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River diatoms: a multiaccess key

Planothidium lanceolata (Brb.) Lange-Bert.(1999)

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Raphe valve view Brightfield possibly P. frequentissimum

Girdle view phase contrast

Description Elliptical to elliptic-lanceolate valve outline with broadly rounded or rostrate (occasionally sub-capitate) ends. The valve is flexed in girdle view. Both valves have radiate striae throughout with a narrow linear or lanceolate axial area. The rapheless valve has a distinctly one-sided thickening at the centre, which may appear horseshoe shaped, but which lacks a distinct outline. The raphe valve has a central area that is rectangular or butterfly shaped, extending for approximately half to threequarters of the valve width. There is a single platelike chloroplast, which lies underneath the rapheless valve Character If elliptic or elongate, length If elliptic or elongate, width If striae resolvable, density Shape in valve view If elliptic or elongate, apical symmetry Raphe If raphe, position Habit Character Colonies State Solitary cells State 6-40 m 4.5-10 m 10-15 /10m Elliptical or elongated Isobilateral Present Midline of valve face

If elliptic or elongate, transapical symmetry Isopolar

Attachment By valve face plus mucilage True Rarely True Unknown

Only by Misinterpretation Don't confuse with: Planothidium dubium Rostrate ends clearly differentiated from main body of valve. Planothidium frequentissimum Horseshoe-shaped structure clearly differentiated on valve surface. Synonyms Achnantheiopsis lanceolata (Brb). Lange-Bert. 1997 Achnanthes lanceolata (Brb.) Grunow in Cleve et Grunow 1880 Achnanthidium lanceolata Brb. ex Ktz. 1849 Achnanthidium lanceolatum (Brb. ex. Ktz.) Czarnecki 1987 Taxonomic Comment The taxonomy and nomenclature of the complex of species around P. lanceolatum is very confusing, with Krammer and Lange-Bertalot (1991b) splitting 'Achnanthes lanceolata' into eight subspecies and distributing a further ten varieties between three of these subspecies. They also place five other species within the "sippenkomplex". Populations of cleaned material often show considerable morphological variation, with many individuals having characteristics intermediate between those for particular 'varieties'. For this reason, a cautious approach is adopted here until more studies have been made. See also comments for Planothidium delicatulum. For accurate identification, both the raphe and rapheless valves are needed. Ecological Information Common in epilithic biofilms and in epiphytic and episammic habitats across a wide range of conditions. Experience from UK streams is that it tends to favour nutrient-rich conditions, but there are many records from nutrient-poor environments as well. Bearing in mind the comments on taxonomic difficulties above, it is possible that the broad ecological range reflects the 'lumping' of several morphologically-similar species.

Water quality indicators:

S Other Indices Saprobic Index (Austria) 2.3 2.3 Tolerant of moderate to heavy organic pollution Saprobicity (Netherlands) 3 Other Information pH Salinity - UK Salinity - NL 4 F 2 Alkaliphilous (mainly occurring at pH > 7) Freshwater Fresh brackish -mesosaprobous V Comments

C omments to: Diatom Key Development Team