time-reckoning prepared from the fetters of the religious cult. This the The was to find a problem became is shewn a higher plane.

pointed out to me that according sumar pat Islendingabdk. to P. and with it the Aldoubtedly thing. at menu scyllde svd coma til alpinges. en pangat til quomo vico fyrr). had contrived to antedate itself a little more than a week in relation to the natural year. es X vicov vcere af sumre. calendar (the week-year). Beckman has kindly ch. it was postponed Are's i 7 (pa vas nicelt et ncesta dpr The reason for this is unin the calendar.ADDENDUM TO Prof. e. 80). Ipgum. after Torsten Surt's reform of Here the calendar had been introduced about the year 965. the Althing in the year 999 A. was decreed for the time when ten (instead of nine) weeks of the summer had passed. i. 78 NOTE 1 (P. D. until a week later that the . therefore we have an example of the empirical and occasional correction of the Icelandic calendar which was postulated above.

20 pp. Ill: 2. 1044 ffj..A.. 1828. vol. 1896 J... .. 29 ff. Anthropological Smiths. German Translation. Barrett. Bull. (Specimen calendarii Manilla. Studier tillegnade Esaias Tegner den 13 Januari 1918. Annual Reports of the of the Smithsonian Institute. Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary Stud. H. Ethnological Survey Reports (of the Philippine Islands). Str. Jesup Exp.P. by E. Globus 64. u\. Journal of the R.T. edited by F. Archipel indien. das Gebiet der Tscherokesen. Cambridge.. Krihks und Tschaktahs. Lund. Bartram.A. Peschuel-Loesche.. 1893. Berlin. 1907. Alberti. Tegn. Cambridge. Andree..R. Backer. 1815. "Science".. Bulletin of the Smithsonian Institute. C. (Chap.I. 1911.N.E. Plejaden im Mythus und in ihrer Besiehung zum Jahresbeginn und Landbau. S. L. Macedonian Folk-lore.. ff. G. 1894. 's- Gravenhage. W. Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region). Ibid. Smiths. 41. The Jesup North Pacific Expedition.LIST OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED. Stuttgart. Bureau of Ethnology. Institute of Great Britain. Die Kaffern auf der Siidkiiste von Afrika. 362 ff. Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Straits.. Paris.und Siid-Karolina n. Gotha.. Baumann. Contributions to North American Ethnology (U. 191214.. Notes on the Customs and Beliefs of the Wa-Giriama etc. Rep. E. Adriani. Abbott.. Reisen durch Nord. Die Loango Expedition.. C. . F. XI. Washington. 1907. C. Berlin. 1903. pp. 1912. 1793. R. Notes on the Wa-Sania. 1890 93. Edda S&mundar hins froda gentilis III. s. 1918. JRAI. Arcin.. O. De Bare'e-sprekende Toradja's. Paris. ff.. Die R. Boas in Memoirs New York and Leiden r of the American Museum of Xatural History. 218 ff. E.. Handbook of American Indians = Smiths. A. La Guinee francaise. A. L. Durch Masailand zur Nilquelle. 30. de. N.). en Kruijt. L W. Bull.S. 190408. by Finn Magnusson. IV.. Copenhagen. J. British East Africa. pp. 1874.

F.-hist. Memoire sur le calendrier arabe avant I'islamisme. Paris. The Choctaiv of Bayou Lacomb.. 1911.. vol. . Stuttgart. ff. Philadelphia. IVe um ser. Tammany Parish. 1894. Beckman. Lon. Nr 2.372 Beckman. The Kwakiutl of Vancouver Island. Antonie. The Land of the Pigmies. 73 ff.. Brenner. N. 1911. F. Globus 91. Leipzic. 342 ff. Heidelberg. Ethnographische Beobachtungen fiber die Nauru-Insulaner. Bezold. Beiheft 2.-ber. Sphaera. Callaway. 1722. Codrington. 1903. 6. 1908. The History of Virginia. Globus 93. V. Studies in their Anthropology and P. 1891. Bull. Jun. 200 Kr. don.. C. Folk-Lore. H.. London.. 2nd ed. The Melanesians. Wiss. Kenntnisse und Fertigkeiten der Samoaner. og Kalund. M. 1901. Boll.. Brown. Wurzburg. Beobachtungen aus Samoa zur Frage des Einflusses des Mondes auf terrestrische Verhaltnisse.... VII. Bleek. 1884. The Central Eskimo. 1886.. The introduction (with [Beverley. Bleek. Program. von. 1842. 1910. Leipsic. 1909.. Tegn. Louisiana.. Computus v. phil. Bushnell. Claus. Kl. Smiths. Bilfinger. II. 1899. Voyage dans les parties interieures de I Amerique septentrionale. pp. N. R. J. 1898. Himmelsschau und Astrallehre bet den Babyloniern. Der biirgerliche Tag.]. Smiths.. Stuttgart. Carver. Yverdon. v. Program. Die antiken Stundenangaben. Distingen. d.. A Brief Account of Bushman Folk-lore. 1908. die Welt in den Jahr en 181518. 48. Pft*' jyJ^ The Indian Sign Language. G. . 1911: Boas. G. W. ecclesiasticus. 1888.. der Akad.. Besuch bei den Kannibalen Sumatras. Die babylonische Doppelstnnde. Chervin. A. 1897. St. Brandeis.. Stuttgart. Melanesians and Polynesians. Journal asiatique Celsius..H. London. Specimens of Bushman Folk-lore.. and Lloyd. Untersuchungen fiber die Zeitrechnung der alten Germanen. Astronomic. Die Wagogo.. Sitz. 1899. 1683. Burrows. G. W.. 249 ff. . C. part Bogoras. Copenhagen. L.. W. Clark. Rep. A.. Baessler-Archiv. I. 18845. Alfrcedi islenzk. ' Leipsic. Anthropologie bolivienne. 237 . 1870. London. 1875. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Stuttgart. ff. II Das germanische Julfest. J. I. 1907.. Jesup Exp. Globus 72.. London. 399 ff.. W. 1914 6.. Caussin de Perceval. Program. Oxford. 1888. 1885. Die Zeitmesser der antiken Vo'lker. 1843. H. W. 1888. Stud. 1784.. London. H. . I. . Billow. Jesup Exp. Reise Uppsala. Christian. Stuttgart: I Das altnordische Jahr. C. 1. D. Publications of the Folk-lore Society 15. The Caroline Islands.. Chamisso. Roman pagination) by Beckman. The Chukchee. vol. H. R. F. The Religious System of the Amazulu.

