HORIZONTAL CURVE SETTING BY OFFESETS OR ORDINATES FROM LONG CHORD INPUT INTERVAL FOR ORDINATES IN METERS (m) = 7.

5 LENGTH OF LONG CHORD IN METERS (m) = 60 RADIUS OF CURVE IN METERS (m) = 180 SOLUTION ORDINATE AT THE MIDDLE OF LONG CHORD Distance x from Mid Point x (m) 0.00 7.50 15.00 22.50 30.00 Ordinate in m = (R2-x2) - (R2-(L/2)2)
2 2

2.518 m

R -x 2

Distance éR - L ù x from 2 ê ú ë û Mid Point

( )

2

y (m) 2.518 2.361 1.892 1.106 0.000

-x (m) 0.00 -7.50 -15.00 -22.50 -30.00

Horizontal Curve by Off-set Method
3.0

2.5

2.0 Ordinates (m)

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 -40.0 -30.0 -20.0 -10.0 0.0 Distance (m) 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0

In a Road curve between two straights, having deflection angle 108 , Bernoulli’s lamniscate is used as a transitional curve throughout. Make necessary calculations for setting out curve if the apex distance is 20 m. Delta = VM Pi = 108 20 3.14159 36 0.6283 Rad 18 V D=108 38.042 q b = K*sqrt(Sin 2 Alpha) 20 m K= 49.62 Alpha Degrees Rad 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 0.0349 0.0698 0.1047 0.1396 0.1745 0.2094 0.2443 0.2793 0.3142 b m 0.00 13.11 18.51 22.63 26.05 29.02 31.65 34.00 36.12 38.04 T1 T2 f M B
o

o

In triangle T1VM, Angle AVM =

From Bernoulli’s lamniscate method, we have VT1M =a=D/6= VMT1 = By Sine rule T1M = b = 126

0.3142 Rad

DESIGN OF THE LENGTH OF THE VERTICAL CURVE
An ascending gradient of 1 in 100 meets a desceiding gradient of 1 in 120. A summit curve is to be designed for a speed of 80 kmph. Assume coefficient of friction as 0.35 and reaction time of the driver as 2 Seconds. n1 = n2 = V= f= t= H= h= Solution Stopping Sight Distance = SSD = S S= N = n1-n2 0.278Vt+(V /254f) 0.01833 L = NS2/[Sqrt(2H)+Sqrt(2h)]2 L = 2S-[Sqrt(2H)+Sqrt(2h)] /N
2 2 2

0.01 -0.00833 80 0.35 2 1.2 0.1

kmph Seconds m (Assumed) m (Assumed)

116.471 m

Length of the summit curve (L) 1) L >= S 2) L < S
2

L = NS /[Sqrt(2H)+Sqrt(2h)] 2 L = 2S-[Sqrt(2H)+Sqrt(2h)] /N Length = 15.543 m

62.399 m 15.543 m

VERTICAL CURVE SETTING
INPUT Up Grade Down Grade Chainage at Intersection R.L. at Intersection Rate of change of grade per m Chain Length I. Length of the Vertical Curve 1. Total change of Grade = 2. Length of Vertical Curve = the apex II. Chainage 1. Chainage of the beginning of the curve 2. Chainage at the end of the curve 3. Total No. of Station = 4. Apex Station Number III. Reduced Levels 1. RL of the beginning of the curve 2. RL of the end point of the curve 3. RL of the mid point of the curve 4. RL of the vertex of the curve IV. RL of the points on the curve 1. RL of the First point on the tangent 2. Tangent correction for the first point 3. RL of the points on the curve RL1T T1c RL1c 330.00 0.015 329.99 RLb+n1 x ChL (1/6)2(RLi - RLv) RL1T - T1c Chb Che n 320.00 680.00 12 6 329.85 329.49 329.67 330.21 Chi - La Chi + La (Che - Chb)/ChL n/2 RLi - La x n1 RLi + La x n2 Average of 1. and 2. Average of 3. and RLi n1 - n2 Lv La 1.20% 360.00 180.00 Lv = (n1 - n2)/G La = Lv / 2 n1 n2 Chi RLi G ChL 0.50% -0.70% 500.00 330.75 0.0033 30.00 m m % m

