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Musical Performance and the Adult Cello Student: Assessing Why and How Adult Beginners Learn To Play

and Perform _____________________________________ A Project Report Presented to The Graduate Faculty Central Washington University In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Music _______________________________________ By Marjorie Parkington November, 2009

CENTRAL WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY

Graduate Studies We hereby approve the project report of

Marjorie Parkington
Candidate for the degree of Master of Music APPROVED FOR THE GRADUATE FACULTY

_____________________________ John Michel, Committee Chair

_______________________________ Peter Gries

________________________________ Bret Smith

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract: Music Performance and the Adult Cello Student Current Research Pertaining to Developing Performers Motivation to Learn Adult Learners: Who are they? Impact of Studio Teaching Distance Learning and the Internet Teaching Materials for the Adult Student Physical and Mental Demands of Performing Performance for Adult Beginners Future File Appendix A: Printed Resources for Adult Cello Students Appendix B: Exploring the Geography of the Cello Appendix C: 86 Questions: A Checklist for Lessons iv x x x x x x x x x x x x

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ABSTRACT MUSICAL PERFORMANCE AND THE ADULT CELLO STUDENT: ASSESSING WHY AND HOW ADULT BEGINNERS LEARN TO PLAY AND PERFORM Are adults capable of acquiring the technical skill to play and perform music at a high level in the Western Art tradition? Until about twenty years ago, the answer given to that question would very likely have been No! At that point, formal research began to appear dealing with musical development in adulthood. It is still limited and much of it is focused on adults who are already skilled musicians.1 This paper will approach pedagogical issues primarily from a motor-control perspective. My own experience as a cello teacher and student indicates that the mind/body link is the key to achieving a satisfactory level of playing for any student at any age, but especially for adults. Discussion of additional issues includes teacher/adult student relationships, availability of information to these students and adult student motivation. It is past time that more attention is given to this very underserved and unrecognized body of potential talent.

Don D. Coffman, Adult Education, The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning, edited by Richard Colwell and Carol Richardson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 201.

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Current Research Pertaining To Developing Performers The research that is labeled as pertaining to adults usually tries to assess after the fact how a child grew up to become a professional musician. One of the most frequently cited studies was done by K. Anders Ericsson, R.T. Krampe, and C. Tesch-Romer called The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance. This was a study tracing the practicing history of forty violinists, asking each of them to keep a daily practice log for a week, undergo extensive interviews, and to estimate the number of hours of practice on the violin for each year since he or she had started to play the violin. This citation was used by John A. Sloboda to explain the role of practice in attaining musical excellence.2 The forty violinists were divided into groups of ten. Thirty of the violinists were carefully chosen by professors at the Music Academy of West Berlin. Of these thirty, one group of ten was considered to have the best chance at a career as international soloists. The second group of ten was classed as good violinists. The third group was from the music education department with lower performance admission standards. The remaining ten were professional violinists chosen from two symphony orchestras in Berlin. At the time of the study in 1991 the best students and the professionals estimated that they had accumulated about 10,000 practice hours by the age of twenty. Good students had accumulated about 8,000 hours, and the teachers had some 5,000

John A. Sloboda, Music Performance: Expression and the Development of Excellence, Musical Perceptions, edited by Rita Aiello with John A. Sloboda (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 160.

hours. 3 Even the third category of 5,000 hours represents many hours of practice every day for many years to achieve a playing level that allows one to become a good teacher. The conclusion of this study indicates that there is no substitute for the amount of practice required to gain professional level skill. The students involved in this study all started about age six. However, there is no study done to assess whether the beginning age of the students was a limiting factor. If practice started later in life, what would be the results? Would adult learners exhibit a similar rise in expertise if they put in similar numbers of hours over the same number of years? That information is not yet available in any systematic examination of adults who did so. We also do not know what the motivation would be for an adult to accumulate so many hours of practice. Motivation to Learn Most adults have an intrinsic interest in music making. Some typical motivations might be the love of a particular piece of music and the desire to play it competently, or the love of the sound of a particular instrument. A general desire to participate in an artistic endeavor of some kind will also lead people to study music. A persons motivation is difficult to assess from the outside, so to speak, yet it is also one of the most important ones. 4 Motivation is the key to accumulating the previously cited 10,000 hours. When the figures are calculated, it gives a very concrete reference point for the amount of effort

Susan ONeill and John Sloboda, Psychology of Music, Part VI: Musical Ability, Oxford Music Online, edited by Laura Macy (Last updated 2008, viewed on November 1, 2008, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com). 4 Jane Davidson, Developing the Ability to Perform, Musical Performance: A Guide to Understanding, edited by John Rink (Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press), 95.

and time that must be devoted to attaining even a modest level of skill. A common question asked by all ages of beginning students is, How much will I have to practice? That 10,000 hour calculation generally separates the serious from the casual student in a hurry. Part of the answer is always, It depends on what you want to achieve. Every person has their own set of reasons for pursuing musical training, and cannot always articulate what is driving their desire to play music. No one has the right to stand in the way of this kind of desire when it is more than a passing fancy. Because many studio teachers have little knowledge of how adults learn, and do not expect an adult student to accomplish very much, their attitudes frequently impede the progress of their adult beginners. Adult students new to my studio often have experienced such a situation and have nearly given up trying to learn, believing that it was not possible to achieve any satisfaction from learning to play. This belief has been proved invalid by numerous examples from my own experience. To cite several (names are fictitious, the examples are real): Sally was attracted to the sound of the cello, as so many people are, and had been studying for about two years when she called me to ask about lessons. When she came for her first lesson with me, I asked her to play something she felt comfortable with, as I usually do with new students. Her playing set-up was very poor, and the sound she produced was dreadful. She knew things were not right, but had received no help from her former teacher in addressing the problems that we both could see and hear in her playing. After a year in my studio, she is now producing a sound that she enjoys, plays in tune (most of the time), performs in my studio recitals, and has joined a beginning adult orchestra. Her perseverance has paid off, and she is having fun. 3

A strong motivational factor is often a particular music repertoire. That was the case with Kristen. She had fallen in love with the music of a Swiss cellist, Natalie Manzer, and very much wanted to be able to perform the songs she heard on Manzers recordings. Her first teacher was a violinist who knew very little about teaching the cello, but was attempting to do so anyway. As Kristen is a very skilled pianist, she soon realized her error in choice, and looked for a more knowledgeable instructor. She is now progressing at a rate that will soon put her in reach of the technique she will need to play Manzers music. Lynn has been a part of my studio for nearly three years. After about six months, she told me that she had started lessons at this time of her life (early forties) because she had been diagnosed with a degenerative lung disease and was not expected to live for very long. She had wanted to learn how to play the cello for many years prior to this and knew she had to do it now, or it would not happen. It was heart-breaking to me when the pain in her lungs got in the way of her playing. However, she is still with me, and has improved a great deal, both in music and health. I attribute some of that improvement to the joy she finds in playing the cello. My own experience in acquiring professional level skills as an adult led me to studying other adult learners. I switched from violin to cello as a ninth grader because the school I had just moved to needed at least one cello player. I took lessons from the conductor, who was a quite good violinist. Unfortunately, he did not have very good cello teaching skills. I finally was able to study with a cello teacher as a senior in high school, but my choice of a college was not a good one for cello. When I graduated, I still felt I had not attained very good playing skills. It took many decades to find a teacher who had 4

some understanding of how older students were able to learn. I studied with him for about five and a half years. My goal when I started studying again at the age of fifty eight was to learn repertoire, so I would be a better teacher. My teacher understood long before I did that my playing was changing quite dramatically. I finally reached a point where I felt it would be beneficial to verify my progress by acquiring a masters degree in performance. Adult Learners: Who Are They? My teaching experience with young students corroborates the findings of many researchers that levels of learning for children follow a pattern that parallels their mental and physical development as they progress through the years of standard schooling. 5 As I began working seriously with adults to establish excellence in performance at each level in their progress, I observed that a similar flow occurs in their development as musicians. While children are easily clustered according to age in their development capacities; adults are not. Just as with children, some adults persist in their study and some fall by the wayside, but age and development level have nothing to do with when or why that happens. Also, just as with children, a very few reach a professional level. As teachers, we often forget how many times younger students change their area of interests. Once a level of achievement is reached that allows certain activities to be comfortable and enjoyable, instruction no longer seems to be necessary for adults or children. The sports world provides a number of examples of adult participation that

Richard Kennell, Systematic Research in Studio Instruction in Music, The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning, edited by Richard Colwell and Carol Richardson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 249.