Coquilhat. 1853. Volkstiimliche Monatsnamen i. Historic von Gronland. Det Gronlandske Selskabs Dalman.. History of the Indian Archipelago. Dennett. Das Hinterland der deutschen Kolonie 1896. Sitz. London. Dieffenbach. Nigerian Studies. A. Beitrage London.. 69 ff... Cole. P. German . Drake. ff. New (3rd) ed. 1896.. The Tshi-speaking Peoples. 380 ff. . alter und neuer Zeit im Alemanni- schen. Copenhagen. Conradt. of the Dusuns. Kultnr. G.. d. Paris. first printed in the Magazine of American History. and Swanton. 1896. Notes on the 373 Columbus. L. 11 ff. Sur le Haut-Congo. Wagogo of German East Africa. I. O.. J.. P. Ebner. Pratz.. JRAI 42.. F.LIST OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED. Dunbar.. Edinburgh. O. Le calendrier chinois. H. 1820. 7. Skrifter II. Du Dissertation.. 1891. University of California Publications in American Archeology and Ethnology.-ber.. Cranz. 1910. Sigrid. dem Leben der Waporogo. Akad.. 1912. Bull. Historic del Signor Don Fernando Colombo etc. R. Mitteilungen 42. art. H. Y. Gronlandske Relationer. Sheldon. 562 ff. Petermanns Geogr. Dillmann. d. zur Volkerkunde Brasiliens. London. A... B. Berlin. Dissertation. Uppsala. VIII. R.. Die Sternkunde bet den Scefahrern der Marshallinseln. Ellis. 1913. 1882. 72 Ehrenreich. d'Anthropologie IV"ie serie. 1907. Berlin. Smiths. 1907. 744. History of the Sandwich Islands.. d'. Enjoy. Aramaische Dialektprobe. 1882.. J. B. Bull. London. 1902. 1910. A. 1887. \otes on the Religious Beliefs North Borneo. Dorsey. An- thropos 5.. L. P. Lon- Egede. Ausbreitung und Herkunft der Indogermanen. N. H. The Religion of the Luiseno Indians of Southern California. British Fabry. S. Globus 91. W. Polynesian Researches in the Society and Sandwich Islands. Togo.. 1907. JRAI. translation. 914 ff. A Dictionary of the Biloxi and Ofo Languages. Le Page. 16 ff. don.. . Evans. 1881. Vasterbottenslapparna under forra hftlften af 1800-talet. 1888. 47. 1912. 1765. Ans Feist. de la Soc. Calendar. Crawfurd. E. 1790. 1915. The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa. Leipzic. 1838. Erdland. G. J. C. The Pawnee Indians. etc. 1894. Bois.. Uber das Kalenderwesen der Israeliten vor dem babylonischen Exil. Nachrichten von Gronland. 305 f. History of Madagascar. Freiburg fttr B. Histoire de la Louisiane. 1758. 1704. 1918. 218 ff. D. X. London. 1843. Travels in New Zealand. 1908 10. E. Copenhagen. Barby. 32. J.. also printed in Schweizerisches Archiv Volkskunde 11. Wiss. Du Morrisania. 1843.. 557 ff. Dibble. 8.. Ellis. Berlin. in Churchill's Collection of Voyages II. Dalsager.. Paris.

