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ABSTRACT

In todays world most of the communication is done using electronic media. Data Security is widely used to ensure security in communication, data storage and transmission. The relentless growth of Internet and communication technologies has made the extensive use of images unavoidable. The specific characteristics of image like high transmission rate with limited bandwidth, redundancy, bulk capacity and correlation among pixels makes standard algorithms not suitable for image encryption. In order to overcome these limitations for real time applications, design of new algorithms that require less computational power while preserving a sufficient level of security has always been a subject of interest. We have Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) which is accepted as a symmetric cryptography standard for transferring block of data securely. This algorithm is based on AES Key Expansion in which the encryption process is a bit wise exclusive or operation of a set of image pixels along with the a 128 bit key which changes for every set of pixels. This algorithm is used for image encryption and decryption to protect the confidential image data from an unauthorized access. The keys to be used are generated independently at the sender and receiver side based on AES Key Expansion process hence the initial key is alone shared rather than sharing the whole set of keys. This project proposes a method in which the image data is an input to AES Encryption to obtain the encrypted image, and the encrypted image is the input to AES Decryption to get the original image. we implement the 128 bit AES for image encryption and decryption which is synthesized and simulated on FPGA and is verified with the help of its simulation result. The AES based on the Rijndael Algorithm is an efficient cryptographic technique that includes generation of ciphers for encryption and inverse ciphers for decryption. Higher security and speed of encryption/decryption is ensured by operations like SubBytes (S-box)/Inverse SubBytes (Inv.S-box), MixColumns/Inverse Mix Columns and Key Scheduling. This is an attempt, to survey in detail, the work conducted in the aforesaid fields. The prime focus is on the FPGA implementations of optimized novel hardware architectures and algorithm.AES algorithm offers good resistance against brute force attack, key sensitivity tests and statistical crypt analysis.

INTRODUCTION

A digital image is defined as a two dimensional rectangle array. The elements of this array are denoted as pixels. Each pixel has an intensity value (digital number) and a location address (row, column). Many applications like military image databases, confidential video conferencing, personal online photograph albums, medical imaging system, Cable TV requires a fast and efficient way of encrypting images for storage as well as in transmission. Many encryption methods have been proposed in literature, and the most common way to protect large multimedia files is by using conventional encryption techniques. Private key bulk encryption algorithms, such as Triple DES or Blowfish, are not suitable for transmission of large amounts of data. Due to the complexity of their internal structure, they are not particularly fast in terms of execution speed and cannot be applied for images in the real time scenario. Also traditional cryptographic techniques such as DES, triple DES, etc cannot be applied to images due to the intrinsic properties of images such as bulk data capacity, redundancy and high correlation among pixels. Image encryption algorithms can become an integral part of the image delivery process if they aim towards efficiency and at the same time preserves the highest security level. Communication and transfer of data in the present days invariably necessitate the use of encryption. Besides its uses in Military and Governments secret communication, Encryption is also used for protecting many kinds of civilian systems such as Internet e-commerce, Mobile networks, automatic teller machine transactions, copy protection (especially protection against reverse Engineering and Software piracy), and many more. Data encryption is achieved by following a systematic algorithm called encryption algorithm. An encryption algorithm provides Confidentiality, Authentication, Integrity and Non repudiation. Confidentiality is the requirement that information is kept secret from people who are not authorized to access it. Authentication is the certainty that the message indeed originates from the authorized sender. Integrity is the requirement that information is unaltered and complete, or, that information is modified only by those users who have the right to do so. Non repudiation means that the sender or receiver of a message cannot deny having sent or received the message.