preclude any intention or desire of becoming a professional. Golf comes to mind, as does tennis and skiing. When a level is reached that allows for enjoying the activity with friends and family, there is often no perceived need to go any farther. Officially, the age of adulthood is the age of consent. Driving, voting, marrying, etc., are all done at the individuals discretion. Working, having a family, and acquiring housing occupy the majority of time for most people. At some point, however, discretionary time becomes available for many, and that may be when music study can become a reality. Studio teachers need to be very aware that while adult students may be beginners in music study, they are never beginners in life. The reasons they turn to music are as individual as they are, and one size fits all is rarely a successful teaching method for any of them. Motivation to study music, as commented earlier, is extremely individual, and is often elusive to an observer. However, motivation is the driving force behind the desire to learn how to play an instrument for almost any age group. Interviews with both teachers and students can provide some fascinating insights into the whys and the why nows. Such interviews would comprise another whole research area. Impact of Studio Teaching Once the decision is made by the potential student to pursue music study, finding a suitable teacher is often the next step. Until about the early 1980s, studio teaching had been considered outside the bounds of professional educational research. The publication

of a book by Donald A. Schon6 led to changes in attitudes of professional researchers. Studio teaching is now recognized as a legitimate area for investigation even though it presents such a unique set of challenges for the researcher. This seemingly simple relationship between master and apprentice is actually very complex. It has been the primary learning venue for hundreds of years and may be the only apprentice-type teaching model still in common use.7 The reputation of a master teacher in later levels of professional study has always had an enormous impact on the possible professional success of the student.8 The assistance, support, and contacts provided by the master teacher can often make the difference between success and failure. As previously cited in Ericssons study, the preparation for becoming the student of a master teacher has generally happened by the age of twenty.9 For the aspiring professional performer, that preparation encompassed about 10,000 hours of practice over a period of about 15 years. How many hours is that on a yearly basis? It averages about 660 hours per year, or over one and a half hours per day. Can an adult attain the same level of competence as any of the groups cited in Ericssons study? Is there any way to reduce the number of hours of study to a more manageable level and still produce the same results? How many adult beginners would follow through with the time required to achieve such a goal? Why would they practice so many hours? What would be the role of the studio teacher in that process? These
Donald A. Schon, The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action (New York: Basic Books, 1983). 7 Richard Kennell, 243. 8 Karen Burland and Jane W. Davidson, Tracing a Musical Life Transition, The Music Practitioner, edited by Jane W. Davidson (Burlington VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2004), 227-28. 9 John A. Sloboda, Music Performance: Expression and the Development of Excellence, Musical Perceptions, edited by Rita Aiello with John A. Sloboda (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 162.
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questions have no answers as yet, at least, answers confirmed by research. Almost no research is available dealing with the adult beginner on a stringed instrument. What research there is has been done primarily with piano. Because adults are not catagorized with the same specificity as children are in school, finding a group and tracking them for purposes of a study will be challenging. To address this problem in my own teaching of adult beginners I now do a very in-depth exploration with new students to help both of us understand why they are pursuing learning how to play an instrument. There seem to be levels of motivation that can and do change as the student progresses. For children, the beginning factor is often how many of their friends are involved. For adults, it is more often a desire that has developed over a period of time. Each tier of progress brings new insights to what music performance is about, as well as insight into the effort it will take to continue to the next tier. Very few music students of any age make it to the higher professional levels. I have learned to relax when I see someone approaching the limit of what they are willing to do. This is a decision that is up to the individual to make, not the teacher. Distance Learning and the Internet The term distance learning has come to mean any instructional situation that occurs when the teacher and student are not meeting at the same time or place. Such learning used to be styled correspondence courses and was not appropriate for physical activities. The advent of television, not television per se, but the capability of visual correspondence, or virtual meetings, began to set new parameters that gave immediacy to distance learning. Expansion in distance learning began in the early 1990s, when

increasingly powerful computers became more readily available.10 Currently, the internet in the form of the World Wide Web has made distance to mean anything not done in a classroom face-to-face with the instructor. Music teachers have not been terribly quick to go online to teach, with some exceptions, notably Robin Kay Deverich11. She has created a web site business (http://www.celloonline.com) based on her doctoral dissertation about string instruction for adult amateurs. The site includes basic information about all string instruments, very basic descriptions of beginning technique, and music. No information is given about the results of the web site, nor are there any testimonials. Would this be a good way to begin studies? If the desire to start was great, and there was no live teaching situation available, it would provide an opportunity for learning not seen before. More research is needed. Another example of an online teaching method is described by Laurie Niles in the September, 2008, issue of The Strad. She makes videos of teaching points for her students. This is a school class situation, so each student uses the same material each week. Because they all have access to the videos, both student and parent can watch as many times as needed. The videos are recorded on a digital camera that is video capable, and uploaded to YouTube.12 The proliferation of online chat rooms devoted to asking questions and trading information about music indicates that adult learners can find the information they need
Fred J. Rees, Distance Learning and Collaboration in Music Education, The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning, edited by Richard Colwell and Carol Richardson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 257-58. 11 Robin Kay Deverich, Distance Education Strategies for Strings: A Framework of Violin Instruction for Adult Amateurs (D.M.A. document, University of Arizona, 1997), 9-10. 12 Laurie Niles, Net Gains, The Strad: Essential Reading for the String Music World 119 (2008): 42-45.
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by whatever method is appropriate and convenient. These sites can come and go rapidly, so for research purposes may be unreliable. One example of this kind of site is Stringworks.13 This discussion form gives good information about finding appropriate teachers, method books, and playing venues. Some method of online teaching is sure to become available soon. YouTube provides a beginning format of what such teaching might look like. To date, what I have seen are very general sessions geared to beginners with no feed-back between teacher and student. There are programs available that might remedy this, such as SKYPE or I-Chat. Teachers are already using these programs. The situations I am aware of are specifically alternating studio lessons with on line lessons because of distance. I intend to do some teaching myself via SKYPE with several people I have known for a number of years that are much too far away to reach in person. I will also use such a program to do lessons during bad weather, or because the time frame is too short for them to physically come for a lesson. The software needed is more than the free program currently available. A high quality microphone, a good sized monitor screen (at least 24), and bright lighting are a minimum. Both teacher and student need the same high quality tools.14 There is still the technical issue of a time lapse to deal with. It becomes worse with distance, weather interference, and general quirks that seem to affect all computer programs at some time or other. However, rapid developments in technology are addressing that issue. A recent article in the Seattle Times describes video and audio
Stringworks Discussion Forums, Last Updated November 24, 2008 (Viewed November 24, 2008) http://www.stringworks.com/discussion/messages/2405/9792.html?12153849 14 Hubert Pralitz, E-mail Correspondence, dated September 22, 2009, hubertpralitz@yahoo.com.
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technology for the new Yahoo Messenger video chat, developed by Global IP Solutions, that is good enough to allow concentration on the verbal exchange with no annoying delay. The equipment required is a $70 webcam that will connect to virtually any recent PC or Mac with a broadband connection. The last hurdle, as I understand it, is one of compatibility. This new software can only be used between two of the same servers. Yahoo messenger cannot chat with Google Talk yet.15 Purchasing Instruments Also to be found at Stringworks is information about buying cellos and bows online. This is necessary for people in areas far removed from a live source of instruments. Surprisingly, one of those places is the Palm Springs area in California. Despite being very close to a very large population center, Los Angeles, the closest string shop with a good rental program is Roberts Strings in Arizona. That means instrument choice is left to the discretion of the employees at Roberts Strings, not the teacher. There is a major disadvantage to assessing an instrument on line, namely the lack of hands-on experience with the instrument. It is shipped for trial, but how can an intelligent choice be made of what to ship? Again, this is new territory for string players of any experience level and needs a great deal of further investigation. My own living situation gives me the luxury of many shops within easy reach of me and my students from which to choose, so my experience with buying or renting from a distance is non-existent. I have had the opportunity to observe some results with studios that must depend on ordering sight-unheard, so to speak. One of the problems is having

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Mike Swift, Video Chats Now In Sync, The Seattle Times Newspaper, October 12, 2009, A9.

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the appropriate size available when it is needed. In lieu of the correct size, whatever is available will be used. With adults, this will not be an issue as an adult (with few exceptions) uses a full size instrument, no matter the size of the adult. In my opinion, the availability of good, reasonably priced instruments that enhance the playing experience for a student is vital to their success. Many entry-level instruments are not well made and actually hinder the learning process. The rental fee is often expensive. Buying is not advisable until the student has gained enough skill to have an opinion about the suitability of a given instrument for his/her playing style. Purchase prices are high enough to require at least some thought for most families. A teacher skilled in analyzing the match between student and instrument is crucial to the continuing development of the player. Teaching Materials for the Adult Student High quality teaching geared to the adult beginner is a necessity, but just as important are appropriate instructional materials and methods. Historically, when these things became available, a very rapid increase occurred in the level of performance on any given instrument.16 The best example of such a surge in learning was the invention of the printing press. The impact on the level of literacy was stunning. Machine printing allowed a new class of people to own books, music, subscribe to newspapers, and read public notices. That same kind of surge is happening now with the availability of new, faster ways of disseminating information and ideas via the internet.

Andreas C. Lehmann, Historical Increases in Expert Performance Skills: Optimizing Instruments, Playing Techniques, and Training, Music, Motor Control and the Brain, edited by Eckart Altenmuller, Mario Weiesendanger, and Jurg Kesselring (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 7-8

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Adult students are generally extremely motivated to learn, and often find their own way to the information available online that will be the most helpful. Therefore I find myself in the position of facilitator. The ease of exchanging information via the internet allows people from all over the world access to any needed information such as the most effective method books, performing organizations, or teachers. As a teacher, then, I am not the only source of how to play the cello. Given the ease of publishing online, new materials are available every day. There are already numerous methods for piano and guitar. Violin methods are not as abundant, and lower strings have even less, but that is changing. For the first time, string teachers are faced with the task of assessing new methods and pieces, then matching the student to the best method.17 Because the number of adult beginners on every instrument is rapidly expanding, it is crucial to identify material that is appropriate for them. My current choice for my studio is an excellent series of books to be found at C. Harvey Publications that begins to fill the gap for cello, not only for adults but also for my younger students. These books were found by one of my adult students, who decided she really needed more help in learning tenor clef. A whole book devoted to that subject was included in the listings on Amazon. Once we had a copy of that book and realized it was only one of many, we went to Harveys web site and started ordering. The books are clearly labeled as to level: beginning, intermediate, or advanced. The age of the student is given when appropriate. For instance, The Hot Cross Buns books are clearly for age 7 and younger. The material is well organized, varied, and
Setareh Beheshti, One Size Does Not Fit All, Strings Magazine XXIII, Number 8, Issue 167 (2009): 33-34.
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stimulating. In an e-mail communication from Cassia Harvey, she explained the difficulty she always had finding exercise and etude materials that actually taught what she needed to learn. So she started writing her own material. Most of the advanced books were written for her own study.18 I have been using the Harvey books in my studio since November of 2008. The results are startling. The time frame seems to be about one to two months for the student to begin playing in a more physically organized fashion. I have created a partial syllabus for adults detailing some ways to utilize the categories of books. The syllabus is included as Appendix A to this paper. A useful way to teach theory is the last requirement to help students attain a high, comfortable level of playing and performing. Understanding how music theory relates to the instrument you play allows communication with all other musicians, no matter the instrument or even the genre of music. Please see Appendix B to this paper regarding specific ideas on exploring the geography of the fingerboard in relation to all aspects of theory. The ease of publishing music will surely lead to a rise in music for any taste, any instrument, and any level. No longer will teacher or student be stuck learning music or doing etudes they do not really like because nothing else is available to them.

