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The most basic type of mobile crane consists of a truss or telescopic boom mounted on a mobile platform - be it on road, rail or water. Common terminology is conventional and hydraulic cranes respectively
Developed truck-mounted crane at work
A crane mounted on a truck carrier provides the mobility for this type of crane. This crane has two parts: the carrier, often referred to as the Lower, and the lifting component which includes the boom, referred to as the Upper. These are mated together through a turntable, allowing the upper to swing from side to side. These modern hydraulic truck cranes are usually single-engine machines, with the same engine powering the undercarriage and the crane. The upper is usually powered via hydraulics run through the turntable from the pump mounted on the lower. In older model designs of hydraulic truck cranes, there were two engines. One in the lower pulled the crane down the road and ran a hydraulic pump for the outriggers and jacks. The one in the upper ran the upper through a hydraulic pump of its own. Many older operators favour the two-engine system due to leaking seals in the turntable of aging newer design cranes. Generally, these cranes are able to travel on highways, eliminating the need for special equipment to transport the crane unless weight or other size constrictions are in place such as local laws. If this is the case, larger cranes are equipped with either special trailers to help spread the load over more axles or are able to disassemble to meet requirements. An example is counterweights. Often a crane will be followed by another truck hauling the counterweights that are removed for travel. In addition some cranes are able to remove the entire upper. However, this is usually only an issue in a large crane and mostly done with a conventional crane such as a Link-Belt HC-238. When working on the job site, outriggers are extended horizontally from the chassis then vertically to level and stabilize the
2 t) to about 1. Many truck cranes have slow-travelling capability (a few miles per hour) while suspending a load. In a rough terrain crane.200 tonnes (1. AT‘s combine the road ability of Truck -mounted Cranes and the manoeuvrability of Rough Terrain Cranes.323 short tons.crane while stationary and hoisting. Outriggers are used to level and stabilize the crane for hoisting. which can lift a container from the ground or from a railway vehicle. Most cranes of this type also have moving counterweights for stabilization beyond that provided by the outriggers. These telescopic cranes are single-engine machines. as with crawler crane. with the same engine powering the undercarriage and the crane. since most of the weight of the crane acts as a counterweight. Pick and carry crane . and on rough terrain at the job site using all-wheel and crab steering. the engine is usually mounted in the undercarriage rather than in the upper. All terrain crane A mobile crane with the necessary equipment to travel at speed on public roads. 13. able to hoist and transport ISO standard containers. Great care must be taken not to swing the load sideways from the direction of travel.5 short tons (12. Factory-calculated charts (or electronic safeguards) are used by crane operators to determine the maximum safe loads for stationary (outriggered) work as well as (onrubber) loads and travelling speeds. Loads suspended directly aft are the most stable. there are rough terrain cranes with the operating cab mounted on the lower as opposed to the P&H in the above image.300 short tons (1.9 long tons.181 long  tons). Most have 4 wheel drive and 4 wheel steering which allows them to traverse tighter and slicker terrain than a standard truck crane with less site prep. as most anti-tipping stability then lies in the stiffness of the chassis suspension. Rough terrain crane A crane mounted on an undercarriage with four rubber tires that is designed for pick-and-carry operations and for off-road and "rough terrain" applications. Side lift crane A side lifter crane is a road-going truck or semi-trailer.161 long tons.179 t). 1. Truck cranes range in lifting capacity from about 14. AT’s have 2-9 axles and are designed for lifting loads up to 1. Container lift is done with parallel crane-like hoists. In addition. similar to a crawler crane. 1.
