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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Sport management is an integral part of our culture and is a significant part of the leisure services sector. Sport management can be defined as
“any combination of skills related to planning, organizing, controlling, budgeting, leading and evaluating within the context of an organization, whose primary product is related to sport and/or physical activity”. Sport is organized, promoted and managed by a broad spectrum of formal organizations including not-for-profit community-based voluntary
associations, provincial and national organizations as well as the private and commercial (for-profit) sectors. Volunteers are an essential part of the sport delivery system and fulfill many roles (e.g., board/committee positions, coaching, officials). Sports management is simply defined as “any combination of skills related to planning, organizing, controlling, budgeting, leading and
evaluating within the context of an organization, whose primary product is related to sport and/or physical activity”.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
you can use it to help you instead of work against you. motivation and anxiety levels if you chose to 4 . concentration. Here are some tips on how to manage stress. with practice. how athletes experience it and how to manage pressure. whether this be in competition or in training. When you understand "how" and "when" you feel pressure. you can perform at your best We know from countless studies that mental skills are acquirable and you can. Performing Under Pressure The article considers what is pressure. You can improve your confidence. learn to perform mentally. Psychological Skills Training A review of psychological skills training and the factors that can influence the benefits of such a program for an athlete It's all in the mind A review of the techniques that will allow an athlete to relax and to focus their attention in a positive manner on the task of preparing for and participating in competition How your athletes can avoid stress If you are in a stressful situation then your athletic performance. When you can manage your emotions. will be effected.
the value of the mind in body healing It is clearly important to speed the recovery process as much as possible. Mental Models .Noticing distinctions How Jonny Wilkinson uses an imaginary girl to stay focused on the rugby pitch and how we might acquire similar mental skills Time and its influence on motivation How an athlete's psychological relationship to time will influence their motivation Is "Achievement Goal Theory" reality or just a myth A resume of a MSc thesis. which investigates if achievement goal theory is based on fact or fiction What is the stimulus that gives rise to a specific response? How to build simple. powerful anchors for mental focus The psychological side of injury The emotional stages an athlete goes through when injured Wishing yourself a speedy recovery . and the evidence drawn on above suggests that hypnosis may be utilised as part of treatment during a recovery period 5 .
intuitive and unconscious and where bursts of 'spontaneous excellence' occur naturally and effortlessly Taoist standing practice . Sports Mind How to achieve a state of peak performance where actions are automatic. Sports Psychology and Performance Enhancement How you and your team may benefit from the application of sports psychology How to be a champion in sport and life 6 .core stability A explanation of the advanced standing posture and its benefits for developing core stability. strength and athletic development A review of the Taoist standing practice and how it helps to strengthen the bones and tendons.for health. increase core stability and develop a powerful competitive spirit Taoist standing practice . as well as a more competitive mindset Minding the injury The four stages an injured athlete will go though on the road to recovery. Zen Mind.
cross-country. and track and field The power of thoughts There is scientific proof that negative thinking does play a role in producing negative outcomes. If you do not believe it then try this experiment: Self-esteem in the athlete Why athletes must learn to separate self-esteem from their level of performance in sports Golf . and these athletes are usually found in a fairly small number of sports. swimming.it's all in the swing and the mind How to prepare your annual golf training program and the benefits of including psychology training into the program Running Buddhas: Ultra-endurance and the spiritual athlete 7 .Three key points that will boost your workouts to Olympic training status Sports psychology guidelines for sports parents How parents can help make sport a successful and fun experience for young athletes Which sports seem to produce low self-esteem? Athletes who develop eating disorders are female. including gymnastics.
as well as adult managers and officials. physically healthy and emotionally stable.A look at the training the Japanese Marathon Monks of Mount Hiei undertake to perform such a feat of ultra-endurance and how you can apply some of their training to your own sport The Way of Energy and the Future of Performance Enhancement A review of how the Eastern energy arts such as Chi Kung and T'ai Chi can have a positive impact on the four main areas of Sports Science . endurance and the mental game. and sports officials that impressive sports management brings about success that has tremendous impact on the students.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Over the past few years. . 8 involvement and performance. Performance Profiling has three major purposes: • • To aid in identifying an appropriate intervention To maximise the athlete's motivation and adherence to the program To monitor any changes over time To imbibe in the hearts and minds of the students that sport is a potent factor in making a person mentally alert. trainers. 1. strength and conditioning. • • • To create awareness among teachers.namely biomechanics. A sport is also a very important social asset. Athletes’ interest. Performance Profiling has become a new tool in the athlete & coach's armoury. coaches.
mental skills can be developed and perfected.• To further elevate the status of sports in the region and in the country and to contribute to the realization of the national objective. Skill acquisition essentially begins in the cognitive stage with the process of modeling the skill required. This is a straightforward matter when this skill is physical and can be observed and taught. Yet when the skill has mental components. you can only achieve so much by observation. 1. or is a purely mental skill. The acquisition of physical skills can be thought of as a three-phase process (Fitts and Posner 1967 ): • • Cognitive (focusing on the nature of the task) Associative (develops proprioception learning to feel if our movements are correct) • Autonomous (making this an unconscious process) Mental skills can be thought of as developing in the same way. the way to really understand the 9 . In particular the use of videotapes and computer software can assist is establishing the finer nuances. which perhaps the performer did not even know about.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY Acquiring mental skills The good news is that just like their physical counterparts.
Everyone expected him to get into the trial on this occasion and this was making him feel even more nervous.breakdown of the strategy is to ask. As a 14-year-old he had been labeled as lazy and unfit by a school coach and had dreaded fitness tests ever since.trial anxiety in order to perform at his best. especially if they were good. Billy was a talented and consistent performer outside the trial situation. 10 . Billy's main concern was scoring high enough on the fitness test.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1 . Billy also tended to think a lot about what other people said about him and during trials would let his colleagues performances. Billy needed to improve his self-confidence and reduce his pre. affect his own. He complained of being so nervous during the weeks and days before a trial that he would stop eating and sleeping and become incredibly anxious. to get into the team and to have a bearable life leading up to the trial.Understanding the system Billy's goals were to perform well in the trial. And of course you have to ask the right questions. 1.
Working together. we minimised his constraints. his experience of being in the trial situations and the supportive resources he had around him (parents. This also served to put his fitness test into perspective.Strategy Billy's main constraints were: • • his self-perception of his fitness the exaggerated emphasis he was placing on the fitness test his tendency to judge his own performance by the standards of his peers • • the priority he was attaching to the physical and technical aspects of his game at the expense of the mental side • the critical way he spoke to himself during his performances (which was draining his confidence) Supporting him was his commitment. technical and mental) we developed a training strategy which realigned his training time more appropriately. By increasing his fitness preparation Billy was able to improve his self-confidence. as it was only one of 17 criteria he had to satisfy. his technical and physical skills. 11 . By conducting a self-assessment of the most important criteria required for trial success (physical.2 . club and peers).
becoming more conscious of his internal dialogue. I gave him encouragement to persevere with the programme as well as challenging him whenever appropriate. Billy was also able to increase his fitness confidence.Support Billy saw me six times and worked extremely hard in between our sessions. Billy increased his self. when he said things like "everyone else is so relaxed and confident" I would say. but what exactly do you see or hear which 12 . For example. which further increased his self-awareness. allowed him to move from imagining the future (which usually made him feel anxious) to paying attention to the present and with it what he needed to do in the moment (thereby increasing his effectiveness). Billy was able to increase his general levels of confidence.awareness. Together we conducted the gestalt therapy technique of the 'empty chair'. and by channeling his drive and energy into our mental skill programme. By mentally rehearsing the whole trial performance. 3 . which involved literally having a conversation with himself As a result.By visually re editing past fitness failures with pictures of him performing well in the test. Practicing giving descriptive feedback in the moment (saying only how he was feeling or what he could see or hear). Billy also recorded insights and learning experiences in a journal. Billy began to maximise his resources by choosing to spend his time only with people who were supportive of him. "you imagine they are confident.
He reported feeling less anxious about his trial and more confident in his ability to perform well. With this followed a different emotional response and with it a different.suggests that they are?" Billy soon began to recognise the difference between reality and his interpretation of reality. with none decreasing. The coach can limit the effect on performance of competitive anxiety by assisting the athlete to identify an appropriate coping strategy. Ultimately Billy was successful in getting through to a core England team for the first time ever. whether this be in competition or in training. more supportive behavioural response. He even put himself forward to demonstrate a few skills. At the trial itself he did exactly that. 1. will be effected. which is something he has never done before. Outcome Billy's ratings in seven out of his 17 criteria improved.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Brian Mackenzie provides some tips on how to manage stress. If an athlete is in a stressful situation then their athletic performance. CONCEPT OF SPORTS MANAGEMENT 13 . Stress is experienced when an individual feels that they cannot cope with a situation with which they are presented.
In recent years. and corrected. The intervening variables and the internal as well as the external factors greatly influence the result of the program. manpower and method used. No program can be assured of success in all places at all times even when executed by the three Ms such as materials resources. It has become a degree program that many consider to be the ultimate way to enjoy their career. This chapter will be the discussion of the organization and management of sports. evaluated. sports management has emerged as a field of education and vocation concerning the business aspects of sports. executed. 14 . The success or failure of any sports program depends on how it is planned.Sports management is the application of management science to the creation and development of sporting events. which will include the planning of school intramurals and actual implementation of the management of sports.
CHAPTER 2 15 .
COMPANY PROFILE 2. It analyzes the business and marketing strategies adopted by the company. its busi ness segments.0 COMPANY PROFILE This company profile offers a comprehensive analysis of the organization. to 16 . and competitors.
ma rket research organizations and corporate advisors. Both business and geographic segments are analyzed alongwith their recent financial performance. product s & services offered and corporate timeline of the company. The objective and scope of various sections of our company profile has been di scussed below. The profile also evaluates the strength s of the company and the opportunities present in the market. This profile is of immense help to management consultants. business description. It further discusses the recent merger & acquisitions. Company Analysis It involves analysis of the company at three levels – segments. analysts. Business Developments 17 . Company Summary This section presents the key facts & figures. organizati onal structure and ownership composition.gain a competitive edge in the industry.
This section examines the significant developments that have taken place in the company. The analyst opinion and stock performance help us in evaluating the performance of the company from an investor’s viewpoint. It is a form of news analysis where the most critical company news is discussed. Discussion of Business Strategies This section talks about the current and future strategies of the company . The objective is to evalu ate the financial health of the company. weaknesses. It offers powerful insight into the critical issues affecting a business. 18 . All business. financial and organizational strategies are discussed here. and threats. marketing. Financial Performance It discusses the most recent financials of the company and also compares the historical sales & income figures with the current and projected figures. opportunities. SWOT Our SWOT Analysis is a valuable step in assessing your companys strengths.
CHAPTER 3 STUDY CONCEPTS & REVIEW OF LITERATURE 19 .
