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Hydromechanics VVR090

**Gradually Varied Flow
**

Depth of flow varies with longitudinal distance. Occurs upstream and downstream control sections.

Governing equation:

dy So − S f = dx 1 − Fr 2

(previously Sf = 0 was studied)

**Derivation of Governing Equation
**

Total energy:

u2 H = z+ y+ 2g

Differentiating with respect to distance:

dH dz dy = + + dx dx dx

d (u 2 / 2g ) dx

dH = −S f dx dz = − So dx

For a given flow rate:

(slope of energy grade line)

(bottom slope)

d (u 2 / 2g ) dx

Q 2 dA dy Q 2T dy dy =− 3 =− 3 = − Fr 2 gA dy dx gA dx dx

dy So − S f = dx 1 − Fr 2

Resulting equation:

.Definition of Water Surface Slope Water surface slope dy/dx is defined with respect to the channel bottom. Hydrostatic pressure distribution is assumed (streamlines should be reasonably straight and parallel).

Manning equation yields. n 2u 2 S f = 4/3 R • The slope of the channel is small • No air entrainment • Fixed velocity distribution • Resistance coefficient constant in the reach under consideration .Assumptions made when solving the gradually varied flow equation: • The head loss for a specific reach is equal to the head loss in the reach for a uniform flow having the same R and u.

then y = yN .Classification of Gradually Varied Flow Profiles The following conditions prevail: If y < yN. then y > yc If Sf = So. then y < yc If Fr < 1. then Sf < So If Fr > 1. then Sf > So If y > yN.

Water surface profiles may be classified with respect to: • the channel slope • the relationship between y. and yc. yN. Profile categories: • M (mild) • S (steep) • C (critical) • A (adverse) 0 < So < Sc So > Sc > 0 So = Sc So < 0 .

Gradually Varied Flow Profile Classification I .

Gradually Varied Flow Profile Classification II .

Mild Slope (M-Profiles) 0 < So < Sc Profile types: 1: y > yN > yc => So > Sf and Fr < 1 => dy/dx > 0 2: yN > y > yc => So < Sf and Fr < 1 => dy/dx < 0 3: yN > yC > y => So < Sf and Fr > 1 => dy/dx > 0 .

Steep Slope (S-Profiles) 0 < Sc < So Profile types: 1: y > yc > yN => So > Sf and Fr < 1 => dy/dx > 0 2: yc > y > yN => So > Sf and Fr > 1 => dy/dx < 0 3: yc > yN > y => So < Sf and Fr > 1 => dy/dx > 0 .

y Æ yc. y Æ yN. Sf Æ So. Fr Æ 0. y Æ •. and dy/dx Æ • dy So − S f = dx 1 − Fr 2 . Sf Æ 0. and dy/dx Æ 0 3.Final Form of Water Surface Profile Asymptotic conditions: 1. Fr Æ 1. and dy/dx Æ So 2.

Transition from Subcritical to Supercritical Flow .

Transition from Supercritical to Subcritical Flow .

Example: Flow into a Channel from a Reservoir .

for example. sluice gates. or changes in channel slope . drop structures. weirs. dams.Flow Controls Locations in the channel where the relationship between the water depth and flow rate is known (or controllable). Controls: • determine the depth in channel either upstream or downstream such points. • usually feature a change from subcritical to supercritical flow • occur at physical barriers.

Strategy for Analysis of Open Channel Flow Typical approach in the analysis: 1. Start at control points 2. Proceed upstream or downstream depending on whether subcritical or supercritical flow occurs. respectively .

but from a practical point of view a reasonable definition of convergence is applied. Gradually varied flow may approach uniform flow asymptotically.Computation of Gradually Varied Flow Governing equation: dy So − S f = dx 1 − Fr 2 Solutions must begin at a control section and proceed in the direction in which the control operates. .

Uniform Channel Prismatic channel with constant slope and resistance coefficient. Apply energy equation over a small distance Dx: d ⎛ u2 ⎞ ⎜y+ ⎟ = So − S f dx ⎝ 2g ⎠ Express the equation in difference form: ⎛ u2 ⎞ Δ⎜ y + ⎟ = ( So − S f ) Δx 2g ⎠ ⎝ .

Over the short distance Dx assume that Manning’s equation is suitable to describe the frictional losses (Sf): n 2u 2 S f = 4/3 R The equation to be solved may be written: Δx = So − ( n 2u 2 / R 4 / 3 ) Δ ( y + u 2 / 2g ) mean .

yi ui yi+1 Reach i ui+1 Dxi x Δxi = 2 y + u / 2g ) ( So − ( n u / R 4 / 3 ) i +1 2 2 − ( y + u2 / 2g ) i +1/ 2 i All quantities known at i. . Assume yi+1 and compute Dxi (ui+1 given by the continuity equation).

and So = 0.Example 6.025.1 m. n = 0. yN 2 b = 6. determine the gradually varied flow profile by the step method.001 carries a discharge of 28 m3/s.1 m 1 . z = 2. If this channel terminates in a free overfall.1 A trapezoidal channel with b = 6.

Solution: Compute normal water depth.91 m . 1 Q = AR 2 / 3 So n A = ( b + zy N ) y N P = b + 2 yN 1 + z 2 R= ( b + zyN ) yN b + 2 yN 1 + z 2 yN = 1.

Compute critical water depth: Fr = 1 = u Q = gD Ac gAc / Tc Ac = ( b + zyc ) yc T = b + 2 zyc yc = 1.14 m yN > y > yc Mild slope (yN > yc) M2 profile .

i +1 + S f .300 0.64 0.0039 12.32 11.i ) 2 2 y + u / 2g ) ( i +1 − ( y + u2 / 2g ) i So − S f .91 2.3 1.85 u 2.Table for step calculation: y 1.24 10.55 P 11.0067 0.93 u2/2g 0.20 R 0.0058 3 1.63 0.43 0.0044 9.14 A 9.i +1/ 2 1 = ( S f .96 2.i +1/ 2 n 2u 2 S f = 4/3 R .00 0.64 11.353 0.438 Sf 0.3 3 Sfav Dx S (Dx) and so on Δxi = S f .0049 0.54 12.

Other Solution Methods Problem with the step method is that the water depths is obtained at arbitrary locations (i.e.. By direct integration of the governing equation this problem can be circumvented. Different approaches for direct integration: • semi-analytic • trial-and-error • finite difference . the water depth is not calculated at fixed x-locations).

Approach OK for channels with constant properties. (for more information. Employ suitable approximations to these functions or some look-up tables. see French) .Semi-Analytic Approach Find solution in terms of closed-form functions (integrals).

Channel properties (e. Apply energy equation between two stations located Dx apart (z is the elevation of the water surface): ⎛ u2 ⎞ Δ⎜ z + ⎟ = − S f Δx − he 2g ⎠ ⎝ u12 u22 z1 + = z2 + + S f Δx + he 2g 2g he: eddy losses ..Trial-and-Error Approach Well-suited for computations in non-prismatic channels. resistance coefficient and shape) are a function of longitudinal distance. Depth is obtained at specific x-locations.g.

Otherwise continue calculations. Compute Sf (and he. if needed) 3. Assume y1 Æ u1 (continuity equation) 2. Compute y1 from governing equation. the solution has been found. .Estimate of frictional losses: 1 S f = (S f1 + S f 2 ) 2 Equation is solved by trial-and-error (from 2 to 1): 1. If this value agrees with the assumed y1.

determine the gradually varied flow profile by the trial-and-error step method.001 carries a discharge of 1000 ft3/s. and So = 0. z = 2.025.Example 6.4 A trapezoidal channel with b = 20 ft. If this channel terminates in a free overfall and there are no eddy losses. yN 2 b = 20 ft 1 . n = 0.

535 105.21 0.00670 116 104.62 5.69 0.47 745 106.51 106.96 6.78 0.93 5.79 6.02 4.20 0 103.00103 0.540 106.14 107.85 0.21 201 4.45 3.00461 116 0.98 .85 3.00130 490 0.590 105.71 1.75 3.52 106. z y A u u2/2g H1 R Sf Sfav Dx hf H2 105.385 107.65 0.56 5.33 0.Solution Table Stn.92 105.00156 0.42 106.54 3.60 175 5.71 0.20 158 105.89 0.48 0.34 5.18 3.27 106.00201 0.00347 0.90 146 7.00226 239 0.34 4.62 4.50 130 105.74 3.00204 239 0.81 0.00509 116 0.73 355 105.85 0.74 103 9.46 105.73 105.97 107.32 173 6.20 2.724 106.59 0.00251 0.24 0.00153 490 1.00150 0.