Cassia Harvey, E-mail Correspondence dated November 6, 2008 info@charveypublications.com.

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Physical and Mental Demands of Performing While we need verbal concepts to understand the procedures connected with our chosen instrument, making music is actually a very physical activity whether internal production (singing or blowing) or external (drumming, strumming, bowing, striking a key) modes are used. The actions of playing an instrument or singing demonstrate our musical knowledge. Our musical thinking and knowing are in our musical doing and making.19 Therefore, knowing more about how the adult mind and body processes physical learning will help establish more effective ways for adults to understand and use the mind-body link. A primary source for this kind of physical training research is in the world of sports, where this mind-body relationship is more obvious and more valued than in the world of Western Art music. The attention paid to this link has produced many how-to books for adults for various sports such as golf, tennis, skiing, and biking. Among the most successful of these are the Inner Game books by W. Timothy Gallwey. His series on sports includes The Inner Game of Tennis, The Inner Game of Golf, and The Inner Game of Skiing. Gallwey is credited with being the first to use the label Natural Learning Process to describe the way human beings learn how to walk and talk. It uses mental imagery, imitation, and trial-and-error practice, as well as body feedback for detection and correction of performance errors, according to Daniel Kohut.20 All healthy babies use this method. Children use it without thinking about it. Do adults still

David J. Elliot, Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 56. 20 Daniel L. Kohut, Musical Performance: Learning Theory and Pedagogy (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1985), 4-7.

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have this ability? I believe so. If they do, can it still be used? With some help, again, I believe so. This is the point at which the adult ego steps to the fore. People often have a hard time trying a new activity for fear of feeling stupid, or appearing unknowing in front of an audience. Covering up a lack of knowledge or preparation physically is almost impossible. There are several mental/physical disciplines that I have found extremely helpful to facilitate drawing the physical and mental together. They are the practice of yoga, Feldenkreis, and using the Alexander technique to identify what is actually happening physically while playing the cello. It is outside the scope of this paper to go into further detail, as any one of these disciplines is quite complex. Adults will often bypass these non-verbal techniques of learning as being too unsophisticated for acquiring any kind of real knowledge. The Natural Learning Process described by Gallwey in all of his Inner Game books gives a plausible outcome to what can happen when an adult reconnects with the ability to listen to both sides of his/her brain. He uses the concept of a Self 1 and Self 2 to describe how we listen to our brains: Self 1 talks. Self 2 does. Children make these two facets of consciousness work in harmony with little effort. Self 1 gives commands and Self 2 carries them out, thus allowing the child to remain calm and interested in a particular activity. According to Gallwey, that ability is what makes it easy for a child to learn.21 He also credits adults with the same ability. However, adults usually need to learn to limit the input from Self 1 to only the

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W. Timothy Gallwey, Inner Tennis: Playing the Game (New York: Random House, 1976) 25.

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information that is needed to accomplish the activity. Self 1 likes to give opinions as well as information. Those opinions are often very negative and unhelpful, such as Well, you really looked dumb trying to do that!, or, What do you think youre doing trying to learn this at your age?, or, Why dont you just go home and watch T.V.? Youre never going to get this right. I quote from my own internal dialog! The all time winner for frequency is, however, It sounded so much better at home! Learning in this instance will require getting the ego (Self 1) to step out of the way. Adult egos, however, are very strongly developed and generally not pleased at being asked to step down. Once we embrace, even as children, the visual, scientific, verbal, and cognitive aspects of modern society, turning control over to the doer (Self 2) can feel very uncomfortable. Self 2 relies on imitation, repetition, and trial-and-error as the primary way to acquire physical information. It would seem then that we are dealing with two kinds of intelligence, both of which are necessary to becoming musicians at any age. Both kinds are an intrinsic part of a human mind and body. Reintegrating the link between them is crucial for adults to succeed in any physical activity, but especially for music. Barry Green organized the concepts of Self 1 and Self 2 specifically for musicians in The Inner Game of Music.22 However, he focused on people who started music training as children. In an e-mail communication from him23 he assured me that he has been involved with adult beginners who are a good case for self doubt in the learning, practicing, and performing

Barry Green with W. Timothy Gallwey, The Inner Game of Music (Garden City NY: Anchor Press/Double Day, 1985) 20-23. 23 Barry Green, E-mail Correspondence dated November 2, 2008 barry@innergameofmusic.com.

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elements of the Inner Game. He referred me to a newer book, The Mastery of Music,24 and another as yet untitled that will be out in the spring of 2009. Another author whose writing has fired my imagination both as teacher and student is pianist and teacher, William Westney. He advocates a mind-body approach to learning music performance that is similar to that of Gallwey and Green. His book, The Perfect Wrong Note, is required reading for adult students in my studio, in particular Chapter 4, Step By Step: A Guide to Healthy Practicing.25 His advice to avoid the ego-driven emotional roller-coaster of Yippee I was great! alternating with Aarrggh I messed up! is another way of warning against giving Self 1 too much power to disrupt and control our activities. Westney has created a teaching format he calls The Unmaster Class, designed to free participants from their own self consciousness. Rather than following the traditional scheme of audience-listens-to-student-playing-then-listens-for-the-grandmaster-to-impart-words-of-wisdom, words that often are harmful to the student, Westney invokes the participation of the whole audience in finding ways to release the inner inhibitions that every performer has. During my last adult studio recital studio, I tried just a little bit of this idea. I explained my own memories of how big and scary the stage was when I had given a recital at this same facility. I asked everyone to try and visualize what they would see from the stage and how they might feel if they were performing. The audience seemed to

Barry Green, The Mastery of Music: Ten Pathways to True Artistry (New York: Broadway Books, 2003). 25 William Westney, The Perfect Wrong Note: Learning to Trust Your Musical Self (Pompton Plains NJ: Amadeus Press, 2003) 77-97.

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be very sympathetic to the trials of the performers. It was fun listening to comments after everyone played. Alice McVeigh is a very experienced teacher of adults, and plainly enjoys her students progress. Anyone who aspires to focus on adult students should study her delightful article on adult teaching in The Strad.26 She also stresses the Self 1/Self 2 connection involved in helping adults develop a satisfactory technique. Robert Jesselson, a former president of the American String Teachers Association, has created a useful list of questions to aid teachers in preparing for lessons. These are geared to young students, but would be helpful in teaching adults as well. Adults are very capable of analyzing their own needs, and their input from examining this list would be very valuable in showing studio teachers how to mesh with their adult students.27 I have included this list as Appendix C to this paper for the use of both teachers and students. Performance for Adult Beginners So, our new student has acquired an instrument, a teacher, and has lots of enthusiasm. Then the teacher says the dread R word recital! Immediate reaction will be, Oh, no! Not me. I just want to play for my own enjoyment. Every single adult student I have ever taught has used almost exactly those same words to me when confronted with the approaching recital date. That is how I know what will be said!

Alice McVeigh, Never Too Old to Learn, The Strad: Essential Reading for the String Music World 117 (2006): 44-47. 27 Robert Jesselson, 86 Questions: Planning the Lesson: A Studio Teachers Self-examination Checklist, Strings Magazine XXIII, Number 9, Issue 168 (2009): 36-39.

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Learning how to play the instrument does not teach anyone how to perform on that instrument. Performing requires an entirely different set of skills and outlooks. Where does anyone go to get the experience needed to perform as well as possible, and why should they perform at all. There are few-to-no venues available for adults to gain this kind of experience. In addition to studio recitals, school children have programs built into the structure of the education programs wherever they live that will give them performance training. Most studio teachers simply roll their few adult students into the programs they put on for their younger students. This is not the best way to entice adults to perform. My solution is to have a separate performance for each category. The title I use is Performance Class, and no one is allowed to attend who is not going to perform. Once everyone is in the same predicament, they all moan together and get on with it. After a few performing experiences, they start to feel the impact the performing is having on their progress. Frank Wilson, in his book, Tone Deaf and All Thumbs?, says that we tend to forget that the fastest way to find out how securely we have anything in our grasp is to hold it up in front of an audience.28 That almost always involves a state of mind called stage fright. According to Wilson (and myself), everybody who performs in any way, amateur or professional, will suffer from this debilitating state of general alarm at some time. Stage fright is the same as flight or fight syndrome and is not useful to a performer. At one time in the distant past, the adrenalin produced was often the literal
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Frank R. Wilson, Tone Deaf And All Thumbs?: An Invitation To Music-Making for Late Bloomers and Non-Prodigies (New York: Viking Press, 1986), 170.