Coach outlines the Performance Profiling process Step 2 .Athlete rates each in terms of level of importance and self assessment • Step 4 .3.Athlete and Coach analyse the results and agree a way forward Step 1 The first step is for the coach to introduce to the athlete the idea of Performance Profiling and how it can help to direct training to areas of specific need. Coaches should stress that there are no right or 20 . and it should be made clear that any information gained about the athlete will remain strictly confidential.0 STUDY CONCEPTS & REVIEW OF LITERATURE Performance Profiling comprises of four steps: • • Step 1 .Athlete identifies the characteristics of an elite athlete for his/her sport/event • Step 3 . This process can be aided by a sense of mutual trust.
Psychology is another weapon in the athlete's armoury in gaining the winning edge. they break into a cold sweat. their heart rates race. They may become tense. Step 2 The athlete becomes actively involved in this step of the process. they worry about the outcome of the competition. these techniques allow the athlete to relax and to focus his/her attention in a positive manner on the task of preparing for and participating in competition. That interest has focused on techniques that athletes can use in the competitive situation to maintain control and optimise their performance.wrong answers involved in the process but that honest appraisal will facilitate a more productive outcome. and the following question should be directed to the athlete: The increased stress of competitions can cause athletes to react both physically and mentally in a manner that can negatively affect their performance abilities. The coach needs to explain that the process will focus on the athlete's current feelings regarding their preparation for competition. they find it hard to concentrate on the task in hand. This has led coaches to take an increasing interest in the field of sport psychology and in particular in the area of competitive anxiety. The 4C's 21 . Once learned.
believe in one's abilities Control . centering and mental imagery can assist an athlete to achieve the 4C's.the athlete focuses on a large or small number of stimuli • Internal External continuum . control and commitment (the 4C's) are generally considered the main mental qualities that are important for successful performance in most sports. confidence. If the athlete lacks concentration then their athletic abilities will not be effectively or efficiently applied to the task.the athlete focuses on internal stimuli (feelings) or external stimuli (ball) 22 .ability to maintain emotional control regardless of distraction Commitment .ability to continue working to agreed goals • • The techniques of relaxation. • • Concentration .Concentration. Concentration This is the mental quality to focus on the task in hand. Research has identified the following types of attention focus: • Broad Narrow continuum .ability to maintain focus Confidence .
trigger word could be "technique" Athletes will develop a routine for competition that may include the night before. mistakes. coach. the morning. shooting. sprinting technique requires the athlete to focus on being tall. bobsleigh.The demand for concentration varies with the sport: • • Sustained concentration . negative thoughts etc. weather. competition and post competition routines. For each of these goals the athlete can use a trigger word (a word which instantly refocuses the athlete's concentration to the goal) e.distance running. squash Short bursts of concentration .cricket. smooth and to drive with the elbows . tennis. cycling. golf. If these routines are appropriately structured then they can prove a useful aid to concentration. opponent. Confidence 23 . relaxed. public announcements. pre competition. skiing Common distractions are: anxiety.sprinting events. fatigue. manager.g. athletic field events • Intense concentration . The athlete will have an overall goal for which the athlete will identify a number of process goals that help focus on specific aspects of the task. Strategies to improve concentration are very personal. One way to maintain focus is to set process goals for each session or competition.
assumptions and expectations can build or destroy confidence. (Comes back to a quote of mine . thoughts. It is not the situation that directly affects confidence. show enthusiasm. an athlete can use mental imagery to: • visualise previous good performance to remind them of the look and feel • imagine various scenarios and how they will cope with them Good goal setting (challenging yet realistic) can bring feelings of success. When an athlete has self confidence they will tend to: persevere even when things are not going to plan. To improve their self confidence.positive thoughts of success 24 . Confidence is a positive state of mind and a belief that you can meet the challenge ahead . If athletes can see that they are achieving their short term goals and moving towards their long term goals then confidence grows.Confidence results from the comparison an athlete makes between the goal and their ability."You only achieve what you believe"). The athlete will have self-confidence if they believe they can achieve their goal. High self confidence • Thoughts . be positive in their approach and take their share of the responsibility in success and fail.a feeling of being in control.
An athlete's ability to maintain control of their emotions in the face of adversity and remain positive is essential to successful performance.excited.on others.tense. willing to take chances. unwilling to take risks (rather play safe). not wanting to take part Focus . defeat or failure. fear. umpire. likely to give up. Two emotions that are often associated with poor performance are anxiety and anger. doubt Feelings . conditions) Behaviour .give maximum effort and commitment. on less relevant factors (coach. blame others or conditions for outcome • • Control Identifying when an athlete feels a particular emotion and understanding the reason for the feelings is an important stage of helping an athlete gain emotional control. anticipation. positive reaction to set backs.lack of effort. on the task Behaviour . elation.negative. 25 . prepared Focus . dread.• Feelings . calm.on self. open to learning. take responsibility for outcomes • • Low self confidence • • Thoughts .
social life and other hobbies/sports Within the athlete's sport. the cause of the anger often becomes the focus of attention. In competition with these goals the athlete will have many aspects of daily life to manage. performance deteriorates and confidence in ability is lost which fuels the anger . needing the toilet) and Mental (worry. nausea.Anxiety comes in two forms . negative thoughts. sweating. confusion.Physical (butterflies. When an athlete becomes angry. studies. commitment can be undermined by: • • a perceived lack of progress or improvement not being sufficiently involved in developing the training program not understanding the objectives of the training program injury lack of enjoyment 26 • • • . Commitment Sports performance depends on the athlete being fully committed to numerous goals over many years. The many competing interests and commitments include work. Relaxation is a technique that can be used to reduce anxiety. lack of concentration). This then leads to a lack of concentration on the task.a slippery slope to failure. family/partner. friends.
especially during times of injury.• anxiety about performance . I accepted and expected to be nervous but felt ready to start. Successful emotional states The following are emotional states experienced with successful performance: • Happy . • Calm and nervous .felt that this was my opportunity to demonstrate an excellent performance. etc) can contribute to an athlete's levels of commitment with appropriate levels of support and positive feedback. illness and poor performance. Nerves and excitement come together 27 .competition becoming bored coach athlete not working as a team lack of commitment by other athletes • • • Setting goals with the athlete will raise their feelings of value. Felt I could beat anybody. friends. medical support team. give them joint ownership of the goals and therefore become more committed to achieving them. Many people (coach.Felt so ready to compete but a little nervous. All goals should be SMARTER. manager.Felt nervous but really at ease with these feelings. • Anxious but excited .
during which athletes learn about the strategies and techniques to improve the specific psychological skills that they require • Practice phase. such as self-confidence. during which athletes develop their psychological skills through repeated practice. and actual competition.• Confident . the ability to relax under great pressure. motivation.I remembered all the successful training sessions and previous best performances Psychology Skills Training Training for the athlete should aim to improve their mental skills. and the ability to concentrate and usually has three phases: • Education phase. during which athletes learn about the importance of psychological skills and how they affect performance • Acquisition phase. simulations. Competitive Anxiety Competition can cause athletes to react both physically (somatic) and mentally (cognitive) in a manner which can negatively affect their 28 .
they are "psyched up". only then will anxiety begin to facilitate your performance.Performance Relationship Theory Drive Theory According to the Drive Theory [Clark Hull 1943] if an athlete is appropriately skilled then it will help them to perform well if their drive to compete is aroused . You must accept anxiety symptoms as part and parcel of the competition experience. 1908] that predicts a relationship between arousal and performance approximates to an inverted U shape. Stress. The theory is that as arousal is increased then performance improves but only up to a 29 . The major problem in competition is letting your mind work against you rather than for you.performance abilities. arousal and anxiety are terms used to describe this condition. Anxiety . Inverted-U hypothesis An alternative approach to Drive Theory is known as the Inverted-U hypothesis [Yerkes and Dodson.
1990] is based on the distinction between cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety. If the athlete's arousal is increased beyond this point then performance diminishes.certain point (top of the inverted U). Multi-dimensional Anxiety Theory Multi-dimensional Anxiety Theory [Martens et al. The theory makes a series of predictions: • There will be a negative but linear relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance • There will be an inverted U relationship between somatic anxiety and performance • Somatic anxiety should decline once performance begins but cognitive anxiety may remain high if confidence is low Catastrophe Theory Catastrophe Theory [Hardy & Fazey 1987] suggests that: • • stress and anxiety will influence performance each athlete will respond in a unique way to competitive anxiety performance will be effected in a unique way which may be difficult to predict using general rules • 30 ..
our general anxiety level Marten developed anxiety traits (A-trait) questionnaires that were tailored specially to sport known as the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT). How do you measure Anxiety? A range of psychometric tests or sport anxiety questionnaires (SAQ) have been used by sports psychologists to understand and measure this condition. Marten recognised that any measure of sport anxiety must take into consideration cognitive anxiety (negative thoughts.Optimum Arousal Theory According to the Optimum Arousal Theory [Yuri Hanin] each athlete will perform at their best if their level of arousal or competitive anxiety falls within their optimum functioning zone. The challenge for the coach is to determine the athlete's zone and identify the techniques that will place the athlete in this zone prior to competition. sky diving) • Anxiety traits (A-trait) are the characteristics of our personality. In 1966 Charles Spiel berger argued that it was necessary to make a distinction between momentary states and more permanent traits.e. • Anxiety states (A-state) is our response to a particular situation (i. worry) and somatic anxiety (physiological response). The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory or CSAI-2 takes into account the difference between A-state and A-trait and 31 .
by physical response Behavioural . (1990). [Martens. D.. L. Bump.by particular thought process Somatic . Vealey.. The Development of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2)] Symptoms of Anxiety Anxiety can be recognised on three levels: • • Cognitive . & Smith.distinguishes between cognitive and somatic anxiety. Burton. R. D.by patterns of behaviour Somatic Increased blood pressure Pounding heart Increased respiration rate Sweating Clammy hands and feet Butterflies in the stomach Adrenaline surge Dry mouth Need to urinate Muscular tension Tightness in neck and shoulders Trembling Incessant talking 32 • Cognitive Indecision Sense of confusion Feeling heavy Negative thoughts Poor concentration Irritability Fear Forgetfulness Loss of confidence Images of failure Defeatist self-talk Feeling rushed Feeling weak Constant dissatisfaction Unable to take instructions Behavioural Biting fingernails Lethargic movements Inhibited posture Playing safe Going through the motions Introversion Uncharacteristic displays of extroversion Fidgeting Avoidance of eye contact Covering face with hand . R.
deeply and evenly through your nose. An athlete with high anxiety trait (A-trait) is likely to be more anxious in stressful situations. and exhale gently through your mouth as though flickering. The five breath technique This exercise can be performed while you are standing up. You should inhale slowly. lying down or sitting upright. but not extinguishing.Thoughts of avoidance Blushing Pacing up and down Distorted vision Twitching Yawning Voice distortion Nausea Vomiting Diarrhoea Loss of appetite Sleeplessness Loss of libido How can we control Anxiety? As we can see anxiety includes state and trait dimensions both of which can show themselves as cognitive and somatic symptoms. the flame of a candle: 33 . To help the athlete control competitive anxiety somatic techniques (relaxation) and cognitive techniques (mental imagery) can be used.
and each time you breathe out say the word 'relax' in your mind's ear [Reference: Dr Karageorghis. stomach and back to relax as you breathe out • Take a fourth deep breath and allow your legs and feet to relax as you breathe out • Take a fifth deep breath and allow your whole body to relax as you breathe out • Continue to breathe deeply for as long as you need to. Competition anxiety needn't get you down. Sit in a comfortable position and adopt a relaxed posture 34 . Peak Performance Issue 243] Benson's relaxation response Benson's technique is a form of meditation that can be used to attain quite a deep sense of relaxation and can be ideal for staying calm in between rounds of a competition.• Take a deep breath and allow your face and neck to relax as you breathe out • Take a second deep breath and allow your shoulders and arms to relax as you breathe out • Take a third deep breath and allow your chest. It can be mastered with just a few weeks' practice and comprises of seven easy steps: 1.