. 1854. R. 307 ff. Die Orang Knbn auf Sumatra. Globus 94. G. Gutmann.. Gilij. W. 739 ff. Frankfurt a. vol. J. JRAI 13. VI. 49. 19. The Calculation of Time 3rd ed. 1910. Zeitrechnnng bei den 238 ff. J. Smiths. F. Forbes. 86 Gatschet.. 101 A. 1908. Fischer. Leipzic. 1 ff. An Unknown De stellarum People in an Unknown Land. J. A. V: 1. and La Flesche. III. d.. Albanesische Studien. von A. Bemerkungen auf seiner Reise Published and wissenschaft. Tnsayan Katcinas. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. A. Berlin. Ginzel.. 1 ff. London. Yolker- Hammar. Dahomey. 15 ff. 1907.. Hale. sachs. Grabowsky. .. 1908. B. i Afrika... Babwende in by E.. Theologie. 245 ff.. Rep. ff. A. The Ethnography of the Western Tribe of the Torres 1890. J. f. Grotefend. Haddon. Relig'ions- religione Romana.. Nordenskiold. N. 1888. Globus 93. ed. Rome. 19056. G. III: 2.. I F.. Grandidier. Forster. Der Reisban bet den Dajaken Collection Siidost-Borneos. f. Gundel. 15. I. On some Tribes of the Island of Timor. Forster.. Grubb. 1907. A. G. F. Foa. . S. J. vol. Hambruch.. von. II: 1.. I. The Pleiades in Primitive Calendars. Friederich. Fornander. Klasse XXVII. in Bali. Giessen.. Abh. Dieterich und R.. The Klamath Indians oj South-western Oregon. 18934. Leipsic. 1908. Gesellschaft der Wiss. F. Geschichte der dentschen Sprache. S.. appellatione et London. United States Exploring Expedition 183842. C. Asiatic Society. Jena. Hanover. Gu. Die Neumondfeier im Alien Testamente. 1848. In The Golden Bough. Hopi Katcinas. C. 1783. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum kunde in Hamburg. des onvrages anciens Paris. Ibid. Ethnography and Philology. Philadelphia. Fletcher.. Leipsic. 402 ff. J. 1846. H. 190614. Paris.. K. Zeitrechnnng des dentschen Mittelalters. Wiinsch. concernant Madagascar. 7. 1891. Handbnch der mathematischen nnd technischen Chronologic. H. Saggio di Storia Americana. M... Frazer. A.. B. ..-hist. E. ff. 1909. W. Wadschagga.. 18991900. The Polynesian Race. In the Journal of the R. R. Grimm. inn die Welt. II. O. Rep. geschichtliche Versuche und Yorarbeiten herausg'eg.Ztschr. Etnografiska Bidrag af svenska missionarer Stockholm.. 1895. 1908. 1906. 1878.374 Fewkes. Smiths. etc. 10. publiee par A. The Omaha Tribe. Forster. S. Straits. phil. 1780 4. G... "Tag und Nacht" im Arabischen. 1911. Missionar. 21. translated by G. Hahn. CNAE 1890. JRAI Hagen. Wuvulu nnd Ana.. 27. 297 ff. P. H. 1884.

translation. JRAI. .. London. W. Thalbitzer. 1905. ... J. 233 ff. Snouck. 23. Nachricht von der Geschichte. Joyce. J. Hammarstedt. fin Finnish).. The Wild Rice Gatherers of the Upper Lakes. Antigua \V. 1911. 1907. F. W. The Nandi. Rep. 156 if. The Ainos. Siebenzahl und Sabbat bei den Babyloniern und im alien TestaLeipziger semitistische Studien II: 5. Johnstone. Holm. The Pagan Tribes of Borneo. Hrozny.LIST OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED. Ethnology of Akamba and other East African Tribes.. der Indianischen die benachbarten 1821. 1705. and Me Dougall. Hose. 1894. Smiths. Hampson. Les Ba-Ronga. 1897. 1902. JRAI. E.. I. by W. 1911.. Oxford.. G. 1898. 32. ESP I. A. IX. The Natives of Borneo. Holland. J. 1910. 18978. H&yha. part ... Xeuchatel. 263 ff. ment. Leyden. O'Sullivan. The Koryaks. Helsingfors. JRAI 3. Lieut. W. C. see Torday. VI. Hose. (61). Das Venusjahr und der elamische Kalender. C. E. Oxford. Oxford. 406 ff... Hurgronje. A. 41. litteraturce septentrionalis libri duo.. Hastings. (Notes on the Andamanese) in Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic 9. by.. A. 1888. 1904. vol. Cam- bridge. The Masai. foreningens tidskrift II. 1877 p. article Calendar in vol.. T. Further Researches into Kikuyu and Kamba Religious Beliefs and Customs. 1901. thesaurus. Die Herero... Ibid. London [1841]. T. G. Howitt. Rink. The I. The Achenese. 1906. Encyclopedia of Religions and Ethics. welche ehemals Pennsylvanien und Staaten bewohnten. J. London. 19. Homfray. Jenks. Copenhagen. translated by S. 1902.. H. German translation. ed. Hickes. B. Junod. 1013 ff.. Hobley. 375 Svenska fornminnes- Om en nordisk drstredelning. Jesup Exp. 39. The Bontoc Igorot. X. Ch.. Giitersloh. 1910. 81 ff. The Ammasalik Eskimo. 1912. Yukaghir and the Yukaghirized Tungus.. Jochelson. Gb'ttingen Hehn. III. vol. R. 1906. S. English . A. ed. JRAI. Edinburgh. Meddelelser om Gronland 10.. J. 1874. The Native Tribes of South-East Australia. Angmagsalikerne. H. 1909. A. sept. Medii sEvi Kalendarium. Translated by A. 1919. Hollis. etude ethnographique sur les indigenes de la bate de Delagoa.. ib. C. H. den Sitten und Gebrauchen Volkerschaften.. 1905. I: linguarum vet. Hanserak's Dagbog. Account of the Ancient Customs of the East Finns. Memnon 5. British East Africa. Notes on the Customs of the Tribes occupying Mombasa Sub-District. . C. Heckevvelder.. Irle. W.