RLb Rle Rlm Rlv

Output Grade Tangent Remarks Station Chainage Curve Elevn Elevation Correctn Beginning of curve 0 320.00 329.85 0.000 329.850 1 350.00 330.00 0.015 329.985 2 380.00 330.15 0.060 330.090 Upward gradient 3 410.00 330.30 0.135 330.165 with n1 4 440.00 330.45 0.240 330.210 5 470.00 330.60 0.375 330.225 Vertex of curve 6 500.00 330.75 0.540 330.210 7 530.00 330.54 0.375 330.165 8 560.00 330.33 0.240 330.090 Downward 9 590.00 330.12 0.135 329.985 gradient with n2 10 620.00 329.91 0.060 329.850 11 650.00 329.70 0.015 329.685 End of curve 12 680.00 329.49 0.000 329.490 Note: 1. Grade elevation increases upto chainage intersection and decreases there onwards Grade elevation = Previous Grade elevation + n1 x Chain Length (Up to Apex) Grade elevation = Previous Grade elevation + n2 x Chain Length (After Apex) 2. Tangent correction increases upto chainage intersection and decreases there onwards Tangent correction = (Stn. No. (1/(n/2)))2(RL1-RLv) upto Apex Tangent Correctin for stations after Apex is Mirror image of stations upto Apex 3. Curve elevation = Grade elevation - Tangent correction

Computation of Super Elevation for horizontal curves in roads Input R (m) kmph n B k L 0.124212 0.07 0.157205 10.5731 10.7303 14.2 0.516129 0.996121 93.13537 74.70909 75.45852 93.13537 93.13537 Max(C27,C29,C31)

Radius of the curve Design speed Number of Lanes Width of each lane Constant Wheel base Super elevation e = e= We1 = We2 = We = B1 = C= Se = LS1 = LS2 = LS3 = LS = LS =

229.0 288.0 2.0 3.5 150.0 6.0

80 m/s

e = V2/(225R) If e > 0.07, then e=0.07 We1 = nL2/2R We2 = V/(0.5 Sqrt(R)) We = We1 + We2 B1 = B + We C = 80/(75+V) Se = B1 x e LS1 = 0.0215 V3/(C x R) LS2 = Se x k /2 LS3 = 2.7 V2/R

IF ((LS1 > LS2) and LS1 > LS3) Then LS = LS1, else IF (LS2 > LS1) and (LS2 > LS3) Then LS = LS2 else LS = LS3

Output Super Elevation = Extra Widening = Length of the Transition curve = 0.07 m 10.7303 m 93.13537 m

Balancing of Error of a Closed Traverse using Bowditch and Transit Rule
An abstract of a traverse sheet for a closed traverse is given below. Balance the traverse by Bowditch's and Transit rule INPUT Line AB BC CD DE EA Length (m) 200 130 100 250 320 Latitude -173.20 0.00 86.60 250.00 -154.90 Departure 100.00 130.00 50.00 0.00 -280.00

Bowditch's Rule dL = åL x (l/ål) dD = åD x (l/ål) Transit Rule dL = åL x (l/L) dD = åD x (d/D) l = Length of any leg ål = Total length of traverse åL = Total error (Algebraic sum) in Latitude åD = Total error (Algebraic sum) in Departure dL = Correction to the Latitude of the leg dD = Correction to the Departure of the leg l = Latitude of any leg d = Departure of the same traverse leg L = Arithmetic sum of the Latitudes D = Arithmetic sum of the Departures Corrected Values Latitude Departure -174.9 100.0 -1.1 130.0 85.8 50.0 247.9 0.0 -157.6 -280.0 0.0 0.0

Line AB BC CD DE EA Sum

Length (l) Latitude (L) Departure (D) Correction Correction (m) dL dD 1.700 0.000 200.0 -173.20 100.00 1.105 0.000 130.0 0.00 130.00 0.850 0.000 100.0 86.60 50.00 2.125 0.000 250.0 250.00 0.00 2.720 0.000 320.0 -154.90 -280.00 1000.0 8.50 0.00 8.50 0.00 1000.0 664.7 560.0

