History Edexcel Notes | Mikhail Gorbachev | Fidel Castro

Key:- Conferences Revolts Doctrines/plans Crises’/blockades other

History Edexcel Cold war – 1943 to 1991
Unit One – How did the cold war develop?
Tehran Conference: 1943
The Big three attended (Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill) Things they agreed on:  That they Soviet union could have a sphere of influence in Eastern Europe

Things they disagreed on:   Stalin wanted revenge on Germany for attacking Russia, and so wanted reparations Churchill and Roosevelt wanted to rebuild Germany as after WW1, they took many reparations and Germany took revenge (treaty of Versailles).

Yalta Conference: Feb 1945
Allied leaders knew they had won the war and got on well Things they agreed on:       Stalin would enter war on Japan when Germany was defeated Germany would be split into 4 zones and Berlin into 4 sectors Nazi party was banned and leaders tried as war criminals Liberated countries would be able to hold free elections Agreed to all join the United Nations to keep peace after the war Eastern Europe would be seen as a Soviet Sphere of Influence

Things they disagreed on:  Stalin wanted to move the border of the USSR into Poland arguing Poland could move its border into Germany. Churchill did not approve but couldn't do anything as the Red Army was in both these countries. He agreed providing the USSR didn't interfere with Greece

Potsdam Conference: July 1945
Between Truman, Stalin and Attlee Things they agreed on:   Nazi Party to be banned and leaders tried as war criminals A line was to be formed between Poland and Germany

.Things they disagreed on:   Germany: Stalin wanted to cripple Germany to protect the USSR. Truman having a harsh policy with communists and the creation of the nuclear bomb in the USA) The Iron Curtain Speech: 1946 Speech by Churchill in 1946. The US people were being prepared for war and that the US had money to spend on war. the democratic west and communist east. Truman wanted it to recover. He recommended the USA try to contain the spread of Communism . Stalin was suspicious over why they wanted to protect Germany Reparations as Stalin wanted huge compensation from Germany but Truman didn't want to repeat the mistakes of the first world war Soviet policy in Eastern Europe as Stalin was setting up communist governments in Eastern countries despite saying he wouldn't. Stalin saw Churchill’s speech as a declaration of war. which worried Stalin as the Soviet economy was weak after WW2 and faced with another war it was unlikely they would win.and all are subject to a very high measure of control from Moscow' Churchill meant that there were now effectively two camps in the world. Stalin wanted a naval base in the Mediterranean but Truman and Attlee wouldn't let him as they saw no reason for him to needed a base there. an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. 1946 Written by the Soviet ambassador Novikov He Said:    The USA wanted to dominate the world and believed it had a right to lead it.. George Kennan He Said:    Stalin wanted to destroy capitalism as he feared the effects of capitalism and freedom on his people and he painted the west as evil and corrupt. Long Telegram 1946 A secret report sent by the US Official in Moscow. Behind that line lie all the capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.   The Novikov Telegram. Truman was very anti-communism and wanted to contain it. Missouri  'From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic. Fulton.   (Tensions were caused due to: different leaders being present. Stalin had cut off most contact with the west and had complete control of these countries. There would never be peace with Russia while it opposed Capitalism and that the USSR was building up its military power and working on the atomic bomb The USSR would try to extend its power and influence by encouraging communists in other countries to try to gain power. Since Roosevelt’s death the USA was not interested in co-operating with the USSR.

There were 2 rival groups. Britain couldn't afford another war and by February 1947 withdrew. US Secretary of State George Marshall visited Europe and came up with a European recovery programme. The USA had the responsibility to fight for liberty wherever it was threatened.The Transaction of Greece: 1947  When the Germans left Greece in 1944. so he wanted to make Europe prosperous again. Churchill sent British troops to Greece in 1945 to supposedly restore order but they supported the Monarchists and returned the King to the throne. It clearly divides the world into two opposing camps. Policy of containment. The USA was leaving Isolationism behind and helping countries in need.    This intervention by the Americans turned them away from Isolationism and made them take control of world politics Cominform: 1947       Stands for Communist Information Bureau Set up by Stalin in 1947 to co-ordinate the various Communist governments in eastern Europe The office was originally in Yugoslavia but moved in 1948 as Yugoslavia was expelled by Stalin for not doing as it was told Cominform ran meetings and sent out instructions to Communist governments about what the Soviet Union wanted them to do. the Monarchists and the Communists. supplies and money. The Communists were defeated. This had two main aims:   to stop the spread of communism to help the economies of Europe to recover .    It stated countries had a choice between a communist state and a democracy with capitalism. The Communists wanted Greece to be a Soviet republic and the Monarchists wanted the King to return. Tightened Stalin’s control on his communist allies Stalin’s response to the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Aid. Truman accepted that Eastern Europe was now communist and he aimed to stop communism from spreading any further Marshall Aid: 1947 Truman believed that poverty might cause some people to look towards communism for help. the Communists tried to take control of Greece by force and a civil war developed. It was also important for American business to have trading partners in the future but Europe's economies were still weak. Truman stepped in and provided Greece with arms. In 1947. Encouraged minority communist parties in countries like France to try to turn more people to communism Truman Doctrine: 1947 A Statement of intent made in March 1947 by President Truman.

Atomic bombs were stationed in Britain as a warning to the USSR not to shoot down any planes. none of which had the atomic bomb yet. it was the first real war between the two powers! In May 1949 when it was clear the Blockade was not working. Congress accepted the Marshall plan immediately. France and Britain became the Federal Republic of German and the Soviet zone became the German Democratic republic NATO: 1949 Stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation This was a military alliance containing most of the states of Western Europe. USA & GB form Bizonia December 1947. rail and canal links between West Germany and West Berlin.He recommended that $17bn was made available but Congress initially refused. Stalin saw the Allies deliberately building up West Berlin and when they introduced the new currency. The USA had a propaganda triumph and was made to seem stronger than the USSR The zone controlled by the USA. However in March 1947. Stalin stops western literature in East Berlin April 1948. This was a victory for the west but relations with the USSR were destroyed. Over 200. and the only way to make sure his people didn’t realise the poverty they were staying in was to attempt to control the West Berlin sector! He attempted to do this via a blockade (basically try to starve them of all needed goods until they give in – an ancient tactic used in the time of mote and baileys) On the 24th of June 1948. The USSR developed its own atomic bomb in 1949 and so NATO was crucial in the defence of Western Europe. French zone added to for Trizonia June 1948. the other members would help to defend it. this was the last straw as he wanted Germany to fall. However. New country of West Germany created New currency introduced in West Germany to improve trade but causes chaos in the Russian zone West Germany began to recover and prosper but in East Germany was poverty and hunger.000 flights were made into Berlin and brought in everything from food and clothing to oil and building supplies. What NATO allowed: . They decided to airlift in supplies and the air lift continued until 12th of May 1949. It was a great success. Stalin cut off all road.but would be humiliating and may encourage Stalin to invade West Germany and give greater power to the East Open up land routes to Berlin-this would have led to war Bring in supplies by air-risky as the planes may be shot down. as well as the USA and Canada. London Conference to discuss future of Germany but USSR not invited January 1948. It seemed there was a real risk of war and the USA and Britain faced a choice:    They could withdraw. hoping he could force the Allies out of the city. all western European states Stalin refused Marshall Aid for the USSR and banned eastern European countries from accepting it as he believed the USA was trying to buy allies and it would weaken his control in Eastern Europe Berlin Blockade and Airlift: 1948       In January 1947. If one member was attacked.   Only 16 European countries accepted it. Stalin reopened communications. Czechoslovakia became communist and a pro-American minister was pushed out a window.

the Soviets set up a communist army in Hungary under leader Rakosi who closely followed Stalin’s rule. was to set up the Warsaw Pact. He then planned to leave the Warsaw pact and become neutral in the cold war. This did the exact same as NATO apart from the fact that the members were forced to join.  The USA was now formally committed to the defence of Western Europe Stalin did not see it as a defensive alliance but as a direct threat to the USSR The USA was able to build air bases in Western Europe where planes armed with nuclear weapons could be stationed. Molotov He agreed to remove Soviet troops from Austria Although he seemed to be signalling that countries in Eastern Europe would be allowed greater freedom. Hungarians hated Rakosi and his secret police (AVH). abolish the AVH and restore farmland to private ownership. He dredged up gory evidence of Stalin’s purges and denounced him as a wicked tyrant who was an enemy of the people and kept all the power to himself.  The Warsaw Pact: 1955 The Soviet response to NATO. He began a programme of de-Stalinisation:     He released more political prisoners He closed down Cominform He dismissed Stalins former Foreign Minister. Soviet troops were removed from Hungary. . this wasn't quite the case. Events:      Imre Nagy became prime minister at his request. This was created by Khrushchev and the USA responded by increasing he number of NATO troops in Germany Khrushchev’s Secret Speech Khrushchev made an attack on Stalin at the Communist party International.         Khrushchev’s policy of de-Stalinisation caused problems as people in Hungary believed they would be allowed more freedom The secret police (AVH) Russian control of the economy which made Hungary poor Russian control of what was taught in schools Censorship and lack of freedom Hungarians were religious but the Communist party banned religion Hungarians though the UN or the US president Eisenhower would help them On 23rd of October. as shown in Hungary in 1956 Hungarian Uprising: 1956 Causes: After the Second World War. student demonstrations caused a statue of Stalin in the capital to be pulled down. Local councils replaced the Communist government Soviet books and flags were burnt in the street and AVH were hung Nagy’s government planned to hold free elections with more than one party.

it did lead the path for more meetings between the actual leaders. Neither side were willing to back down over the US presence in Berlin. They agreed they would meet again. Capitalist West Berlin. . Soviet troops and 1. Khrushchev slammed hisshoe on the table.000 refugees fled to Austria The uprising highlighted the limitations of Khrushchev’s policy of peaceful co-existence. However Kennedy refused and began preparing for war. whilst Eisenhower refused to apologise. Britain and France were preoccupied with the Suez Crisis. On May 1st 1960 a spy plane was shot down by a Soviet missile and the pilot.  The Three Cold war Crisis’s Four Summits: 1959 – 1961 May 1959: Geneva – US and USSR foreign ministers. Other satellite states in Eastern Europe did not dare to challenge the Soviet authority after the events in Hungary.000 tanks moved into Hungary to crush the uprising Consequences:     Between 2. However he remained a member of the Warsaw Pact. Gary Powers was taken for questioning and the plane was recovered by Soviet engineers. however. No agreements were reached. There was no active support for the uprising in the West because the USA. June 1961: Vienna – Kennedy and Khrushchev. U2 Crisis: 1960        A U2 spy plane is fitted with a high quality camera and the best cloaking devices available at the time which allows it to fly above the sight of radars. went home. Over 200. He re-established Communist control of Hungary but cautiously introduced some reforms. Khrushchev thought Kenney was weak and inexperienced and issued the 6 month ultimatum to remove troops from Turkey. Showed how low relations had become Berlin wall: 1961 (berlin wall crisis) Reasons for the wall being built:  Berlin was a source of conflict between the Soviets and western Allies. surrounded by the Communist state of East Germany. Khrushchev announced he had the pilot and plane with pictures and asked for a full US apology but Eisenhower didn't give one. continued to be a problem for the USSR.000 Hungarians. September 1959: Camp David – Eisenhower and Khrushchev. On May 7th 1960. May 1960: Paris – Eisenhower and Khrushchev.Khrushchev couldn't accept this as it would leave a gap in the iron curtain and the buffer zone would be broken.500 and 30. A new pro-Soviet government was set up under Janos Kadar. and built the Berlin wall. The USA tried to cover it up but they didn't know Powers admitted to spying. Disastrous meeting as Khrushchev was furious over the Gary Powers event. mostly civilians were killed along with 700 Soviet troops. This led to the breakdown of talks at the Paris Summit Gary Powers was sentenced to 10 years in prison but was swapped after 1 year for a Soviet spy.

The West became more anti-communist The Wall became a symbol in the West of Communist tyranny. the East Germans began to build a wall surrounding West Berlin. All movement between East and West Berlin stopped. Standard of living was much lower in East Germany than in the West East Berliners could see consumer goods in shops in West Berlin and the greater wealth they enjoyed. These skilled East Germans were crucial to maintain a fair and working communist society Why were there so many refugees?     East German government was unpopular People in East had little freedom compared to the West. November 1958 Khrushchev declared that the whole of the city of Berlin officially belonged to the USSR He did not want a war to break loose   The building of the wall: 1961.         To begin with. He saw this as the way to solve the problem of people leaving communism. It undermined communism generally as people moved away for a better life under capitalism as he claimed the East had a better standard of living than it actually did. Khrushchev and the East German leadership decided to act. Highly skilled people were leaving Berlin and so there were less people to fill in the important jobs that the East Germans needed doing. the structure was just a barbed wire fence but by the 17th of August it was replaced by a stone wall. Those in the East desperate to get to the West risked their lives trying to cross the wall GDR soldiers had orders to shoot escapees Up to 200 died. Why was this a disaster for the USSR?    Disaster for Communism as the people who moved told the world what communism was really like and not what the leaders liked to show. Consequences:     The flow of refugees was reduced to a trickle Tension grew: both sides started nuclear testing again. Impact of the Wall on Berliners Families and friends were divided People could not travel to their place of work. 3 million East Germans had fled to the west via West Berlin from where they could travel to West Germany. Without warning on 13th of August 1961. How did they solve the refugee problem?  Khrushchev offered the USA an ultimatum.  Between 1949 and 1961. He wanted the western troops out of West Berlin and for West Berlin to become communist. .

Khrushchev told the East Berliners that the wall was there to protect the people from those who wanted to prevent the building of communism. partly because he gave land seized from wealthy Americans to the Cuban people. Attitudes to the Berlin Wall: Attitude of the West    Kennedy said a wall is better than a war. Bay of Pigs This breakdown in relations. The US only supported him because he opposed communism. He claimed that the west used West Berlin as a route in to East Berlin for spies (correct) He said the west was undermining the east by recruiting spies. US portrayed the wall as a prison for the East Berliners West Berlin remained a symbol of freedom for the people of East Berlin and the Eastern bloc.    Castro and the Cuban Revolution Cuba under Batista       American Ally 160km from Florida Huge Naval base in Cuba at Guantanamo. After 18 hours they both gradually withdrew. US response to Castro was to stop all trade and leave isolated. sabotage and provoking disturbances. and switching of power in Cuba led to a massively disastrous conflict known as the Bay of Pigs (named after the bay the revolutionists landed on) . Throughout the day US and USSR tanks faced each other. 27th October 1961 Tension between the two Superpowers mounted. He was popular in Cuba. unpopular and a dictator. Attitude of the USSR    The wall stopped East Germans escaping to the west. uba became communist after it was taken over by Fidel Castro in 1958.      The Western Nations had to be satisfied with a propaganda victory only as there was little western powers could do to prevent the wall being built. Soviet tanks pulled up to Checkpoint Charlie and refused to allow any more crossings to the east. He welcomed American business in Cuba and accepted bribes. People became fed up with Batista and he was overthrown by Castro. Kennedy made a speech in Berlin declaring 'Ich bin ein Berliner' to show US support for West Berlin. It prevented a war with USA and allowed Khrushchev to still appear strong. This only sent Castro looking for help with the USSR which made relations worse. America gave Cuba economic and military support. Cuban leader Batista was corrupt.

This event strengthened Castro’s position in Cuba. They came up with 5 ways the US could respond: 1. Do Nothing Surgical Air Attack Invasions Diplomatic Pressures Blockade The events in October 1962       16th . They were all captured or killed within days. Kennedy supplied arms. By September.Khrushchev sent a letter to Kennedy saying they are ignoring the Blockade and doesn't admit to the missiles presence. They had expected people in Cuba to support them but they got none. 22nd . before the troops landed. 3.Kennedy makes a broadcast to the American people warning them of the potential threat and what he intended to do. In April 1961 the exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs.Kennedy was told Khrushchev was building missile sites on Cuba 18-19th .000 Cuban troops armed with tanks and modern weapons. Kennedy was told on the 16th and formed a special team called Ex-Comm. equipment and transport for 1400 anti-Castro exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow him. and thought that if they landed at their original bay everyone would find out that the USA intervened. Khrushchev signed a trade agreement giving Cuba $100 million economic aid and also arms. Summer 1960 he allied Cuba with the USSR.Kennedy decides on a Naval Blockade of Cuba 21st . 23rd . 5. 2. They also reported Soviet ships were on their way to Cuba. Khrushchev was scornful of Kennedy's pathetic attempt to get rid of the communists. The USA would tolerate conventional weapons but not nuclear weapons. However. 4. Kennedy had a fright. US companies refused to co-operate with any Cuban business allied with the USSR American media broadcast relentless criticism of Castro Castro assured Americans in Cuba that they were safe and let the USA keep their naval base. They provided support and funds for Cuban exiles and investigated ways to disrupt the Cuban economy. . The USSR said they did not intend to put nuclear weapons on Cuba.Kennedy holds talks with Ex-Com 20th . They didn't intend to invade but planes to overthrow Castro continued under Kennedy. Cuban Missile Crisis      May 1962-Soviet Union announced publicly it was supplying Cuba with arms. USA broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba and Castro thought the USA wanted to invade. Kennedy also prevented any planes helping the revolutionists. the USA was unwilling to get directly involved. thousands of Soviet missiles etc.      June 1960 Eisenhower secretly authorised the CIA to try to overthrow Castro. June 1961. However they were met by 20.Kennedy announces the Blockade and calls on Soviets to remove missiles. 14th of October an American spy plane flew over Cuba and saw nuclear missile sites being built by the USSR. This told the USSR and Castro that despite its opposition to Communism. were on Cuba.

Khrushchev sends another letter saying the USA has to remove missiles from Turkey. 25th . A U-2 plane is shot down over Cuba. Long Term:    USSR continued with the arms race until it was equal with the US in 1965 Greater stability between the two countries lead to MAD. The USA agreed to remove missiles from Turkey as long as it is kept secret 28th . Some Czechs thought the USA would help them. Censorship and lack of freedom. promise not to supply other countries with nuclear technology. Cuba stayed communist but without nuclear weapons. Hatred of Novotny's hard-line regime Desire for greater freedom and democracy. Events   During 1967.     24th .Khrushchev accepted and missiles are removed. . a reason to avoid war.Kennedy wrote to Khrushchev asking him to withdraw missiles from Cuba. France left NATO. Led to the 'Hot line' in June 1963: red telephone link between the Whitehouse and the Kremlin.Kennedy receives a second letter from Khrushchev saying if the blockade was lifted they would remove the missiles. students and writers were complaining about the lack of freedom and poor performance of the Czech economy. nuclear weapons could only be tested underground. Effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis Immediate:       Reduction in Khrushchev’s authority even though he tried to show he was a responsible peacemaker. Popularity of Dubcek. missile bases still being built on Cuba. replaced Novotny in 1967. Brezhnev did not support him. with made Czechoslovakia poor and caused falling standards of living. 26th . as Soviet ships approach the Blockade zone they stop or turn around.The Blockade began. Activities of secret police. When Novotny asked Brezhnev for help. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: August 63. China broke its alliance with the USSR Kennedy's popularity increased. 27th . Czechoslovakia “Prague spring”: 1968 Causes         The Czechs hated Russian control Russian control of the economy. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968. Khrushchev says that in the event of a war the USSR would use nuclear weapons. it didn't want to be drawn into a nuclear war.

The US did not interfere as it did not want Brezhnev to become involved in Vietnam. The essentials of Communism were defined as:   One party system Remain a member of the Warsaw Pact.000 Warsaw Pact troops entered Czechoslovakia. Dubcek’s government announced an Action plan for what it called Socialism with a Human face. Dubcek was flown to Moscow where he talked with Brezhnev.  1972 . Unit 3 . In April 1968. It removed state controls over industry and allowed freedom of speech. Dubcek stressed that Czechoslovakia would stay in the Warsaw Pact but in August. Marshall Tito of Yugoslavia. Soviet’s Response:            Brezhnev worried the reforms would spread to other Eastern Bloc countries Czechoslovakia was important in the Warsaw Pact as it was centrally placed Brezhnev tried to slow down pace of change by arguing with Dubcek. 400. Instead he was gradually degraded and censored from everything. He was forced to resign Dubcek was not killed like Nagy in 19 56. arrested leading reformers and seized key cities. he was always loyal to communism and friendly with Brezhnev.SALT Treaty between Brezhnev and Nixon Agreed there would be no further production of strategic ballistic missiles. He also said that force would be used whenever necessary to keep Soviet satellites firmly under Soviet influence. Dubcek told the people to offer only passive resistance so there were few deaths. 1968 This was created by Brezhnev as a result of the Prague Spring. For four months there was freedom in Czechoslovakia. Brezhnev read out a letter from some Czechoslovakian Communists asking for help Jan Palach burned himself to death in protest. until Dubcek announced he was going to allow another party to form. Brezhnev Doctrine. .      Novotny fell from power and Alexander Dubcek took over. He argued that a threat to one Communist country was a treat to them all (clearly echoed the Truman Doctrine and the American fear of the domino effect). a country not in the Warsaw pact visited Prague. On the 20th of August. At a meeting in Bratislava on 3 August 1968. He thought about cutting off wheat supplies but thought they would turn to the USA Dubcek agreed not to allow other political parties but insisted on keeping other reforms. Relations between the USSR and USA improved in the 1970s for several reasons but this was most evident at 3 key events.How did the cold war end? Détente: 1970’s Detente is the relaxing of tension or hostility between countries. 1. Warsaw Pact troops performed training exercises on the Czech border.

Mohammed Taraki. The Soviet secret police reported he was an American spy. In October 1979. The Soviets agreed to buy American grain and export oil to the West. Though Amin was a communist. The Western powers recognised the frontiers of eastern Europe and Soviet influence in that area. 35 countries including the USA and USSR attended. He was also unpopular with a large number of Muslims and Brezhnev feared a Muslim takeover. This was significant as it was the first agreement between the Superpowers that successfully limited the number of nuclear weapons it held. the USSR did not trust him.        Agreed that submarines carrying nuclear weapons would only be introduced when existing stocks of intercontinental ballistic missiles became obsolete. It ended the highly competitive space race of the 1960's. became an ally of the USSR. President Taraki was forced to accept Hafizullah Amin as the prime minister.    3. 1975 .Apollo-Soyuz Space Mission A joint space mission in which a US Apollo spacecraft and a Russian Soyuz spacecraft docked in space. Further thaw in relations as showed they could work and even live together 1975 . The political situation in Afghanistan was very unstable at the end of the 1970s and the Soviets wanted to maintain their influence in the area. Amin supporters assassinated Taraki and Amin became president. All countries agreed to improve human rights throughout the world. The new government was determined ‘to build Socialism in Afghanistan'. The Soviets wanted to develop their interests in this area. The Kabul revolution: The Kabul revolution involved an overthrow of its government.  2. Afghan communists asked Moscow for help but Brezhnev was reluctant to get involved as he thought of it as the USSR’s Vietnam. which could have spread to Afghanistan and other Muslim areas inside the USSR. They began a modernisation programme including land reform and education of girls which met opposition from Muslim leaders. Both the USA and the USSR got what they wanted but in reality not all countries actually followed their promises. Afghanistan: 1979 Reasons for invasion     They were concerned about the Muslim revolution in neighbouring Iran. Collapse of Détente: Detente ended with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan on the 25th of December in 1979. A civil war broke out between the Communist government and Islamic fighter (Mujahidin). The new communist president. Afghanistan was close to the Middle East oil reserves of the western powers and the ports of the Indian Ocean.The Helsinki Conference Held at Helsinki in Finland. The Soviets agreed to allow greater freedom in the Soviet Union to western journalists and to allow some inspection of human rights. Consequences of the Afghanistan invasion: . West Germany officially recognised East Germany.

there was less restriction on the media and the war was reported more accurately in the USSR. Reagan’s policy on Afghanistan: The USA hoped to bleed the USSR white. They ended all diplomatic relations and formed an alliance with China and Israel to support Afghan rebels. CIA provided weapons. The campaign became unwinnable and a severe drain on its finances. will and faith. . They offered to withdraw if the US stopped providing the Mujahidin with weapons but Reagan saw an opportunity to weaken the Soviets and refused. Carter made a statement that became known as the Carter Doctrine. He pulled the USA out of the 1980 Moscow Olympics and none of the US allies participated either. People began to demand withdrawal from Afghanistan. As Gorbachev became leader in 1985.Within weeks of the invasion. The doctrine said that:    The USSR must not gain access to the oil in the rich Middle East countries. Most Afghans disliked the Soviet presence as Communism is anti-religion and so the Mujahidin was strong. He also refused to sign SALT II which would have further limited the number of nuclear weapons. The Soviets couldn't win and suffered tremendous losses and were keen to reach a peace deal.000 wounded an estimated financial cost of $20bn to the USSR over 1 million Afghans killed and around 5 million displaced Carter Doctrine – The results of the Afghanistan war on relations: Following the Soviet invasion. arms and equipment to Pakistan and from there to the Mujahidin. Evil Empire Speech. Costs included:    15. they withdrew. Also that the focus should be on the individual not the state. The Soviet defeat In 1986. He imposed economic sanctions by stopping trade. and he wanted to make changes. Early in 1987 Moscow pulled out its forces. Soviet troops were being killed by Mujahidin rebels who used very effective guerrilla tactics. Reagan was willing to give the mujahidin whatever money weapons they wanted. Osama bin Laden was one of the men who went to fight with the Mujahidin. The Soviets couldn't win in Afghanistan for the same reasons the USA could not win in Vietnam. 1983 Reagan believed that any negotiation with the USSR was a sign of weakness and in a speech in 1983 he said that:    Communism was bad as it was anti-religious and it undermined the moral value of America (story of man and daughters) We should pray for the people in the Communist parties and hope they find God.000 Soviet dead and 37. He said the Soviet Union was the modern evil and that the real crisis was not the bombs and weapons but the test of the US moral. The USSR retaliated by boycotting the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles. The USA secretly began to send very large shipments of money. The USA spent $2bn on this war.

Reagan agreed but refused to give up SDI. Germany became a united country once again. who made it clear he saw no future in the USSR. the East German government announced much greater freedom of travel for East German citizens. The INF treaty was signed. They then went for a walk and chat and found they got on well and decided to meet again. He sent troops to Lithuania but the crisis worsened and sent troops to Azerbaijan. The Collapse of the USSR Early 1990. He said no but in March they did it anyway. Gorbachev accepted the Germany reunification and even that the new Germany could be a NATO member. All nuclear weapons in Europe were dismantled. West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl proposed a reunification of Germany. The Russian President Yeltsin emerged as the popular leader of the opposition and crowds strongly opposed the military coup. 4. including crossing the border into West Germany. As soon as he returned to Moscow. Became known as START talks (strategic arms limitation talks) Moscow. In January 1991. June 1988: Gorbachev pushed for joint troop reductions but Reagan put him off. he received a similar demand from Azerbaijan. 2. November 1985: Did not start well as Reagan attacked the USSR's human rights record and Gorbachev blamed the USSR for the arms race. the Russian republic elected Boris Yeltsin as its President. He encouraged the many republics to become independent. INF Treaty: 1987 After several meeting Gorbachev and Reagan signed the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces treaty which removed all medium-range nuclear weapons from Europe. Gorbachev was less enthusiastic as he expected a reunited Germany to be friendlier with the West than the East. Geneva. Thousands of East Berliners went to the checkpoints in the Berlin wall and the border guards let them pass. hard-line Communist party members and leading military officers attempted a coup to take over the USSR. On the 9th of November 1989. A few days later. Reykjavik. Reformers in the USSR itself began demanding an end to the Communist Party. Gorbachev was struggling to hold the USSR together. troops in Lithuania fired on protesters. Washington. In May. Ukraine declared its independence and other states followed.    In July. They held Gorbachev prisoner in his holiday home in Crimea and sent tanks and troops on to the streets of Moscow. the Republic of Georgia declared its independence. Gorbachev returned to . December 1987: Gorbachev withdrew his condition that SDI must be included. They soon dismantled the wall. Gorbachev signed the treaty because:    he believed this would increase his popularity in the West the Soviet economy could not recover due to the amount being spent on nuclear weapons Reagan told Gorbachev he had no intention of invading the USSR. In August 1991. With the wall down. Faced by this resistance. After many negotiations. they lost faith in themselves and the coup collapsed. 3.Gorbachev and Reagan (The four summits): 1985 – 1988 1. October 1986: Gorbachev proposed they remove all nuclear weapons from Europe and cut ICBM's by half. On the 3rd of October 1990. Gorbachev visited Lithuania. The Collapse of the Berlin wall: 1989 The fall of the Berlin Wall came to symbolise the end of the Cold War. who demanded independence. In April.

so they are the main events you really have to learn to do your history exam. In a televised speech on the 25th of December 1991. By 1961. preventing a Soviet invasion. Individuals can make profits but can also go bankrupt Believe in freedom of individual 1920-30 followed isolationism. The USSR launched Sputnik in 1957 meaning they could launch rockets out of the atmosphere and guide them to their targets. privately owned business etc. chosen in free elections Capitalist country. America took the lead again in 1952 with the first Hydrogen bomb which is 1000 time more powerful and by 1954 they had one small enough to be dropped from a bomber plane. Kept peace in Europe. The USSR developed their own bomb in 1949. Gorbachev announced the end of the Soviet Union. the USSR caught up. 3 million troops in East Germany which could have defeated West Germany but America placed nuclear missiles in Western Europe. government controlled production The Arms Race        The USA led the arms race in 1945 with the dropping of the first atomic bomb with ended the Second World War. but if you want that A* I would learn them!! Conflicting Ideologies The two superpowers had very different ideologies USA    Democratic government. Huge amounts of money were spent on the Arms race. however. America kept ahead by developing U2 planes. the policy of MAD had emerged which helped maintain peace as both sides could destroy each other. By the end of 1954. the USSR developed the first ICBM meaning all places on Earth could be reached by nuclear missiles. there are a few little things I missed out in the events. The USA launched a satellite in 1958. Comecon and the Warsaw Pact. The Cold War was over!! Okay. . These “extras” are not essential for an average grade. but now prepared to help countries who wanted democracy but were faced with communism USSR      Communist state People could vote for the Supreme Soviet but only members of the communist party and the Supreme Soviet had no real power People’s lives were closely controlled Rights of individual less important than society as a whole Planned economy. Led to even more deadly weapons being built as each side competed.Moscow.

mainly due to alcoholism. Soviet forces were put on special alert. a nuclear war seemed more likely than any time since the CMC. This made Reagan’s talk of rolling back Communism seem like a real threat. Gorbachev could see the arms race was crippling the USSR and if he wanted changed it had to stop. The USSR had plenty of raw materials but shortages of food and other goods.Star Wars This was announced after the new Soviet leader Andropov called for a non-aggression pact. particularly Poland. If the plan would. This worries the USA as they now have more advanced technology and the USSR could put nuclear weapons in space or use the satellites to guide missiles out of the Earth’s atmosphere. and increased spending on both sides on nuclear and conventional weapons. again showing the USSR had more advanced technology. There was also growing discontent in the satellite state. that the Warsaw Pact and NATO don't attack each other. never completed. to create a shield of lasers which would detect and destroy any coming missile while it was still in space. more freedom of speech Perestroika: meaning re-structuring. Reagan reacted by making even more hostile remarks about the USSR and leaders and then announced SDI. Managers could not make decisions and workers saw no point in working hard. Worsened the relationship between the Superpowers as it showed Reagan was unwilling to cooperate. However the USSR could not compete with SDI as the Soviet economy was too poor and it was lacking the computer technology necessary for SDI. The Outer space Treaty was signed by Brezhnev and Johnson in 1967 and was an agreement not to put nuclear weapons in space. increased tension as a nuclear war became more likely. The USA launched its own satellite in January 1958. This was a futuristic plan. The USA was ahead in the arms race but also with the levels of their technology. . this would lead to the end of MAD as the USA would be able to attack the USSR without fear retaliation. In 1983.The Space Race    The USSR launched Sputnik in 1957. Gorbachev's New Thinking Became leader of the USSR in 1985 when the economy was stagnant as it was spending too much money of the arms race and the unwinnable war in Afghanistan. The first man in space was Soviet Yuri Gagarin in 1961. particularly of the market and jobs. This effectively ended the space race until 1983 when Reagan announced his Strategic Defence Initiative. He set out reforms through two changes:   Glasnost: meaning openness. Kennedy promised to put a man on the moon by 1969. SDI . Life expectancy of the Soviets had fallen.

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