JRAI 19. publications ff. 1911. African Native Literature (Kanuri or Bornu language).. 18834. 1845. JRAI 15. Lon- don. J. 469 Mac Donald. D-. 1915. Mac Cauley.. A History of Babylon. S. Assyrier. Me Mac Manners. Les Warumbi. London. 21. Pictographs 13 ff. 190714. 43 ff. 1912. The Folk-Tales of the Kiwai Papuans. L'Heureux.. Ibid. In den Wildnissen Brasiliens. 301 Lister.Sumatra. Leiden. W. 1889. London.. G. Astronomy of the Australian Aborigines. Kubary. A. PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Krause. Leipsic. and Religions J. Landsberger. Stuttgart. 607 ff. London. Seminole Indians of Florida. H. Kalenderfragen im althebraischen Schrifttum. J. I. 133 Mallery. 605 ff. 60. G. Berlin.. F... Dougall. London. Sternkunde und Sterndienst in Babel.. Acta Tribes.. A. und Landtman. 18789. F. of South P. J. 4. 71 ff... of the North American Indians. 1881. Finn..376 Junod.. Leipsoc. King. Kotz. 1906. . 264 ff. 1857. deutschen morgenland. Helsingfors. Missionary Travels. of the R. (fber die astronomischen Kenntnisse der Naturvb'lker Australiens und der Sildsee. 1902. Maes. 1898. I. Picture-Writing of the American Indians. v. W. Smiths. L. A. The Gold Coast. 7.. Smiths. S.. Koch-Grunberg. II. Neuchate). scient. d. 1913. Livingstone. Rep. X. J. 1911. Ztschr. Leonard. G. A. Leipsic. Studien VI. Danish Academy... 1909. Koelle. 5.. Notes on the Natives of Fakaofu (Bowditch Island). Ethnological Notes on the Astronomical Customs and Religions Ideas of the Chokitapia or Blackfeet Indians (of Canada). 1890. Magnusson. Macdonald. . 1915. Th.. Reisen Brasilien. Pherson. -hist. W. JRAI 1892. African Tribes. A. Superstitions. Die Samoainseln. Ethnographische Beitrcige zur Kenntnis des Karolinen Archipels. Die Bewohner der Mortlock Inseln. Hamburg. Rep.. Berlin. see Hose. The Life of a South African Tribe (Ba-Thonga).. Society of New South Wales 15. Kugler. ff. Maass. Minister i. The Lower Niger and its fennicee 1886. Om de gamle Skandinavers Inddeling af Dagens Tider. Union Group.. B. Copenhagen. Dissertation. Past and Present. Customs. Durch Zentral. 18823. E. Anthropos 4. Journal and Proceedings of the R. G. 1906. .. Ges. Kramer. in Nordwest- 1909 10. ff. and Ergftnzungen. Konig. Der ziger semitist. kultische Kalender der Babylonier 1 2. Zwei Jahre unter den Indianern. 10. J. C. 1854. XLVII. Phil. 18889. 1917.

1904. 1909. Mansfeld. Mausser. The Siouan Tribes of the East. A. Paris. 1799. Wiss. Die Masai. Nr.. London. M.. Phil. Agyptische Chronologic.LIST OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED. Martin. 1907. A. Meineke. Washington. 18. BismarcksAnthropos 7. Honolulu. Lehrbuch der hausanischen Sprache. Geological and Geographical Survey. Die slavischen Monatsnamen. Urwald-Dokumente. 1843. I. C. .. alttestamentl. Miklosich. I. ff. ff. . Arch. Folklifvet Account of the British Settlements London. E.. der Akad. G***. H. Matthews.. 18967. Musters. K. Ztschr.. 1895 6r 129 ff. Jena.. Smiths.. B. Skytts harad vid borjan af'1800-talet. le Pere. Journal and Proceedings New South Wales 16. Prenzlau.. 1908.. 3rd ed. 1877. C. Rep. Arabia Petrtea. J. O. Nr. Die Monatsnamen der 1909. 1912. the Natives of the Tonga Islands from the communications of W. Abh. I. On the Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands. III.. 327 J. Akad. Ibid. Beskrivelse.. Versuch einer Naturgeschichte von Chile.. J. 1786. 222 ff.. 7. Die Feier der Sonnenwende auf der Insel Vuatam. hist. C. Die Siidseevolker und das Christentutn. Meier. Berlin. Marti. f.. Lettres stir les ties Marquises. 1908. Denkschr. Musil.. Man. 1904. Bidrag - - til de Nikobariske 0ers etc. Xewbold. 17. Die Inlandstamme der malayischen Halbinsel.. deutscher Kolonialsprachen I. Nachtrage sur agyptischen Chronologic. 3rd ed. Geschichte des Altertums. F. f. 17. On the Races of Patagonia. 1844. and Statistical . D.. 1882. d. ff. An Account of Mathias. translated from the Hawaiian by N.. Wogtilen und Altpersien.. Merker. W. Rep. 29. Wiss/ Berlin. Manning. Smiths. 1905. E. 193 Nelson. Martin. I. Nr. Berlin. 19084.. S. 1894. M011er. III. Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians. R. Vier Jahre unter den Crossflussnegern A. Ein landivirtschaftlicher altpalastinensicher Kalender. Political in the Straits of Malacca. Mischlisch. von. T. d.. der 1868. E. Smiths. Bull. Meyer. 222 J. Wien. 1839. JRAI 1. Copenhagen. Lieut. 377 Emer- JRAI 1883. of the R. W. Malo. 1818. Society of Notes on the Aborigines of New Holland. Molina. J. Wiss. Miscellaneous Publications of the U. I. 1 ff. 155 ff. son (with notes). J. N. 1872. Ethnology and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians. 1 ff. 1913. 1903. Globus 96 r archipel. Mooney. 1902. Hawaiian Antiquities. 708 ff. das Studium A. The Eskimo about Bering Strait. Mariner. u.. Leipsic. Lund.. 12. Kameruns. i Nicolovius. German translation. Stuttgart. . Vienna. Ed. 22.