Total Error in Latitude = åL = Total Error in Departure = åD = Perimeter of the Traverse = ål =

Total Arithmetic sum of Latitude = L = Total Arithmetic sum of Departure = D = Line AB BC CD DE EA Sum

Length (l) Latitude (L) Departure (D) Correction Correction (m) dL dD -2.215 0.000 200.0 -173.20 100.00 0.000 0.000 130.0 0.00 130.00 1.107 0.000 100.0 86.60 50.00 3.197 0.000 250.0 250.00 0.00 -1.981 0.000 320.0 -154.90 -280.00 1000.0 8.50 0.00

Corrected Values Latitude Departure -175.415 100.000 0.000 130.000 85.493 50.000 246.803 0.000 -156.881 -280.000 0.000 0.000

Computation of volume of earth work in filling or cutting of a Trapezoidal Section Number of Ordinates Interval of Ordinates Road or Bed width Side Slope Longitudinal Gradient Direction of Gradient Initial Formation R.L n x (m) B (m) 1H:kV 1 in S (m) 50 5 4 1.5 500 1 20

(-1 for Downward slope, +1 for Upward slope, 0 for Flat)

Distance (m) 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 Total Volume

FRL 20.000 20.010 20.020 20.030 20.040 20.050 20.060 20.070 20.080 20.090 20.100

GRL 20.50 20.25 20.30 20.75 21.10 20.80 20.40 20.90 21.20 21.50 21.90

Y-Ordinate -0.500 -0.240 -0.280 -0.720 -1.060 -0.750 -0.340 -0.830 -1.120 -1.410 -1.800

Area (m2) -1.6250 -0.8736 -1.0024 -2.1024 -2.5546 -2.1562 -1.1866 -2.2866 -2.5984 -2.6579 -2.3400

x(A1+A2)/2 Volume (m3) -6.2465 -4.6900 -7.7620 -11.6425 -11.7771 -8.3571 -8.6831 -12.2126 -13.1406 -12.4946 -97.0062

Computation of volume of earth work in filling or cutting of a Trapezoidal Section

Reduced levels of ground along the centre line of a proposed road from chainage 0 to 200 m is given below. The formation level at the 40 m chainage is 102.75. The formation of road from chainage 0 to 80 has a rising gradient of 1 in 40 and from 80 to 200 m it is falling gradient of 1 in 100. The formation width of road at top is 12.0 m and the side slope of banking are 2:1. Obtain the volume of earth work. Rising Grad Falling Grad Side Slope(Z) Top widh (B) Chainage (m) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0.025 0.01 2 12.0 m RL of Ground (m) RL of formation (m) Gradient 101.50 101.75 100.90 102.25 101.50 102.75 102.00 103.25 102.85 103.75 101.65 103.55 101.95 103.35 100.70 103.15 101.25 102.95 99.90 102.75 100.60 102.55 Falling 1 in 100 Rising 1 in 40

Stn Length or Chai nage 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 m 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Heght

Mean Height d m 0.80 1.30 1.25 1.08 1.40 1.65 1.93 2.08 2.28 2.40

Central Area bd m2 9.60 15.60 15.00 12.96 16.80 19.80 23.16 24.96 27.36 28.80

Side Area zd2 m2 1.28 3.38 3.13 2.33 3.92 5.45 7.45 8.65 10.40 11.52

Total Sectional area bd+zd2 m2 10.88 18.98 18.13 15.29 20.72 25.25 30.61 33.61 37.76 40.32

length between two areas l 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Quantity Filling m 217.60 379.60 362.50 305.86 414.40 504.90 612.20 672.26 755.14 806.40 5030.84
3

Cutting m 3

m 0.25 1.35 1.25 1.25 0.90 1.90 1.40 2.45 1.70 2.85 1.95

Total

0.00

Water Hammer Analysis
Gradual Closure and Sudden closure of valve at the down stream end Depends on Time of closure T = 2L/C t<T t >= T Sudden Closure Gradual Closure

t is the actual time of closure, L is the length of the pipe and C is Celerity usually 1430 m/s Gradual Closure p=rLV/t r is the mass density of the flowing fluid, V is mean flow velocity Sudden Closure p=rVC p = V Sqrt{r / (1 / K + D / d E)} Rigid Pipe Elastic pipe

