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The engine is a mechanical device designed to convert chemical energy (fuel) into kinetic energy (motion), which powers your vehicle. Almost all vehicles (including hybrids) use internal combustion engines that burn fuel. In an internal combustion engine, air and fuel are ignited inside a cylinder and the pressure that is created forces pistons to move up and down. This rotates the crankshaft, which delivers power to the wheels via the drivetrain.
Piston A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside each cylinder, compressing the air-fuel mixture and capturing the force created by the combustion process. This force is then transferred to the crankshaft, via the connecting rod. More >>
Crankshaft The crankshaft is a long, steel shaft that transfers the up-and-down motion of the pistons and connecting rods into rotational motion. More >>
The ignition system supplies the "spark" to each cylinder, which is necessary to begin the combustion process. Ignition systems have evolved from using a mechanical distributor and special wires to transmit the spark from the ignition coil to each spark plug, to a fully electronic system which has an ignition coil mounted directly on top of each spark plug. Routine maintenance has been reduced from a "tuneup" every 12,000 miles to simply replacing the spark plugs every 100,000 miles.
The fuel system provides the fuel necessary for the engine to operate. In years past, a mechanical fuel pump and carburetor were used. In order for engines to run better and produce less harmful emissions, electronic fuel injection systems have taken their place. On modern vehicles, fuel is supplied by an electric pump and metered to the cylinders by computer controlled fuel injectors.
Engine Cooling System
The cooling system helps regulate the amount of heat in the engine. If it’s too hot, the engine can overheat. If it’s too col d, the engine emits more pollutants and engine components prematurely wear out. If the cooling system fails to keep the engine at the right temperature, it can suffer significant damage and, in some cases, fail entirely.
In order to run, the engine needs a precise mixture of fuel and air. When outside air is drawn into the engine, the air filter prevents harmful dirt and debris from entering the system. Symptoms of Wear or Failure
Poor gas mileage Reduced engine power Related Repair Advice
The air filter should be inspected, cleaned, and/or replaced every 12,000 to 15,000 miles When replacing the air filter, dirt and debris should be removed from the air filter housing If oil has contaminated the air filter, it should be replaced; oil contamination may indicate a problem with the PCV system Air filters will need to be replaced more often in vehicles driven in dusty and sandy areas
Coolant is the fluid that flows through the engine’s cooling system. Its main purpose is to transfer heat generated by the en gine to the radiator so the engine doesn’t overheat. Symptoms of Wear or Failure
Temperature gauge may read very high Engine overheating Low coolant warning light may illuminate Dirty or smelly coolant indicates that a system flush may be needed Related Repair Advice
Over time, coolant gets dirty and breaks down; it should be replaced following the manufacturer's recommendation Make sure to use the coolant the manufacturer recommends; the wrong coolant can damage your vehicle A pressure check of the cooling system should be performed to determine where a coolant leak is originating. After repairs, the system should be pressure tested again to verify that the repair is successful. If you have a problem with the coolant level dropping, but no signs of an external leak, the issue may be an internal engine leak. This type of leak may be due to a leaking intake manifold gasket, head gasket, or oil cooler. A shop will need to conduct various tests to find these types of leaks. After the cooling system has been serviced or repaired, it's important to verify that the system is not leaking, the radiator fans are operating properly, and all air bubbles and air pockets are bled from the cooling system. To help prevent future issues, we recommend replacing the thermostat when the cooling system has been opened for repairs (e.g. water pump or radiator replacement) or during a system flush
. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Knocking noise from engine Low engine oil pressure Related Repair Advice If a crankshaft or connecting rod bearing fails. steel shaft that transfers the up-and-down motion of the pistons and connecting rods into rotational motion.Crankshaft The crankshaft is a long. engine replacement is often recommended. However. on higher mileage vehicles. a failed crankshaft can be repaired or replaced. the crankshaft should be thoroughly inspected before reuse In some cases.