however. Many of the worlds Armed forces have purchased telescopic handlers and some of these are the much more expensive fully rotating types.125. Very much an American invention the Carry deck can hoist a load in a confined space and then load it on the deck space around the cab or engine and subsequently move to another site. however pick and Carry cranes have no stabiliser legs or outriggers and are designed to lift the load and carry it to its destination. Many steel fabrication yards also use pick and carry cranes as they can "walk" with fabricated steel sections and place these where required with relative ease. Crawler cranes range in lifting capacity from about 40 to 3. The Carry Deck principle is the American version of the pick and carry crane and both allow the load to be moved by the crane over short distances. The capacity range is usually ten to twenty tonnes maximum lift. Crawler cranes have both advantages and disadvantages depending on their use. and now all pick and carry cranes are commonly referred to as "Frannas" even though they may be made by other manufacturers. Nearly every medium and large sized crane company in Australia has at least one and many companies have fleets of these cranes. Crawler crane A crawler is a crane mounted on an undercarriage with a set of tracks (also called crawlers) that provide stability and mobility. One popular manufacturer in Australia was Franna. These machines are often used to handle pallets of bricks and install frame trusses on many new building sites and they have eroded much of the work for small telescopic truck cranes. however their design has been simplified so that they can be more quickly deployed.A Pick and Carry Crane is similar to a mobile crane in that is designed to travel on public roads.1 t).0 long tons. Telescopic handler crane Telescopic Handlers are like forklift trucks that have a telescoping extendable boom like a crane. within a small radius. Carry deck crane A carry deck crane is a small 4 wheel crane with a 360 degree rotating boom placed right in the centre and an operators cab located at one end under this boom.3 to 3. The rear section houses the engine and the area above the wheels is a flat deck. Their main advantage is that they can move around on site and perform each lift with little set-up. then be able to drive to the next job.175. or lift like a crane makes them a valuable piece of machinery.7 to 3. Pick and Carry cranes have displaced the work usually completed by smaller truck cranes as the set up time is much quicker. since the crane . These new 360 degree telescopic handler/crane models have outriggers or stabiliser legs that must be lowered before lifting.  Early telescopic handlers only lifted in one direction and did not rotate. Pick and Carry cranes are popular in Australia where large distances are encountered between job sites. Their off road capability and their on site versatility to unload pallets using forks. although this is much less at the tip of the boom. who have since been bought by Terex.500 short tons (35. 36. several of the manufacturers have designed telescopic handlers that rotate 360 degrees through a turntable and these machines look almost identical to the Rough Terrain Crane.
rail cars or ships to its next location. 9. see Crane (railroad). Floating cranes have also been used to salvage sunkenships. A railroad crane has flanged wheels for use on railroads. The largest revolving cranes can be found on SSCV Thialf. For fifty years.929 long tons. 6. which has two cranes with a capacity of 7." . recovery operations and freight loading in goods yards and scrap handling facilities. Some floating cranes are mounted on a pontoon. Typically a large crawler must be disassembled and moved by trucks. Crane vessels are often used in offshore construction. The main disadvantage is that they are very heavy. The simplest form is a crane mounted on a flatcar. and cannot easily be moved from one job site to another without significant expense.100 tonnes (7.is stable on its tracks with no outriggers. the largest such crane was "Herman the German" at the Long Beach Naval Shipyard. others are specialized crane barges with a lifting capacity exceeding 10.826 short tons. The crane was sold  to the Panama Canal in 1996 where it is now known as the "Titan. a crawler crane is capable of traveling with a load. Floating crane Floating cranes are used mainly in bridge building and port construction. one of three constructed by Hitler's Germany and captured in the war.000 short tons (8. Different types of crane are used for maintenance work.072 t) and have been used to transport entire bridge sections. In addition. More capable devices are purpose-built.988 long tons) each. Railroad crane Rail crane For more details on this topic. but they are also used for occasional loading and unloading of especially heavy or awkward loads on and off ships.
). They also perform disaster relief after natural disasters for clean-up. have also used lighter-than air aircraft. many can still be assembled and disassembled. Helicopter cranes are most commonly used to lift units/loads onto shopping centers and highrises. tower cranes often give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are used in the construction of tall buildings. boats. They can lift anything within their lifting capacity. and during wild-fires they are able to carry huge buckets of water to extinguish fires.Aerial crane Aerial crane or 'Sky cranes' usually are helicopters designed to lift large loads. The base is then attached to the mast which gives the crane its height. Further the mast is attached to the slewing unit (gear and motor) that allows the crane to rotate. Helicopters are able to travel to and lift in areas that are difficult to reach by conventional cranes. Some aerial cranes. such as airships. shorter counter-jib. Fixed Exchanging mobility for the ability to carry greater loads and reach greater heights due to increased stability. On top of the slewing unit there are three main parts which are: the long horizontal jib (working arm). etc. mostly concepts. swimming pools. Fixed to the ground on a concrete slab (and sometimes attached to the sides of structures as well). these types of cranes are characterised by the fact that their main structure does not move during the period of use. and the operators cab. Tower crane Tower crane atop Mont Blanc Tower cranes are a modern form of balance crane that consist of the same basic parts. (cars. . However.
This is the engine that enables the crane to rotate. Jib . while the jib suspends the load to and from the center of the crane. the operator usually works in conjunction with a signaller (known as a 'dogger'. 3. Although they are different in type. The counter-jib carries a counterweight.Tower crane cabin The long horizontal jib is the part of the crane that carries the load. There are many types of tower cranes. In the first case the operator's cab is most usually located at the top of the tower attached to the turntable. The crane operator either sits in a cab at the top of the tower or controls the crane by radio remote control from the ground. Slewing Unit The slewing unit sits at the top of the mast. Operating Cabin The operating cabin sits just above the slewing unit. 2. A tower crane rotates on its axis before lowering the lifting hook. the main parts are the same. The Component of Tower Crane Tower Cranes are used extensively in construction and other industry to hoist and move materials. as follows: 1. and is responsible for the safety of the rigging and loads. In order to hook and unhook the loads. They are most often in radio contact. 'rigger' or 'swamper'). It contains the operating controls. The rigger or dogger directs the schedule of lifts for the crane. 4. or partway down the tower. It is made of steel trussed sections that are connected together during installation. and always use hand signals. The hook is located on the long horizontal arm to lift the load which also contains its motor. usually of concrete blocks. The lifting hook is operated by the crane operator using electric motors to manipulate wire rope cables through a system of sheaves. but can be mounted on the jib. Mast The mast is the main supporting tower of the crane.