E has to be ignored if the pipe is non-elastic or rigid E is the youngs modulous of elasticity of pipe material, K is Bulk modulous of fluid, D is diameter of pipe and d is the thickness of pipe The water is flowing the rate of 294.524 Litres/s in a pipe of length 2500 m and of diameter 500 mm. Find the rise in pressure if the valve provided at the end of the pipe line is closed in a) 25 Seconds b) 2 Seconds Rigid and Elastic

Take the values of E = 19.62 x 1010 Pa, K = 19.62 x 104 Pa, Pipe thickness is 10 mm Also find the Circumferential and Longitudinal stresses Data Discharge Length Diameter Pipe thickness Youngs Modulous Bulk Modulous Gradual ClosureTime Sudden ClosureTime Mass Density Area of flow Mean flow velocity Celerity a) Gradual Closure T= p= b) Sudden Closure i) Rigid Pipe p= ii) Elastic Pipe p= Circumferential Stress ( sc) sc = p D / 2 d Longitudinal Stress ( sL) sc = p D / 4 d 42887926.265 Pa 42.89 MPa 1715517.051 Pa 1.72 MPa 2101070.71 Pa 2.10 MPa 3.570 149999.97 Seconds Pa < 25 Seconds and Gradual Closure 150.00 kPa Q= L= D= d= E= K= t1 = t2 = r= A= V= C= 2.945E-01 2500 0.5 1.000E-02 1.962E+11 1.962E+09 25.0 2.0 1000 p D2/4 Q/A Sqrt(K/r) m /s m m m Pa Pa Seconds Seconds kg/m3 (assumed) 0.196 1.50 1400.71 m2 m/s m/s
3

21443963.133

Pa

21.44

MPa

Head over Ogee Weir
An Ogee weir is constructed in an open channel for its full width (B ). The crest of the weir is Y m above the channel bed. The coefficient of discharge is Cd. Determine the head over the weir inclusive of velocity of approach Height of Ogee Weir = Y = Discharge over Ogee Weir = Q = Length of dam = Channel Width = B = Coefficient of Discharge = Cd = Gravitational acceleration = g = Allowable error in Head Calculations = e = Weir Coefficient = Cw = (2/3)Cd Sqrt(2g) Discharge = Q = Cw B { [H+ha]
1.5

1.20 m 18.00 m3/s 50.00 m 0.60 9.81 m/s2 0.005 1.7718

- ha

1.5

}

Ignoring ha in the first trial we have H = [Q/(CwB)](2/3) 1 Head over the Ogee weir = H1 = 2 Head = H = H1 = 3 Velocity of approach = Va = Q/[B (Y+H)] 4 Velocity Head = ha = Va /2g = 5 Head over the weir crest = H = [H1 +ha ] 6 Error = H - H1 7 The Final Value of Head over the Weir in metres is H
1.5 1.5 (2/3) 2

0.34562 m 0.34562 0.23292 m/s 0.00277 -ha 0.34302 -0.00260 0.34302

Y

Verification of Stability of a Gravity Dam
A masonry dam 10 m high is trapezoidal in section with a top width of 1 m and bottom width of 8.25 m. The face exposed to water has a batter of 1:10. Test the stability of the dam.
3 Find out the principal stresses at the toe and the heel of the dam. Assume unit weight of masonry as 22.4kN/m . 3 Mass density of water is 1000 kg/m and permissible shear stress of joint is 1.4 Mpa

Height of dam = H = Top width of dam = T = Bottom Width of dam = B = Water side batter = z V : 1 H Weight Density of Masonry = g = Mass Density of Water = r = Permissible Shear Stress of joint = t = Gravitational acceleration = g Base width of water wedge on U/s dam = T1 Free board Tail water depth on Down stream = H' Coefficient of Friction = m = Water Depth on Up Stream side = H = Water Depth on Down Stream side = H' Base width of water wedge on d/s of dam = T2 Sl. Particulars No. 1 Self Weight of dam Weight of Triangular portion on u/s = W1 Weight of Rectangule = W2 = Weight of Triangular portion d/s = W3 Weight of water column (U/s) = W4 Weight of water column (D/s) = W5 Uplift Force {[(rgH)-(rgH')]/2}*B Horizontal Waetr Pressure on U/s Horizontal Waetr Pressure on D/s Sum Algebraic Sum of Moments