Symptoms of Wear or Failure Abnormal noise from the valve train Engine misfires Related Repair Advice The camshaft oil seals should be inspected and replaced as necessary when the timing belt is replaced . the camshaft has multiple elliptical lobes (cams). the lobes regulate the opening and closing of the valves. one for each intake and exhaust valve contained in the engine.Camshaft Driven by the crankshaft. As the camshaft rotates.
the crankcase supports the crankshaft. allowing it to spin freely while transmitting power (torque) from the engine.Crankcase Mounted between the engine block and the oil pan. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine oil leak Knocking noise from engine Related Repair Advice Engine-specific oil sealing procedures must be employed when installing the crankcase .
the cylinder head houses the intake and exhaust valves. manufacturer's recommendations should be followed when removing spark plugs from an aluminum cylinder head . as well as the spark plugs. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine misfire Engine overheating Excessive oil consumption Related Repair Advice The cylinder head mounting surface should be thoroughly inspected when replacing the head gasket To avoid damage to the cylinder head.Cylinder Head Mounted to the top of the engine block.
We recommend replacing all of the drive belts as a set. and power steering pump. For optimal performance and reliability. Leaking coolant can damage the drive and timing belts. but more modern vehicles use the flat "ribbed" design The term "serpentine belt" referrers to a ribbed belt that drives multiple accessories. . Symptoms of Wear or Failure Belts may become dry. or glazed Belts may emit a chirping or squeaking sound Related Repair Advice On older vehicles. Engine oil will damage even a new belt. alternator. belts should be replaced at the interval recommended by the manufacturer. A water pump will require replacement if it begins to leak coolant or become noisy.000 miles on them High-quality drive belts are less likely to squeak and/or prematurely fail Leaking valve cover gaskets can cause premature drive belt failure. We recommend replacing drive belts if related components are being repaired and the belts have signs of wear or have over 30. cracked. belts with a “V" profile were the universal drive belt design. so that they wear evenly.Drive Belt/Fan Belt These belts can be used individually or grouped together as part of the belt/pulley system that is driven by the engine crankshaft to run such items as the air conditioning compressor.
It contains the cylinders that accommodate pistons and connecting rods. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Abnormal knocking or rattling noise Engine oil leak Related Repair Advice Engine replacement is often recommend when problems are encountered with the engine block A "short block" replacement may also be recommended —this replacement only includes the lower parts of the engine and leaves out the cylinder head and intake manifold .Engine Block The engine block is the main body of the engine assembly.
the pistons move up and down within the cylinders.Engine Cylinder Engine cylinders are machined round bores (tubes) inside the engine block that house the pistons. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine misfire Excessive oil consumption Engine overheating Related Repair Advice Engine replacement is often recommend when problems are encountered with a cylinder A "short block" replacement may also be recommended —this replacement only includes the lower parts of the engine and leaves out the cylinder head and intake manifold The cylinders may be machined inserts (sleeves) that are fit into the engine block or cast and machined as an integral part of the engine block . As the engine operates.
Head Gasket The head gasket creates a working seal between the cylinder head and the engine block. the integrity of the entire cooling system should be inspected and tested when a head gasket is replaced. sweet smelling smoke from exhaust Coolant or oil leak Related Repair Advice Head gasket failures are often due to an overheated engine. Due to the damaging effects of coolant entering the combustion chamber. but can also be caused by high mileage and/or age If the head gasket(s) is replaced. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Check Engine Light may illuminate Engine runs roughly when first started Engine overheating White. recurring problem. This is especially true if head gasket failure was severe or prolonged. Additional repairs may be needed after the inspection. To prevent an expensive. oxygen sensor and/or catalytic converter replacement may be prudent or even necessary. which can add several hundred dollars to the repair. the cylinder head(s) will need to be inspected and machined. .