1910. S. i. W. The Baganda. 1904. Petersbourg. Freiburg B... Einige Nachrichten fiber die Sprache der Kaiganen. Primstaven. Parker... ff.. Abh. Nr. Cl. Roth. London.. R. - London. Nordenskidld. Indianer och hvita.. Ibid. CNAE 3. Stuttgart. sum herausgeg. 1873. 5.Hebrides. E. de Rehm. Lehrbuch der hebrdischen Archaologie.. The Northern Bantu. der sachsichen Ges. Nilsson. 1910. JRAI . 1918. d'Anthro- pologie Vime se rie) 2 1911.. De sydamerikanska indianernas kultnrhistoria. phil.. 1911. 335 ff. Cambridge. Avd. O. og Segn'. 1915. Ch. 1904.. Stockholm. XXVIII. 1910. de la Soc. . H. Southern Nigeria. II. de St. Ursprung. Nisbet. S. 1905. Roscher. The Todas. . ESP II: 1. antiken Sternglauben. The History of Melanesian Society. Studien zur Geantiken Weltbildes und der griechischen Wissenschaft germanischen Philologie. .. Partridge. . Nowack. 257 Riggs. Martin P. W. Reed.. 1916. Langloh. N. Dakota Grammar. W. Observations stir les Nouvelles. 25 ff. Burma under British Rule and before. Strassburg. A Dakota-English Dictionary. 1877. 1753. Boll. Rivers... . der WissenNr. F. Tribes of California. 1905. Cambridge. Studien des schichte III. A. Dreissig Jahre in der Sfldsee. With a Prehistoric People British East Africa).. 1894. Negritos of Zambales. Potherie. 1893. 1916. Bd 24. London. und Bedeutung der hippokratischen Schrift von der Siebenzahl. R.. The Aborigines of Tasmania. (the Akikuyu of London.. Kdllskrifter till lapparnas mytologi. 1'acad. 1906. Cross River Natives. Report on Australian Languages and Traditions. 423 ff. Roscoe. W. Die Entstehung und religiose Bedeutung des griechischen Kalenders. 9.-phil. Apollo nnd der Orient. A.. schaften. 1900. Stockholm. 32.. Uber Alter. II. Lunds Universitets Arsskrift. Halifax.. 2nd ed. 1. . J. 308. Stockholm. S. Kristiania. Qner durch Borneo. E. L. W. der ff. . Paul. Kl.. Milet. 1901. Bull. Further Notes on the Manners and Customs of the J. Pa rapegm enfragm en te aus ff. Akad. W. Sitz.-hist. R. In the periodical 'Syn London. 1890. . 1911. Powers. der Wissen- schaften. Bull. 1907. 1902. A. Bacqueville de la. 21. JRAI 2. 1914. Parkinson. CNAE 7. Indianlif. Riste.-ber. Leipsic. and Katherine. H. E. Stockholm. Die filteste griechische Zeitrechnung. W. Oliveau. 1858. Paris. Zroi%la. Grundriss der Pfeiffer. Ridley. 1911..378 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. Histoire de V Ame'rique septentrionale. 92 and 752 Reuterskiold. Leiden. 1912. 15. Archiv fUr Religions wissenschaft 14. Leipzic. 1899. Nieuwenhuis. K. H. Berlin. 1911. London. H. Baganda. Routledge. hist. von F. 1904. The Euahlayi Tribe. Ling. Radloff. etc.

