Canonum De Lex Frugalitas Canons of Economic Law

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Table of Content Table of Content I. Introductory Provisions
1.1 Introductry Provisions 1.2 Concepts
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 1 - Canons of Economic Law Article 2 - Economic Law 3 - Economics 4 - Production 5 - Cost 6 - Distribution 7 - Consumption 8 - Scarcity 9 - Abundance 10 - Business 11 - Consumer 12 - Economy 13 - Behaviour 14 - Markets 15 - Specialization 16 - Codependence 17 - Uncertainty 18 - Game Theory 19 - Choice 20 - Optimization 21 - Macroeconomic 22 - Microeconomic

2 13
13 15
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

II. System
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 -

2.1 Economies
Economies Open Economy Closed Economy Transition Economy Weightless Economy Market Economy Centrally Controlled Economy Industrialized Economy Advanced Economy Agricultural Economy Underdeveloped Economy Economic Systems Capitalism Communism Fascism Liberalism Mercantilism Debtism Socialism Synergism Measurement Economic Indicator Average GDP GNP Herfindahl-hirschman index Gini coefficient

36
36
36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

2.2 Economic Systems

47

2.3 Measurement

56

2.4 Statistics
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 -

Article 49 - Gini coefficient Article 50 - Consumer Price Index Statistics Source Sample Method Independence Deviation Frequency Inference Normalization Asymmetric Information Statistical significance Standard error Probability Objectivity

64

62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77

2.5 Ucadian Statistical Model
65 - Ucadian Statistical Model 66 - Agriculture 67 - Assets 68 - Buildings 69 - Business 70 - Crime 71 - Economy 72 - Education 73 - Employment 74 - Energy 75 - Environment 76 - Expenditure 77 - Exports 78 - Families 79 - Finance 80 - Geography 81 - Government 82 - Health 83 - Households 84 - Imports 85 - Income 86 - Industry 87 - Infrastructure 88 - Land 89 - Land Use 90 - Law 91 - Liabilities 92 - Living Standards 93 - Military 94 - People 95 - Poverty 96 - Religion 97 - Natural Resources 98 - Technology 99 - Transport 100 - Water 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 EKELOS EKEDA EKEDIA EKELEX EKEVIR TEKNAS EIKOS EKASYS CIVILA

78

2.6 EKELOS

114

78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

2.7 False Statistical Theories

Article 109 - CIVILA Article 110 - UNILEX

124

122 123 124 125

III. Currency
3.1 Currency
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 -

Article 111 - False Statistical Theory Article 112 - Adaptive Expectations

127

127
127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178

Currency Barter Bimetallism Bullionism Circular flow of Income Capital Adequacy Ratio Classical Theory Of Money Commodity Theory of Money Monetarism Money Illusion

3.2 Currency Market
Currency Market Real exchange rate Currency peg Currency Principle Sterilised intervention Deflationary monetary policy Quantity Theory of Money Reserve currency Soft currency Soft dollars Transmission mechanism Trade-weighted exchange rate Velocity of circulation Purchasing Power Parity Real Terms Dollarisation Demand for Money Theory Exchange controls Marshall-Lerner Condition Exchange Rate Funding Hard currency Hawala Currency Controls Money supply Capital Controls Capital Flight Credit Creation Credit Crunch Currency board Monetary Neutrality Monetary policy Monetary Standard Federal reserve system IMF Intervention Liquidity trap Reserve ratio Reserve requirements Reserves

139

3.3 Currency Control

162

IV. Land

180

4.1 Land

180

V. Labor
5.1 Labor
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article

Article 165 - Land Article 166 - Land Development

183

180 181

183
183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212

5.2 Employment
178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 -

167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 -

Labor Divisions of Labor Minimum Wage Union Wage Wage Drift Wages Fund Doctrine Welfare Welfare economics Welfare to Work Reservation Wage Employment Outsourcing Full Employment Geographic Immobility Human Capital Theory Job Search Unemployment Unemployment Trap Voluntary Unemployment Structural Unemployment Okuns Law Efficiency Wages Frictional Unemployment Transitional Unemployment Labor Labor Intensive Labor Market Flexibility

194

5.3 Unemployment

200

5.4 False Labor Theories

211

VI. Capital
6.1 Capital
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 -

Article 195 - False Labor Theory Article 196 - Natural Rate of Unemployment

214
214
214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224

6.2 False Capital Theories

Capital Acceleration Principle Accelerator Theory Capital Controls Creditor Social Capital Gearing Intellectual capital

222

VII. Enterprise
Article Article Article Article Article Article 208 209 210 211 212 213 -

Article 205 - False Capital Theory Article 206 - Cost of Capital Article 207 - Diversification

7.1 Enterprise Elements
Enterprise Enterprise Element Brand Capital Structure Dividend Dominant Firm

226
226
226 227 228 229 230 231

7.2 Enterprise Types
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 -

Article Article Article Article Article Article Article

213 214 215 216 217 218 219 -

Dominant Firm Entrepreneur Stocks Vertical integration Offshore Market capitalisation Mergers and acquisitions Enterprise Type Central Bank Bank Public Utility Public-private NGO Hedge Funds