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difference between life and death. While that is not true for a performer, our bodies react as though it were, and flood our entire nervous system with what the mind perceives as protection. The heart of performance training is learning to channel excess adrenalin in a useful way.29 Dr. William Westney describes his first concerto performance with orchestra when he was eighteen. Somewhere in the middle of the piece, he blanked out and realized when he came to that he had no idea where in the music he was playing. The spot was one that had given him no trouble in rehearsal, but now, in a panic, he could remember nothing about what was supposed to happen. It was one of those easy spots that tend to get overlooked in practice. Experienced performers know that if anything can go wrong, at some time it will, and they learn to practice accordingly. Note the word experienced. These are things you do not learn by practicing the music. You must practice performing.30 Future File As more accurate information is disseminated to teachers and potential students, the old way of regarding adult learning as almost impossible will fall by the wayside. It is now an accepted fact that brains do keep growing and it is possible to exercise the brain and get smarter. That is a huge research area all by itself. In the field of music research, a long range test is currently being conducted on the similarities in sight singing abilities between untrained adults and first year university

Frank R. Wilson, 173-75. William Westney, The Perfect Wrong Note: Learning to Trust Your Musical Self (Pompton Plains, NJ: Amadeus Press, 2003), 144-45.
30

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music students. The results indicate that the abilities of these two groups to sing are very similar, despite the instrumental technical mastery of many of the university students.31 This research may reveal a musical template residing in all of us that can be awakened at any age. In the other direction, studies into the origins of music-making going thousands of years into the past indicate that our hearing mechanisms have probably not changed in a hundred thousand years. Use of the voice seems to have always been imitative. Therefore, it may be that the first fixed pitch sounds were produced by bone or reed tubes. Singing developed perhaps from imitating those sounds.32 So perhaps it should come as no surprise that singing is not the natural activity we would like to think it is. More research is needed to continue developing effective strategies for adult learners of all ages. As people live longer and healthier lives, many will want to participate in activities they previously had no time for and/or no access to. Music making is much too important to be confined only to childhood.

Bibliography Beament, James. How We Hear Music: The Relationship Between Music and the Hearing Mechanism. Rochester NY: Boydell Press. 2001. Beheshti, Setareh. One Size Does Not Fit All. Strings Magazine, XXIII Number 8, Issue 167 (2009): 33-34.

Lyle Davidson, Songsinging by Young and Old: A Developmental Approach to Music, Musical Perceptions, edited by Rita Aiello with John A. Sloboda (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 127. 32 James Beament, How We Hear Music: The Relationship Between Music and the Hearing Mechanism (Rochester, NY: The Boydell Press, 2001),148-49

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Burland, Karen, and Jane W. Davidson.Tracing A Musical Life Transition. The Music Practitioner, edited by Jane W. Davidson. Burlington VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2004. 225-49. Coffman, Don D. Adult Education. The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning, edited by Richard Colwell and Carol Richardson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.199-209. Davidson, Jane. Developing the Ability to Perform. Musical Performance: A Guide to Understanding, edited by John Rink. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2002. 89-101. Davidson, Lyle. Songsinging by Young and Old: A Developmental Approach to Music. Musical Perceptions, edited by Rita Aiello with John A. Sloboda. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 99-130. Deverich, Robin Kay. Distance Education Strategies for Strings: A Framework of Violin Instruction for Adult Amateurs. D.M.A. document, University of Arizona, 1997. Deverich, Robin Kay. E-mail correspondence dated November 30, 2008, violinonline@cox.net. Elliott, David J. Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Gallwey, W. Timothy. Inner Tennis: Playing the Game. New York: Random House, 1976. Gallwey, W. Timothy. The Inner Game of Tennis. New York: Random House, 1974. Green, Barry. The Mastery of Music: Ten Pathways to True Artistry. New York: Broadway Books. 2003 Green, Barry. E-mail Correspondence dated November 2, 2008. barry@innergameofmusci.com Green, Barry with W. Timothy Gallwey. The Inner Game of Music. Garden City NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1986. Jesselson, Robert. 86 Questions: Planning the Lesson: A Studio Teachers SelfExamination Checklist. Strings Magazine XXIII, Number 9, Issue 168 (2009): 36-39. Harvey, Cassia. E-mail Correspondence dated November 6, 2008. info@charveypublications.com. Kennell, Richard. Systematic Research in Studio Instruction in Music. The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning, edited by Richard Colwell and Carol Richardson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. 243-56. 23

Kohut, Daniel L. Musical Performance: Learning Theory and Pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1985. Lehmann, Andreas C. Historical Increases in Expert Performance Skills: Optimizing Instruments, Playing Techniques, and Training. Music, Motor Control and the Brain, edited by Eckart Altenmuller, Mario Weiesendanger, and Jurg Kesselring. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 5-22. McVeigh, Alice.Never Too Old to Learn. The Strad: Essential Reading for the String Music World 117 (2006): 44-47. Niles, Laurie. Net Gains, The Strad: Essential Reading for the String Music World 119 (2008): 42-45. ONeill, Susan, and John Sloboda. Psychology of Music, Part VI: Musical Ability. Oxford Music Online, edited by Laura Macy. Last updated 2008. Viewed on November 1, 2008. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com Pralitz, Hubert. E-mail correspondence dated September 22, 2009. hubertpralitz@yahoo.com. Rees, Fred J. Distance Learning and Collaboration in Music Education. The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning, edited by Richard Colwell and Carol Richardson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. 257-73. Schon, Donald A. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books, 1983. Sloboda, John A. Music Performance: Expression and the Development of Excellence. Musical Perceptions, edited by Rita Aiello with John A. Sloboda. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.152-69. Stringworks Discussion Forums. Last Updated November 24, 2008. Viewed November 24, 2008. http://www.stringworks.com/discussion/messages/2405/9792.html?12153849. Swift, Mike. Video Chats Now In Sync. The Seattle Times, A9-10. October 12, 2009. Westney, William. The Perfect Wrong Note. Pompton Plains NJ: Amadeus Press, 2003. Wilson, Frank R. Tone Deaf and All Thumbs? An Invitation To Music-Making For Late Bloomers And Non-Prodigies. New York: Viking Penguin, 1986.

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Further Reading Alexanian, Diran. Complete Cello Technique: The Classic treatise on Cello Theory and Practice. Dover ed. Mineola: Dover Publication, 2003. Conable, Barbara. What Every Musician Needs to Know About the Body. rev. ed. Portland: Andover Press, 2000. Harbaugh, Ross. Put the Chi into Cello. The Strad. September 2003: 938-945. Kendall, D. John. The Suzuki Violin Method in American Music Education. Washington, D.C.: Music Educators National Conference, 1973. Kim, Minhye Clara. An Examination of Applied Anatomy and Physiology in Cello Playing: A handbook. Diss. Teachers College, Columbia University, 2005. Lee, Shiang-Yin. Left-hand Technique in the Suzuki Cello Method: An Analytical Overview and Comparison with Contemporary Cello Pedagogy (Rudolf Matz, Paul Tortelier, Maurice Eisenberg). Diss. University of Washington, 2002. Lee, Sun-Ah. Methods and Techniques of Teaching First Semester Cello Performance Majors: Four Approaches by Four Master Teachers (Ross Harbaugh, Phyllis Young, Irene Sharp, Tanya Carey). Diss. University of Miami, 2005. Mackie, Vivien. Just Play Naturally. Boston-London: Duende Editions, 2003. Mantel, Gerhard. Cello Technique: principles & Forms of Movement. Trans. Barbara Haimberger Thiem. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. McCullough, Carol. The Alexander Technique and the String Pedagogy of Paul Rolland. Diss. Arizona State University, 1996. Owen, Laurinel. Resistance Movement. The Strad, September 2004: 896-897. Sazer, Victor. New Directions in Cello Playing. Los Angeles: Ofnote, 1995. Sella, David. An Application of Selected Body Structure and Postures of the Human Body to the Fundamental of Cello technique. Diss. New York University, 1981. Suzuki, Shinichi. Suzuki Cello School: Cello Part. Rev. ed. Miami: Summy-Birchard, 1999. Tunca, Ozan Evrim. Most Commonly Used Etude Books by Cello Teachers in American Colleges and Universities. Diss. The Florida State University, 2004. Walden, Valerie. One Hundred Years of Violoncello: A history of Technique and Performance Practice, 1740-1840. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Young, Phillip Taylor, III. The Transcriptions and Editions of Luigi Silva and Their Influence on Cello Pedagogy and Performance with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Bach, Beethoven, Barber, Bridge, Haydn and others. Diss. University of North Texas, 1997. Young, Phyllis. Playing the String Game. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1978. ---. The String Play. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986.

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Appendix A Printed Music Resources for Adult Cello Students: A Syllabus for Technical Studies, Etudes, Pieces and How to Use Them This syllabus was created using two resources: existing lists to identify material appropriate for adults, and my own library. Syllabi are generally aimed toward young, sometimes very young, students, and will include many pieces that the adult mind will likely find boring, demeaning, and unmusical. My purpose was to create a resource that will remedy all of those problems by providing a list of works from all time periods that will engage the adult mind while allowing playing technique time to develop. My teaching experience has shown me that adults will often rush ahead too quickly in order to arrive at a particular piece that may very well be the source of the desire to learn to play the cello. As a teacher I need to help them attain a playing level that will give them a good technical base for learning such a piece. It has taken me many years of trial and error to develop a teaching format that appeals to adult beginners, and keeps them studying long enough to reach a satisfying level of achievement. Without that period of development, tone quality will suffer. The student may not understand why practicing is no longer enjoyable. Many teachers do not weight this aspect of learning enough, either. The result is a lot of disappointed former students, which is a very unnecessary outcome. By its nature, a syllabus is a work in progress. The ease of adding and deleting material on a computer allows frequent updates as new material becomes available, or 26

older material becomes obsolete. Perusing some of the oldest lists available makes it very plain that things do change, even in the somewhat staid world of classical music. For instance, the cello is now being incorporated into other genres, often making use of electric instruments, or amplification of acoustic instruments. Those genres include jazz, rock and roll, country, and rhythm and blues. My own strength is classical, so that is primarily the repertoire that I concentrate on. However, as students ask for other styles, I will certainly be incorporating that music as I find it. The group, Apocolyptica, a cello quartet, is a great example of both performance and written music available online. They play heavy metal rock ala Metalica. Beginning Materials Beginning materials by their very nature are going to be simple. Playing open strings is a very important activity. Without a clear explanation of why that is so important, an adult is unlikely to maintain interest in doing something so obviously not musical. The teacher needs to do a lot of call and response demonstration. Playing a beautiful sound for a student and then giving them a chance to imitate that sound is essential to developing the ability to hear it clearly themselves. When the student is ready to make note changes with the left hand and play songs, the written material needs to be very clear and easy to read, with a lot of repetition built in to the work. It is very helpful if beginning books also include some reference material, such as a diagram naming parts of the cello. Some elementary note reading is useful, as well. A few songs should also be taught by rote, so the listening ear starts to develop. 27