LonLondon. Russel. H. ff. J. 931 ff. Ch. Das dreisehnmonatliche Jahr ttnd die Monatsnamen der sibirischen Volker. H. Pima Indians. G.... 26. Spieth. see Dorsey. 1912. W. 'Plejaden ttnd 'Jahr' bei Indianern des nordostlichen Berlin. Sechefo. and Gillen. Valley Mississippi Swanton. Madagascar before the Conquest. 391 ff. B. 3rd ed. Die Ewe-Stamme. Die Aranda. M. the Forests of the Far East. der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft 13. 3. Smiths. Rep. A.. 26. Jena. Swoboda. Schiefner. Schoolcraft. nnd 190674. Old Samoa. the Basutos.. JRAI 40.. London.. Unter den Naturvolkern Zentralbrasiliens. 243 ff. Bull. Stow... 14. 1906. The Native Tribes of Central Australia. Smiths. London. Skeat. 1897. Rivista di Scienza . Beliefs. O. de St.. Across Australia.. Strehlow. 9. 1857. G. hist. Tlingit and Dorsey.-phiL Cl. 1910. 1894. 1899. 43. 23. primordi dell' ff. and Blagden. J. and 209 ff. Sfldamerikas. 1910.. adjacent Coast of the Gulf of Mexico. London. Notes on some Tribes of British Central Africa. London. St. . 1 ff.LIST OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED. Rep.. J. L.. K. Sprenger. Washington. 5. 1 ff. 188 ff.. Stevenson. 1907 the and Indian Lower Tribes the R. or Travels in Northern^ Borneo. O. 71 ff. The Nabaloi Dialects.. Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula. W. 1851 Jena. Social Condition. 1908. J. de 1'acad. Bull. astronomia presso Babilonesi. 1859.. Life Smiths. 1905. . Schrader. R. London. 1907. Sibree. F. Sprachvergleichnng Schulze. Native Tribes of the Northern Territory of Australia. Aus Namaland The twelve Lunar Months among Urgeschichte. 2nd London. C. Cambridge. Seligmann. F. John. don. J. Petersbourg. of . C. 1911. Stannus. B. 134 Stair. 1910. Spencer. M. i Scheerer. 213 L'astronomia nelV antico testamento. \V. Anthropos 1909. Zeitschrift ft. 1905. 1904. B. Spencer.. O.. Frankfurt a. / ESP II: 2. Berlin. 1903. . 1863. The 379 1 ff... 19045. Milan. Globus 65 1891. tind Kalahari.. 1914.. . S. Die Bewohner des Nikobaren Archipels. Indian Tribes of the United States. S. von den. 1893. G. 1906.. 11.. and Linguistic Relationship of the Indians. Rep. Uber den Kalender der Araber vor Mohammed. fiir Internationales Archiv Ethnographic 6. London. The Native Races of South Africa. 285 Steinen. 19012. The Northern Tribes of Central Australia. Schiaparelli. C. in ed. Smiths. J. A. 1896.. The Melanesians of British New Guinea.nnd Loritjastanime. W... 19045. The Zuni Indians.

. JRAI . Teschauer. 93 ff. C. E. J. Anthropos l r 1906.. the Edo-speaking Peoples of London. Velten. Weeks. JRAI 19. 1896. Ibid. 1859. Torday. and 416 ff. 1906. Die Erforschung des Tschinwan-Gebietes auf Formosa durch Globus 70. Turner. R. 333 ff.. Rep. aus Brasilien. The Story of New Zealand.. J. Natives of Australia. G. London.. Wellington. 1891. Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary. M. Warneck. D:o of the Statlumh of B. N. 1896. Tille.. 18. 1909. The Maoris of New Zealand. L.. 1870. I. Astronomie. New Zealand and its Inhabitants. 39 ff. R. 311 ff. Ibid. and Joyce. London. Teit. 97 ff. Yule and Christmas. Histoire des Yncj&$. Sitten und Gebrduche der Suaheli.. Corpus poeticum boreale.. 398 ff. Zur Schaltungspraxis ff. II. I. Hudson Bay Territory. 1915. The Thompson Indians of British Columbia. Ethnology of the Ungava District. London. London. A.380 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 20 ff. D:o of the Ba-Huana. chaldeens. Archipel. S. 35. 1899. Vigfusson. 1916. . Thomson. A. Ibid. . 11. Report on the Ethnology of the Siciatl of British Columbia.. 66 Usener. 159 ff. Z. Notes on the Ethnography of the Ba-Mbala. N. 1906. E. vol. 7. 731 ff. 1704. Ibid. Gottingen. Astrologie. Thureau-Dangin. Litera- turzeitung 13.. Mathematik. New . II. 1883. 35. 126 ff. C. Ibid. 1890.. ' Archiv fur Reli- gionswissenschaft H. Anciens noms de mois 1896. River.. Buhler... Forschungen auf den Salomo-inseln und dem BismarckLieder und Sagen aus Buin. part V. G. D:o of the Ba-Yaka.. 1905. 1903. Oxford. Berlin.. Tamai. Jesup Exp. 1910. Ibid. Hill. Kisak. 1899. 111:9.. T.. A. part IV. Garcilasso de la. Wv I. 1904. Amsterdam. by G. Strassburg. Das Opfer Rest Days. 1905. 1910. . 97 - ff. 1912. Gotternamen. Journal asiatique IX me Thurnwald. A. in der Hammurapi-Zeit. Taylor. bei den Tobabatak auf Sumatra.. London. part VII. H. . C. Bonn. f Anthropological Notes of the Bangala of the Upper Congo JRAI 39. 19134. Ungnad. F.. My then und alte Volkssagen . The Shuswap.. Anthropological Report on Nigeria. . I. York.. C. 36. serie. J. vol. 34.. Ch. Oriental. 339 ff. Grundriss der indo-arischen Philologie. Thomas. Tregear. H. The Lillooet Indians. 188990. die Japaner. Vega. of B. JRAI . Tout. Webster. ed.. D:o of the Stselis etc. 272 ff.. Smiths. Thibaut. Anthropological Report on the Ibo-speaking Peoples of Nigeria.. vol.