They should attempt to enter fully into the image with all their senses. smell and perform.) 3. Be passive so that if other thoughts enter your mind. They should see themselves enjoying the activity and feeling satisfied with their performance. hear. easy. as they would like to perform in real life. etc. Breathe smoothly and naturally. Relax all the muscles in your body 5. calm. Sight. feel.do not concern yourself with how the process is going 7. dismiss them with.g. Pick a short focus word that has significant meaning for you and that you associate with relaxation (e.2. touch. repeating the focus word 6. 35 . The images should have the athlete performing these items very well and successfully. Slowly close your eyes 4. Continue this for 10 to 15 minutes as required. 'Oh well' and calmly return to the focus word . Mental Imagery Mental imagery involves the athletes imagining themselves in a specific environment or performing a specific activity. relax. smooth. float.
Before or during training sessions. Mental imagery is often used to facilitate the learning and refinement of skills or skill sequences. What can mental imagery be used for? Mental Imagery can be used: • To see success. • To perfect skills. Mental imagery can be effectively used to familiarize yourself with all kinds of things. The next stage is then to learn how to develop and apply mental imagery skills. he/she is particularly receptive to mental imagery. a complex play pattern or routine. It can vividly remind you of your objective. a refocusing plan. Many athletes "see" themselves achieving their goals on a regular basis.When an athlete is in a fully relaxed state. programs. both performing skills at a high level and seeing the desired performance outcomes • To motivate. which can result in increased intensity in training. or the strategy you plan to follow 36 . such as a competition site. a media interview plan. or of a past or future competition or competitor can serve a motivational purpose. The best athletes "see" and "feel" themselves performing perfect skills. a pre-competition plan. or plays on a very regular basis. an event focus plan. routines. • To familiarise. calling up images of your goals for that session. a race course.
Then the scene quickly changes. It's like a colour movie. by imagining what you should focus on and feeling that focus. • To refocus. if a warm-up is feeling sluggish. Mental imagery can be useful in helping you to re focus when the need arises. Athletes do a complete mental run through of the key elements of their performance. In describing how he images his performance. You can also use imagery as a means of refocusing within the event. It also helps keep negative thoughts from interfering with a positive pre-game focus. imagery of a previous best performance or previous best event focus can help get things back on track. 37 .• To set the stage for performance . Mental imagery is often an integral part of the pre-competition plan. Mental imagery should not focus on the outcome but on the actions to achieve the desired outcome. How do I apply mental imagery? Golfing great Jack Nicklaus used mental imagery. First. This helps draw out their desired pre-competition feelings and focus. which helps set the mental stage for a good performance. I "see" the ball where I want it to finish. For example. and I "see" the ball going there: its path. he wrote: "I never hit a shot even in practice without having a sharp in-focus picture of it in my head. nice and white and sitting up high on the bright green grass.
In competitions. as you would like them actually to unfold. In 38 . feel. The problem here is that the athlete is focusing on the mistake (the past). on your way to training. movements. first do it in imagery as perfectly and precisely as possible. and the next scene shows me making the kind of swing that will turn the previous images into reality only at the end of this short private Hollywood spectacular do I select a club and step up to the ball. or feelings that you want to carry into the event. and shape. reactions. In every training session. How can I stay focused? I expect you have seen an athlete become angry at their performance (throw a tantrum. something than cannot be changed." When should mental imagery be used? To become highly proficient at the constructive use of imagery. and in the evenings before sleeping. and not on the future (the next point). skills. you can start by doing two things. mentally recall the event focus plan. before the event starts. during training. If you want to perfect and use mental imagery to your fullest advantage.trajectory. after training. throw the racket on the floor. Then there's a sort of fade-out. argue with the judge etc.). See. and experience yourself moving through the actions in your mind. significant plays. even its behaviour on landing. you have to use it ever day. before you execute any skill or combination of skills.
young athletes. On hearing their role model's name the athlete will shift their focus to how their role model would react and assume a positive (calm. live) will help the athlete see how their idol stays focused and how they react to their mistakes. A "pattern breaker" can be a word or phrase shouted within the brain (not vocally) or something physical (pinging an elastic band on the wrist). The coach can use the "pattern breaker" in training or competition to refocus the athlete. This is beneficial provided the role model is a suitable one. In sports psychology "pattern breaking" routines are used to help prevent the athlete falling into this negative attitude. The role model's name could become the "pattern breaker" phrase for the coach to use when their young protégée falls into the negative thoughts trap. You may see the athlete attempt to assume the identity and hallmarks of the role model when they perform. What are the benefits? Mental Imagery itself can be useful in a number of circumstances including: 39 . television. composed and motivated) approach. Many young athletes have their idol (role model) who they would like to emulate. This approach may not be suitable for a young athlete as it is specialised and will take time for them to master. Watching the role model in action (video. this can be hard to overcome not only because they are inexperienced but also because of peer pressure or the fear of losing.
• the establishing of a physical and mental state which has an increased receptivity to positive mental imagery • the establishing of a set level of physical and mental arousal prior to warming up for competition The "Quick Set" routine 40 .g. This can take place both in or away from the training session • the competition situation When combined with relaxation it is useful in: • • the promotion of rest. etc.• • developing self confidence developing pre-competition and competition strategies which teach athletes to cope with new situations before they actually encounter them • helping the athlete to focus his/her attention or concentrate on a particular skill he/she is trying to learn or develop. increased muscular tension. e. recovery and recuperation the removal of stress related reactions.
Psychologist Jeff Simons developed a routine that would allow an athlete to achieve an appropriate mental arousal in the last 30 seconds before a competition. The "Quick Set" routine, which involves physical, emotional and focus cues, can also be used as a means of refocusing quickly following a distraction. An example of this routine for a sprinter could be:
Close your eyes, clear your mind and maintain deep rhythmical breathing, in through your nose and out through your mouth (physical cue)
Imagine a previous race win, see yourself crossing the line in first place and recreate those emotional feelings of success (emotional cue)
Return your focus to the sprint start, think of blasting off on the 'B' of the bang with the appropriate limb action (focus cue)
"You only achieve what you believe" I use this quotation when I hear an athlete make a negative statement about their ability. I also use it to focus the athlete's attention when assisting them to develop mental imagery skills.
Performance Profiling If a 1500 metre runner appeared to lack speed towards the end of a race, an effective coach would observe this and design a training program to address this situation. Similarly, if psychological factors require attention, the intervention must be tailored to specific needs. However, where as speed, or lack of it, can be directly observed, psychological factors are often hidden. A key problem for coaches seeking to address such issues is how to work out what the problem is when they cannot observe what is going on in their athlete's mind. A direct question does not always provide the full facts since athletes can be reluctant, at least initially, to discuss such things. An approach that is becoming popular in sport is Performance Profiling.
characteristics of an elite athlete in your sport/event? Spend five to ten minutes listing the qualities or characteristics that the athlete feels are important. If an athlete finds this difficult, the coach can use prompts, but it is for the athlete to decide on what characteristics are chosen. The coach should try to get the athlete to list the key psychological factors, but the same process can be applied to technical skills or physical attributes, such as strength, speed, agility, balance etc. In this step, the athlete should try to identify 15 to 20 characteristics.
Step 3 The next step is for the athlete to rate each of the identified characteristics.
On a scale of zero (not at all important) to 10 (extremely important), the athlete rates the perceived importance of each characteristic for an elite performer in their particular sport/event.
The athlete uses the same zero to 10 scale to rate their current perception of themselves in relation to an ideal state of 10.
A calculation is then carried out to determine the 'Discrepancy' value. The higher discrepancies indicate areas that may need to be addressed through training or other intervention.
Step 4 The table below provides an example of these calculations for part of an athlete's performance profile. Characteristics Athlete's Athlete's self Discrepancy (10-ASA) × API
identified by the perceived level of assessment athlete Confidence Concentration Control Commitment importance (API) 10 9 10 9 (ASA) 8 6 7 8
20 36 30 18
44 . Reassessment should always relate to the same characteristics identified in the initial profiling process and be conducted every four to eight weeks. depending on the exact circumstances and preferences of the athlete. Alternative approach • • Coach outlines the Performance Profiling process The athlete identifies a set of characteristics The athlete assesses his/her performance against each characteristic (self assessment) • • The coach assesses and rates the athlete against each characteristic The athlete and coach analyse the results and agree a way forward • The coach-athlete relationship is much stronger when goals and targets are shared and agreed in this way. This can be via intervention strategies such as self-talk or a quick set routine.Refocusing errors Enjoyment after 9 8 5 8 45 16 For this particular athlete refocusing after errors and concentration are key concerns that could be addressed.
video analysis of the player's performance might be a good way to resolve such differences and produce agreement on how to proceed.The figure below illustrates a tennis player's self-assessment (yellow) and the coach's assessment (red) in relation to the athlete's backhand strokes on a scale of 0 (very poor) to 10 (excellent). This shows that the coach and athlete are in general agreement over most of the relevant characteristics but in major disagreement over the backhand volley. In such circumstances. 45 .
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 46 .
0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Benefits Performance Profiling can help coaches develop a better understanding of their athletes by: • • Highlighting perceived strengths and weaknesses Clarifying the athlete's and coach's vision of the key characteristics of elite performance. and highlighting any differences • Highlighting discrepancies between the athlete's and coach's assessment of performance • Providing a means of monitoring progress Training Articles . and arm yourself with mental strategies to cope with errors or mishaps.Psychology • Controlling the Raging Monster Within To control your emotions during competition you must do two tasks have an accepting mindset before competition. 47 .4.
48 . goal setting. A few examples of psychological skills include mental imagery. and positive self-talk.• What influence will sports psychology have on rehabilitation of injuries and the improvement of performance of sports skills? It is important to realize that there is not one specific psychological skill that assists in rehabilitation. • How hypnosis can help your athletes to produce their top performance Hypnosis is an ergogenic aid used by many top athletes and teams that has been around for many years and is now making a comeback perhaps due to the recent increased publicity that hypnotherapy is receiving. Each psychological skill obtained must be individualized based on the psychological state of the individual and the sport that the individual is a participant. These psychological skills may be used during sport injury rehabilitation to motivate athletes to adhere to rehabilitation.
or just crawl into their negative mental shell and do not return. level-headed. or angry with yourself and it cost you the game or match. I am sure at one time (or two). 49 . you have became upset. Many talented athletes who do not know how to control their negative emotions fail to reach their potential because they get hot-headed. Even the top athletes. such as Tiger Woods. Recovering quickly from mistakes separates champions from athletes who crack under adversity and are cooked mentally for the rest of the competition. but they are able to gain control quickly and get back to business. angry.Psychology Controlling the Raging Monster Within Patrick J Cohn PhD explains how recover from errors and mishaps when playing your sport will hinge on your ability to let it go and remain composed. To be a consistent performer you must slay the raging monster within (control your emotions during competition). frustrated. Emotional control is when you stay even-tempered.the perfectionistic athlete who is prone to emotional outbursts after errors or when not performing up to his or her expectations. You know the type . get upset. or poised even when you are challenged by mishaps or adversity.