I am currently using two sources of music, one for each of these areas. Both are a series of books that will help develop physical technique and musical knowledge. The first is an extensive creation of exercises by Cassia Harvey that one of my adult students discovered online at Amazon. She then went straight to the source for more books, and I have been using them ever since with great satisfaction for both my students and myself. Opening Extreme Training for the Advanced Cellist, Book One, was quite an experience for me. I realized after making my way very cautiously through the first page there is always more to learn at any level. The books are available at www.charveypublications.com. I cannot recommend these books too highly. They are unique in the world of cello pedagogy. For the first time, to my knowledge, cellists have a wide variety of technique books for every level that addresses every needed bowing, fingering, and rhythmic pattern. The Suzuki Books for Cello through Volume Ten is the skeleton of a good repertoire. As a trained Suzuki teacher, I have the beginning books memorized as well as much of the advanced literature included in the later books. That leaves me free to concentrate on what the student is actually doing physically. However, not every student finds every piece all that appealing. While I can usually cajole and/or coerce younger students into playing what I want them to play, adults are not so amenable! Also, the adult mind can easily grasp ideas and concepts that would not be at all understandable to a young student. The adults are often ready to leap ahead mentally before they are physically ready to leave the technique development of a given level behind.

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The best way to keep our adult students content, then, is to give them a great deal of music to play that is challenging mentally, as well as being satisfying in a musical sense. As much as possible, they should be choosing their own repertoire with guidance from a teacher who, at this juncture, is a facilitator. The following list of beginning repertoire represents my ideas of how pieces, etudes, and exercises might progress. Pieces should be combined with etudes and exercises that facilitate the learning of each piece. My study of syllabi from many sources indicates that the choices for graded material are highly subjective and do not fit every student. Each student moves at a different pace and also a different level of interest. What one might find fascinating, the next will find utterly tedious. Pieces Etudes Exercises Harvey Publications: Hot Cross Buns Mary Had a Little Lamb Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Suzuki Cello Book One: Folk songs Allegro Long, Long Ago The Open String Book for Cello Schroeder, Book 1 7-11 Finger Exercises for the Cello, Book One Twinkle Variations Hot Cross Buns Book Mary Had a Little Lamb Book Beginning Technique for the Cello Early Exercises for the Cello

Perpetual Motion

Allegretto Andantino

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Rigaudoon Etude Happy Farmer Minuet in C Minuet #2 Suzuki Cello Book Two: Long, Long Ago May Time Minuet #1 Minuet #2 Chorus from Judas Maccabeus Hunters Chorus Musette Witches Dance Two Grenadiers Gavotte Bouree

Getting in Shape for Cello

Knowing the Notes for Cello

(Please see Table of Contents for composers) Schroeder, Book One, 12-29

Serial Shifting Second Position for the Cello Second Position Technical Studies

The Two-Octaves Book for Cello (Please see Table of Contents for composers)

Bach for the Cello (arr. Charles Kane) Bolling, Jazz Christmas Suite for Cello and Piano Hindemith, Three Easy Pieces Martinu, Miniature Pieces for Cello and Piano *Microjazz for Starters, cello, Christopher Norton, Boosey and Hawkes 30

*Sonata da camera, Rudolf Matz (as well as any of his other works for students) *Ten Original Pieces, Op. 116, August Nolck Intermediate At this point, the student is doing some shifting in all the neck positions, and has been exposed through the Harvey books to lots of rhythm and bowing drills that allow them to manipulate the shifting in a fairly sophisticated manner. With adults and older teenagers, I find I can leave the timing of changing to a new exercise page to their discretion. The teacher must check on how the playing is going, but the adults all seem to know when it is time to change to a new page in any given book. Having many books to choose from is a new experience for me as both teacher and player. At any time in my own practice, I have something else to play when I have had enough of any one kind of exercise. I am much more likely to keep my bow on the string for a longer period of time. Feed-back from my students indicates a similar reaction for them. Several of the Harvey books include short pieces as demonstrations of exercise techniques. I like to have each student working on a piece that is a little more challenging musically, as well. The first book of the Suzuki series has pieces by known composers that are very charming and enjoyable to play. Adults appreciate not dealing with titles such as Lollipop Man, or The Penguin Strut, for example.

Pieces Suzuki, Book 3

Etudes

Exercises

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Marie, La Cinquantain Dvorak, Humoresque Webster, Scherzo

Finger Exercises, Books 2 and 3 Fourth Position Book Minor Scales for the Cello, One String

Suzuki, Book 4 Tchaikovsky, Chanson Triste Bach, Suite #1, Minuets Breval, Sonata in C Major Octave shifts for the Cello, Book One

Vivaldi, Six Sonatas for Cello and Continuo Di Base, Reverie * Arnold Trowell, Twelve Easy Pieces Op. 4 Gabrieli, Domenico, Seven Ricercars, International *Galliard, John Ernest, Six Sonatas Hellendaal, Peter, Rondo, Sonata Op.5 No.6, Schott *Norton, Christopher, Microjazz for Cello Solos for the Cello Player, edited by Otto Deri, G. Schirmer. Inc. Brahms, Lullaby Debussy, Romance Lotti, Aria Cellists Favorite Contest Album, edited by Franklin Collier 32

Third Position for the Cello Three Octave Scales for Cello, Book One Tenor Clef for the Cello Workouts for the Intermediate Cellist

Beethoven, Minuet in G Goltermann, a Minor Concerto, Op. 14, Andante Massenet, Melodie, Op 10 Pergolese, Nina Ponce, Estrellita, Mexican Serenade *Archer, Violet, Six Miniatures for Cello, Waterloo Music Co. Bach, Suite in G major, Gigue -----Arioso (from Cantata 156) Bazelaire, Paul, Suite Francaise, op. 114 Breval, Concerto No. 2 in D Major, Delrieu Davidov, Carl, Romance Sans Paroles, Schott Faure, Sicilienne, Peters Goltermann, Georg, Concerto No. 4 in G, Op 65, Allegro (ed. Rose), C. Fischer Marcello, Benedetto, 6 Sonatas, Peters Mendelsson, Ludwig, Student Concerto, Op. 213, C. Fischer Paradis, Maria Th. Von, Scilienne (arr Dushkin), Schott Squire, Five Pieces, Op 16, C Fisher

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Squire, Danse Rustique, Bouree, Tarantella, *Romance Unbeaten Tracks, edited by Steven Isserlis, Faber Music Please see Alternative Cello section Webster, Carl, Scherzo, Boston Wedgewood, Pamela, Jazzin About, Faber Please see Alternative Cello section Advanced At this level, there are literally hundreds of pieces to choose from, so lists are useful. However, the music itself must be seen and tested by both teacher and student to make a good choice for that student. You-Tube is, in my opinion, one of the best modern tools available to help adult students find pieces that appeal to them enough to want to play and/or perform. I will again emphasize the value of the Harvey books in developing the skills needed at each level. Pieces can be so badly mangled during the learning process that there is no joy left by the time the music is more or less learned. Because the Harvey exercises are not etudes or pieces, the student is free to focus on the physical problems involved in cello playing. There is usually not even a cadence at the end of the page. I am still not sure why that is so freeing and energizing, but all my students thus far have had the same experience when practicing this material. A student commented that the pieces she was working on did not sound the same if she tried to begin a practice session with

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one of them, instead of starting with a Harvey exercise. It does not seem to matter which book or which exercise is used to begin the practice, the result is the same.

Exercises Harvey, Cassia Arpeggio Studies in Three Octaves for the Cello Uses all keys and many rhythm and bowing patterns. Artificial Harmonics for the Cello, Book one Establishes the octave shape required for producing an artificial harmonic Double Stop Musings for the Cello, Books One Four Provides a mix of intervals in all positions. Extreme Training for the Advanced Cellist, Books One and Two This is the most challenging exercise work I have seen. Finger Exercises for the Cello, Books Four and Five As more positions are added, it is very helpful to work in more than one of these books. If a student has started with this material, the first book is fine on its own. Each successive book can be started well before the first one is completed. They complement each other. Octave Scales for the Cello Octave Shifts for the Cello, Book Two Octaves for the Cello, Book One Five All of the octave books are very challenging! Learning how octave shapes are set up on the fingerboard is one of the most useful and practical ways to add technical expertise to anyones playing. Sixths for the Cello This is an interval that feels very good physically on the cello. It also aids in hearing thirds more accurately. Sautille Studies for the Cello, Book one Scale Studies for the Cello (One String), Books One Three 35

Tenths for the Cello, Book One Thirds in Thumb Position for the Cello Setting up any thumb position automatically provides an octave range to explore intervals. Thirds are the most used interval in any style of music, so this work is extremely valuable. Thumb Position Duets for the Cello, Book One Thumb Position for the Cello, Books One Three Book one is the best beginning thumb position introduction I have seen. It is especially effective for those students who started learning using the Harvey materials. Warm-ups for the Advanced Cellist, Book One

Standard teaching methods generally require etudes from a variety of sources. I have played many of them, including Sebastion Lee, Carl Schroeder, and David Popper. Whether they are materials I will have my students use in the future remains to be seen. Most of the etudes in current use have proven to be unproductive, and have never produced the kind of progress my students are now experiencing. I would rather have more time to spend teaching repertoire. With that said, I will provide a list from as many genres as I can find that I feel will keep adult students motivated. Please note that I have made no attempt to grade any of the lists beyond the very beginning pieces. A sense of competition will sometimes entice students of any age into moving ahead too fast and not enjoying the music itself. Solo Cello Bach, JS, Solo Suites No. 2 through No. 6, Barenreiter Boone, Benjamin, Buffing the Gut, A Jazz Etude for Solo Cello, Latham 36