1893. 1897. Wilken. Berlin. 381 Weeks. lapparnes Museet.. . tiderakning. The Shilluk People. 357 Wollaston. Westermann. K. F. C. Fasti Danici.. E. A. Wellhausen. 1844. Winkler. 1912.. f. The Aborigines of Formosa. London. H. Olaus. R. 1642. Leipsic. A. fiber die deutsche Jahrteilung. Hafniae.... Memnon 6. Ethno- logic 45. Der Kalender der Toba-Bataks anf Sumatra. Archiv Leiden. 3rd Reste arabischen Heidentums. Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels.. Zeitschr. 65 ff. Om Religionswiss. T. J.. Sketch of the Totemism and Religion of the People of the Islands in the Bougainville Straits. 2nd ed. 1882. Among the Primitive Bakongo. Hilprecht Anniversary VoBerlin. lume. Yermoloff. Wiklund. Universitatsrede. G. Die Schaltungspraxis itn alien Babylonien. . F. J.. Berlin. Maghazi (Muhammed in Medina). 1 ff. Weissbach. 1905. A. Wheeler. Die deutschen Monatsnamen. . The American Anthropologist 10. 1869. 1906. Alter und Bedentnng der babylonischen Astronomic itnd Leipsic. 1912. London. H. Ztim babylonischen Kalender. Weidner. Meddelanden fran Nordiska f. B. Worm. 1895 6. . Peasant Life in the Holy Land. . 1914. Kirche anf dent Gesellschaftsarchipel.. Berlin. 436 Wirth. Astrallehre. F. A. Leipsic. Weinhold. 1897. London. 1914. 1913. 1912. Berlin. 1886. Wegener. ff...LIST OF AUTHORITIES QUOTED. H. Der landwirtschaftliche Volkskalender (der Russen).. Halle. Stockholm. G.. ed.. Wilson. K. 15. 1912. C. Vakidi's Kitab al D. Kiel.. 1862.. ff. J. Geschichte der christl. 24 ff. 1909. Pygmies and Papuans. 1897. Handleiding voor de vergelijkende Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indie.

intercalation.. 133 agricultural and of. festivals. 78. 268 Ennaeteris. observation Extracalation. 226 End Beginning of the year. 365 Dieteris. year. 345. Greek. 5 Age. 244. 337. 168. seasons. indications of. as unit of time- reckoning. 114 Continuous time-reckoning. Indian Feriae conceptivae. 39 of Astronomers. 301 Eponyrns. influence on the calendar. of day. 302 . 95 cycles of days. 17 of: counting in dawns. in nights. 269 Full moon. 217 First-fruits. 364 Epiphany moon. 277 years. the Dagsmprk. stellar Germanic 11. 99. Dry and rainy seasons. 22. by the solstices. 237. 75. Babylonian designation of years.INDEX. 107 Equinoxes. 74 Gestures indicating days. 292 Apollo. Greek star-c. origin 146 Ebb and flow. 13. names for days of the month. in sleeps. 268. 337. months and year. 360 Fasti. Easter. 98. 342 Dawn = Day. 15. 12. of days. 105. 1 on the Anglo-Saxon year. 148.. 168. month-names. of. 8. 155. in suns. months named after. 313 295 Birds of passage. 17 solar. primitive. 365 of. in Agricultural seasons. 114. 341. 66. . 233 Constellations. 21 time of festivals. 107. months. of the year. 13. 344. festivals of. limits of. aids in. 251 monthnames. 119. 165 of. c. 340 Festivals. Arabic lunisolar year. Decades. 168 Delphi. 54. 288. celebration of. 91. division of the year. regulated by the moon. 12 Anglo-Saxon seasons. computation of. time of the day. 13 24 hours. 351 Egyptian designation year. Acronychal risings and settings. 359 new year. ignorance of. two. 258. 347 Canaanitish month-names. by the stars. see New Year Bilfinger on the Icelandic week-year. times Days. 14. 88. 350. 3 . 3. 62 301 Astrology. 46 Calendar. 268. and the Greek calendar. 1 363. picture-writing 103 Calendar-makers. 98 Day. cycles 319. 43. 17. 75. n. Counting. classes of. expressions for. 366 Disting. relative. of months.