How to have a positive pre game mindset for competition 2. My students are taught two top strategies for regaining emotional control quickly: 1. expected to throw a nohitter every game. Here is a baseball example to highlight the mental game dangers of expectations. What do you think happened when he gave up his first hit? He got frustrated and negative with his game because the perfect game was no longer obtainable. and arm yourself with mental strategies to cope with errors or mishaps.To get control of the raging monster within. your very first step is to identify strict expectations that cause you to become upset when you do not achieve your own expectations. a college pitcher. It took him several innings to get his emotional balance back and by the time he did recover. I am failing 50 . you must do two tasks have an accepting mindset before competition. One of my students. Some expectations that can lead to feelings of frustration include: • • I must play perfectly to be successful today I expect to perform perfectly today and if I do not. it was too late. How to let go of errors before emotions snowball out of control For example.
Athletes use all kinds of scientific technology in their endeavour to improve. In the quest for improved performance most athletes and sports people turn to ergogenic aids of one sort or another. which will usually include focusing and visualisation techniques for improvement. including equipment. I must have an error-free performance I cannot stand making stupid errors and should be upset with them • • If you carry these expectations into competition. Hypnosis is an ergogenic aid used by many top athletes and teams that has been around for many years and is now making a comeback perhaps due to the recent increased publicity that hypnotherapy is receiving. 51 . In reality. training advances.• I cannot make any mistakes if I want to win To play my best. How hypnosis can help your athletes to produce their top performance Gordon Manning explores how hypnosis can help to give sportspeople the competitive edge. nutrition and even applied sports psychology. you leave yourself no room for success. you set yourself up for feeling like you are failing.
This is in fact untrue. the Russian team took no less than 11 hypnotists. Hypnosis in sport Hypnosis in sport has a long history and was often used under different names. England cricket captain. In the 1978/79 tour of Australia. Franz Alexander. Also in the 1956 Melbourne Olympics. MD. According to Les Cunningham in his book. A huge element in this perception of mind control regarding hypnosis grows from 'Stage Hypnotists'.'The fact that the mind rules the body is. The subject is consciously giving their approval to the hypnotist's suggestions. Mike Brearley consulted a medical Hypnotherapist. in spite of its neglect by biology and medicine. The reason most of them do not like to talk about it is because of the age-old myth that hypnosis is a magical power to make you do things. Some Hypnotherapists claim that stage hypnotists do the image of hypnosis more harm than good and that the perceptions created by stage hypnosis sometimes generates fear and misunderstanding in the minds of the general public. You do not need to look too far in any sport to find great champions using hypnotic techniques to improve performance. 'hypnosport'. plus there is the unfounded fear of having ones 'power' taken away. 52 . the most fundamental fact which we know about the process of life'. mental or autogenic training being two. all subjects have total control over their minds and bodies.
sometimes even euphoria or bliss. its use can be just as effective at a conscious level. In simple terms hypnosis is the word used to describe a state in which a person's mind remains calm. Countless experiments by psychologists and physiologists have proven that the human being can change his or her own beliefs significantly enough to alter the body in some astounding ways.On the other hand it is good that they create awareness of clinical hypnosis and some of the benefits it has. Pain is eased or physical ailments cleared up in situations where drugs were unable to assist. speed and strength enhancements are particularly effective. In this state the mind is more receptive to positive suggestions and it is possible to access 53 . They experience a tremendous sense of wellbeing and peace of mind. Likewise athletic and sporting performance can be increased dramatically in many areas. style correction. Suggestion is not a phenomenon that works only on the unconscious mind. concentrated and aware whilst their body becomes completely relaxed. Firstly we need to look briefly at what hypnosis is before we can understand what it can do for the athlete/sportsperson and how coaches may use a Hypnotherapist to help with the improvement of their athletes. Incidentally if the hypnotist suggests something that is fundamentally against an individual's morals then he or she will rapidly become consciously aware again and come out of hypnosis. technique.
We will discover later how this type of association is very powerful in 'sporting behaviour change'. one is becoming more focused on a given subject and less aware of their outer experiences. You have to go through this level of hypnosis. at some time in our lives set an alarm clock to wake us up in the morning only to find that we awake a few minutes before the alarm 54 . to get from being awake and conscious to being asleep and unconscious. without imagining yourself in those rolls. when you go to sleep at night and when you awaken in the morning. that is hypnosis. Such a task would be mathematics. although in hypnosis one is more aware at a subconscious level. If you did not have the ability to go into some state of hypnosis you would not be able to do many other everyday tasks. This brings with it-increased awareness of the body's senses.e.areas of the mind that are beyond the normal level of conscious awareness i. Other time in our lives. you would not be able to visualise in your mind sums or calculate them to any degree. Watching television would be a problem as it would be difficult to become associated with characters and plots. In this case. We have all. Modern research has found that hypnotisability is directly related to intelligence and concentration. when hypnosis naturally occurs is during daydreaming which is a type of visualisation. the subconscious Every person in this world goes into hypnosis at least twice a day.
but a state where the consciousness is more focused and said to be altered from normal waking states. The effects of suggestions are greatly increased in these states. performance enhancement etc. as it works best when you are passing through a state of hypnosis on your way to sleep. turned the lights off and are starting to drift off to sleep. we also program our subconscious to wake us up at that time. When we set the alarm. In therapy. Most people's body clocks run slightly faster than a normal 24-hour clock so our subconscious wakes us up those few minutes before the alarm goes off. say to wake up at 6:00am. In suggestion therapy Post Hypnotic suggestions are used. hypnosis is used to bypass the critical consciousness to gain access to the powerful subconscious mind. Remember hypnosis is a state of altered awareness. By looking at the clock whilst setting the alarm we also synchronise our own body clocks with the clock. usually in the form of positive affirmations to assist in self-esteem. it is not sleep. they act after the therapy is discontinued. The important thing is when you do this. feelings and behaviours. You can easily do without an alarm clock by repeating to yourself a few times over that you will wake at a certain time or after so many hours sleep. or even unconsciousness. So how or why does this happen. It is then that either Psychotherapy is undertaken to release undesirable subconscious neurotic behaviour or suggestions are used to alter thoughts. what psychologists' term 'hyper55 . So the time to do it is when you are settled in bed. We will come back to this method later and use it in other ways.goes off.
start. style. Let us now take a known concept from coaching and see how we can improve on this using hypnosis Visualisation or Mental Imagery Most coaches at some time or other will introduce visualisation to their athletes. remove negative feelings. A visual person will be able to close their eyes and actually see themselves performing the task correctly. It may prove more beneficial for these people to rather imagine another person doing the tasks . finish or the like. style. posture. Now the results from this will very much depend on whether the person doing the visualisation is a visual person or not . It is this state that athletes and sports people. This state is also used when using hypnosis to help speed recovery.this sometimes helps as it dissociates the individual yet allows the mind to observe correct performance. often they are asked to imagine doing something . style. etc. can use suggestion to help improve performance. Others find it difficult to actually see the image in the minds eye. 56 .suggestibility'. confidence etc. self-doubt. stress and other hindrances to peak performance.in other words can they actually see themselves performing or not. Visualisation involves the athlete seeing and experiencing success in their mind. with the help of a hypnotist. This inability to 'see' themselves makes it more difficult for the person to achieve the desired result.typically something related to his or her performance.
thereby enabling far greater concentration and also improving the ability to visualise. They have to maintain perfect style and posture whilst executing the correct technique for each step they take during their routines and being aware of where the other competitors are on the floor so that they do not collide. in time to the music and making it look flowing relaxed and as if they are enjoying the experience.a good habit to perform the technique correctly. top Dance Sport International competition Ballroom Dancers. During training vast amounts of time is spent perfecting technique. Taking this to the next level and introducing a Hypnotist specialising in Sport Hypnosis we could achieve far greater results. as the hypnotist can help the athlete achieve a state of hypnosis and thus a state of higher awareness. tremendous effort to maintain concentration during visualisation. A great deal of effort and concentration is required during a competition. This is so that it becomes 'habit' . at times. sometimes hours and hours on just a few steps. Take as an example. All this whilst dancing as a couple completely in harmony.However this is still not the ideal. Under hypnosis a person would be able to better 'see' themselves performing the tasks with the advantage of the correct expected result being placed into the subconscious where it would form part of the individuals 'programming'. 57 . It take approximately 2mins 30 sec to 3mins per dance and they typically do 4 to 5 dances per round sometimes 6 to 8 rounds before getting to the final. as it requires.
Hopefully with feedback from the athlete on how it felt especially when the throw was a good one. the better.so how do we get the athlete to perform like that most of the time instead of some of the time. Now take hypnosis and apply it to lets say a track or field athlete and we can see the benefits that can be obtained. breathing and posture amongst others. therefore helping with muscle memory and entrenching the 'habit'. making it more 'real'. This process can be used not only with technique but also with all aspects of the performance. Through hypnosis an athlete can be taken back to that good throw and all the elements of the throw replayed in the subconscious. this would entrench the feeling in the mind. correcting style. Whole dance routines are 'practiced' in the mind along with 'what if' scenarios .such as what to do if another couple is blocking your intended path. A Javelin thrower instinctively knows when the throw is a good throw as it just 'feels right' . Then asking the athlete to try and repeat the 'good throw' feeling on the next throw and have them try and remember that feeling so that it could be produced again in the future.There are far too many aspects to worry about during the actual competition so the more that can become second nature or habit. for example style. This process could benefit greatly from visualisation especially if done correctly and 'felt 'during the visualisation. Coaches will have the athlete practice and practice. Further to this the 58 . Hypnosis can help with this by enhancing the visualisation experience. posture and technique along the way.