Cassado, Suite for Solo Cello, Universal Crumb, George, Sonata, Peters Gabrieli, Seven Ricercars, Scott/MCA Kodaly, Zoltan, Sonata, Op. 8, Universal/Schott Matz, Rudolf, *Lights and Shadows, *Suite in C major for solo cello, and *Temea con Variazioni for solo cello, Dominis Minsky, Aaron, Cello 10 American Etudes, Oxford UP Muczynski, Robert, Gallery (ed Epperson), Schirmer Franchomme, Auguste, 12 Caprices, Op. 7, International Bach, PDQ, Suites No. 1 and No. 2 for Cello All By Its Lonesome, T. Presser Collections for Cello and Piano Deri, Otto (ed), Solos for the Cello Player, G. Schirmer Includes many transcriptions as well as the following: Popper, Village Song Saint-Saens, The Swan Schumann, Lento (from Five Pieces in Popular Mood) Collier, Franklin (ed), Cellists Favorite Contest Album, 15 Compositions, C. Fischer Bruch, Kol Nidre van Goens, Scherzo Lucke, Andante Cantabile Popper, Fond Recollections

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Saint-Saens, Allegro Appassionato Tschaikowsky, Chant sans paroles Schulz, Leo, Violoncello Classics, Schirmer Bargiel, W. Adagio Op. 38 Davidoff, C. Romance sans paroles, Op. 23 Gabriel-Marie, Serenade badine Godard, B. Berceuse from Jocelyn Matys, C. Romance, Op. 32 Offenbach, J., Musette Popper, Widmung, Op. 11, No. 1 Tschaikowsky, Andante cantabile Zelenski, Berceuse, Op. 32 Encores for Cello, ed. by Janos Starker Schubert, Franz, Moment Musical, Op 94, No. 3 Schumann, Abendlied, Op. 85, No. 12 Faure, Gabriel, Sicilienne, Op. 78 Saint-Saens, The Swan (from Carnival of the Animals) Popper, Hungarian Rhapsody, Op. 68 Popper, Tarantelle, Op. 33

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Cellists Solo Album, compiled by W. F. Ambrosio, Fischer Bohm, C. Calm as the Night (Cantilena) Cui, C. Orientale Elgar, Salut dAmour Faure, The Palms Goltermann, Andante, A minor Concerto Godard, Au Matin Grieg, Chanson dAmour Grieg, Solviegs Song Handel, Largo Hauser, Miska, Berceuse Jarnefelt, Armas, Berceuse Mascagni, P. Intermezzo Sinfonico Massenet, Melodie Mendelssohn, On Wings of Song Offenbach, O Belle Nuit Popper, The Autumn Flower Raff, J. Cavatina Shumann, Traumerei (Reverie) Simonetti, A. Romanza Tosti, E. Paolo, Good Bye 39

Tchaikovsky, None but the Lonely Heart Cello Solos, Everybodys Favorite Series No. 40 There are lots of repeats from other collections, but has several that are unique to this collection. Cello World, edited by Steven Isserlis Villa-Lobos, Black Swan Solos with Piano Accompaniment Bach, J.S. Three Sonatas for cello and piano, BWV 1027-1029, Kalmus Bolling, Claude, Suite (vc & jazz piano trio), Caid/Hansen Busser, Henri, Three Pieces for Violoncello and Piano, Op. 52, Masters Music Publications Cassado, Gaspar, Requiebros, Schott Couperin, Francois, Pieces en concert (arr Bazelaire), Leduc Cui, Cesar, Orientale, Kaleidoscope, Op 50 Davidov, Karl, At the Fountain, Op 20/2, International Debussy, Nocturne et Scherzo for cello and piano, 1882, Faber Music DHervelois, Caix, Suite 1 in A major for Violoncello and Piano, Schott Dvorak, Rondo, Op 94, International -------Silent Woods, Simrock Faure, Apres un reve (After a Dream) (arr Casals) International -------Elegie, Op 24, Peters Foss, Lukas, Capriccio (ed Piatigorsky), Fischer 40

Glazunov, Alexandre, Chant du Menestrel, Op 71, International --------Serenade Espagnol, Op 20, No. 2, International --------Melodie Arabe, Album of Five Pieces for Cello and Piano, International Hindemith, Paul, Three Pieces, Op 8, Capriccio, Phantasiestuck, and Scherzo --------Variations on A Frog He Went A-Courting, Schott Locatelli, Pietro, Sonata in D Major, International Martinu, Concertino for Violoncello and Piano, Joshua Corporation *Matz, Rudolf, Elegy and Humoresque, Dominis Orrego-Salas, Juan, Duos Concertante for Violoncello and Piano, Op. 41, 1955, Peer International Paganini-Silva, Variazioni Di Bravura, Su temi del Mose de G. Rossini, G. Zanibon Pasternack, Josef, Habanera for Violoncello and Piano, Schirmer Piazzolla, Le Grand Tango, Edizioni Berben Popper, David, Gavotte No. 2 in D, Op. 23, International ---------Vito, Op. 54/5, International ----------Tarantella, Op 33 (ed Rose), International ----------Hungarian Rhapsody (ed Rose), International ----------Spinning Song, Op 55/1, International Rachmaninov, Vocalise, Op 34/14, International Ranzato, A., Tre pezzi per violoncello e pianoforte, Edizioni Curci - Milano Schumann, Fantasy Pieces, Op 73, Henle

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-----------*Five pieces in Popular Mood, Op. 102, International/Peters Weber, Carl Maria, Adagio and Rondo, transcribed by Gregor Piatigorsky, International Sonatas Beethoven, Sonatas 1 through 5, Henle/Peters/Schirmer Brahms, Sonata in E minor and Sonata in F Major, Henle Breval, Sonata in G (ed Koch-Weigart), Schott Chopin, Sonata in g minor, Henle Dohnanyi, Sonata in B-flat, Op 8, Kalmus Eccles, Sonata in G minor, International Francoeur, Sonate for Violoncello and Piano in E Major, Schott Locatelli, Pietro, Sonata in D Major, International Marcello, Sonatas in G Major and C Major, International Martinu, Bohuslav, Sonata No.2 (1941), AMP/Hal Leonard Mendelssohn, Sonata in B-flat Major, Op 45, Peters Mennini, Louis, Sonatina for Violoncello and Piano, Boosey and Hawkes Porpora, Sonata in F Major, Schott Prokofiev, Sonata in C, Op 119, International Sammartini, Giovanni, Sonata in G (ed Rose), International Saint-Saens, *Sonata No. 1 in c, Op 32, International Scarlatti, Three Sonatas for Cello and Piano, Schirmer Shostakovich, Sonata in d minor, Op 40, International 42

Starer, Robert, Sonata for Cello and Piano, MCA Music Zocarini, Matteo, 6 Concertini, Heft 1, 1-3, Schott Concertos and Concert Pieces Bach, JC, Concerto in c minor (actually composed by Henri Casadesus), Salabert Boccherini, Concerto in B-flat (arr Grutzmacher), International Brahms, Concerto in a minor, Op.102 for violin and cello, International Breval, Concerto No. 2 in D (ed Feuillard), Delrieu Bruch, Max, Kol Nidrei, Op. 47, International Dvorak, Concerto in A Major, Breitkopf ------Concerto in B flat Major Elgar, Concerto in e minor, Op 85, Novello Haydn, Concerto in C, Henle ---------Concerto in D, Henle Kabalevsky, Dimitri, Concerto No. 1, Op. 49, Kalmus Lalo, Edouard, Concerto in d minor (2nd and 3rd movts are most charming) Prokofiev, Symphonie Concertante, Op 125, International Schumann, Robert, Concerto in a minor, Op 129, Breitkopf Saint-Saens, Concerto No. 1 in a minor, Op 33, International

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Alternative Styles Abby Newton, Crossing to Scotland, celtic music for cello A collection of traditional and newly composed tunes. Includes a CD. Grissom, Sean, Celtic Cello Wedgewood, Pamela, Jazzin About, Faber Pink Lady Hungarian Stomp Ho Down Show Down The Next Time Just Passing By Rock-a-bow Baby Unbeaten Tracks, edited by Steven Isserlis, Faber Music Elegy, Carl Davis Album leaf, Op 66, Lowell Liebermann Frogs dancing on water lilies, Olli Mustonen Cantilena, John Woolrich Hip hop bourree, Julian Jacobson Vocalise, Mark-Anthony Turnage Tango flageoletto, David Matthews The haunted house, Steven Isserlis

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SYLLABI of CELLO MUSIC American String Teachers Association. String Syllabus: Revised 1997 - 2000 printing. Edited by Project Director David Littrell. Bloomington, IN: Tichenor Publishing, 1997. The Cambridge Companion to the Cello, edited by Robin Stowell. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Cheney, Carey. Solos for Young Cellists, Volumes 1-8. Miami, FL: Summy-Birchard Music, distributed by Warner Bros. Publications, 2003. Classical Music Library, http://internal.cwu.classical.com.ezp.lib.cwu.edu/ Cowling, Elizabeth. The Cello. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983. Violoncello Repertoire Selected Syllabus. Internet Cello Society, created by John Michel. http://www.cello.org/Libraries/references/syllabus.html. Iotti, Oscar R. Violin and Violoncello in Duo Without Accompaniment based on the work by Alexander Feinland. Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1973. Lambooij, Henk, and Michael Feves. A Cellist's Companion: A Comprehensive Catalogue of Cello Literature. Lulu.com, 2007. Markevitch, Dimitry. A Bibliography of the Unaccompanied Violoncello Literature. Berkeley, CA: Fallen Leaf Press, 1989. Pleeth, William. Cello, compiled and edited by Nona Pyron. New York: Schirmer Books, 1982. Potter, Louis, Jr. "Cello Repertoire List." In The Art of Cello Playing, 218-29. Seacaucus, NJ: Summy Birchard, 1980. The Royal Conservatory of Music. Cello Syllabus 1995 Edition. Edited by Peter C. Simon. Oakville, Ontario: The Frederick Harris Music C., 1995

