# Inverting Amplifier

Anant Saxena L2 Electronics Skills and Discovery Labs, Lab Group B, Lab day: Friday Date of experiment: The theoretical gain of inverting amplifier, -R2/R1= 1.51 + 0.02 is compared to the experimentally obtained gain, 1.52 + .01. Thereby, verifying the hypothesis the gain of an inverting amplifier is -R2/R1.

1. Introduction An inverting amplifier is essentially an electronic system which amplifies an input voltage and has a phase shift by pi. The ratio of magnitude of output and input voltage is known as gain, G. The peak-to-peak voltage is the magnitude between two peaks of voltage along the y-axis. The gain can also be defined as the ratio of the peak-to-peak voltage of the input voltage, Vin and the peak-to-peak voltage of the output voltage, Vout. The output voltage, Vout:

2. Methods Two resistances are measured with an ohmmeter and put in a circuit board as shown in Fig. 01. The input voltage is connected to a signal-generator and an oscilloscope via channel 1. The output voltage is also connected to the oscilloscope via channel 2. Both the channels are measured with the help of the oscilloscope. The peak-to-peak output and input voltages and the frequency are noted and compared to the ratio of the resistors. This process is repeated while exponentially increasing the frequency via the signal generator. A bode plot is made between the frequency and the voltage. 3. Results

G= mod(Vin)

(1)

The peak-to-peak voltage is the magnitude between two peaks of voltage along the y-axis. Gain can also be the ratio of the peak-to-peak voltage of the input voltage and the peak-to-peak voltage of the output voltage. The inverting amplifier’s circuit’s setup is shown below:

• The value of resistance R1 is found to be 10.33
+ .10 Ω.

• The value of resistance R2 is found to be 6.81
+ .10 Ω. • The theoretical gain, G obtained from Eq. (2) is - 1.51 + .02.

Fig. 01: Circuit Diagram of an inverting amplifier Theoretically the magnitude of the gain is the ratio of the resistors of resistance: resistor 1, R1 and resistor 2, R2 and has a phase shift of π:

The following values of frequency, Vin and Vout are obtained and G is accordingly calculated:

Frequency 11.63 Hz 115.30 Hz 1200.00 Hz 11820.00 Hz 118200.00 Hz 1182000.00 Hz

Channel 1 0.96+.01V 1.02+.01V 1.00+.01V 1.00+.01V 1.00+.01V 0.98+.01V

Channel 2 1.45+.01V 1.54+.01V 1.48+.01V 1.48+.01V 1.49+.01V 1.46+.01V

Gain -1.51 -1.51 -1.48 -1.48 -1.49 -1.49

02 and the experimentally obtained gain is found to be . This factor is dependent on the two resistances. However. . we can conclude the hypothesis is verified and the gain of an inverting amplifier is -R2/R1. Conclusions Anant Saxena The theoretical and experimental values obtained for the gain of the inverting amplifier are in agreement with each other and in bounds of experimental error. References [1] Measurements and their Uncertainties. 4. The experimental gain is measured to be -1. b) The output voltage has no dependency on any property of the amplifier even though it will not work without the amplifier! c) Irrespective of the input voltage being triangular. The theoretical gain of inverting amplifier is found to be. To elucidate further on point b).Page 2 Table I: Frequency.51 + 0. -R2/R1= 1. Measuring by an ohmmeter was done to ensure consistency in the experiment. input voltage and output voltage are noted as shown in the above table A bode plot shows a comparison of the theoretical gain and the experimentally obtained gain: 5.01. Three notable points of the experiment are: a) The input voltage times a factor (gain) results to the output voltage. Insufficient direct current voltage would hinder the amplified output voltage. Point c) suggests that the input and output voltage will always be a function of mathematically the same form. Discussion The resistance may not have the exact same value as labeled. The direct current voltage connected to the amplifier should be enough to suffice the additional gain in voltage.52 + . 1. this is not exactly true as the slew rate makes slightly affects the function of the output voltage.52 + . Hence.01. square or sinusoidal. the output voltage would be magnified and lag by pi radians. the function of the amplifier is to provide energy required to increase the output voltage. Hughes and Hase (2010) Graph 1: A bode-plot of the theoretical and experimental data of gain in decibels versus the log of frequency. gain.

Page 3 Anant Saxena Appendix 1. The error in resistance was found by repeatedly using the ohmmeter and seeing the maximum deviation: 2. The error in theoretical gain was found by the use of the below formula .