So how is this going to affect them during the competition.even when everything else is done correctly personal doubt can foil the best athlete. Similarly self doubt or negative thoughts can bring about an injury or cramp just at the crucial moment. Let us go back to our dancers. During a competition a couple performing in a major competition with other top performers have the ability to perform exceptionally well. in fact he is not really a confident person deep down and although he portrays being confident and assured it is all a show. except the man does not believe that he is capable of even getting to the final. their technique is excellent they look really good on the dance floor. Remember imagination is powerful and can override reason. During the semi-final he starts to feel cramp in his calf . It is known that self-doubt is one of the contributors to poor performance on the day of an event . in fact looking like podium finishers. They have put in months and months of training. Following on from this any underlying doubts the athlete may have of reproducing 'good throws' repeatedly could be removed. He doubts his ability.athlete would be given the required suggestions so that during practice and competitions it would be far easier to produce good throws. the early rounds are not a problem they sail through those. 59 . in fact they could easily place in the top three.this has never happened before so why now.
he time and again pulls out due to cramp. usually one or two dances before the end of the round therefore not allowing enough points to get through to the final.He tries to ignore the cramp however it starts to affect his style and eventually all he can think about is the cramp and that he must stop and pull out of the competition. Subconsciously John does not believe this and so the cycle continues. Later during another competition at a high level. All their fellow competitors give encouragement and tell them how good they are and that if it not for the cramps they would definitely be in the final with a chance at a top three finish. Now this in turn feeds the belief so that John now has self-doubt about ever reaching a final. Their coaches and fans cannot understand why he always get cramp in the semi-final. John's subconscious has been programmed with this belief and this manifests itself in a way to compound the belief hence the cramp. They look so good during the early rounds. they are both supremely fit and it is not due to the amount of dances during the competition as they train for hours on end with no problems whatsoever. So what is actually causing the problem? Let us call our male dancer John. remember he is good enough to get through the early stages in fact very easily. after all he has an excuse cramp got the better of him. However Johns dance partner believes the coaches and other competitors and puts more pressure on John. John we have said is not a confident person deep down and more importantly does not believe that he is good enough. 60 .
If after the hypnosis sessions they went into a competition and placed in the top three this may give such a boost and help to change the old belief into a new belief. This would be fine for John as a dancer but would not address the underlying belief of lack of confidence and self worth. it could result in the belief manifesting itself in other ways. The second approach would be to address the underlying problem thereby removing the self-doubt and reprogramming the subconscious so that moving forward. John becomes more confident and believes in himself not only as an athlete but also as a person. After all mental edge is often the difference between great and truly great and Hypnotherapy will enable people to use any and all of the best methods of actualising the natural potential latent in all of us. This would work fine for the competitions however depending on how the process was done. a more positive belief that they can win and that John is good at dancing. Left to continue they would eventually split up and never reach their true potential. Incidentally there would be no harm in using both approaches one after the other. thereby using the improved performances in competitions to reinforce the reprogramming of the subconscious. Through hypnosis two approaches could be taken. thereby avoiding the cramp and allowing them to continue. 61 . one approach could be to address the cramp by programming the subconscious to relax the cramping muscle as soon as it starts to tighten.adding more stress.
we simply need to tell ourselves that we want to wake at a certain time and provided we truly believed that we would wake up at that time. Repeating this 6 times to ourselves and applying the principals above could help to improve our performance by stopping us habitually looking around during the latter stages of the sprints. Many other affirmations can be used to the same effect. Hypnosis can help sports performance. you do not have to be a champion to use hypnosis. The main principals to remember is when we tell ourselves what it is we want to achieve.just as we are dropping off to sleep . Exactly the same process can be used in other areas including sporting performance. This is self-hypnosis in its basic form. making the desire realistic (a realistic goal) and truly and sincerely believing in what we are telling ourselves. I mentioned earlier the alarm clock and how we do not really need it to wake up . Simple self-hypnosis techniques can be learnt and perfected by anyone and can be used for: • • Visualisation/Mental imagery and rehearsal of future success Focusing on success and strategy tools to get in the 'zone' when you need to 62 .the following: • During my 100m sprint I will concentrate on the finish line and not look at my fellow competitors during the closing stages. As an example we could repeat to ourselves . we then would.To finish off.
CHAPTER 5 63 . motivation and positive thinking • Belief Success is achieved when the mind TRULY believes and sincerely EXPECTS the imagined result to happen.• Overcoming mental blocks and barriers and phobias Reinforcing self-belief.
ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIO N 5. Do you ever get "butterflies" in your stomach (pre game jitters) before you compete? Do you get really nervous before the start of a big match or 64 .0 ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION Performing Under Pressure Patrick J Cohn PhD identifies the pressures that athletes place upon themselves and how to cope with them.
Pressure comes in many forms depending on the person and how an athlete "thinks" about the competition. he or she is putting pressure on him or herself to not fail or look silly. confidence. When an athletes worries about disappointing others. pressure is not some external force that grips you by the neck and strangles you.from yourself and others . for example. However. whereas others crumble mentally and choke their brains out. High expectations . The first step is to understand that pressure starts inside you with your thoughts about the big game or meeting others' expectations. What is pressure and how do athletes experience it? Pressure is a perceived expectation of the need to perform well under challenging situations. Even the best athletes feel pressure before a big game. Why? Experience. Some sources of internal. Fear of failure and expectation are tied to pressure. but they know how to channel the pressure into positive intensity to boost performance. selfinflicted pressure include: 65 . Some athletes thrive on the feeling of pressure. and beliefs play a vital role in how well an athlete will perform under pressure. for example.turn into pressure.game and cannot relax after the game starts? Most athletes have felt the negative effects of pressure during their athletic careers.
Pressure not to blow the game and not feel embarrassed 6. These athletes knew their real battle was not so much on the court. 66 . Mental toughness is what made Michael Jordan and Pete Sampras so special. You absolutely must manage your mental side if you want to be the best. which separates you from the competition but your mental toughness. and consistently turn it on even when you do not feel at your best. At the top level it is not your physical or technical expertise. perform under the most intense pressure. Thoughts underlying the fear of failure. such as having your hard work not pay off 4. fans) to succeed 3. Expectations you place on yourself about winning 2. Pressure to perform well or lose your place on the team 5. parents. you can perform at your best George Karseras explains how managing your anxiety in a competition situation will improve your confidence to perform well. but inside their heads.1. Pressure to perform perfectly and not make any mistakes When you can manage your emotions. Pressure to live up to the expectations from others (coach. To be outstanding you have to hold your nerve.
She might feel liberated and relaxed and her play is likely to reflect these emotions. motivation and anxiety levels if you chose to. When you can manage your emotions you can perform at your best. Feelings are based on what you imagine or interpret from an event and not from the event itself. which result in two very different performances. concentration. The other might imagine it as the experience of a lifetime for her to go out and enjoy. Four important principles Feelings affect your performance. 67 . The same event evokes two different responses. learn how to change your interpretations and you learn how to manage your emotions. The message here is very simple. Whether you are aware of them or not. Two players appearing in the Wimbledon final for the first time will imagine different things about the match. One might imagine she would be unable to play well in such a big final. then why is it so neglected in training routines? If you are one of those athletes who spends all your training time on technique and fitness while paying no attention to your mental side.Given that mental strength is so vital. learn to perform mentally. We know from countless studies that mental skills are acquirable and you can. you are doing yourself a serious disservice. You can improve your confidence. how you feel affects how you perform. with practice. This player is likely to feel nervous and uncertain and her performance will be poor.
This means that we can improve our mental performance using physical interventions (relaxation exercises) and vice versa. The second phase is the strategy or intervention stage. and any factors. background. The parts of your system are all interrelated. Individual work In the first phase the objectives are to gain as much of an understanding as possible of your situation. individual work and group work. skills. the problem might lie not with him but with the midfield who are not creating chances for him. which are constraining you. You can divide mental skills training into two approaches. A standard programme for both may last for a minimum of six weeks with sessions of 60 to 90 minutes. You operate within a system and your performance is just a symptom or outcome of how your system operates.The mind and the body are inextricable linked. experience. which may be affected by his lifestyle which may be affected by his time management. which are supporting you. how you feel physically affects how you feel emotionally. so that wherever possible you find the solutions and suggest changes yourself. A cricket player's confidence may be affected by his technique. any factors. Here the objective is to formulate a strategy 68 . resources. If Alan Shearer is not scoring goals. The aim is to increase your self-awareness during this process. which may be affected by his fitness. We need to know your goals. It is always more potent to look to remedy the underlying causes of a problem than the symptom itself.
to reduce your constraints and increase your resources. Analytic interventions. A football team of 11 69 . At the end of the warm-up. Without buying into a programme you would be far less likely to stick to it. Associative interventions. We ask the team members to arrange themselves so that their "place" suits the purpose of our meeting. Usually we ask the team to sit in a circle of chairs so that the whole team can see each other. Before discussing the purpose and agenda. Team approach We start a team workshop with a "warm-up". We focus on the relationships. Our approach to team building is based on our early work with Tottenham Football Club during the early 80's. which exist within the team system. use the right-hand side of the brain. Particular attention is paid to associative exercises because more right brain activity has been recorded in athletes during peak performances. rather than focusing on the coach or us. such as goal setting and self-talk exercises. then another person in the team. The final phase is to provide you with support as you progress through your programme. associative and analytic. team members would pay attention to themselves. use the left-hand side of the brain. the team has tuned into its team identity (what it is and what it can be) and is ready to achieve its potential. and then the team would perform some kind of team activity. The interventions would fall into two types. such as visualisations and relaxation exercises.
Steve Archibald could not have argued that he did not pass the ball three times. their awareness of how other members are different to them and their appreciation of these differences. These are typically speaking. I get really frustrated when that happens". which enhance trust and respect. Any one of these relationships can affect someone else's performance. After 70 . their awareness of others. Both events really happened. Also. listening. We encourage the latter way of talking because descriptions provide far more information than opinions. questioning and feedback skills. "you are a selfish player. Communication and change then become easier. We aim to increase team member's self-awareness. but he could have argued that he was not a selfish player. This means that instead of saying something like. we would ask Garth Crooks to say to Steve Archibald "during the last game I was in a scoring situation three times and each time you failed to pass to me. Only when they have gone through these phases can they see their team colleagues as they really are and not as they imagine them to be. Our work increases team members' understanding of what they need from each other to perform at their best. The latter are probably the most important. you never pass the ball to me".players has 55 different relationships. Nor could he argue with the impact of frustration he had on his team-mate. We also teach team members the communication skills. We teach descriptive rather than evaluative feedback.