97 . month. of. new moon) course of. 259 . 364. 5 Heliacal risings and settings. intercalation. 363 and equinoxes. 155. 272 of the calendar. Month. . 42 Monsoons. of. 324 Measures of time. 265. 40 Kugler on 260 Babylonian intercalation. 34. old Greek. moon. Egyptian. 233. 305 . 150. 362 75. from stars. 147. 21 Nasi. of. 235 Year. . Moon incomplete. times by the stars. 71 cycle. 112 Homer. from seasons and occupations. 251. 383 in 235 Markets. 278. division of. variability of. Scandinavian) designation of times of the day. festivals 267. sidereal. Intercalary Babylonian. of weeks. of the stars. Semitic. 148. of. 5 Hesiod. 151 moons. time counted by. seasons. pirical. 240. of. number of days in. 46. in Canaan. num- bering 188. 221 Icelandic (cp. 233. 4. expressions for times of the day. of the Wadschagga. 78. 282. 363 Intercalation (cp. 21 months. Greek. calendar Gnomon. Gezer. 316 43 Hour. 57. 159. 159. of. indicated charge 352 Knots. Months. Hammurabi. 87 halving lary. lunar. parts of.) cyclical. multiplicity of. 155. celebration of. of years. 151. Nights. 20 of.INDEX. 149. 110. 78. 103 Planets. 174. Month-names. 311 Latin expressions for times of the day. pairs of. 253. 72. 34 observation of the solstices. quarters of. 147. regulated by the 247 Israelitish festivals at full solstices. 244. 218. 31. invisibility of. 110. 246. 263 243. 227. 87. Greek division of the month. seasons. intercalary. 13 Nundinae. Market-week. of the j for observation of solstices Oklaeteris. 334 Arabia. % 46 . 39. 345. letter of. see month Lunar months of European peoples. 91. Mountains as land-marks. 21 . 358. seasonal points. 21 in. 75. New New New moon. 16 pre-Mohammedan. 104. smaller phases. absence of. 8. phases 151. 168. 224. 268 of. counting in. 120. 203. synodic. 16. 222. 316. . 217. 1. in Greece. tripartite division 167. months. counting of. star-names. 253 by the stars. notion of the year. 113 Olympiads. 92 Picture-writings. 240. 174. 359. 370 Indo-European expressions for times of the da}*. 368 em. 124 Lunar month. 362 243. position of. 226 (cp. 149. 341. 333 Land-marks indicating times day. popular European. 223. 166. 358. 304. origin from festivals. 37. counting 'Noon-line'. full moon. interca- Half-years. seasons. 247. of days. 170. new King in year. 5. 294. reckoning in. 364 Pars pro toto counting. calendar. 227. origin of. 320 Night. 297. series of. week-year.

4 other Years. lunar 302. 128. 95. subdivision Webster on the sabbath. s. Scandinavian) 304. 133. 77 9. 329 Scandinavian 54. 65. 63. festivals regulated by. the. omens 143. stellar. 218. the time of festivals. 91. 8 method Solstices. cycles of. Icelandic. 5. and settings of. 316. 335 Week. w. Wind-seasons. 275. 45. Winter and summer. 134. 247. 13 (cp. 125. 265. Units of time-reckoning. 333 Sea-voyages. 223. 4. 140. 311 by. 370 on Babylonian cycles. of primitive peoples. Summer day. 88. 89. 356 divisions of the day. 92. 8 Schools of astronomy. (cp. the. 19 PRIMITIVE TIME-RECKONING. 301 . 60. number: two. a guide to sea-voyages. 253 Quarters of the moon. Pleiades-year. phases. 57 . quarter-years. of. 275 Priests as calendar-makers. of. Pleiades the. 109. new Year. 130. Tille 1 on the division of the Germanic (cp. 81 89 etc. time of the year indicated by. counting y. seven-day. Weidner Week-year. stars as omens 140. 220. Time-indications. 76 ding Shifting to. months regulated observation of. stars 353 a guide 125. . 86. 339 Stars. stellar. significance of. regulation 61. 9. seasons. Winter day. three. 96. 89 . weather. 275. 355. 101. 81 in. 72. 129. 125. 78. 93.. of. as indicating seed-time. 168. 54. two or three. 19 of time-reckoning. time of day reckoned accor- Weinhold on the Germanic seasons. Sabbath. 54. month-names. 54. 320 Tetraeteris. months. 130. 40. 350 day indicated by the position Swedish -Qalammas. 46 Seasons. 344. four or five. 353.384 Plant as sun-dial. designation of 99. Winters. time of the night. 299. 354 Seasonal points. 72 to. by. 329 Shadow. 259 intercalary Shabattu. 128 risings 240. 74. two. 3 | Weather. 170 months. after rulers Summer and winter. 85 greater. solstices and equinoxes). 143 and 70. years counted 9 months named year of after. 62 Tally. agricultural. Egyptian. 58. shorter. 227. festivals regulated by. . special Sun Sun = day. determined 125. 75. 107 Yule-moon. time of of. 64. 80 Rainy and dry seasons. concrete. discontinuous and 'aoristtc'. tropic. week- reckoning. six. methods of. after events. 21 observation of solstices. 129. 80 Time-reckoning. 104. seedby. of. 277 incomplete. Swedish) year. time 17 indicated 317.

.

.

.

.

.

RETURN TO or to the the circulation desk of any University of California Library NORTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY Bldg. CA 94804-4698 ALL BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS 2-month loans may be renewed by calling (510)642-6753 1 -year loans may be recharged by bringing books to NRLF 4 days Renewals and recharges may be made prior to due date DUE AS STAMPED BELOW AU6 1 Z 2004 DD20 15M 4-02 . 400. Richmond Field Station FACILITY University of California Richmond.

C.BERKELEY LIBRARIES .U.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful