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# Elastic Instability

## Chapter 7 ELASTIC INSTABILITY

Dr Rendy Thamrin; Zalipah Jamellodin

7.1

INTRODUCTION TO ELASTIC INSTABILITY OF COLUMN AND FRAME 9 In structural analysis problem, the aim is to determine a configuration of loaded system, which satisfies the condition of: Equilibrium Compatibility, and Force-displacement relations of material 9 For a structure to be satisfactory whether the equilibrium configuration so determined is stable. 9 The stability loss under compressive load is usually termed structural or geometrical instability commonly known as buckling. 9 In the case of a column loaded by a compressive load, the ability of the column to resist axial load terminates as soon as buckling occurs and, consequently, the critical load of the column is its failure load. 9 It is to be emphasized that the load at which instability occurs depends upon the stiffness of structure (or parts of the structure), rather than on the strength of material.

7.1.1

Concept of Stability

Initial state Position after displacing force is applied Position after displacing force is removed

Elastic Instability

## (c) Unstable equilibrium

7.2

TYPES OF INSTABILITY 9 Instability is a condition wherein a compression member loses the ability to resist increasing loads and exhibits instead a decrease in load carrying capacity. 9 Generally, the types of instability of a structure (or a member of structure) can be classified as follows : Buckling with respect to principal minor axis, Buckling with respect to principal major axis, Pure torsional instability. 9 Classification of instability can be also provided as follows : Flexural buckling, Torsional buckling, Torsional flexural buckling, and Snap-through buckling

## Figure 7.1: Mode of Failures 2

Elastic Instability

7.3

METHODS OF ANALYSIS 9 Stability analysis consists in determining the mode of loss of structural stability and corresponding load called critical load. 9 Four definitely different classical methods available for the solution of buckling problems are: Non-trivial equilibrium state approach, Work approach, Energy approach, and Kinetic or dynamical approach

7.4 CRITICAL LOAD ANALYSIS USING STABILITY FUNCTIONS 9 The slope deflection equation of a member related moments and slopes can be written as follows:
M AB = EI 6 4 A + 2 B L L

Where; MAB EI L A B

= = = = = =

## 9 The equation of a member subjected to axial load can be written as follows:

M AB =

EI s A + sc B s(1 + c ) L L

Where; s c

## = member stiffness = carry-over factor 3

Elastic Instability

9 The parameters s and c are called stability functions. 9 The values of parameter s and c are functions of the ratio of axial load, P, and Eulers load, Pe. This ratio can be expressed and notate as: P PL2 = = 2 Pe EI 9 The selected values of these functions (s and c) are tabulated and will be shown in the next following pages.

7.4.1

## Stability Functions Derivation (Non-Sway)

9 Consider a member AB with length L subjected to flexural moment and compression load. In linear elastic analysis, if the axial load is neglected (only flexure):

4EI A L 2EI M2 = A L M1 =

i.e.
i.e.

M1 k A
M 2 k A where : k = EI L

V1 =

M1 + M 2 L

9 For a member with axial load P , the stiffness coefficient of moment M1 and M2 should be changed and can write:
M1 = sk A and M 2 = csk A

## The parameters s and c are known as stability functions.

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Elastic Instability

9 From the figure above, for each location x from A: M x = M1 + Py V1x . (1) 9 From pure bending: d2y M x = EI 2 dx

## substitute to Eq. (1): EI

9 The homogeneous differential equation (DE) has the form: d2y or y"+ 2 x = 0 + 2 y = 0 dx 2 9 The solution of homogeneous DE, y , consist of the part: y = yc + y k (i) The complementary solution is: y c = A sin x + B cos x . (3) (ii) The particular solution may be assumed to be the form: y k = Cx + D Vx M 2 (Cx + D) ) = 1 1 EI EI V V Vx 9 Take the coefficient of x: 2 Cx = 1 C = 2 1 = 1 EI P EI M M M 9 Coefficient of constant: 2D = 1 D = 2 1 = 1 P EI EI Vx M 9 Substitute to particular solution: y k = 1 1 . (4) P P 9 Thus, the complete solution is:

y = A sin x + B cos x +

V1x M1 P P

9 The constants A and B may be determined by applying the end boundary conditions: M (i) x = 0 ; y = 0 B = 1 P M VL M (ii) x = L ; y = 0 ; A sin L + 1 cos L + 1 1 = 0 P P P M1 + M 2 V1 = L

Elastic Instability

M1 M M M cos L + 1 + 2 1 = 0 P P P P M1 M2 A = P tan L P sin L M1 (M1 + M 2 ) x M1 . (6) M2 M1 y = P tan L P sin L sin x + P cos x + PL P dx (iii) x = L ; =0 dy substitute M1 = sk A and M 2 = csk A A sin L +
sk A PL sin L L sin L L cos L + c = 0 sin L sin L

## sk A 0 PL sin L L c= . (7) L cos L sin L

replace L = and assume = 2 sin 2 2 we find: c = . (8) 2 cos 2 sin 2 (iv) x = 0 ; dx = A dy M M M M A = 1 cot L 2 cosecL + 1 + 2 P P PL PL substitute M1 = sk A and M 2 = csk A
sin L L cos L sin L L + c sin L sin L PL replace = 2 L2 k L (1 L cot L ) 2 . (9) s= L L tan 2 2 replace L = 2 = we obtain: (1 2 cot 2 ) . (10) s= tan A = sk A PL

The values of parameter s and c are functions of the strength ratio, , which can be expressed as: P PL2 = = 2 Pe EI

Elastic Instability

7.4.2

## Stability Functions for the Compression and Tension Member (Non-Sway)

9 For the compression member, the stability functions parameter s and c as: sin 2 2 c= . (11) 2 cos 2 sin 2

s=

## (1 2 cot 2 ) .......... (12) tan

Where, 2 =
9 The selected values of the stability functions for axial compression are listed in Table 1 and for intermediate values interpolation may be adopted. 9 For the tension member, the stability functions parameter s and c can be expressed as:

s=

## Where S = sinh 2 , C = cosh 2 , and, 2 =

9 The selected values of the stability functions for axial tension are listed in Table 2 and for intermediate values interpolation may also be adopted.

7.4.3

## Stability Functions Curve

9 The curve below shows the plot of Equation 11 ~ 14 against the strength ratio, , note that : if s and c (+) stable, and if s and c (-) instable.
Equation 13
10 8 6

Equation 14/s

4 2 0 -4 -3 -2 -1 -2 -4 -6 0 1 2 3 4

Equation 11

Equation 12

-8 -10

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## Table 1: Tabulated Selected Values of Stability Functions (Compression)

s c s(1 c 2)
(sc)2

Elastic Instability

s c s(1 c 2)
(sc)2

## Table2: Tabulated Selected Values of Stability Functions (Tension)

s c s(1 c 2)
(sc)2

Elastic Instability

EXAMPLE 1

Considering a frame structure shown in figure below, the internal forces in members AB and BC can be calculated as follows:
PAB = W W ; PBC = v v h1v h 2v L + L h L + L h 1 2 2 1 1 2

## Summing moment at point B : M B =(k ABs AB + k BCs BC )B Note that :

M M M

= + (stable)

B B

= (unstable) = 0 (critical)

Instability condition requires: M B =(k ABs AB + k BCs BC ) = 0 Given: L1 = 3.0 m , L 2 = 2.12 m , h1 = 2.6 m , h 2 = 1.5 m I AB = 1200.0 cm 4 , I BC = 1000.0 cm 4 , v = 1.5 m
1. Calculate the internal forces, assuming that the frame is pin-jointed : W W W W ; PBC = = = PAB = 1.5 x 1.5 1.116 1.5 2.6 x 1.5 1.367 1.5 + + 3.0 3.0 x 1.5 2.12 2.12 x 2.6 2. Calculate the Eulers load and the strength ratio:

2 EI 2 x 207 x 1200 x 10 4 = L2 32 x 106 2 2 EI x 207 x 1000 x 10 4 PEBC = 2 = L 2.12 2 x 106 P W 1 W AB = AB = = x PEAB 1.367 2725 3725 P W 1 W BC = BC = = x PEBC 1.116 4547 5074 PEAB =

= 2725 kN = 4547 kN

AB = 1.36 AB = 1.36 BC BC

k AB = k BC

## k AB 4000 = = 0.848 k BC 4717

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Elastic Instability

## 3. Instability criteria of the structure: M B =(k ABs AB + k BCs BC ) = 0

1st Trial 0.00 0.00 4.00 4.00 3.39 7.39 2nd Trial 1.00 1.36 2.47 1.76 1.49 3.96

0.848s AB + s BC = 0
3rd Trial 2.00 2.72 0.14 -2.93 -2.48 -2.34 4th Trial 1.50 2.04 1.46 0.02 0.02 1.48 5th Trial 1.80 2.45 0.72 -1.52 -1.29 -0.57 6th Trial 1.72 2.34 0.93 -1.05 -0.89 -0.04