Mental Models . If you do not work on your mental side. Steve was more likely to change his behaviour. although this clearly has a major impact. no matter how much practice. there just seems to be an insurmountable gap between them and us. It cannot just be practice. it is about time you started. In general if someone is a professional sportsperson they have the luxury of time and resources that amateurs do not have. No matter how much effort you put in.Noticing distinctions Adam Vile explains how Jonny Wilkinson uses an imaginary girl to stay focused on the rugby pitch and how we might acquire similar mental skills There is no denying it. some people are just much better at some things than others. but even then there are vast differences between the skills even of world-class athletes. Whether you compete as an individual or as part of a team. and gives 71 . perhaps it is talent? Yet some may argue that it is talent that gets you noticed. your performance can be improved by practicing your mental skills.receiving this type of feedback. He came to see me with six weeks to go before a trial for the Under 18 team. Case study Billy was a junior county rugby player who had tried several times to get into the England team without success.
then can you do as well on the next? He put the golfer in a trance and told him "You will play only the first hole. worked with a number of world-class athletes (including the US Olympic Rifle squad and the shot putter Donald Lawrence). needless to say. The secret to Jonny's conversions This is one of the things that set Jonny Wilkinson above his peers. and then deteriorate. played an excellent round in his next tournament. In one story relating to a tournament golfer (Rossi 1988) Erickson is asked to assist in improving the golfer's consistency across all holes throughout a round. How does he do this? In fact his approach is not too dissimilar from that taken by 72 . and you will be alone on the golf course". You have to somehow turn that talent into enhanced skill. a psychiatrist who was a pioneer in the use of Hypnotherapeutic methods in sport. The question. Milton Erickson. the ability to perform at a top level of skill in every situation. for Erickson was: if you can play the first hole perfectly. that is all you will remember. He seemed to always play the first hole perfectly.you the opportunity. consistency. and he is able to do it under the most stressful conditions. So what is the difference that makes the difference? Consistency One of the key attributes of world-class athletes is consistency. The golfer. He is feared by opposing teams for his ability to turn pressure into points.
visualising the ball going up. he is able to get himself in the zone and shut himself away from all the pressure and noise. in the crowd. he knows that he is ready.Erickson. bringing them closer in his mind. Shutting out the cheers and jeers of the crowd. and there he sees her." He places the ball carefully. staring at them for what seems like an age. this is the only kick that matters. Finally looking towards the posts. as he stares at his hands. sitting right in the middle. He has a single focus of attention. he uses the same ritual every time. Then takes a single sidestep. the same steps each time. you may also notice the defocusing of his eyes. Then he feels it. between the posts. he pulls his head back just a little. he is alone and it seems that for him. he clasps his hands in front of himself. (Vile and Biggs (in Press) p. Standing with his feet a shoulder width apart. and then down between them. tilting slightly upwards. as if the target somehow magnifies in his vision. and walks just the right amount of paces backwards. But he is not yet ready.44 ) By following this series of steps. the way looks up at the posts. the same way that he has so many times before. If you have a chance to watch him. and the flattening of his face. the process of kicking a rugby ball over the bar and between the posts. And the rest is history". You only have to watch him prepare for a kick. he stands up. 73 . He focuses.
we have to understand his mental processes as well. directly inbetween them. that he is able to visualise a woman sitting in the crowd behind the posts. Hallucination. Bandler 1982  tells of a time that he was asked to assist a Baseball player raise his game.single focus of attention. along with a number of other phenomena that Jonny exhibits . As Annett 1995  suggests. most elegant and most efficient. Jonny Wilkinson hallucinates during his kicking process. He has named her Doris. disassociation . "The key to cognitive motor learning lies in elucidating the way in which learned skills are represented in memory". These processes are skills.are signs of trance. Think big and slow it down. defocusing of the eyes. Essentially. If we wish to replicate Jonny's consistency we not only have to practice constantly (even on Christmas day apparently). Jonny is in a brief. and skills can be learnt. so who exactly is Doris? However Jonny attributes his success to one fact above all. Not knowing much about baseball. modeling his style and specific movements.OK. and invariably collects the three points on offer. Often it is the mental processes that are the difference that makes the difference. he watched a lot of videos of the top hitters and observed a pattern of behaviour that could only 74 . specifically directed trance. He aims for Doris. When he is at his most accurate.
but many are. which I fully support and want to argue here. Alternative models (Robazza 1994 ) are suggesting that (alert) hypnosis should be induced before or during performance. been utilised in improving sports performance. easier to hit. is that self-hypnosis should be part of the skill set of an athlete. of course. and making it much bigger. But this process did exist and it did seem to be the difference between the top hitters and the player that wanted to improve. for them. Hypnosis has. Now of course the ball did not actually slow down or increase in size. He interviewed a number of them and found out that as the ball was thrown towards them they were using a mental process of slowing down the ball. and research is now catching up (Liggit. 2000). Practically. This made it. The difference that makes the difference Not all mental strategies are connected with trance. In real terms. these players were exhibiting the signs of trance: time distortion and hallucination. The suggestion. and go slower.be attributed to mental processes. for a long time. The player improved his game and became a top hitter. So Bandler taught this player to go into trance. and make the ball bigger. we are not all hypnotists and inducing trance does require special skill and training. He connected this to standing on the plate. being two indicators. and we have seen that some sportsmen use alert trance as part of their mental 75 . Anyone can learn self hypnosis. and equally they did not go through this process consciously.
strategy for success. and that by modeling and replicating this structure. In this way we have more chance of developing the same mental skills. The key elements of such modeling concerns the way in which we represent skills internally. We need not focus on trance in our modeling of mental processes however. For example Jonny sees Doris. What you hear. we can have access to the same experiences as someone else. Understanding how someone represents skills internally then is essentially a case of asking the following two questions repeatedly: • What do you See. Then he kicks. and the order in which things happen. inside. the key representations associated with the skill. Auditory. if we get it right. he hears nothing (shutting out the crowd) and he feels that it is right (I would be interested in asking him how that feeling starts and where it moves to). see and feel is important We may make the assumption that experience is stored internally in the three main sense systems (Visual. as it will come as a by-product. Hear and Feel. For some athletes 76 . when you are about to (perform whatever physical skill)? • What do you do then? These questions address two aspects of internal strategy. Kinaesthetic).
does he wait until she is in focus and then he knows that it is the right time? Without asking. Write down the numbers on each control knob. and understand the order.it may be that having a thumping soundtrack playing in their head gives them just that extra push (after all many of us listen to music as we run). then they constitute part of the whole that makes up a specific skill. hear what you heard. feel what you felt. but if we can find a successful performer in our sport. and such mental strategies may tip a performer into the world-class arena. The key to modeling the mental structure and process is to notice finer and finer distinctions. is she in focus or out of focus. or with your athletes. we will not know. Now think of something that you do not want to do (the washing up always gets me) 77 . Adjust them up and down until you feel totally motivated and utterly compelled. when Jonny sees Doris. For example. Pick a time in the past when you were highly motivated. Imagine you have a control panel in which you can adjust the representation. Try this with your athletes By way of example you may like to try the following exercise on yourself. It has the following controls: Volume. If these strategies are successful. Contrast. but it may not start until they hear the gun or get a specific feeling in their stomach of excitement. then we will have a model of the psychological underpinning of whatever skill we are working on. structure and distinctions in their mental strategy. Brightness. and Focus. Go back and see what you saw.
and make a representation of you doing it. We do have an additional advantage in the learning of mental skills: they can be practiced and refined almost anywhere. Even on the bus. Set all the controls to those of your most compelling motivation. It may be that you can take these basic building blocks and subtly modify the distinctions to suit your own representations. and should go hand in hand with the practice of that skill. whilst adopting at the macro level the winning strategy. During coaching sessions the mental and the physical aspects must be practiced and seen as two sides of the same skill. There is enormous value in repetition (of course assuming that the correct components are repeated). to learn a whole skill. improving perhaps at the micro level. How does that make you feel? The key to modeling internal process is to understand not only at the general level of what it is that the expert sees. So the mental processes that we have elicited must be connected with the physical aspects of the skill. hears and feels internally. Towards Autonomous installation Having broken the mental processes of the expert on a specific skill down into a number of representations in a specific order we then need to install it in ourselves and in our athletes. This is the process of Association. but also the fine distinctions that they make in these representations. It is important to remember the aim of our modeling. and mental skills can be repeated far more and 78 .
There is a view (Bandler 1982 ) that the brain learns quickly. and replicate that the next time you are competing. does it take you to learn a phobia?). and notice distinctions. we can benefit from hypnosis. pump up the volume and if you want to. My challenge to you is to go out. Additionally in moving to the autonomous stage. Turn up the brightness. for example. Understanding mental processes is just as relevant for the occasional squash player as for an international sportsman. play to win!! 79 . Accelerated learning works in this way. Start with the way you represent success yourself. not slowly (how long. We can take advantage of this by repeating and practicing the skill mentally at a much faster rate than we would perform it in practice. and many sportsmen can see immediate benefits in their game after just one or two sessions of hypnosis (Holdevici 1989 ). which can quickly install processes directly in the unconscious.much more quickly. these mental skills and strategies will become unconsciously installed. Practice makes permanent By constant repetition.
CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS 81 .
through daily struggle. How about your 82 . frustration. The true meaning of the Olympics is about the process or journey of an amateur athlete. this does not mean that their journey is for the elite only. and hardship.6. And while these future Olympians are presented with the opportunity of a lifetime. this athlete experiences personal success and public victories. In fact. These are young men and women loaded with talent that is laced by hard work. you too are loaded with talent and that I am sure has been laced with a lot of hard work. Ultimately.0 SUMMARY OF FINDING & SUGGESTIONS To be a champion in sport and life Jeremy Boone provides three key points that will boost your workouts to Olympic training status Do you ever get that feeling deep down that you should be able to accomplish much more than you are at present? Are you looking for a bigger challenge to overcome because your daily workouts are just too easy? Or are you training for a specific goal but feel like something is still missing in your workout program? Future stars There is a good chance that there are a few Olympic hopefuls close to where you live. an individual who is devoted to continual improvement of oneself.
Apply the following principles of championship athletes and elevate your workouts to Olympic training status. What is missing or what are you tolerating in your life that is preventing you from establishing discipline? Gold Medal Tip: Athletes are made daily. you can win your gold. everyone has the ability to be an Everyday Champion™. Without it. and the right supportive environment. While it is unlikely that most of us will never compete in the actual Olympic Games. It is about pushing life's limits and having the courage to reach your potential. smart training. five days this week.journey? What do you dream of in your effort to win your gold medal? The exciting truth is that with a little hard work. Don't let your competition define who you are 83 . your goals will always be daydreams at best. "Dreams do not work unless you do. It is like John Maxwell said." It would have been too easy to just write an article on physical training with a few sample exercises. Turn your ability into achievement Discipline is what turns your ability into achievement. and three days next week will prevent you from ever reaching your podium. Working out two days last week. not in a day. but for Olympic athletes training is much more than this.
The competition is not you versus them. In fact. how much weight was lifted today versus last week. but most of the time they only log physical qualities of training. you first have to win your inner game. It is about you versus you. 84 . Unfortunately this does not give a complete picture of what is going on in your body. if you were to ask them what they did two weeks ago they probably could not tell you. only to look over across the room and see your nemesis. this approach actually could be detrimental to your body. Too often we are guilty of comparing ourselves to our team mates. Many athletes keep a journal.Does this scenario sound familiar? You are right in the middle of your workout at the gym and feeling great. How many people do you know workout four or five days a week but do not actually have a goal in mind? Better yet. a training partner. They can tell you their daily training volume. Olympic athletes know their bodies inside and out as well as every facet of their training program. If you want to win your game. How much better can you make yourself in your pursuit of athletic excellence? Gold Medal Tip: Only focus on what you can control…YOU! Monitor Your Training Just because you are active does not mean that you are actually accomplishing anything. blazing speed. the individual who has everything you are trying to attain. or the lungs of Lance Armstrong. or another individual that we do not even know. and even if they feel signs of overtraining from the previous day. Maybe you want that perfect looking body.
desire to train. appetite. increased muscular tension. recovery and recuperation the removal of stress related reactions. How? Play a bigger game simply by incorporating these principles into your workout program. e. and quality of sleep in your journal. morning heart rate.Gold Medal Tip: Keep a detailed training log and include hours of sleep. So. • the establishing of a physical and mental state which has an increased receptivity to positive mental imagery • the establishing of a set level of physical and mental arousal prior to warming up for competition Mental Imagery When combined with positive mental imagery it is useful in: 85 . etc. what is the good news? You too can elevate yourself to Olympic training status.g. Relaxation Relaxation itself can be useful in a number of circumstances including: • • the promotion of rest.