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Appendix B Exploring the Geography of the Cello: Teaching Music Theory from the Fingerboard Theory is usually taught based on the piano keyboard because each note on the piano occupies a space that can be seen. However, most adult beginners on any instrument other than piano have little or no knowledge of the keyboard. I have developed a way for cello students in particular to learn theory and analysis based on the instrument they play. Most conservatories/universities regard theory as a course separate from the pedagogy of any given instrument. The result is usually theory that is not integrated in to instrumental technique, and is thus of little or no benefit to the student in the learning of repertoire for their own instrument. I speak from many years of studio teaching observation, but also from my own learning experience. Returning to formal study after a forty year hiatus showed me very clearly how much I had forgotten because I had never developed theory as part of my daily practice and thinking. The following is only an outline of possible ideas. It will require time to experiment to see what actually works. I have yet to find such a method for cello already in existence. A starting concept is to emphasize ear training, which is actually mind training, from the very beginning. Mind training involves seeing the written notes and attaching 46

sounds to the intervals.33 Clear explanations of the following list of musical mapping tools can and should be introduced to every beginner, using age appropriate language. The material needs to be drilled to the point of automatic response, not automatic guessing. According to Michael R. Rogers in his book, Teaching Approaches in Music Theory, all too many music students arrive at a conservatory or university music school without such an automatic response, and no understanding of how or what to listen for. In other words, they often have no musicality of their own. Studio teachers are the front line in developing not just technique, but the the tools they need to play musically. I do not believe that is possible without drilling students on fundamentals such as scales, key signatures, and intervals in a useful way. That means a thorough graph, for whatever the instrument is, needs to be presented in an understandable way. For the cello, that means mapping the fingerboard. The following is a list of mapping ideas that make the fingerboard in relationship to theory understandable from the very beginning. Tetrachords These four note scale fragments are made up of two whole steps followed by a half step. Each tetrachord can connect to the one that follows or precedes it with a whole step. This connection makes a one octave major scale. Minor scales are far more complex and should be introduced after enough technique has been attained to play and understand the required extensions easily.

Michael R. Rogers, Teaching Approaches in Music Theory: An Overview of Pedagogical Philosophies, Second Edition, Carbondale IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 18-19.

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The tetrachord beginning on each open string of the cello provides a clear fingering for each four note pattern, as the location of the half step is readily apparent. Since each of these tetrachords can be hooked to the one on the next string above, there is now a solid beginning to playing and understanding one octave scales. Scales and Their Key Signatures The scales beginning on the open strings are C major, G major, D major and the beginning tetra chord for E major. These scales need to be studied rigorously, played and listened to many times and in many forms to create a solid base for hearing the patterns of all scales. No matter how many sharps or flats a scale has, the aural relationship between the notes is still the same. The C Major Book for Scales by Cassia Harvey is an excellent example of the variety of fingerings, bowings, and rhythms that accelerate the ear training involved in mastering the relationship of the major scale notes. Teachers need to be aware of the importance of building rote control over scales, so that they can be recalled automatically. The scales and key signatures should be so ingrained into playing that there is no hesitation in execution. No stopping to figure things out. Many freshman students arrive at the university level without a solid enough grounding in this part of theory training.34 Intervals Bowed string instruments are unique in their ability to play and continually sustain two sounds at once. Understanding the relationship between any two notes played

Michael R. Rogers, Teaching Approaches in Music Theory: An Overview of Pedagogical Philosophies, Second Edition, Carbondale IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 34-36.

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in this way is essential to good string technique, especially on the cello, as well as understanding how the intervals function theoretically. An interval consists of two notes. The interval is named by counting steps from the bottom sounding tone to the higher sounding tone, with the low tone counted as one. For example, a fifth is named by counting from C as one, D as two, E as three, F as four, and G as five. All intervals are named following the same pattern. Intervals can also be played during lessons with the teacher. This establishes a solid beginning for ear training that can then be used when the student plays both notes together as a double stop. Fifths String instruments can be tuned in pure fifths, which is only appropriate for solo repertoire; this is in opposition to modern keyboard instruments. The premise of tuning keyboard instruments is based on fifths that are narrower than pure: deliberately set out of tune. The first interval string players come in contact with is the tuning interval of the fifth. In the process of playing this interval for tuning purposes, the player also begins to establish the balance of the arm for each of the two strings, adding a total of three more arm levels to the four required for the open strings. A stopped fifth is barred. The finger has to lay flat across both strings. Because the fingerboard is not flat but slightly curved, the difficulty lies in getting enough weight into the finger to hold the string down. That physical barrier is a reason that the fifth does not get taught early on.

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Octaves Open strings once again play a major role in establishing the interval of an octave. On the cello, octaves are formed with each open string by playing a double stop composed of the open string and the fourth finger in first position placed on the next highest string. The open C string forms an octave with fourth finger on the G string, which plays the next higher sounding C. The G octave and D octave are formed the same way. This relationship is not as readily apparent to new students as one might think. Finding the exact place on the higher string where the two notes balance is a good basic ear training exercise that sets up a key sound for playing one octave scales. Once that pitch placement is established, the octaves based on the open strings will become more easily accessible. It is essential that those octaves actually get played as both a double stop on the students instrument, and in harmony with the teachers cello. Fourths Fourths are mirror images of fifths. The first ones that can be played once again involve the open strings. First finger on the D string makes the E that goes with open A to make a fourth. First finger A on the G string goes with open D, and first finger D on the C string goes with open G. All other fourths require playing two notes that have been stopped with separate fingers.

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Thirds Thirds are the most difficult interval to work with on any instrument. They are deliberately tuned wrong on the equally tempered piano in order to make the octaves come out true. The book that explained this phenomenon most clearly for me was How Equal Temperament Ruined Harmony (and Why You Should Care),35 by Ross W. Duffin. Another excellent work that gives good historical background on the problems of playing intervals in tune is How We Hear Music, by James Beament. Beament presents the historical background of how we think humans might have learned to produce fixed pitch sounds, rather than the noise that occurs in nature. The answer is probably not by singing. Sixths Thirds are inverted to become sixths, and sixths are very cello-friendly. The fingering is much more comfortable than that for thirds, so the intonation is easier to control. Adding the third to the fifth of a root position chord is the only way to play a three-note triad with the root on the bottom of the chord. That finger pattern provides the basis for establishing chord relationships built on the notes of the major scale. Seconds Seconds are usually passing tone intervals, going stepwise from one note to the next. Scales are the logical outcome of putting notes together in a pleasing pattern. When a second appears as part of a chord, it will likely be acting as part of a V7 chord, as seconds and sevenths are also mirror image intervals.

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Ross W. Duffin, How Equal Temperament Ruined Harmony (and Why You Should Care) (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2007).

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Sevenths A seventh up from the root turns a V chord into a V7 chord. The seventh note of the scale acts as a leading tone, pulling the ear toward the tonic (the first note of the scale). This is actually the strongest urge in any scale, one that always needs to be emphasized. Arpeggios Forming broken chord relationships with cross string patterns is the only way some chords can be presented on any string instrument. Recognizing these patterns from the written notes and then hearing how they sound when played is crucial to playing in tune. Left hand patterns must be set up as though double stops were to be played. Once again, the Harvey books come to rescue. Almost every volume, even the beginning ones, offer some double-stop work. The beginning patterns use an open string combined with a fingered note on the string above or below that open string. Three and Four-Note Chords Because cellos are tuned in fifths rather than fourths, chords are much more awkward to play than they are on a guitar or a string bass, which are tuned in fourths. Theory relationships certainly lend themselves to being easily heard in the form of chords. Therefore, any instrument that can play them should make use of that ability. As both student and teacher, I have not spent adequate time studying the physical relations of chords on the cello. There are several fingering patterns for kinds of chords that are as easy to use as on the guitar. An example is a triad in root position with the third moved to

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the sixth above the fifth of the triad. The fingering pattern is: 1-1-3 or 1-1-2. The difference is whether the chord is major or minor. Rhythm There are two distinct ways to make rhythm with a bowed string instrument. The first, and most apparent to a beginner, is changing the direction of the bows motion matching the fingering pattern as well as the length of the notes. The second is changing the pitch of the notes in a rhythmic pattern. Combining these two is what produces the beautiful phrasing associated with strings. However, I am convinced that few teachers take advantage of the rhythm study books that are available. The result is often some very bland, boring phrasing that sounds like someone speaking in a monotone with none of the punctuation provided by cadences. Harmonics Any string under tension will twang when plucked. If the tension is great enough to produce a sound when a bow is drawn across it, a series of nodes becomes apparent. When each node is touched lightly with the left hand, it produces a harmonic note in the series of overtones based on the fundamental (the open string). As the nodes progress towards the bridge of the cello, the pitches finally become a major scale. That is the source of the relationship between the notes of the major scale.36 Playing these harmonics establishes the sound of true harmonic relationships. These relationships are the foundation of double-stops as formulated by Giuseppi Tartini

Caroline R. Bosaquet, The Secret Life of Cello Strings: Harmonics For Cellists (Cambridge: SJ Music, 1996), 5.