238

231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246

7.3 False Enterprise Theories

245

VIII. Commodity
8.1 Commodity
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 -

Article 227 - False Enterprise Theory Article 228 - Theory of Firm

248
248
248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269

8.2 False Commodity Theories

Commodity Commoditization Security Backwardation Luxuries Treasury bills Public Goods Positional goods Product Life-Cycle Theory Substitute goods Repo Derivatives Economic Good Financial Instrument Giffen goods Gilt-edged securities (Gilts) Global public goods Joint supply False Commodity Theory Bond (Debt Bond) Bond (Surety) Credit

266

IX. Utility
9.1 Utility
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 -

271

271
271 272 273 274 275 276 277

X. Industry
Article Article Article Article 258 259 260 261 -

Utility Cost-Benefit Analysis Marginal Utility (Theory) Net present value Network effect Nominal value Social benefits/costs

10.1 Industry
Industry Manufacturing Primary Industry Secondary Industry

279
279
279 280 281 282

XI. Confidence
11.1 Confidence

284
284

XII. Competition
12.1 Competition
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 -

Article Article Article Article Article Article Article

262 263 264 265 266 267 268 -

Confidence Consumer Confidence Precautionary motive Ratings Trust Trusted Source Volatility

292
292
292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305

284 285 286 287 288 289 290

12.2 False Competition Theories

Competition Competitiveness Advertising Barriers to Entry Concentration Dumping Patents First-mover advantage Imperfect competition Incumbent advantage Non-price competition Zero-sum game

304

XIII. Markets
13.1 Markets
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 -

Article 281 - False Competition Theory Article 282 - Perfect competition

307

307
307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340

Market Adverse Selection Antitrust Arbitrage Contestable Market Pareto efficiency Social market Restrictive practice Tariff Trade area Trade cycle Trade deficit/surplus Visible trade Winner-takes-all markets New Trade Theory Quota Optimal currency area Oligopoly Open-market operations Fair trade Natural Monopoly Most-favoured nation Rent-seeking Multiplier Financial centre Invisible Trade Market failure Market forces Market power Monopolistic competition Monopoly Monopsony

13.2 Market Types

341

13.3 Market Exchange Methods
Article 320 - Market Exchange Method Article 321 - Fisher equation of exchange Article 322 - Auctions Article Article Article Article 323 324 325 326 Market Behaviour Arrow Debreu Model Bubble Business Cycle

Article 317 - Market Type Article 318 - GATT Article 319 - NAFTA

344

341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357

13.4 Market Behaviour

347

13.5 Market Corruption

351

13.6 False Market Theories
Article Article Article Article 330 331 332 333 False Market Theory Efficient Market Hypothesis Free Market Free Trade

Article 327 - Market Corruption Article 328 - Cartel Article 329 - Price Fixing

354

XIV. Investment
14.1 Investment
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 -

359
359
359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389

14.2 Investment Risk

Investment Distribution Flotation Foreign direct investment Value at risk Venture capital Yield Yield Curve Yield gap Private Equity Soft loan Sovereign risk Real options theory Systematic risk Hedge Hot Money Portfolio Selection Theory Insurance Institutional investors Stress-testing Investment Inward investment Lender of last resort Risk Risk averse Speculation Risk management Risk neutral Risk premium Risk seeking Risk-free rate

382

XV. Expectation
15.1 Expectation

391

391
391 392 393

Article 366 - Expectation Article 367 - Demand Article 368 - Demand curve

15.2 False Expectation Theories

Article 368 - Demand curve Article 369 - Normal goods

395

393 394 395 396

XVI. Production
16.1 Production
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 -

Article 370 - False Expectation Theory Article 371 - Ricardian Equivalence Theorem

398
398
398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413

16.2 False Production Theories
Article 386 - False Production Theory Article 387 - Absolute Advantage Article 389 - Lump of labour fallacy

Production Capacity Supply Supply curve Diminishing returns Efficiency Production Function Productivity Exports Output Gap Factor cost Factors of Production Mobility

411

XVII. Distribution
17.1 Distribution
Article Article Article Article Article 390 391 392 393 394 -

415

415
415 416 417 418 419

XVIII. Consumption
18.1 Consumption
Article Article Article Article Article 395 396 397 399 400 -

Distribution Producer Surplus Queueing Rationing Transfers

421

421
421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428

18.2 False Consumption Theories
Article 401 - False Consumption Theory Article 402 - Absolute Income Hypothesis Article 403 - Aggregate Demand Curve

Consumption Aggregate Demand Coase Theorem Equity risk premium Substitution Theory

426

XIX. Satisfaction
19.1 Satisfaction

430
430

XX. Prices
20.1 Prices
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 -

Article 404 - Satisfaction Article 405 - Consumer Satisfaction

433

430 431

433
433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444

Prices Price Discrimination Price elasticity Financial Market Asset Pricing Consumer Surplus Theory Contango Spot price Subsidy Sticky prices Price mechanism Price regulation Price/earnings ratio

20.2 False Price Theories

Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article

417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 -

Price/earnings ratio Dominant Firm Factory prices House Prices Predatory pricing Spread Transfer pricing Paradox of Value Menu costs Peak Load Pricing Overshooting Option Pricing Theory

456

444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458

XXI. Revenue
21.1 Revenue
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 -

Article 429 - False Price Theory Article 430 - Capital Asset Pricing Article 431 - Labour theory of value

460
460
460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497

21.2 Taxes

Revenue Disposable income Relative Income Hypothesis Rent Excess returns Export credit Fiscal drag Income (Distribution) National Income Windfall gains Income effect Taxation Corporation tax Lump-sum tax Progressive taxation Deadweight cost/loss Negative income tax Direct Taxation Land tax Expenditure tax Hypothecation Tax arbitrage Tax Avoidance Tax Base Tax Burden Vertical equity Tax Competition Tax efficient Tax Evasion Tax haven Tax incidence Wealth Tax Withholding tax Income Tax Laffer curve

471

21.3 False Revenue Theories
Article 467 - False Revenue Theory Article 468 - Permanent Income Hypothesis Article 469 - Income Determination

495

XXII. Expenses
22.1 Expenses

499
499
499 500

Article 470 - Expense Article 471 - Cost-push factors

XXIII. Solvency
23.1 Solvency

Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article

471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 -

Cost-push factors Sunk costs Fixed Costs Government Capital Expenditure Imports Public Spending Replacement Cost Transaction costs Variable costs

510
510

500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508

XXIV. Profit
24.1 Profit
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 -

Article 480 - Solvency Article 481 - Bankruptcy

513

510 511

513
513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523

XXV. Assets
25.1 Assets
Article Article Article Article Article Article 493 494 495 496 497 498 -

Profit Capital Gains Returns Required return Profit margin Profit maximisation Rate of return Rate of return regulation Total return Value Added Windfall profit

525

525
525 526 527 528 529 530

XXVI. Liabilities
26.1 Liabilities

Asset Intangible Assets Liquidity Liquidity preference Residual risk Tangible assets

532
532
532 533 534 535 536 537

26.2 False Liability Theories
Article 502 - False Liability Theory Article 503 - Debt Article 504 - Debt Forgiveness

Article 499 - Liability Article 500 - National Debt Article 501 - Default

535

XXVII. Wealth
27.1 Wealth

539
539 540
539 540 541 542

27.2 False Wealth Theories
Article 507 - False Wealth Theory Article 508 - Trickle Down Theory (Effect) Article 509 - Wealth Effect

Article 505 - Wealth

XXVIII. Financial Position
28.1 Financial Position
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 Financial Position Deficit Deflationary Gap Demand-Pull Inflation Depreciation Recession Depression

544
544
544 545 546 547 548 549 550

Financial Statement 29.Laissez-faire Balance of Payments Balanced Budget Catch Up Effect Convergence (Theory) Cost-push inflation Crowding out Deflate Deflationary fiscal policy Deflationary policies Deregulation Devaluation Demand management policies Economic Goals Economic sanctions Fine tuning Golden Rule Horizontal equity Horizontal Integration Indexation Inflation target Protectionism Innovation International Aid Macroeconomic Policy Nationalisation Reflation Reciprocity Regional policy Supply-side policies Stabilisation Sustainable growth 598 .Financial Statement Article 529 .2 False Economic Policy Article 562 . Economic Policy 30.1 Economic Policy Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 - 567 567 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 30.XXIX.1 Financial Statements Article 528 .Privatisation Article 563 .Terms of trade Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 - Depression Disinflation Disequilibrium Demand-Deficient unemployment Fiscal Neutrality Structural Adjustment Stagnation Government deficit Hyper-inflation Inequality Inflation J-curve 563 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 563 563 564 565 XXX.Discounted cashflow Article 530 .

Therefore. Introductory Provisions 1. Let no man. Therefore. quotation of six or less canons. it shall be bound to its spiritual form. The Canonum De Lex Fidei represents the primary. also known as The Holy Society reserves all rights to itself. and vi.I. also known as the Covenant of One Heaven these pronouncements of law known collectively as Canonum De Lex Fidei and also known as the Canons of Economic Law are hereby promulgated in the original form of Ucadian Language. and iii. claims and agreements claiming standards of Economic Law shall be secondary and inferior to the Canonum De Lex Fidei ab initio (from the beginning). reviews and formal texts. spirit or officer of a lesser society place themselves in grave dishonor of Divine Law. and vii. As it is written. and iv.Canons of Economic Law i. When referring to these Canons of Economic Law collectively it may also be taken that the primary and original form of these laws resides as a supernatural spiritual document registered in Heaven first and a physical document registered in the Great Register and Public Record of One Heaven upon the Earth second. it may be taken as a translation and not the primary language. so be it. and ii. official instruments of a related society. claimed abrogation of any right or any other defect of a word in a translated language shall be null and void ab initio (from the beginning). the Society of One Heaven also known as the One Heaven Society of United Spirits. except for citation. from which it derives its spiritual power and authenticity. any act in defiance of these laws shall have no effect and any spiritual invocation in opposition to the validity of these laws shall be immediately returned upon the maker. Having been warned. Power and Authority of Article ninety eight (98) of Pactum De Singularis Caelum. no one is permitted to reprint any part of all of these laws or to translate it into another language. wherever an official and valid form of these laws is present in physical form. Natural Law and the Living Law upon denying the validity of these canons of law. also known as Living Body of Divine Canon Law and the highest of all Original Law. When part or all of these laws as presented or spoken in any language other than the Official Ucadian Languages. In accordance with these Canons of Economic Law. These Canons of Economic Law may be taken in official original document form and spoken form to represent one complete set of the twenty-two (22) Canons of law known collectively as Astrum Iuris Divini Canonum.1 Introductry Provisions Art icle 1 . and viii. all other laws. one and only true first canon of Economic Law. also known as the Holy See of United Spirits. By Right. woman. and v. and ix. . Excluding the Covenant of One Heaven. When referring to these Canons of Economic Law collectively it may also be taken both in printed form and spoken word that we mean this complete and accurate set of laws as the highest of all Original Law. any secondary meaning implying deficiency. As all rights are reserved.

Economic Law .Art icle 2 .

1.Economics .2 Concepts Art icle 3 .

Art icle 4 .Product ion .

Cost .Art icle 5 .

Art icle 6 .Dist ribut ion .

Consumpt ion .Art icle 7 .

Art icle 8 .Scarcit y .

Art icle 9 .Abundance .

Art icle 10 .Business .

Consumer .Art icle 11 .

Economy .Art icle 12 .

Art icle 13 .Behaviour .

Market s .Art icle 14 .

Art icle 15 .Specializat ion .

Art icle 16 .Codependence .

Art icle 17 .Uncert aint y .

Art icle 18 .Game Theory .

Art icle 19 .Choice .

Art icle 20 .Opt imizat ion .

Art icle 21 .Macroeconomic .

Art icle 22 .Microeconomic .

.

1 Economies Art icle 23 .II. System 2.Economies .

Art icle 24 .Open Economy .

Closed Economy .Art icle 25 .

Transit ion Economy .Art icle 26 .

Art icle 27 .Weight less Economy .

Art icle 28 .Market Economy .

Cent rally Cont rolled Economy .Art icle 29 .

Indust rialized Economy .Art icle 30 .

Art icle 31 .Advanced Economy .

Agricult ural Economy .Art icle 32 .

Art icle 33 .Underdeveloped Economy .

2 Economic Systems Art icle 34 .Economic Syst ems .2.

Capit alism .Art icle 35 .

Art icle 36 .Communism .

Fascism .Art icle 37 .

Art icle 38 .Liberalism .

Mercant ilism .Art icle 39 .

Art icle 40 .Debt ism .

Socialism .Art icle 41 .

Art icle 42 .Synergism .

3 Measurement Art icle 43 .2.Measurement .

Art icle 44 .Economic Indicat or .

Art icle 45 .Average .

Art icle 46 .GDP .

Art icle 47 .GNP .

Art icle 48 .Herfindahl-hirschman index .

Gini coefficient .Art icle 49 .

Art icle 50 .Consumer Price Index .

4 Statistics Art icle 51 .2.St at ist ics .

Art icle 52 .Source .

Sample .Art icle 53 .

Met hod .Art icle 54 .

Independence .Art icle 55 .

Art icle 56 .Deviat ion .

Art icle 57 .Frequency .

Inference .Art icle 58 .

Art icle 59 .Normalizat ion .

Asymmet ric Informat ion .Art icle 60 .

Art icle 61 .St at ist ical significance .

Art icle 62 .St andard error .

Probabilit y .Art icle 63 .

Object ivit y .Art icle 64 .

Ucadian St at ist ical Model .2.5 Ucadian Statistical Model Art icle 65 .

Agricult ure .Art icle 66 .

Asset s .Art icle 67 .

Art icle 68 .Buildings .

Art icle 69 .Business .

Art icle 70 .Crime .

Economy .Art icle 71 .

Art icle 72 .Educat ion .

Employment .Art icle 73 .

Energy .Art icle 74 .

Art icle 75 .Environment .

Expendit ure .Art icle 76 .

Export s .Art icle 77 .

Families .Art icle 78 .

Finance .Art icle 79 .

Art icle 80 .Geography .

Art icle 81 .Government .

Healt h .Art icle 82 .

Households .Art icle 83 .

Art icle 84 .Import s .

Income .Art icle 85 .

Art icle 86 .Indust ry .

Art icle 87 .Infrast ruct ure .

Art icle 88 .Land .

Art icle 89 .Land Use .

Law .Art icle 90 .

Liabilit ies .Art icle 91 .

Living St andards .Art icle 92 .

Milit ary .Art icle 93 .

Art icle 94 .People .

Povert y .Art icle 95 .

Art icle 96 .Religion .

Nat ural Resources .Art icle 97 .

Art icle 98 .Technology .

Transport .Art icle 99 .

Wat er .Art icle 100 .

6 EKELOS Art icle 101 .EKELOS .2.

Art icle 102 .EKEDA .

EKEDIA .Art icle 103 .

EKELEX .Art icle 104 .

Art icle 105 .EKEVIR .

Art icle 106 .TEKNAS .

Art icle 107 .EIKOS .

Art icle 108 .EKASYS .

Art icle 109 .CIVILA .

Art icle 110 .UNILEX .

False St at ist ical Theory .2.7 False Statistical T heories Art icle 111 .

Art icle 112 .Adapt ive Expect at ions .

.

Currency 3.1 Currency Art icle 113 .Currency .III.

Art icle 114 .Bart er .

Bimet allism .Art icle 115 .

Art icle 116 .Bullionism .

Art icle 117 .Circular flow of Income .

Capit al Adequacy Rat io .Art icle 118 .

Art icle 119 .Classical Theory Of Money .

Art icle 120 .Commodit y Theory of Money .

Art icle 121 .Monet arism .

Money Illusion .Art icle 122 .

Art icle 123 - .

Art icle 124 - .

Currency Market .3.2 Currency Market Art icle 125 .

Art icle 126 .Real exchange rat e .

Currency peg .Art icle 127 .

Currency Principle .Art icle 128 .

Art icle 129 .St erilised int ervent ion .

Art icle 130 .Deflat ionary monet ary policy .

Quant it y Theory of Money .Art icle 131 .

Reserve currency .Art icle 132 .

Art icle 133 .Soft currency .

Art icle 134 .Soft dollars .

Transmission mechanism .Art icle 135 .

Trade-weight ed exchange rat e .Art icle 136 .

Velocit y of circulat ion .Art icle 137 .

Purchasing Power Parit y .Art icle 138 .

Art icle 139 .Real Terms .

Dollarisat ion .Art icle 140 .

Demand for Money Theory .Art icle 141 .

Art icle 142 .Exchange cont rols .

Marshall-Lerner Condit ion .Art icle 143 .

Exchange Rat e .Art icle 144 .

Funding .Art icle 145 .

Art icle 146 .Hard currency .

Hawala .Art icle 147 .

3 Currency Control Art icle 148 .Currency Cont rols .3.

Money supply .Art icle 149 .

Art icle 150 .Capit al Cont rols .

Capit al Flight .Art icle 151 .

Credit Creat ion .Art icle 152 .

Credit Crunch .Art icle 153 .

Art icle 154 .Currency board .

Art icle 155 .Monet ary Neut ralit y .

Art icle 156 .Monet ary policy .

Monet ary St andard .Art icle 157 .

Art icle 158 .Federal reserve syst em .

Art icle 159 .IMF .

Int ervent ion .Art icle 160 .

Liquidit y t rap .Art icle 161 .

Reserve rat io .Art icle 162 .

Art icle 163 .Reserve requirement s .

Reserves .Art icle 164 .

.

IV.1 Land Art icle 165 . Land 4.Land .

Art icle 166 - Land Development

V. Labor
5.1 Labor
Art icle 167 - Labor

Art icle 168 - Divisions of Labor

Art icle 169 - Minimum Wage

Art icle 170 - Union

Art icle 171 - Wage

Art icle 172 - Wage Drift

Art icle 173 - Wages Fund Doct rine

Art icle 174 - Welfare

Art icle 175 - Welfare economics

Art icle 176 - Welfare t o Work

Reservat ion Wage .Art icle 177 .

5.Employment .2 Employment Art icle 178 .

Out sourcing .Art icle 179 .

Art icle 180 .Full Employment .

Art icle 181 .Geographic Immobilit y .

Human Capit al Theory .Art icle 182 .

Job Search .Art icle 183 .

Unemployment .5.3 Unemployment Art icle 184 .

Art icle 185 .Unemployment Trap .

Art icle 186 .Volunt ary Unemployment .

Art icle 187 .St ruct ural Unemployment .

Okuns Law .Art icle 188 .

Efficiency Wages .Art icle 189 .

Frict ional Unemployment .Art icle 190 .

Transit ional Unemployment .Art icle 191 .

Labor .Art icle 192 .

Art icle 193 .Labor Int ensive .

Art icle 194 .Labor Market Flexibilit y .

4 False Labor T heories Art icle 195 .False Labor Theory .5.

Nat ural Rat e of Unemployment .Art icle 196 .

.

VI.1 Capital Art icle 197 .Capit al . Capital 6.

Art icle 198 .Accelerat ion Principle .

Accelerat or Theory .Art icle 199 .

Art icle 200 .Capit al Cont rols .

Credit or .Art icle 201 .

Social Capit al .Art icle 202 .

Gearing .Art icle 203 .

Int ellect ual capit al .Art icle 204 .

False Capit al Theory .2 False Capital T heories Art icle 205 .6.

Art icle 206 .Cost of Capit al .

Art icle 207 .Diversificat ion .

.

Ent erprise . Enterprise 7.1 Enterprise Elements Art icle 208 .VII.

Ent erprise Element .Art icle 209 .

Brand .Art icle 210 .

Art icle 211 .Capit al St ruct ure .

Art icle 212 .Dividend .

Dominant Firm .Art icle 213 .

Art icle 214 .Ent repreneur .

St ocks .Art icle 215 .

Vert ical int egrat ion .Art icle 216 .

Art icle 217 .Offshore .

Art icle 218 .Market capit alisat ion .

Mergers and acquisit ions .Art icle 219 .

7.2 Enterprise T ypes Art icle 220 .Ent erprise Type .

Cent ral Bank .Art icle 221 .

Bank .Art icle 222 .

Art icle 223 .Public Ut ilit y .

Art icle 224 .Public-privat e .

NGO .Art icle 225 .

Hedge Funds .Art icle 226 .

7.False Ent erprise Theory .3 False Enterprise T heories Art icle 227 .

Art icle 228 .Theory of Firm .

.

Commodity 8.Commodit y .1 Commodity Art icle 229 .VIII.

Art icle 230 .Commodit izat ion .

Securit y .Art icle 231 .

Backwardat ion .Art icle 232 .

Art icle 233 - Luxuries

Art icle 234 - Treasury bills

Art icle 235 - Public Goods

Art icle 236 - Posit ional goods

Art icle 237 - Product Life-Cycle Theory

Art icle 238 - Subst it ut e goods

Art icle 239 - Repo

Art icle 240 - Derivat ives

Art icle 241 - Economic Good

Art icle 242 - Financial Inst rument

Art icle 243 - Giffen goods

Art icle 244 - Gilt -edged securit ies (Gilt s)

Art icle 245 .Global public goods .

Joint supply .Art icle 246 .

False Commodit y Theory .2 False Commodity T heories Art icle 247 .8.

Art icle 248 .Bond (Debt Bond) .

Art icle 249 .Bond (Suret y) .

Credit .Art icle 250 .

.

1 Utility Art icle 251 .IX.Ut ilit y . Utility 9.

Art icle 252 .Cost -Benefit Analysis .

Art icle 253 .Marginal Ut ilit y (Theory) .

Net present value .Art icle 254 .

Net work effect .Art icle 255 .

Nominal value .Art icle 256 .

Art icle 257 .Social benefit s/cost s .

.

Industry 10.Indust ry .X.1 Industry Art icle 258 .

Manufact uring .Art icle 259 .

Art icle 260 .Primary Indust ry .

Secondary Indust ry .Art icle 261 .

.

Confidence 11.1 Confidence Art icle 262 .Confidence .XI.

Consumer Confidence .Art icle 263 .

Precaut ionary mot ive .Art icle 264 .

Art icle 265 .Rat ings .

Art icle 266 .Trust .

Art icle 267 .Trust ed Source .

Volat ilit y .Art icle 268 .

.

Compet it ion .1 Competition Art icle 269 .XII. Competition 12.

Art icle 270 .Compet it iveness .

Advert ising .Art icle 271 .

Art icle 272 .Barriers t o Ent ry .

Art icle 273 .Concent rat ion .

Dumping .Art icle 274 .

Art icle 275 .Pat ent s .

Art icle 276 .First -mover advant age .

Imperfect compet it ion .Art icle 277 .

Art icle 278 .Incumbent advant age .

Non-price compet it ion .Art icle 279 .

Art icle 280 .Zero-sum game .

2 False Competition T heories Art icle 281 .12.False Compet it ion Theory .

Art icle 282 .Perfect compet it ion .

.

Markets 13.1 Markets Art icle 283 .Market .XIII.

Adverse Select ion .Art icle 284 .

Ant it rust .Art icle 285 .

Arbit rage .Art icle 286 .

Cont est able Market .Art icle 287 .

Art icle 288 .Paret o efficiency .

Art icle 289 .Social market .

Rest rict ive pract ice .Art icle 290 .

Tariff .Art icle 291 .

Trade area .Art icle 292 .

Trade cycle .Art icle 293 .

Art icle 294 .Trade deficit /surplus .

Art icle 295 .Visible t rade .

Winner-t akes-all market s .Art icle 296 .

New Trade Theory .Art icle 297 .

Quot a .Art icle 298 .

Art icle 299 .Opt imal currency area .

Oligopoly .Art icle 300 .

Open-market operat ions .Art icle 301 .

Art icle 302 .Fair t rade .

Art icle 303 .Nat ural Monopoly .

Most -favoured nat ion .Art icle 304 .

Rent -seeking .Art icle 305 .

Mult iplier .Art icle 306 .

Art icle 307 .Financial cent re .

Invisible Trade .Art icle 308 .

Art icle 309 .Market failure .

Art icle 310 .Market forces .

Art icle 311 .Market power .

Monopolist ic compet it ion .Art icle 312 .

Monopoly .Art icle 313 .

Art icle 314 .Monopsony .

Art icle 315 - .

Art icle 316 - .

2 Market T ypes Art icle 317 .Market Type .13.

GATT .Art icle 318 .

NAFTA .Art icle 319 .

13.3 Market Exchange Methods Art icle 320 .Market Exchange Met hod .

Art icle 321 .Fisher equat ion of exchange .

Auct ions .Art icle 322 .

Market Behaviour .4 Market Behaviour Art icle 323 .13.

Art icle 324 .Arrow Debreu Model .

Bubble .Art icle 325 .

Business Cycle .Art icle 326 .

Market Corrupt ion .13.5 Market Corruption Art icle 327 .

Cart el .Art icle 328 .

Art icle 329 .Price Fixing .

13.6 False Market T heories Art icle 330 .False Market Theory .

Art icle 331 .Efficient Market Hypot hesis .

Free Market .Art icle 332 .

Free Trade .Art icle 333 .

.

XIV.Invest ment .1 Investment Art icle 334 . Investment 14.

Dist ribut ion .Art icle 335 .

Flot at ion .Art icle 336 .

Foreign direct invest ment .Art icle 337 .

Value at risk .Art icle 338 .

Vent ure capit al .Art icle 339 .

Yield .Art icle 340 .

Yield Curve .Art icle 341 .

Art icle 342 .Yield gap .

Privat e Equit y .Art icle 343 .

Art icle 344 .Soft loan .

Art icle 345 .Sovereign risk .

Real opt ions t heory .Art icle 346 .

Art icle 347 .Syst emat ic risk .

Hedge .Art icle 349 .

Art icle 350 .Hot Money .

Port folio Select ion Theory .Art icle 351 .

Insurance .Art icle 352 .

Inst it ut ional invest ors .Art icle 353 .

Art icle 354 .St ress-t est ing .

Invest ment .Art icle 355 .

Inward invest ment .Art icle 356 .

Art icle 357 .Lender of last resort .

Risk .14.2 Investment Risk Art icle 358 .

Risk averse .Art icle 359 .

Speculat ion .Art icle 360 .

Risk management .Art icle 361 .

Art icle 362 .Risk neut ral .

Art icle 363 .Risk premium .

Risk seeking .Art icle 364 .

Risk-free rat e .Art icle 365 .

.

Expectation 15.Expect at ion .1 Expectation Art icle 366 .XV.

Demand .Art icle 367 .

Demand curve .Art icle 368 .

Normal goods .Art icle 369 .

15.False Expect at ion Theory .2 False Expectation T heories Art icle 370 .

Ricardian Equivalence Theorem .Art icle 371 .

.

Product ion . Production 16.1 Production Art icle 373 .XVI.

Art icle 374 .Capacit y .

Supply .Art icle 375 .

Art icle 376 .Supply curve .

Diminishing ret urns .Art icle 377 .

Art icle 378 .Efficiency .

Product ion Funct ion .Art icle 379 .

Product ivit y .Art icle 380 .

Art icle 381 .Export s .

Out put Gap .Art icle 382 .

Fact or cost .Art icle 383 .

Fact ors of Product ion .Art icle 384 .

Mobilit y .Art icle 385 .

16.False Product ion Theory .2 False Production T heories Art icle 386 .

Absolut e Advant age .Art icle 387 .

Art icle 389 .Lump of labour fallacy .

.

Distribution 17.1 Distribution Art icle 390 .Dist ribut ion .XVII.

Art icle 391 .Producer Surplus .

Queueing .Art icle 392 .

Art icle 393 .Rat ioning .

Transfers .Art icle 394 .

.

Consumption 18.XVIII.1 Consumption Art icle 395 .Consumpt ion .

Aggregat e Demand .Art icle 396 .

Coase Theorem .Art icle 397 .

Art icle 399 .Equit y risk premium .

Art icle 400 .Subst it ut ion Theory .

18.2 False Consumption T heories Art icle 401 .False Consumpt ion Theory .

Absolut e Income Hypot hesis .Art icle 402 .

Art icle 403 .Aggregat e Demand Curve .

.

Satisfaction 19.Sat isfact ion .1 Satisfaction Art icle 404 .XIX.

Art icle 405 .Consumer Sat isfact ion .

.

Prices 20.XX.Prices .1 Prices Art icle 406 .

Price Discriminat ion .Art icle 407 .

Art icle 408 .Price elast icit y .

Art icle 409 .Financial Market Asset Pricing .

Art icle 410 .Consumer Surplus Theory .

Art icle 411 .Cont ango .

Spot price .Art icle 412 .

Art icle 413 .Subsidy .

St icky prices .Art icle 414 .

Price mechanism .Art icle 415 .

Art icle 416 .Price regulat ion .

Art icle 417 .Price/earnings rat io .

Dominant Firm .Art icle 418 .

Fact ory prices .Art icle 419 .

House Prices .Art icle 420 .

Predat ory pricing .Art icle 421 .

Art icle 422 .Spread .

Transfer pricing .Art icle 423 .

Art icle 424 .Paradox of Value .

Art icle 425 .Menu cost s .

Art icle 426 .Peak Load Pricing .

Overshoot ing .Art icle 427 .

Art icle 428 .Opt ion Pricing Theory .

2 False Price T heories Art icle 429 .20.False Price Theory .

Art icle 430 .Capit al Asset Pricing .

Art icle 431 .Labour t heory of value .

.

Revenue .XXI.1 Revenue Art icle 432 . Revenue 21.

Art icle 433 .Disposable income .

Art icle 434 .Relat ive Income Hypot hesis .

Art icle 435 .Rent .

Excess ret urns .Art icle 436 .

Export credit .Art icle 437 .

Art icle 438 .Fiscal drag .

Art icle 439 .Income (Dist ribut ion) .

Nat ional Income .Art icle 440 .

Windfall gains .Art icle 441 .

Art icle 442 .Income effect .

21.2 T axes Art icle 443 .Taxat ion .

Corporat ion t ax .Art icle 444 .

Art icle 445 .Lump-sum t ax .

Progressive t axat ion .Art icle 446 .

Deadweight cost /loss .Art icle 447 .

Negat ive income t ax .Art icle 448 .

Direct Taxat ion .Art icle 449 .

Art icle 450 .Land t ax .

Art icle 451 .Expendit ure t ax .

Hypot hecat ion .Art icle 452 .

Art icle 453 .Tax arbit rage .

Tax Avoidance .Art icle 454 .

