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Population with a BA degree or higher

DC

Percentage of obese people

Complexity & Context Data Journalism Symposium

45%
States with a larger percentage of people with higher education than with obesity States with a larger percentage of obese people than of people with a higher education US average 27.2% BA or higher 27.0% Obese

40%

MA CO NH MD NJ CT VT VI MN CA UT NY KS WA WV AL SC KY LA TX MI TN MO OK AR

35%

MS

30%

A FUNCTIONAL ART
visualization, journalism, storytelling

25%

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Alberto Cairo University of Miami www.thefunctionalart.com Twitter: @albertocairo

When Berkeleyside spoke to newly anointed Nobel Prize winner Saul Perlmutter earlier today, he joked that the “only reason to win a Nobel Prize” was to receive the famous Nobel laureate (NL) parking permit, reserved for laureates on the Berkeley campus.

An infographic (or a ‘visualization’) is a visual representation of evidence, a tool for analysis, communication, and understanding

I am a bit old fashioned. In fact, I was listening to Ryan Murphy and...

...Here’s what came to my mind when he mentioned ‘Python’

How I see DATA FOLKS

How I see MYSELF

MR. COMPLEXITY

How I see DATA FOLKS
www.nick.com

How I see MYSELF

MR. COMPLEXITY

MR. CONTEXT

How I see DATA FOLKS
www.nick.com

How I see MYSELF
www.pritchettcartoons.com

Population with a BA degree or higher
DC

Percentage of obese people

45%
States with a larger percentage of people with higher education than with obesity States with a larger percentage of obese people than of people with a higher education US average 27.2% BA or higher 27.0% Obese

40%

MA CO NH MD NJ CT VT VI MN CA UT NY KS WA WV AL SC KY LA TX MI TN MO OK AR

Mr. Context (the caveman) says: “In the past, I worried too much about context and too little about complexity. Today,YOU worry too much about complexity and too little about context.” Consider these issues:
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1. What information to present 2. How to present it 3. How to make it engaging

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Population with a BA degree or higher
DC

Percentage of obese people

45%
States with a larger percentage of people with higher education than with obesity States with a larger percentage of obese people than of people with a higher education US average 27.2% BA or higher 27.0% Obese

40%

MA CO NH MD NJ CT VT VI MN CA UT NY KS WA WV AL SC KY LA TX MI TN MO OK AR

35%

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30%

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FL OR WI AK MT SD PA ND NM SC NE OH NV TX MI IA TN ME ID NC OK WY LA AL

MO AZ GA IL RI DE HI

GA IN KS OH PA IA IL DE NC

IN KY MS

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SD ND MD NE ME OR FL ID WI VA RI WA NM WY NH MN AK AZ CA NY NJ VT MA MT HI CT UT NV DC

1. What information to present 2. How to present it 3. How to make it engaging

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Do we seriously think about the consequences of what we show in our visualizations? Is it acceptable to visually represent any kind of available dataset, just because it is publicly available?

Donors to Proposition 8

http://www.eightmaps.com/

The Journal News

http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2013/01/ the_journal_news_gun_map_the_first_amendment_and_state_law_gave_the_new.html

This conversation about ethics cannot be limited to academia or to journalism. Almost anybody can access and use these datasets today

Evgeny Morozov quoting Lawrence Lessing’s ‘Republic Lost’

Complexity without enough context

513 representatives

Complexity without enough context

Congress’ website

Complexity without enough context

http://revistaepoca.globo.com/diagrama/noticia/2011/10/diagrama-298-anos-de-falacao.html

Population with a BA degree or higher
DC

Percentage of obese people

45%
States with a larger percentage of people with higher education than with obesity States with a larger percentage of obese people than of people with a higher education US average 27.2% BA or higher 27.0% Obese

40%

MA CO NH MD NJ CT VT VI MN CA UT NY KS WA WV AL SC KY LA TX MI TN MO OK AR

35%

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30%

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FL OR WI AK MT SD PA ND NM SC NE OH NV TX MI IA TN ME ID NC OK WY LA AL

MO AZ GA IL RI DE HI

GA IN KS OH PA IA IL DE NC

IN KY MS

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SD ND MD NE ME OR FL ID WI VA RI WA NM WY NH MN AK AZ CA NY NJ VT MA MT HI CT UT NV DC

1. What information to present 2. How to present it 3. How to make it engaging

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What’s your point?

Preserving a traditional journalistic question when doing visualizations

http://www.chrisharrison.net/

SO WHAT?

SOURCE: XKCD We don’t think about the visual encoding deeply enough

Fischer, Eric. 2012. Language Communities of Twitter.

SO WHAT?

http://www.theatlantic.com/video/index/253385/

SO WHAT?

The Guardian

SO WHAT?

FLORIDA CENTER FOR INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING:

Florida Leads Nation in Boating Deaths

http://fcir.org/2013/04/30/visualized-boating-accidents-in-florida-2011/ http://fcir.org/2013/04/30/florida-leads-nation-in-boating-deaths/

What’s the context of your data?

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/02/23/world/middleeast/Refugee-Influx-Threatens-Balance-in-Lebanon.html

What’s the context of your data?

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/02/23/world/middleeast/Refugee-Influx-Threatens-Balance-in-Lebanon.html

Compared to what?

The Atlantic magazine

Compared to what?

The Atlantic magazine

Compared to what?

The Atlantic magazine

Annotating and Storytelling

POPULATION CHANGE Above Average Below

DIAGRAM
NEWS IN PERSPECTIVE

+9.4% +0.1% -0,1%

No data available

-9,4%

Brazil’s Demographic Opportunity
How Brazil can take advantage of a future with fewer children per couple.
Alberto Cairo, Francine Lima, Marco Vergotti
PRELIMINARY DATA FROM THE 2010 CENSUS

create an interesting picture of the changes that the Brazilian population has gone through in the past ten years. Brazil’s population grew, on average, 10% between 2000 and 2010, but the fertility rate is below 2.1 children per woman, the minimum to keep a population from shrinking. According to César Marques, a demographer from the University of Campinas, the main challenge Brazil will face in the future is how to maintain a healthy Social Security system if the number of older and retired people will likely be much larger than it is today. Read on to learn about all the variables at play in this story.

2000
AP RR AC DF PA AM TO MT GO MS SC SE MA RN RO CE AL ES PB PI PE SP PR MG RJ BA RS 477,032 324,397 557,526 2,051,146 6,192,307 2,812,557 1,157,098 2,504,353 5,003,228 2,078,001 5,356,360 1,784,475 5,651,475 2,776,782 1,379,787 7,430,661 2,822,621 3,097,232 3,443,825 2,843,278 7,918,344 37,032,403 9,563,458 17,891,494 14,391,282 13,070,250 10,187,798

2010
648,553 425,398 707,125 2,469,489 7,443,904 3,350,773 1,373,551 2,954,625 5,849,105 2,404,256 6,178,603 2,036,277 6,424,340 3,121,451 1,535,625 8,180,087 3,093,994 3,392,775 3,753,633 3,086,448 8,541,250 39,924,091 10,266,737 19,159,260 15,180,636 13,633,969 10,576,758

Change
36.0% 31.1% 26.8% 20.4% 20.2% 19.1% 18.7% 18.0% 16.9% 15.7% 15.4% 14.1% 13.7% 12.4% 11.3% 10.1% 9.6% 9.5% 9.0% 8.6% 7.9% 7.8% 7.4% 7.1% 5.5% 4.3% 3.8%

1 BRAZIL’S POPULATION IS BIGGER
The 2010 Census has revealed a 9.4% population increase between 2000 and 2010. The differences between states, as you can see on the chart on the right, are noticeable. Most rich states, such as São Paulo and Rio, didn’t grow as fast as the ones in the north east. 2000 2010 169.799.170 190,732,694

Above average

Below average

(Data updated on November 4, 2010) The map shows the change in population in Brazilian municipalities. Between 2000 and 2010, 1,630 cities and towns, from a total of 5,506, lost population. Rio Grande do Sul is the state with a the largest number of municipalities that lost inhabitants, due to a significant drop in fertility rates and domestic migration
Sources: IBGE, UN, World Bank, César Marques (UNICAMP)

AVERAGE +9.4%

2 —BUT THE FERTILITY RATE IS MUCH LOWER THAN EXPECTED
A study in 2004 estimated that in 2010, the fertility rate would be 2.4 children per woman, on average. But new data collected by the IBGE prove that the fertility rate is already 1.9, below the threshold called “replacement rate”. When the fertility rate drops below this number, the population of a country will eventually start to shrink and grow older. Number of children per woman

3 AS A CONSEQUENCE, POPULATION WILL STOP GROWING—
Forecasts made in 2004 anticipated that Brazil’s population would stop growing in 2040. But the most recent data from the IBGE suggests that this could happen much earler, in 2030.

250 million people

New population peak: moment when population will stop growing

Each line represents a country or continent

125
Former population peak (calculated in 2004)

0
1950 2030 2040 2050

8 4 —AND IT WILL BECOME OLDER 7
NIGERIA Men
75 years 65 50 30 20

Women

Comparing the current population pyramid with the one predicted for 2050 2005 Forecast for 2050

6

2 1 0 1 2 Millions of people per age group

5

YEMEN

África

How Brazil can transform the population challenge into an opportunity
As the population ages, the proportion of people of working age increases. The country will therefore have more people producing wealth (if the labor market can absorb them) and fewer children to consume investments. It is a window of opportunity, because in some cases the number of people of working age to fall back when older people are leaving the market.

4
WORLD AVERAGE

3
INDIA Australia Asia Latin America North America BRAZIL Europe CHINA Years

The population under 15 years of age is falling today. A smaller number of student in public schools will facilitate the quality of teaching, if the amount invested in education stays the same. Educational policy focused on low-income youth favors the formation of more skilled workforce and greater social mobility. In the future, Brazil will reach the stage of Europe and Japan, which struggle to support their elders. This is why it’s so important to prepare a more balanced retirement system, which will include retirement at a later age.

2

Replacement level: average of 2.1 children per woman

1

Population with a BA degree or higher
DC

Percentage of obese people

45%
States with a larger percentage of people with higher education than with obesity States with a larger percentage of obese people than of people with a higher education US average 27.2% BA or higher 27.0% Obese

40%

MA CO NH MD NJ CT VT VI MN CA UT NY KS WA WV AL SC KY LA TX MI TN MO OK AR

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FL OR WI AK MT SD PA ND NM SC NE OH NV TX MI IA TN ME ID NC OK WY LA AL

MO AZ GA IL RI DE HI

GA IN KS OH PA IA IL DE NC

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1. What information to present 2. How to present it 3. How to make it engaging

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ENEM test

http://revistaepoca.globo.com/diagrama/noticia/2011/09/confira-media-e-o-ranking-das-escolas-na-prova-do-enem-2010.html

Hans Rosling, www.gapminder.com
http://www.gapminder.org/videos/200-years-that-changed-the-world-bbc/

Population with a BA degree or higher
DC

Percentage of obese people

45%
States with a larger percentage of people with higher education than with obesity States with a larger percentage of obese people than of people with a higher education US average 27.2% BA or higher 27.0% Obese

40%

Mr. Caveman says: “So remember, Jimmy Neutron”:
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1. Consider the consequences of what you present 2. Think deeply about what are the most effective ways to present it 3. Don’t just put your data in front of me. Tell me why I should care. Make me feel interested.

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Population with a BA degree or higher
DC

Percentage of obese people

45%
States with a larger percentage of people with higher education than with obesity States with a larger percentage of obese people than of people with a higher education US average 27.2% BA or higher 27.0% Obese

40%

MA CO NH MD NJ CT VT VI MN CA UT NY KS WA WV AL SC KY LA TX MI TN MO OK AR

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SD ND MD NE ME OR FL ID WI VA RI WA NM WY NH MN AK AZ CA NY NJ VT MA MT HI CT UT NV DC

Thank you
Alberto Cairo University of Miami www.thefunctionalart.com Twitter: @albertocairo

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