Can be applied for completely arbitrary channel configurations and properties. . The equation is written in difference form and solved in terms of y: ⎛ u2 ⎞ Δ⎜ y + ⎟ = ( So − S f ) Δx 2g ⎠ ⎝ Suitable for application on a computer (small length steps Dx might be needed).Finite Difference Approach A range of numerical approaches are available to solve the governing equations based on finite differences.

low downstream water level 2. Mild slope. Steep slope. high downstream water level 3. Sluice gate located in the channel . Mild slope.Examples of Gradually Varied Flow Flow in channel between two reservoirs (lakes): 1. Steep slope. long channel 4. short channel 5.

Steep Slope. Normal water depth occurs some distance downstream in the channel with Fr > 1 (yN < ycr). Q in the channel depends on H1 and critical section. . Low Downstream Water Level Lake Critical section Hydraulic jump Lake Critical section at inflow to channel. A hydraulic jump develops before water is discharged to the downstream lake.

No critical section occurs in the inflow section.Steep Slope. y > ycr > yN in the channel. Q depends on H1 and H2. High Downstream Water Level Lake No critical section Lake Fr < 1 in the channel. . although it is steep Downstream water level is high enough to cause damming effects to the upstream lake.

Q depends on H1 and yN in the inflow section. Normal water depth is also attained in the inflow section to the channel. Non-uniform flow develops in the downstream part of the channel before discharge to the lake. .Mild Slope. Long Channel Lake Normal water depth Lake uniform flow non-uniform flow Mild slope and long channel implies that normal water depth occurs with yN > ycr.

Short Channel Lake Lake Non-uniform flow A short channel implies that normal water depth will not occur and y > yN > ycr. Non-uniform flow develops in the entire channel because of the downstream effects of the lake.Mild Slope. . Q depends on H1 and H2.

Q depends on H1 and sluice gate properties.Sluice Gate Located in the Channel Sluice gate (Q a function of y) Lake Lake Jump Sluice gate cause damming upstream affecting inflow from lake. followed by a hydraulic jump before the downstream lake is encountered. Discharge from sluice gate depends on upstream water surface elevation over gate opening. Supercritical flow occurs downstream the gate. .

mildly sloping channel 3. Flow from a reservoir to a short. mildly sloping channel where a downstream water level affects the flow in the channel 4. Flow from a reservoir to a long.Calculation Procedure for Some Gradually Varied Flows 1. steeply sloping channel 2. steeply sloping channel where a downstream water level affects the flow in the channel . Flow from a reservoir to a long. Flow from a reservoir to a short.

Flow from a Reservoir to a Long. Employ energy equation from lake surface to inflow section. Steeply Sloping channel Lake Critical section occurs in inflow section. 2 ucr H1 = ycr + 2g ucr Fr = 1 = gycr .

2 uN H1 = y N + 2g 1 2 / 3 1/ 2 u N = RN So n . Employ energy equation from lake surface to inflow section. Mildly Sloping Channel Lake Lake uniform flow non-uniform flow Normal depth occurs in inflow section.Flow from a Reservoir to a Long.

Do a step calculation from downstream lake water level to inflow section. Downstream Water Level Affects Flow in Channel Lake Lake non-uniform flow Downstream lake water level affects inflow from upstream lake. Mildly Sloping Channel. Q depends on H1 and H2. Employ energy equation from inflow section to upstrem lake water level. H1 is regarded as unknown.Flow from Reservoir to Short. Calculate for a new flow Q2 which gives a new upstream lake water level. Assume Q = Q1. . Non-uniform flow prevails.

.Make a plot of H1 as a function of Q. Determine the correct Q based on the actual upstream lake water level H1.

Steeply Sloping Channel.Flow from Reservoir to Short. Make a step calculation from upstream lake and downstream lake. . The hydraulic jump occur where the jump equation is satisfied. Downstream Water Level Affects Flow in Channel Lake Lake Non-uniform flow Hydraulic Jump Non-uniform flow Critical section at inflow to channel.

Hydraulic jump is assumed to have negligible spatial extension. y2 1 = y1 2 y1 1 = y2 2 ( ( 1 + 8 Fr12 − 1 ) 1 + 8 Fr22 − 1 ) .

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