Lower Radiator Hose After the radiator has cooled the coolant.g. we recommend replacing the thermostat when the cooling system has been opened for repairs (e. like all hoses. We recommend replacing the hose clamps when the hoses are replaced. and also deteriorate when they come into contact with oil. as the clamps will weaken over time and new clamps will help prevent coolant leaks To help prevent future issues. should be checked periodically for cracks and swelling. they are susceptible to dry rot and cracking as they age. If any other hoses or cooling system parts show signs of wear. water pump or radiator replacement) or during a system flush . Symptoms of Wear or Failure Coolant leak Temperature gauge may run high Engine overheating Related Repair Advice Radiator hoses. they should be replaced at this time. the lower radiator hose carries it from the radiator back to the engine. The entire cooling system should be inspected when replacing coolant hoses. Being constructed of rubber.
should be checked periodically for cracks and swelling. as the clamps will weaken over time and new clamps will help prevent coolant leaks To help prevent future issues. water pump or radiator replacement) or during a system flush . The entire cooling system should be inspected when replacing coolant hoses. we recommend replacing the thermostat when the cooling system has been opened for repairs (e. This added stress makes the upper radiator hose the most common coolant hose to fail.Upper Radiator Hose The upper radiator hose carries hot coolant from the engine into the radiator for cooling. it first contacts the upper radiator hose. If any other hoses or cooling system parts show signs of wear. We recommend replacing the hose clamps when the hoses are replaced. Radiator hoses.g. Being constructed of rubber. they are susceptible to dry rot and cracking as they age. They also deteriorate when they come into contact with oil. like all hoses. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Coolant leak Temperature gauge may run high Engine overheating Related Repair Advice As hot engine coolant leaves the thermostat housing. they should be replaced at this time.
We recommend replacing the drain plug gasket along with the oil and oil filter . engine oil should be changed every 3.000 miles to keep the engine healthy and to prolong its life. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Abnormal knocking noise from engine Engine oil leak Related Repair Advice Manufacturers differ in their recommended guidelines for when engine oil and oil filters should be changed. As a general rule.Oil Filter The engine oil filter removes contaminants from the engine oil before it circulates throughout the engine. Cheap filters wear more quickly and may not properly keep contaminants out of the engine. however. We recommend using a high-quality engine oil filter.
the upper oil pan may also be referred to as the crankcase The oil pan is on the bottom of the engine.Oil Pan Mounted to the bottom of the crankcase. requiring replacement of the oil pan . which can be made of paper. the oil pan is a reservoir where engine oil is stored and drawn from. It's important to verify that there are no other leaks before having the oil pan resealed. rubber. Over-tightening of the oil drain plug can damage the oil pan threads. so any oil leaks from the top or front of the engine could drain down and look like an oil pan leak. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Oil may leak onto the ground and be seen on the underside of the vehicle Related Repair Advice The oil pan is sealed with a gasket. or a sealing liquid (liquid gasket) Some engines have an upper and lower oil pan gasket.
. or a sealing liquid (liquid gasket) Some engines have an upper and lower oil pan gasket. the upper oil pan may also be referred to as the crankcase The oil pan is on the bottom of the engine.Oil Pan Gasket The oil pan gasket is the working seal between the oil pan and the lower part of the engine. It's important to verify that there are no other leaks before having the oil pan resealed. rubber. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine oil leak Related Repair Advice The oil pan gasket can be made of paper. so any oil leaks from the top or front of the engine could drain down and look like an oil pan leak.
Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine oil leak Related Repair Advice The oil drain plug gasket is commonly inspected and replaced when the engine oil is changed .Oil Drain Plug Gasket The oil drain plug gasket seals the oil drain plug where it connects to the oil pan.
leaking seals. It is important that these items are inspected before replacing the oil pump. and crankshaft pulley must be removed in order to access the oil pump .Oil Pump The oil pump creates the pressure necessary to circulate oil throughout the engine. timing cover. the pan must be removed to replace it If the oil pump is driven directly by the crankshaft. timing belt. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Oil light may come on or engine oil pressure gauge will read low The engine may make loud clicking or knocking noises Related Repair Advice Low oil pressure can be caused by using the incorrect type of engine oil. Low oil pressure can be caused by a plugged oil pick-up screen. the accessory belts. The oil pressure should be checked before condemning an oil pump. or worn bearings in the engine. Be sure to check with your owner's manual to ascertain the correct type for your engine and climate. A good quality repair shop will perform an oil pressure check and record the readings on the repair order. If the oil pump is located in the engine oil pan.
Its purpose is to filter outside air before it enters the engine crankcase.PCV Filter The positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) filter. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Accumulation of dirt on filter Related Repair Advice PCV filters should be inspected whenever the PCV system or air filter is serviced PCV Hose The positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) hose carries crankcase gases from the engine to the intake manifold. is connected to the fresh air side of the PCV system. or crankcase emission filter. where they are drawn into the cylinders for combustion. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine vacuum leak Rough or high engine idle Illumination of the Check Engine Light Related Repair Advice The PCV hose should be inspected whenever the PCV system is serviced PCV Valve .
Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine may run rough or stall Excessive oil consumption Engine oil leak High emission levels Check Engine Light may illuminate Related Repair Advice The PCV valve should be replaced every 30.000 miles The engine should be tested to verify normal operation after a PCV repair.The positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) valve controls the pressure of accumulating gases in the engine crankcase by venting them back into the intake manifold. It's important that the shop checks and eliminates any issues with the PCV system while repairing engine oil leaks. . This is to ensure that no additional problems exist that may have contributed to PCV failure. A plugged PCV system can cause engine oil leaks.000 to 50.
compressing the air-fuel mixture and capturing the force created by the combustion process.Piston A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside each cylinder. the engine might need to be replaced A "short block" replacement may also be recommended—this replacement only includes the lower parts of the engine and leaves out the cylinder head and intake manifold . This force is then transferred to the crankshaft. via the connecting rod. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine misfire Excessive oil consumption Knocking or slapping noise from inside engine Related Repair Advice A failed piston can cause internal engine damage.
Removal of the front bumper. The radiator hoses should also be replaced if they show signs of age or wear.Radiator The radiator's job is to allow heat to be removed from the engine. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Coolant may leak or boil over Temperature gauge may get really high Illumination of the engine temperature warning light Engine may run hot or overheat Related Repair Advice We recommend replacing the thermostat and the radiator cap along with the radiator. This cooling process keeps the engine from overheating. where it absorbs heat and returns to the radiator. and additional plumbing. The entire cooling system should be inspected and tested when the radiator is replaced Most radiators are made of metal and plastic. leading to radiator replacement. ducting. as well as removal of engine bay components such as hoses. As hot coolant passes through the radiator it is cooled before returning to the engine. are often required in the course of this repair . The plastic parts can become brittle and crack over time.
the efficiency—of the cooling system. cooling fan motor(s). the radiator cap(s) should be inspected and replaced as necessary Be very cautious when removing the radiator cap. those that are not should be thoroughly inspected to make sure they are still in good shape. the engine may have been overheated and should be checked for damage before replacing the fan If only some parts of the fan assembly are replaced. Standard pressure is usually 14 to 16psi. especially when idling and in stop-and-go traffic Related Repair Advice If a new fan assembly is required. especially when idling and driving in traffic A/C may perform poorly. is comprised of cooling fan(s). Don't remove the cap when the engine is hot.Radiator Fan Assembly The radiator fan assembly. If not. which increases the boiling point—and thus. the parts should be replaced. Radiator Cap The radiator cap seals the main filling point of the cooling system. The cooling may have multiple "radiator caps" located at the various fill points Whenever the cooling system is serviced for any reason. . It also allows a set pressure to build in the system. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Fan may become noisy Engine may overheat. too. which helps to cool the hot coolant in the radiator. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Coolant may leak or boil over Temperature gauge may get really high Illumination of the engine temperature warning light Engine may run hot or overheat Related Repair Advice The term "radiator cap" refers to the cap that regulates the coolant pressure in the cooling system. and a fan shroud.
. Cylinder heads made from aluminum can be damaged if the correct procedures are not followed. and preferably spark plugs from the OEM Spark plugs have different ratings and it's important that the correct type are used Spark plug terminals wear down over time and can lead to engine misfires. At a minimum. Manufacturer's instructions should be followed when removing spark plugs. we recommend using only high-quality spark plugs. Continuing to drive under these conditions can damage the catalytic converter.Spark Plug The spark plug uses the energy produced by the ignition coil to generate the spark necessary to ignite the air/fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. they need to be replaced at the mileage specified by the vehicle manufacturer. Engines may have one or two spark plugs per cylinder and each spark plug can have from one to four electrodes Replacing spark plugs can be labor intensive on some late model vehicles To prevent ignition misfires and Check Engine Light problems. which can trigger the Check Engine Light. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Check Engine Light may come on or blink Engine may run roughly Abnormal engine noise due to loose or missing spark plug Related Repair Advice Failing spark plugs can cause the engine to run rough and misfire.
Thermostat The thermostat is a mechanical device that controls engine temperature. It blocks coolant flow to the radiator until the engine reaches a predetermined temperature. This allows the engine to warm up quickly and efficiently. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Thermostat housing may leak coolant Engine may overheat or never reach normal temperature Higher exhaust emissions Check Engine Light may illuminate Poor fuel mileage Related Repair Advice A high-quality OEM thermostat should be used. We recommend replacing the thermostat any time major repairs are performed on the cooling system . Poor quality thermostats may not function properly and can cause damage to the engine or components of the emission system.
Symptoms of Wear or Failure Thermostat housing may leak coolant Engine may overheat Related Repair Advice We recommend replacing the thermostat any time major repairs are performed on the cooling system .Thermostat Gasket The thermostat gasket is a working seal between the thermostat housing and the engine.
The valve(s) opens and closes based on driver input via the gas pedal.Throttle Body The throttle body is a housing containing a valve(s) that regulates the airflow entering the intake manifold on its way to the combustion chamber. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Stalling problems Engine may run roughly Illumination of the Check Engine Light Gas pedal hard to push as a result of a worn throttle shaft Related Repair Advice Residue build up on the throttle bore can result in lower than normal engine idle and engine stalling. the related connectors and wiring should be thoroughly inspected . especially after battery replacement Newer vehicles are using an electronically-controlled throttle body in place of the older cable-operated system When replacing an electronic throttle body.
It is often recommended that you replace items like the water pump. Timing belts are used in lieu of timing chains in many engines. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Broken belt Engine will stop running and internal engine damage can occur Worn or loose belt Belt may "jump time" (skipping a tooth or more. Since they are made out of rubber. causing Check Engine Light to illuminate Slapping or scraping noises from engine Related Repair Advice It is crucial that the timing belt be replaced at or before the interval recommended by the vehicle manufacturer. idlers.Timing Belt The rubber timing belt connects the camshaft to the crankshaft of the engine. It helps the crankshaft drive the camshaft. which can turn off your engine and leave you stranded. This results in a loss of synchronization and engine performance. It could also lead to severe engine damage. drive belts. and tensioner along with the timing belt . Failure to do so can result in a broken timing belt. they have a limited lifespan. front engine seals. usually on the cam gear). Trouble codes from the camshaft or crankshaft sensors.
It helps the crankshaft drive the camshaft. a defective drive belt tensioner. camshaft sensor. and crankshaft sensor codes Related Repair Advice On certain engines. a loose or defective harmonic balancer. associated with engine speed) Check Engine Light may illuminate and set misfire. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine may stall or run rough Noise in the front of the engine (a rattle or rumble. the water pump is driven by the timing chain. replacing all of the chains and their related components is recommend if one chain requires replacement Using high quality. and the guides An engine may have multiple timing chains. which includes all of the chains. When replacing a timing chain. replace the whole timing chain set. It should be replaced if the timing chain is replaced. or a cracked flex plate can exhibit symptoms that may be misdiagnosed as a worn timing chain assembly . the tensioner(s). fully synthetic engine oil may extend the life of the timing chain and related components Sometimes. a defective water pump. the gear set.Timing Chain The metal timing chain connects the camshaft to the crankshaft of the engine.
dust. if necessary If the timing cover is removed to correct a leak.Timing Cover A timing cover is a metal or plastic enclosure that covers and protects the timing components from dirt. if necessary . the timing cover should be inspected for damage and replaced. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine oil and/or coolant leak Scraping or rattle noise from front of engine Missing timing mark Related Repair Advice When replacing the timing belt or chain. and debris. the timing components should be thoroughly inspected and replaced.
Symptoms of Wear or Failure Oil or coolant leak Related Repair Advice The timing cover gasket may be made from standard gasket material.Timing Cover Gasket The timing cover gasket is the working seal between the timing cover and the engine block. if necessary . the timing components should be thoroughly inspected and replaced. or it may be sealed with a simple silicone-type sealant If the timing cover is removed to correct a leak. an O-ring style seal.
Components that rely on the vacuum pump (climate control and/or brake system components) may be incorrectly replaced if there is an issue with the vacuum pump Vacuum pumps are used on Diesel engines (since they do not produce vacuum) and on some gasoline engines that produce little vacuum. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Brake pedal may be hard Heating. ventilation. and AC (HVAC) system may malfunction Abnormal noise Related Repair Advice It's a good idea to use a factory quality (OEM) vacuum pump. such as turbos .Vacuum Pump The vacuum pump produces the vacuum power needed for vehicle functions such as braking and some HVAC functions. If the pump is belt driven. replace the drive belt as well.
Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine oil leak Burning smell due to oil on exhaust manifold Related Repair Advice Many new vehicles use plastic valve covers. It keeps oil from leaking out into the engine compartment and debris from getting into the cylinder head. In some cases. These can crack and cause an oil leak.Valve Cover A valve cover is a metal or plastic covering that protects the valve train and camshaft(s) in each cylinder head. . A leaking valve cover or gasket can drip oil all over the engine. it's necessary to repair the valve cover leak before any other oil leaks can be properly diagnosed.
we recommend having a valve adjustment performed. This type of leak can damage other engine components. and spark plug wires. hoses. if applicable. this will save in labor costs. Using high-quality valve cover gaskets will reduce the chance of recurring leaks and additional repairs An engine misfire can result from oil leaking into the spark plug tubes. . especially belts. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Engine oil may leak Burning smell due to oil on the exhaust manifold Engine misfire Related Repair Advice Valve cover gaskets and seals need to be replaced when they begin to leak oil. The tube seals and valve cover gasket should always be replaced together. Since the valve cover is removed to adjust the valves.Valve Cover Gasket Set The valve cover gasket set is the complete set of gaskets required to create the working seal between the valve cover(s) and the cylinder head(s). When replacing the valve cover gasket.
Water pumps require replacement if they begin to leak coolant or become noisy. including a rumbling sound Coolant leak Engine overheating Related Repair Advice When replacing the water pump. The water pump may be driven by the timing belt or chain. radiator. It these cases. such as a failing thermostat. coolant fan(s). it is common to replace the water pump when the belt or chain is replaced. or head gasket The entire cooling system—including all of the coolant hoses and fittings. The belts should be replaced if they show signs of wear. A leaking water pump can result in damage to the drive and timing belts. and fan clutch (if equipped) —should be inspected when replacing the water pump To help prevent future issues. radiator. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Noise from engine area. water pump or radiator replacement) or during a system flush . circulates coolant through the engine’s cooling system. A failed water pump can be caused by problems in the cooling system. the drive belts may need to be removed. we recommend replacing the thermostat when the cooling system has been opened for repairs (e.g.Water Pump The water pump. also known as the coolant pump.
Some current designs use the timing belt to drive the water pump. it is advisable to replace the water pump in conjunction with scheduled timing belt replacement.Most water pumps are either driven independently via their own belts or are driven by a serpentine belt that also drives many other components. In these cases. .
we recommend replacing the thermostat when the cooling system has been opened for repairs (e. The belts should be replaced if they show signs of wear. Symptoms of Wear or Failure Coolant leak Engine overheating Related Repair Advice If the water pump gasket is leaking.Water Pump Gasket The water pump gasket is the working seal between the water pump and the engine. water pump or radiator replacement) or during a system flush . radiator.g. coolant fan(s). the drive belts may need to be removed. and fan clutch (if equipped) —should be inspected when replacing the water pump or gasket To help prevent future issues. the water pump should be replaced along with the leaking gasket When replacing the water pump or gasket. The entire cooling system—including all of the coolant hoses and fittings.
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