BC AB
sBC sAB 0.848sAB 0.848sAB + sBC

4. Calculate the critical load, Wcr : AB = W Wcr = 2.34 x 3725 = 8720 kN 3725 W Wcr = 1.72 x 5074 = 8730 kN 5074

BC =

## Different due to rounded of calculation

EXAMPLE 2

A rigid jointed steel frame ABC carry a vertical load W at B as shown in figure beside. Formulate the instability equation and find the critical load (Wcr) for the frame. Given : h 1 = 4 .0 m , h 2 = 4 .0 m , v = 4 .0 m I AB = 1200.0 cm 4 , I BC = 1000.0 cm 4

## 1. Calculate the internal forces, assuming that the frame is pin-jointed:

PAB = W W W = = v h1v 4.0 + 4.0 x 4.0 1.404 L + L h 5.7 5.7 x 4.0 1 2 1 W W W = = = v h 2 v 4.0 + 4.0 x 4.0 1.404 L + L h 5.7 5.7 x 4.0 2 1 2

PBC

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2. Calculate the Eulers load and the strength ratio: PEAB = PEBC = 2 EI 2 x 200 x 1200 x 10 4 = = 740.2 kN 2 L2 4 2 x 106

( )

## EI x 200 x 1000 x 10 4 = = 616.8 kN 2 L2 4 2 x 10 6

2 2

( )

AB = BC

PAB W 1 W x = = PEAB 1.404 740.2 1039.2 P W 1 W = BC = = x PEBC 1.404 616.8 866.0 I AB 1200 x 10 4 = = 2121.3 mm3 3 L1 4 2 x 10

AB = 0.83 AB = 0.83 BC BC

k AB = k BC

## 3. Instability criteria of the structure: M B =(k ABs AB + k BCs BC ) = 0

1.2s AB + s BC = 0

BC AB
sBC sAB 1.2sAB 1.2sAB + sBC

## AB = 1.876 and BC = 2.26

4. Calculate the critical load, Wcr: AB = W Wcr = 1.876 x 1039.2 = 1949.5 kN 1039.2 W 866.0 Wcr = 2.26 x 866.0 = 1957.2 kN

BC =

## Different due to rounded of calculation

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Elastic Instability

EXAMPLE 3

A rigid jointed steel frame ABC carry a vertical load W at B as shown in below. Formulate the instability equation and find the critical load (Wcr) for the frame. Given: h1 = h2 = 3 m, v = 4 m, IAB = 1200 cm4, IBC = 1000 cm4 1. Calculate the internal forces, assuming that the frame is pin-jointed: PAB = W W W = = v h1v 4.0 + 3.0 x 4.0 1.6 L + L h 5.0 5.0 x 3.0 1 2 1 W W W = = = v h 2 v 4.0 + 3.0 x 4.0 1.6 L + L h 5.0 5.0 x 3.0 2 1 2

PBC

2. Calculate the Eulers load and the strength ratio: PEAB = PEBC 2 EI 2 x 200 x 1200 x 10 4 = = 947.5 kN L2 52 x 106 2 EI 2 x 200 x 1000 x 10 4 = 2 = = 789.6 kN L 52 x 106

AB = BC

1 W PAB W x = = PEAB 1.6 947.5 1516.0 P W 1 W x = BC = = PEBC 1.6 789.6 1263.4 I AB 1200 x 10 4 = = 2400.0 mm3 3 L1 5 x 10 I BC 1000 x 10 = = 2000.0 mm3 L2 5 x 103
4

AB = 0.83 AB = 0.83 BC BC

k AB = k BC =

## k AB 2400.0 = = 1.2 k BC 2000.0

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Elastic Instability

M =(k
B

AB AB

+ k BCs BC ) = 0

## 3rd Trial 2.00 1.660 0.143 1.078 1.294 1.437

1.2s AB + s BC = 0 4th Trial 2.10 1.743 -0.176 0.875 1.050 0.874 5th Trial 2.20 1.826 -0.519 0.663 0.760 0.241 6th Trial 2.26 1.876 -0.739 0.496 0.595 -0.144

BC AB
sBC sAB 1.2sAB 1.2sAB + sBC

BC

W = 1263.4

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