This can take place both in or away from the training session • the competition situation How do I achieve relaxed muscles? Progressive muscular relaxation involves the active contracting and relaxing of muscles. arms. buttocks. thighs. This process should be performed for the following parts of the body in turn .• • developing self confidence developing pre-competition and competition strategies which teach athletes to cope with new situations before they actually encounter them • helping the athlete to focus his/her attention or concentrate on a particular skill he/she is trying to learn or develop. legs. How will relaxed muscles feel? 86 . back. the muscle returns to a more relaxed state. face and eyes. shoulders. neck. When a muscle is tightened for 4-6 seconds and then relaxed. jaw. stomach.feet. hands.
the athlete should alternate the focus between sessions to determine which one they prefer. If we were to use relaxation procedures with an over excited athlete. nervous but in control. nervous-anxious. looking forward to the competition but apprehensive. The coach therefore has to know his/her athletes and how they react in competitive situations. high in arousal. etc. disinterested. sick with worry.J. Schultz in the 1930's noticed that patients in a relaxed state experienced one of two sensations: the feeling of warmth or the feeling of heaviness in completely relaxed limbs. • Over excited. concentration should be focused on one of these sensations. etc. For the first few sessions.H. During the relaxation process. 87 . • Optimally excited. This would have a positive effect on his/her performance. feeling good. However if we asked an under-excited athlete to use relaxation procedures it would only make it harder for him/her to "get-up" for the competition. Can Relaxation have a Negative Effect? In a competition situation an athlete will either be: • Under excited. scared of the competition. find it hard to "get up" for the competition. etc. over the top. we might be able to reduce his/her arousal level to that of the optimally excited athlete. thinking positively. low in arousal.
88 . The technique has a calming and controlling effect. the area just behind your naval button. dimly lit and warm room which is free from interruption Centering The Centering technique was developed by the Tibetan Monks over 2000 years ago. providing an effective way to manage anxiety. Centering requires you to focus your attention on the centre of your body. warmth mental imagery • • Regardless of which technique is used. the following two conditions need to exist if the technique is to be learned: • • the athlete must believe that relaxation will help a quiet.Relaxation Training There are a number of relaxation techniques that have the following characteristics: • • procedures for first recognising and then releasing tension in muscles concentration on breathing control and regulation concentration on sensations such as heaviness.
arms hanging loosely by your side • Close your eyes and breath evenly .• Stand with your feet shoulder width apart. shoulders and chest. It aims to help you distance your mind from the here and now and place you in a setting that you associate with relaxation and inner calm. "relax".. As you exhale let the tension fall away and focus on the feeling of heaviness in your stomach • Continue to breath evenly and deeply and focus your attention on the centre of your body. 89 . heavy and calm • As you breath out think of a word that encapsulates the physical feeling and mental focus you want e..where there are 3 full stops (.try to keep the tension in the upper body to a minimum as you breath • Inhale deeply from your abdomen (your stomach will extend) and be aware of the tension in your face. neck.) leave a pause for a few seconds and remember to speak clearly and slowly.g. This script could be recorded as an MP3 file . "calm" Self Hypnosis This is one of the most popular self-hypnosis techniques employed by athletes. the area just behind your naval button • Maintain your attention on that spot and continue to breath evenly and deeply. feeling controlled.
In a few seconds. maybe somewhere you have been before.. a deserted beach... there are strong stairs.. sit or lie down in a position that you find comfortable in a place where you are unlikely to be disturbed. and now. concentrate on your breathing..... leading down from this balcony... in and out... and a handrail on each side. In a few seconds' time.. 90 ..... then concentrate on the sounds of the music. with wide steps... you will imagine your favourite place of relaxation.. a beautiful garden.The following script is an adaptation of a script published by the London College of Clinical Hypnosis.. become aware of your eyelids and feel them blinking quickly and notice that you have a strong desire to close your eyes. and you can see them clearly. maybe the distant sound of a car driving by or the hustle and bustle outside on the street. Firstly you need to relax. you can count down from 10 to one. and there is a long set of stairs in front of you... the stairs are well lit. in and out. allow your eyes to close and feel a deep sensation of relaxation.. feel it flowing over you as if it were the tide going in and out.... and with each descending number between 10 and one. just imagine that you are standing on a balcony.. a summer meadow or somewhere you can imagine you would feel relaxed.. Take deep breaths in and out..... listen to your heart beat..... now begin to pay attention to the sound of your thoughts..... put on some very relaxing music or sounds of nature.... Look up at your eyebrows and begin to concentrate on the sounds around you.
you can pause and wonder where you might go next. You will feel the stairs under your feet and when you eventually reach step one. Meditation for Relaxation 91 . and as you slowly descend these stairs. and when you do so. and with each descending number you will become more and more calm.. for example in case of emergency or any situation where full attention is required.. have a stretch and notice how good you feel... each step down from the balcony will take you deeper and deeper. you will find yourself in your favorite place of relaxation.. again you feel very tranquil and this tranquility is accompanied by a sense of anticipation.... into your wonderful state of relaxation. and enjoy.... For example....you will take a single step down the stairs. you will then step off.. If.. Provide yourself with only positive and beneficial suggestions.. attaining peak performance in an upcoming competition. by opening your eyes. at any time... relating to increasing your selfconfidence. this beautiful place. you are going to experience a sense of ever-deepening relaxation. As you stand up.. for any reason.. open your eyes.. throughout your entire body.. simply count up slowly from one to ten.. on reaching the number eight.. and at the number 10 you will be fully awake and alert... To take yourself out of your relaxing place in a gradual manner. you will be fully alert. or mastering a specific sports skill that has perhaps proved elusive to you. more and more relaxed..
out. breathe in . As you breathe out. 92 . . return your concentration to your breathing. permit relaxation to occur at its own pace and expect other thoughts. in . Continue for 20 minutes. out. . Engaging in meditation helps reduce stress before an event and with experience the athlete can learn to relax different muscle groups and appreciate subtle differences in muscle tension. but do not use an alarm. When distracting thoughts occur. "won". lie quietly for several minutes at first with closed eyes and later with opened eyes.A number of people involved in sports psychology believe that meditation can be useful in getting maximum performance from an athlete (Syer & Connolly. Maintain a passive attitude. and so on. You may open your eyes to check the time. For example. say the word "won" silently to yourself. 1984). "won". When you finish. beginning at your feet and progressing to your face • Breathe through your nose and become aware of your breathing. The technique includes the following steps: • • Lie down on your back in a comfortable position and close your eyes Relax all your muscles. Try to practice a relaxation technique once a day. . .
Getting Loose Begin each session as follows • • Loosen your clothing and remove your shoes Lie down with a pillow under your head (on a bed or on the floor) Lie flat on your back. Each session should begin with "Getting Loose" and then followed with "Breathing Easy". feet about 12 to 18 inches apart and your arms at your sides • • Go as limp as you can from head to foot Let your shoulder blades go slightly flat Waggle your feet Settle in with your legs • • • 93 . It is best to use the relaxation program prior to commencing the warm up and then to use the warm up to achieve optimal level of arousal.Relaxation Techniques This page contains a program to help you relax.
to yourself. let go'. as follows • Legs o Flex the muscles of your left leg by raising it 6 to 10 inches above the floor Point your toes slightly back toward your head.. heavy. say to yourself 'Leg. Then. At this point. Hold them as long as you can . o • Buttocks and thighs o Tighten your buttock and thigh muscles.longer than 10 seconds .. rolling the backs of your hands against the floor • Roll your head back and forth Now begin the "Getting Loose" exercise for each part of your body. Let the leg rest for another 10 seconds or so. as tightly as you can. 94 . until you begin to feel the muscles start to tremble.. Hold this position of tension for as long as you can. saying to yourself 'I feel the tension flowing out of my leg.until you have to let go.. about 10 seconds or so. stop flexing it and let the leg drop. warm. Then release them.my leg feels relaxed. Run through the entire procedure again for your right leg. saying 'Let go'.• Shake your arms gently. completely relaxed' o Repeat the flex-let go-rest procedure for that leg.
Flex the muscles in your arms and shoulders. o Repeat the exercise. tightening all along it from your tailbone to your neck. relaxed feelings. Grab the imaginary bar and clench your fists around it as hard as you can. and finish by telling it 'Let go'. Hold as long as possible and then say 'Let go. letting the tension flow out. o Repeat the exercise • Arms and Shoulders o Imagine there is a bar suspended above you that you want to use to pull yourself up. soaking up the warm. ' Rest for 10 seconds or so. palms upward. Raise your hands. Hunch your shoulders up as tightly as you can. o Repeat the exercise 95 .Pause for 10 seconds or so and focus your attention on the relaxed feeling in those muscles. • Stomach o Do the same procedure twice for your abdominal muscles • Back and Neck o Arch your spine. on the tension flowing out. above your chest.
I tighten your jaw muscles, clamping down on you back teeth. Say 'Let go' and relax.
Repeat the exercise.
Tighten your facial muscles into a strong grimace. Say 'Let go'. Rest and focus on the relaxing feeling.
Repeat the exercise.
Focus on a point on the ceiling. Without moving your head slowly roll your eyes to the right as far as they will go, then to the centre, then to the left, then back to the centre.
Rub the palms of your hands together until you feel heat. Close your eyes and cover them with your hands. Let the heat warm them. Rest, and tell your eyes 'Let go' and feel the tension flow out as you feel the warmth.
Clench your feet and fists. Pull your shoulders up. Tighten your jaw and face. Now simultaneously flex your entire body, arching yourself as much as you can from your heels to the back of your head. Hold it for as long as you can until you feel your body tremble. Then say 'Let go' - and just let yourself go... all the way, as much as you can.
Lie there and feel the tension drain away.
Get totally relaxed
Close your eyes. Let your attention wander slowly over each part of your body, from legs to face, as you did in the exercise. If any area seems to have some residual tension, tense it. Let you. Feel the tension draining out of you, but do not worry if there is still a little left. Keeping your eyes closed, stay in this relaxed state for the rest of the 10 minute session. Think of a very pleasant, peaceful place. Think of floating in a small boat on a peaceful lake with a soft breeze gently rocking you back and forth, back and forth. Alternatively think of floating in space, lighter than air, weightless. Observe the pleasant, calm feelings. Tell yourself 'I am relaxed now... My legs feel relaxed... My buttocks, thighs, and abdomen feel relaxed... My back arms, shoulders, jaws, face and eyes feel relaxed... The tension has been let go. '
Breathing Easy Having completed the "Getting Loose" exercises remain lying on your back. Carry out the "Breathing Easy" exercise for 10 minutes, as follows
Inhale slowly and deeply, filling your chest with air, counting four seconds to yourself 'One and two and three and four'. The count is to give you a nice and easy, even pace. Try to breathe as fully as you can without discomfort. Imagine your chest slowly filling with air, from your diaphragm to your collar.
When you have inhaled fully, hold your breath for another four seconds, again counting to yourself 'One and two and three and four'. This should be just a comfortable pause. Do not do it until you are blue in the face.