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and the foundation of harmony as formulated by Jean-Phillipe Rameau. When the notes of a third are played together exactly in tune, the sound is blended into a whole. A third note begins to sound much lower than the pitches actually being played. When those notes are separated, played one after the other, they will sound out of tune unless the pitches are adjusted to fit into the scale. This comprises the difference between harmonic intonation and melodic intonation. Improvisation Improvisation is not done very often in classical music training. At one time, it was very much a part of performing. Baroque keyboard players, as well as other instrumentalists of that time, almost always created the harmony by improvised figurations for a piece from a figured bass line. The figurations could change each time the work was performed. In the twenty-first century, very little improvisation occurs as part of classical music. A whole musical style, jazz, is based on the ability to make good improvisations. Developing the ability to improvise intelligently makes any player better aware of where the notes lie on the instrument. An excellent resource to start with is a book and recording by James O. Froseth called Performance-Based Ear Training from the Ear-to Hand Foundation Studies. In the forward, he explains how lack of ear to hand coordination produces many, if not all, memorization problems for formally trained musicians. Because jazz, rock, and other such genres use guitar as a primary instrument, a great deal of practical theory can be found in the teaching material for both guitar and 54

bass. Two books that provide such information in standard notation are Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns, by Nicolas Slonimsky, and Connecting Chords With Linear Harmony, by Bert Ligon. The second of these gave me the idea of trying to show via the melodic line of a teaching piece, how the harmony flows through melody. Example of Analysis for a Teaching Piece Ligon says in his introduction to the first chapter, With many great jazz solos, the rhythm section could be removed and the time, form, and harmony would still be heard in the improvised lines. Too often beginning improvisers depend on the rhythm section to provide the harmony and rhythm, while they skate over the top. He goes on to speak of the connection that happens between the chords that are reflected in the melodic lines of what are considered to be the great jazz soloists, like Sonny Rollins or Dizzy Gillespie.37 Most beginning musicians in any genre suffer from the same disconnect. The following piece, Scherzo by C. Webster, as published in Suzuki Cello School Book 3, lends itself to melodic analysis. The musical and technical aspects are fairly equal, and it is often used for a recital piece. Because most of the learning and practicing is done alone, there is often an element of surprise apparent when the piano part is finally added, often, at the very last minute. The scherzo outline is followed here in typical fashion. First is the A section in D major, then a B section in G major, with a return to the A section that is an A prime. There is a very brief introduction on octave A, the dominant note of the key, which

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Bert Ligon, Connecting Chords With Linear Harmony, (Lebanon, IN: Houston Publishing, 1996), 1.

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should be pointed out to the student, using age-appropriate language. The last seven measures act as a coda, emphasizing D major with a strong tug from the subdominant and dominant, ending with harmonics on the lower sounding half of the A and D strings. If the note relationships within the D major scale have been studied and listened to adequately, the piano harmony is a pleasant surprise, rather than a confusing one. Students should be aware of the D major triad that the cello part begins with, then be able to identify the change to the A7 chord at the repeat sign. Seeing the C natural in measure 17 should alert them to the key change to G major coming up at the Meno mosso. In this section, the eighth note arpeggios clearly outline the new tonic. Single line instrument players generally do not think about arpeggios as chords on their own instruments unless they have been trained to do so. Looking at a key board to establish those triads without making reference to how those triads will be used on their own instruments negates the whole concept of practical theory applications. With that said, however, it is still necessary for students to study the full score of whatever piece they are learning to see how it all fits together. For beginning/intermediate students, no matter what age, that means ear training time with the teacher, time spent listening to and identifying intervals that are part of the melodic as well as the harmonic lines of repertoire. The more time spent in aural identification, the more sense the written notes will make, and the less time it will take to for the student to understand how it all fits together. Bibliography Bosanquet, R. Caroline. The Secret Life of Cello Strings: Harmonics for Cellists. Cambridge: SJ Music, 1996. 56

Duffin, Ross W. How Equal Temperament Ruined Harmony (and Why You Should Care). New York: W. W. Norton Company, 2007. Froseth, James O. Performance-Based Ear Training with Recorded Accompaniment. Chicago: GIA Publications, 1994. Ligon, Bert. Connecting Chords With Linear Harmony. Lebanon, IN: Houston Publishing, 1996. Rogers, Michael R. Teaching Approaches in Music Theory: An Overview of Pedagogical Philosophies, Second Edition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2004. Slonimsky, Nicolas. Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns. New York: Schirmer Books, 1975.

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Addendum C 86 Questions: A Checklist for Lessons By Robert Jesselson

Preparation 1. Do you have a clear idea of your short-term, middle-term, and long-term goals for the student? 2. Do you think about these goals and revise them from week to week? 3. Do you spend some time thinking about your lessons and the students, visualizing yourself in action, imagining your students possible responses, etc.? 4. Do you have a clear idea of your priorities from lesson to lesson? 5. Do you make these priorities clear to your students? 6. Are you aware of the balance of aural, visual, and sensory-motor approaches in planning your lesson? 7. Do you experiment with new approaches to old problems (even if they dont always work)? 8. Do you have three or four solutions for the same problem in case the first one does not help the student? 58

9. Are you planning ahead with several exercises or tricks to help solve a musical problem? 10. Are you coming up with new exercises to solve problems, as well as new metaphors for addressing technical and musical issues? 11. Are you always aware of the technical concepts you are working with? 12. Are you thinking carefully about how to analyze the technical problems you are encountering in your students playing? 13. Do you practice the music that your students are playing so that you can demonstrate adequately to them? 14. Have you planned clear, step-by-step directions as to how the students should work and practice at home? 15. Do you plan for the lesson ahead of time, instead of winging it? During The Lesson 1. Do you have a plan for a lesson, which might include scales/arpeggios, exercises, etudes, and pieces? 2. Are you aware of the rhythm of the lesson, and are you pacing the lesson correctly? 3. Are you requiring that the student memorize something every week?

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4. Are you always working on a variety of things with your students? Left-hand technique and right-hand technique? 5. Are you letting the student play rather than dominating the lesson with talk? 6. Are you having the student check notes for intonation? 7. Are you asking the student questions, using the Socratic method? 8. Do you check the students knowledge of key signatures, musical terms, periods of history, etc.? 9. Are you only having the student do play throughs of pieces or are you working on the details? 10. Are you only working on the details, or are you letting the student do play throughs of pieces? 11. Are you praising your student when he/she has done something well, even if it is only a little thing? 12. Are you aware of the different learning styles that pelple have? 13. Are you aware of accessing the students left and right brains for technical and musical issues? 14. Are you giving the student too many left brain things to think of at one time overloading him or her?

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15. Are you just teaching through the right brain and not giving the student the technical information he or she needs? 16. Does the student know the assignment? 17. Has the student practiced and prepared? 18. Is the student getting through an adequate amount of material? 19. Is the student progressing from week to week? 20. Is the student keeping a notebook? 21. Are the lessons being held on a regular basis? 22. Are you making up or re-scheduling lessons that you had to miss? 23. Is there someone who can take your student if you cannot make up the lesson so the student does not lose a weeks worth of material? 24. Are you communicating with the parents if there is a problem? 25. Does the student feel good about him/herself? 26. Are you clear in your language and your directions? 27. Do you have long-term goals for your students, such as recitals, master classes, performances? 28. Does your student have a clear idea of what is expected from him or her? 29. Do your lessons begin and end on time??

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30. How musically are your students playing? 31. Do you cover a lot of material at a comfortable level, or do you get boggeddown and spend too much time on something? 32. Does your student have enough material to practice or maybe too much to do well? 33. If you spent lots of time in the lesson on one detail, will the student spin his wheels during the week with material that came into the lesson already prepared but not heard? 34. Do you demonstrate occasionally so the student hears a model of sound, tempo, etc? 35. Do you sometimes throw out all of the above ideas, and do something spontaneous? 36. Do you spend time in the lesson discussing practice, sometimes even pretending that they are practicing to see how they work on a problem? 37. In other words, do you make them independent of you rather than dependent on you as their teacher? 38. Are you prepared to pass them on to the next teacher when you feel that you have nothing more to teach them at this level? Your Teaching Personality 1. Are you creative in your teaching? 62

2. Do the students feel free to talk to you about their problems? 3. As a teacher, are you yourself? Is your teaching a comfortable reflection of your personality? 4. Does the student have a sense of having accomplished something after the lesson? 5. Do you have a sense of having accomplished something after the lesson? 6. Do you feel totally involved in your teaching? 7. Are you enthusiastic? Do you think you have a real spark in every lesson? 8. Are you flexible as a person and as a teacher? 9. Do you communicate to the students accurately what you mean to say? 10. Do you admit when you are in the wrong, or do you project a false image of being perfect? 11. Would you teach the same way if you were being observed by someone? 12. Is your relationship with your student a good one? 13. Are you reaching your students? 14. If not, what can you do to get through to them? 15. Are you able to deal with occasional frustration?

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16. Have you thought about the student as a person, not just a cello-machine that you see once a week? 17. Are you varying your style and approach to conform with the student, or do you treat your pupils as if they come to you in one mold? 18. Are you getting inside the students head, trying to understand what makes him or her tick? 19. Are you being too harsh? 20. Are you being too lenient? 21. Is there a rich sense of enjoyment in the lesson;? 22. Do you use humor in the lesson? 23. Is the atmosphere of the lesson a positive one, or is it consistently negative? 24. How musical are you in your teaching? 25. Do you speak with a pleasing voice quality? 26. Does your teaching have energy? Are you dynamic? 27. Do you leave your problems at home when you step into a lesson? 28. Do your students trust you implicitly? Have you established the kind of relationship in which they feel safe about following you into the unknown? 29. Are you working to improve your communication skills?

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30. Do you keep a balance between holding their hands and pushing them off the diving board? 31. Do you really care about your teaching, or are you just doing it for the money? 32. Are you learning from your students? 33. Do you realize that if are not changing for the better as a person, you are not changing for the better as a teacher?

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