telescoping section using jacks. They can thus be assembled without outside help. A tower crane is usually assembled by a telescopic jib (mobile) crane of greater reach (also see "selferecting crane" below) and in the case of tower cranes that have risen while constructing very tall skyscrapers. a smaller crane (or derrick) will often be lifted to the roof of the completed tower to  dismantle the tower crane afterwards. a fixed jib has a rolling trolley that runs along the underside to move goods horizontally. and can grow together with the building or structure they are erecting. Hook The hook (or hooks) is used to connect the material to the crane. 5. Self-erecting crane Four self-erecting tower cranes mounted on the roof of 1st observatory (height 375 m) of Tokyo Sky tree (Tower tip and two crane operator as of 497 m) Generally a type of tower crane. lift themselves from the ground or lift an upper. which may be more difficult than the installation. to compensate for the  weight of the goods lifted. or operating arm. or "kangaroo" cranes. jack-up. also called self-assembling. these cranes. 6.The jib. extends horizontally from the crane. Weights Large concrete counterweights are mounted toward the rear of the mast. It hangs at the end of thick steel cables that run along the jib to the motor. allowing the next section of the tower to be inserted at ground level or lifted into place by the partially erected crane itself. A "luffing" jib is able to move up and down. .
These types of booms are often used for short term construction projects. Note that while telescopic cranes are not automatically mobile cranes. A hydraulic or other powered mechanism extends or retracts the tubes to increase or decrease the total length of the boom.Self-erecting crane For an animation of such a crane in use see this video (here. . The relative compactness of telescopic booms make them adaptable for many mobile applications.  Telescopic crane Telescopic crane A telescopic crane has a boom that consists of a number of tubes fitted one inside the other. lifting boats in and out of the water. etc. rescue jobs. many of them are often truckmounted. the crane is used to erect a scaffold which in turn contains a gantry to lift sections of a bridge spire).
Most container cranes are of this type. These cranes come in all sizes. Deck crane Deck crane Located on the ships and boats. designed for loading and unloading ship-borne containers at a port. The crane frame is supported on a gantry system with equalized beams and wheels that run on the gantry rail. named by the first manufacturer). these are used for cargo operations or boat unloading and retrieval where no shore unloading facilities are available. particularly the extremely large examples used in shipyards or industrial installations. and some can move very heavy loads. Jib crane Jib crane .Gantry crane Gantry crane A gantry crane has a hoist in a fixed machinery house or on a trolley that runs horizontally along rails. usually fitted on a single beam (mono-girder) or two beams (twin-girder). usually perpendicular to the trolley travel direction. A special version is the container crane (or "Portainer" crane. Most are diesel-hydraulic or electric-hydraulic.
Similar cranes. were fitted on the top floor of warehouse buildings to enable goods to be lifted to all floors. The jib may swing through an arc. . One or more of the sections may be telescopic. Jib cranes are used in industrial premises and on military vehicles. or be fixed. hence modern cranes may be fitted with a portable cabled or radio-linked control system to supplement the crane-mounted hydraulic control levers. supporting a moveable hoist. The numerous jointed sections can be folded into a small space when the crane is not in use. this type of crane is often known colloquially as a "Hiab". Loader crane Loader crane using a fly jib extension A loader crane (also called a knuckle-boom crane or articulating crane) is a hydraulically-powered articulated arm fitted to a truck or trailer. the operator must move around the vehicle to be able to view his load. it can be a light crane. partly because this manufacturer invented the loader crane and was first into the UK market. often known simply as hoists. so the trailer is allowed to transport more goods. This chassis can ride on the trailer. Often the crane will have a degree of automation and be able to unload or stow itself without an operator's instruction. and partly because the distinctive name was displayed prominently on the boom arm. A roll loader crane is a loader crane mounted on a chassis with wheels.A jib crane is a type of crane where a horizontal member ( jib or boom). to give additional lateral movement. In the UK and Canada. Unlike most cranes. Because the crane can move on the trailer. is fixed to a wall or to a floor-mounted pillar. and is used for loading/unloading the vehicle.
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