Exhale - but do not blow. Just let the air out through your mouth slowly saying to yourself 'Easy...easy... easy... easy.' Let out as much air as you can, down to the lower part of the lungs. Feel yourself relaxing as you do. Feel your shoulders, chest and diaphragm letting go. As you exhale, think of the tension flowing out of you.
It may seem a bit difficult to stay with at first.some say a warmth radiating from your chest throughout your body Now let yourself breathe normally and tell yourself relaxing phrases 'I feel very relaxed..Do not worry if the sequence is not exact or the cadence perfect. but just keep going. easy ' with each exhalation... You will soon begin to feel a calm. easy. your breathing rate will be automatically slower and you can dispense with the "one and two and three and four" cadence. I will be able to take a few deep breaths and by saying. 99 .. After the ten cycles. "Easy " will be able to tell myself to relax whenever I feel overly tense.Let the air out slowly (do not blow). When I am playing my sport.Hold it very briefly.. When I am playing.. thoroughly pleasurable feeling ... The important thing is to establish the slow relaxed breathing rate.Breathe in fully. • • Repeat this cycle ten times. I will recall the good feelings I am experiencing now and they will automatically return to me. Hold breath . saying mentally 'Easy... easy. Now do as follows • • Inhale ... Exhale . All the tension is going out of me as I exhale and good feelings are coming into me as I inhale. Imagine all this happening as you say it to yourself.
Now do as follows • • Inhale . Focus your relaxed feelings Now begin to focus this relaxation on your event.' • • Repeat this cycle ten times. perhaps. just let yourself enjoy the feeling for a minute. I will be able 100 . You will notice that the breathing is slow and deep without you having to make it that way. The exhaling will last longer . Repeat the same encouraging phrases to yourself that you did earlier. easy.. Tell yourself 'When I am running and I begin to feel tension gripping some muscles.. Continue to do the breathing exercises for the rest of the session.Hold it very briefly Exhale .Let the air out slowly while mentally saying to yourself 'Easy. and pay attention to the pleasant feelings in your body.Breathe in slowly Hold breath .. easy. Listen to the sound of your own breath coming in and out. easy.. After the last cycle of ten.. each time alternating the ten cycles of inhale-hold-exhale with the mental encouragement. Now let your breathing go naturally..as long as an eight-count.
to tell those muscles "Let go". Work with your athlete to assess each of the areas (work. study. we need to consider these areas when planning the annual training program with the athlete.' Stress Management Stress is experienced when an individual feels that they cannot cope with a situation with which they are presented. sport or family/social life. When commitments in a number of areas coincide then the effect can be stressful which may result in commitments being compromised or in worse case situation their health being affected. If an athlete is in a stressful situation then their athletic performance. By planning we can reduce the level of stress that the athlete and perhaps the coach will encounter. whether this be in competition or in training. As a coach. This may arise because of commitments in the areas of work. The coach can limit the effect on performance of competitive anxiety by assisting the athlete to identify an appropriate coping strategy. study. sport or family/social life) and identify those times in the year where the athlete 101 . Accessing and Managing Stress There are many aspects of an athlete's life that can be stressful at certain times. saying "Let go" will recall the relaxed feelings I feel now and will release the tension from those muscles. will be effected.
will be busy. "B" an exam. In the example table above: "A" is a project delivery. The information can then be plotted on a year planner to provide an indication where potential stressful times could occur and the identification of stress relieving strategies are required. events have a high priority and tasks that will require a high degree of focus. For each of these times rate the level of stress for each area on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 is "low". The stress levels around weeks 6 and 7 are accumulating so priorities will need to be determined 102 . "B" an exam. "C" an indoor athletics championships meeting and "D" in week 9 a family holiday. The stress levels around weeks 6 and 7 are accumulating so priorities will need to be determined. 3 is "medium" and 5 is "high") that the athlete feels he/she could potentially be under. "C" an indoor athletics championships meeting and "D" in week 9 a family holiday. In the example table above: "A" is a project delivery.
Make sure you are getting enough sleep. think through the problem by breaking it down. After all. Say NO to tasks and projects you cannot take on.Tips to avoid stress Aim to exercise regularly. Imagine the worst that can happen. Learn to view mistakes as learning opportunities and problems as challenges. they have not got ESP. By trial and error. you will know how much sleep YOU need to perform at your best. If you feel a panic or anxiety attack coming on. it then appears less serious. Ensure you are getting adequate vitamins and minerals in your diet. People need varying amounts ranging from 5 or 6 hours to 10 hours a night. Nine times out of ten. Remember that you are human and mistakes are inevitable. One recommendation that very few of us manage is to eat 5 servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Exercise dissipates the adrenaline that builds up in stressful situations and leaves us feeling with a sense of achievement and control. People will not think any less of you. Eat healthily. 103 . Learn to think clearly and set yourself realistic goals and objectives. Work through one problem at a time in a logical way.
thinking about the sights. Sports Massage is an alternative method of helping to relieve tension and to relax you. Think about a time or a place when you were relaxed and at peace. You will find that after 5 to 10 minutes you feel much more relaxed as your brain does not know the difference between imagining a situation and actually being there. Accept your strengths and weakness and like yourself anyway. It could have been on a holiday or a day off. You deserve to take a break occasionally. Understand also that you cannot change anybody else . Try to recreate the situation again in your mind. sounds and smells you experienced. do not feel guilty enjoy it. If you do not like yourself. Progressive relaxation contracting and relaxing all the body parts is a very effective way of reducing tension.only yourself. 104 . you cannot expect anyone else to. rather than because you ought to or should do. Take time out for yourself.Practice positive visualisation. Practice physical relaxation techniques. Visualise yourself back into the scene. Some people call it day dreaming but visualisation is a very powerful tool in reducing stress and anxiety. Make sure you are doing some things in your life because they are important to you.
teamwork and cooperation. Participants are expected to behave in a courteous and responsible manner on victory and defeat. such as setting goals. Every one is encouraged playing to the best of their abilities and making an effort to win within the spirit of the rules. 105 . The value of Intramural sports comes from playing. Maintain your self-control at all times. these principles are: • • • • Respect the rules. The foundation of the intramural competition will be based on the fair play principles of integrity. Specifically. Sports activities can teach a lot about life. not winning. fairness and respect. Respect the officials and their decisions. Win-at-all cost attitudes are inappropriate and strongly discouraged in Intramural Sports. Respect your opponent.INTRAMURAL PROGRAM This is a phase of the school physical education program which belong to extra-class or recreational program. but these positive values can only be learned when the sport is enjoyable and played fairly.
• To provide exercise. HOW TO ORGANIZE AND MANAGE SPORTS ACTIVITIES A well planned program should necessitate effective procedures for its management. softball. enjoyable environment for students of any skill level to participate in a variety of recreational activities.PURPOSE OF INTRAMURAL • To provide a safe. sepak takraw or any individual or dual sports. personal health fitness. 106 . • To encourage physical fitness by offering quality sports and recreational activities in order to promote healthy lifestyles. • To provide opportunities to students compete against other students. the following ways could be considered: 1. Organizing Units for Competition In organizing teams for competition varies among schools depending on the suitability to the local situation. Activities that are offered are based on student interests and the facilities that are available for use. volleyball. recreation. and fun to participants in a relaxed and structured environment. and sportsmanship. Whether it is basketball.
An example is shown in figure .2. The following are ways to be considered in the selection of the type of elimination or tournament: a. Types of Competitions or Tournament There are numerous ways where a team or individual can compete with one another. Venue d. 107 . To determine the number of byes is to subtract the number of teams from the next power of 2. BYE is needed is in case the participating team is odd number. Scheduling of games is needed in order to determine the team to compete in the elimination round up to the championship round. A “bye” is assigned to one or more teams who do not play during the first round. Time SINGLE ELIMINATION This type of elimination may be used when time is limited. It is the easiest to organize and the quickest way to declare a winner. Type of activity b. so it is a rest for the team. N – 1 is the formula to determine the number of games to be played. Number of competitors c.
A 1 E B C W5 C D W4 D 2 F W2 4 5 CHAMPION 3 W3 W1 DOUBLE ELIMINATION This type of tournament elimination requires the team to have two defeats before being eliminated. The losers in all rounds continue to play 108 .
or is it a game? For sports fans. The winner is determined by the number of wins made in the round. It is the most popular tournament elimination because it provides an opportunity for each team to play other teams in competition. This type of tournament elimination is not advisable for more than eight teams because of the great deal of time involved. Some of the sports fanatics go to an extent of preserving things like a worn jersey that belonged to a player that they had got at an auction or a bandana they found in the stadium. Thius type al. Art sports – Work of art. ROUNDS ROBIN Round robin is a type of tournament which generally used for team competition. They would proudly show off their art sports items and some might even display it on their mantle piece which would be the focal point in that room. Anything and everything that 109 . having an art sports piece in their house would be a matter of pride. Losers in the championship bracket drops down and play the winner in the loser’s bracket.a losers’ tournament.lows every team to play two games regardless of whether he plays in the winners’ bracket or in losers’ bracket. N(N-1)/2 is the formula used in determining the number of games to be played. 2(N-1) is the formula to determine the number of games to be played.
After a point this becomes a topic of conversation and anyone who comes home is told the story of how the person got the jersey or piece of art. There are some players who apart from playing also endorse some products or services and appear in commercials. There have been many movies where this has been depicted. again it is because the person enjoys the sport that they pick up art sports pieces whereas in others it is merely as a way of showing off the person they look upto or worship. it’s the fans and family members who get all excited and love talking about the sport. These players are almost worshipped by some and one would find their posters and pictures pasted all over the walls. The games played by the players will be described in detail and every action will be recorded. This term is at times used to talk about creative sports activities such as gymnastics and such. Sometimes they might pick up a fancy photo frame and put in a picture taken during a match or a catch that they managed to capture in their camera. Anything that happened during a memorable match will be remembered and pictures and posters are a way of remembering and cherishing those priceless moments. they have also been gaining a lot of importance and part of the Olympic sports events. Off late. 110 .reminds them of a memorable moment is considered worthy of being shown off. In some cases. More than sports players. Art sports pieces are always considered to be precious and preserved by the people who have it in their homes or offices.
purchase it just so they can have possession of a shirt worn by Tiger woods during his previous tournament. These art sports pieces will become decorative or pieces that get passed down from generations preserved for future members of the family.If a famous player is associated with a charitable organization. they might give away their personal belongings through auctions to raise money for the organization. people who enjoy that sport or worship that player will bid for the product. Such is the beauty of these items that are considered collectibles and are even insured against theft. 111 . At such times. Art sports are all about collecting products or objects associated with a sports person or a personality that one admires the most. Or they are now the proud owners of a racket that Andre Agassi used in the French open.
CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION 112 .
113 . physical and technical training programs. The central involvement of the athlete in the process is a key strength that may boost motivation and promote adherence to any intervention strategies devised. It may also facilitate the coach-athlete relationship by promoting dialogue and addressing any perceived discrepancies.CONCLUSION Performance Profiling appears to be a tool that is particularly useful for aiding in the design of specific mental. the profile can be used as a monitoring device to assess the effectiveness of any interventions and highlight areas of good and poor progress. Additionally.
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