Art icle 455 .Tax Base .

Tax Burden .Art icle 456 .

Art icle 457 .Vert ical equit y .

Tax Compet it ion .Art icle 458 .

Tax efficient .Art icle 459 .

Tax Evasion .Art icle 460 .

Tax haven .Art icle 461 .

Art icle 462 .Tax incidence .

Art icle 463 .Wealt h Tax .

Art icle 464 .Wit hholding t ax .

Income Tax .Art icle 465 .

Laffer curve .Art icle 466 .

False Revenue Theory .3 False Revenue T heories Art icle 467 .21.

Art icle 468 .Permanent Income Hypot hesis .

Art icle 469 .Income Det erminat ion .

.

XXII. Expenses 22.Expense .1 Expenses Art icle 470 .

Art icle 471 .Cost -push fact ors .

Art icle 472 .Sunk cost s .

Art icle 473 .Fixed Cost s .

Government Capit al Expendit ure .Art icle 474 .

Art icle 475 - Import s

Art icle 476 - Public Spending

Art icle 477 - Replacement Cost

Art icle 478 - Transact ion cost s

Art icle 479 - Variable cost s

XXIII. Solvency
23.1 Solvency
Art icle 480 - Solvency

Art icle 481 - Bankrupt cy

XXIV. Profit
24.1 Profit
Art icle 482 - Profit

Art icle 483 - Capit al Gains

Art icle 484 - Ret urns

Art icle 485 .Required ret urn .

Art icle 486 .Profit margin .

Art icle 487 .Profit maximisat ion .

Rat e of ret urn .Art icle 488 .

Rat e of ret urn regulat ion .Art icle 489 .

Art icle 490 .Tot al ret urn .

Art icle 491 - Value Added

Art icle 492 - Windfall profit

XXV. Assets
25.1 Assets
Art icle 493 - Asset

Art icle 494 - Int angible Asset s

Art icle 495 - Liquidit y

Art icle 496 - Liquidit y preference

Art icle 497 - Residual risk

Art icle 498 - Tangible asset s

XXVI. Liabilities
26.1 Liabilities
Art icle 499 - Liabilit y

Art icle 500 - Nat ional Debt

Art icle 501 .Default .

2 False Liability T heories Art icle 502 .26.False Liabilit y Theory .

Debt .Art icle 503 .

Art icle 504 .Debt Forgiveness .

.

XXVII. Wealth 27.Wealt h .1 Wealth Art icle 505 .

27.False Wealt h Theory .2 False Wealth T heories Art icle 507 .

Trickle Down Theory (Effect ) .Art icle 508 .

Wealt h Effect .Art icle 509 .

.

XXVIII. Financial Position 28.Financial Posit ion .1 Financial Position Art icle 510 .

Art icle 511 .Deficit .

Art icle 512 .Deflat ionary Gap .

Art icle 513 .Demand-Pull Inflat ion .

Depreciat ion .Art icle 514 .

Art icle 515 .Recession .

Depression .Art icle 516 .

Art icle 517 .Disinflat ion .

Disequilibrium .Art icle 518 .

Demand-Deficient unemployment .Art icle 519 .

Art icle 520 .Fiscal Neut ralit y .

St ruct ural Adjust ment .Art icle 521 .

St agnat ion .Art icle 522 .

Art icle 523 .Government deficit .

Art icle 524 .Hyper-inflat ion .

Art icle 525 .Inequalit y .

Inflat ion .Art icle 526 .

Art icle 527 .J-curve .

.

XXIX.Financial St at ement .1 Financial Statements Art icle 528 . Financial Statement 29.

Art icle 529 .Discount ed cashflow .

Terms of t rade .Art icle 530 .

.

Economic Policy 30.XXX.Balance of Payment s .1 Economic Policy Art icle 531 .

Art icle 532 .Balanced Budget .

Art icle 533 .Cat ch Up Effect .

Art icle 534 .Convergence (Theory) .

Cost -push inflat ion .Art icle 535 .

Crowding out .Art icle 536 .

Art icle 537 .Deflat e .

Deflat ionary fiscal policy .Art icle 538 .

Deflat ionary policies .Art icle 539 .

Art icle 540 .Deregulat ion .

Art icle 541 .Devaluat ion .

Art icle 542 .Demand management policies .

Art icle 543 .Economic Goals .

Art icle 544 .Economic sanct ions .

Fine t uning .Art icle 545 .

Art icle 546 .Golden Rule .

Horizont al equit y .Art icle 547 .

Art icle 548 .Horizont al Int egrat ion .

Art icle 549 .Indexat ion .

Art icle 550 .Inflat ion t arget .

Art icle 551 .Prot ect ionism .

Art icle 552 .Innovat ion .

Art icle 553 .Int ernat ional Aid .

Macroeconomic Policy .Art icle 554 .

Art icle 555 .Nat ionalisat ion .

Reflat ion .Art icle 556 .

Reciprocit y .Art icle 557 .

Regional policy .Art icle 558 .

Supply-side policies .Art icle 559 .

Art icle 560 .St abilisat ion .

Sust ainable growt h .Art icle 561 .

2 False Economic Policy Art icle 562 .30.Privat isat ion .

Laissez-faire .Art icle 563 .

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