10.00 1.00 8.25 10.00 22.40 1000.00 1.40 9.81 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.75

m m m kN/m kN/m3 Mpa m/s2 m m m (Assumed)
3

T1

T

W4

H W2 T2 W1 b1 b2 W3 W5 H’

10.00 m 0.00 m 0.00 m Forces (N) Vertical 112,000.00 224,000.00 700,000.00 49,050.00 0.00 -404,662.50 Lever arm Horizontal (m) 7.583 6.750 4.167 7.917 0.000 5.500 490,500.00 3.333 0.00 0.000 490,500.00

B

b3

Moment at toe (N-m) +ve 849,333.33 1,512,000.00 2,916,666.67 388,312.50 0.00 2,225,643.75 1,635,000.00 0.00 5,666,312.50 3,860,643.75 1,805,668.75 -ve

2 3 3 4 5

680,387.50

Water Pressure intensity at the Heel = p = rgH = Safety against Overturning Eccentricity = e = B/2 - åM/åV Dam is Safe against overturning when the above value is less than B/6 Safety against Sliding Factor of Safety = m åV/åH >1 Shear Friction factor = (m åV+bq) / åH Stresses Compressive Stress at Toe is Pn = (åV/B)(1+6e/B) Compressive Stress at Heel is Pn = (åV/B)(1-6e/B) Tan a = U/s Slope Tan b = D/s Slope Sec a = Sqrt(1+Tan2 a) Sec b = Sqrt(1+Tan2 b) Principal Stress at Toe=Pn Sec b
2

98,100.00 Pa 1.47 1.38 UNSAFE

1.04 24.59

SAFE

170.71 kPa -5.77 kPa 0.1 0.625 1.005 1.179 237.390 kPa -986.823 kPa 106.692 kPa 9810.577 kPa

Principal Stress at Heel=Pn Sec2 a - p Tan2 a Shear Stress at Toe = t = Pn Tan b Shear Stress at Heel = -[ Pn - p] Tan a

DESIGN OF BEST TRAPEZOIDAL SECTION OF A CHANNEL
INPUT Channel Type Side Slope Bed Slope Chezy's Constant Manning's Constant Inclination of side slope with Horizontal Discharge Solution MES Conditions for Trapezoidal section 1. B + 2yz = 2y Sqrt(1 + z ) 2. R = y/2 z = Tan-1(1/z) Q = AC Sqrt(RS) A = By + y2z P = 2y Sqrt(1+z2) T = B + 2 yz B= R= A= Output y= B= T= 3.11 m 1.885 m 11.224 m 0.606 y 0.500 y 2.11 y2
2

Ty z S C n Theta Q

3.0 1.5 1800.0 50.0 0.000 30.0

Rectangular (1), Triangular (2), and Trapezoidal (3) z H : 1 V For Rectangular Zero Gradient 1 in S
T

in Degrees m3/s

1 z q y q B

Half top width = one side slope Hydraulic mean radius = half depth

DESIGN OF BEST CIRCULAR SECTION OF A CHANNEL
INPUT Best Discharge or Maximum Velocity Bed Slope Chezy's Constant Manning's Constant Diameter Solution MES Conditions for Trapezoidal section For Maximum Discharge q = 154o or For Maximum Velocity q = 128.75 or
o

Ty S C n D

2.0 500.0 50.0 0.000 3.0

Best Discharge (1) or Maximum Velocity (2) Gradient 1 in S

m3/s
D 2q

2.688 Radians 2.247 Radians

Q = AC Sqrt(RS) or A = R2 [q - 0.5 Sin 2q] P=2Rq R = A/P = OUTPUT V= Q=

V = C Sqrt(RS) 6.934075993 8.063414333 0.859942911

2.074 m/s 14.378 m3/s

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