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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

AHMAD HAZURY HAMID

This thesis is submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (Automotive)

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Malaysia Pahang

DECEMBER, 2010

ii

SUPERVISOR’S DECLARATION

I hereby declare that I have checked this project report and in my opinion, this project is adequate in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering

Signature Position Date

: : Lecturer

Name of Supervisor : Dr. Maisara Mohyeldin Gasim Mohamed : 6 December 2010

References of information from other sources are quoted accordingly. otherwise the information presented in this report is solely work of the author.” Signature ID Number Date : : MH08002 Name : Ahmad Hazury Hamid : 6 December 2010 .iii STUDENT’S DECLARATION “All the trademark and copyrights use herein are property of their respective owner.

Last but not least. . Home is where I find comfort.vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Throughout the development of this project I have gained chances to learn new skills and knowledge. Maisara Mohyeldin Gasim Mohamed for his continuous guidance. my beloved family members who always stand by my side concerning the ups and downs of my life. Special thanks to University Malaysia Pahang for supporting and providing equipment and information sources that assisted my studies and projects. To all my lovely current and ex roommates and friends who always willingly assist and support me throughout my journey of education. I wish to express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to my supervisor. Endless love. you all deserve my wholehearted appreciation. concern. My sincere appreciation to the lecturers of Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering who have put in effort to the lectures and always nurture and guide us with precious advices. Many thanks. Dr. encouragement and advices which gave inspiration in accomplishing my final year project. Thank you for sharing those experiences.

it’s very important to know the airfuel ratio at which exactly all the available oxygen is used to burn the fuel and all the fuel is burnt completely. .vii ABSTRACT Internal combustion engines burn fuel to create kinetic energy. It helps identify the current operating state of the system on which. The burning of fuel is basically the reaction of the fuel with the oxygen in the air. not all fuel will be burnt and un-burnt fuel will be pushed out through the exhaust valve. The amount of oxygen present in the cylinder is the limiting factor for the amount of fuel can be burnt. This project has successfully design a venturi mixer and analyze design of pressure regulator that perform accurate state estimation achieving desired outputs with certain parameters setting. This ratio is called the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. When building an engine. on certain condition can generate the accurate output. If there’s too much fuel present.

. Pembakaran bahan bakar pada dasarnya adalah reaksi bahan bakar dengan oksigen di udara. Ini membantu mengenalpasti status operasi saat ini sistem di mana.viii ABSTRAK Enjin pembakaran dalaman membakar bahan bakar untuk menghasilkan tenaga kinetik. Nisbah ini disebut nisbah udara-bahan bakar stoikiometri. Jika ada bahan bakar ini terlalu banyak. sangat penting untuk mengetahui perbandingan hawa-bahan bakar yang justru semua oksigen yang sedia digunakan untuk membakar bahan bakar dan semua bahan bakar terbakar sepenuhnya. Jumlah ini oksigen di silinder adalah faktor sekatan untuk jumlah bahan bakar boleh dibakar. Ketika membina mesin. tidak semua bahan bakar akan bahan bakar dibakar dan tidak terbakar akan terdorong keluar melalui injap buang. pada keadaan tertentu boleh menghasilkan output yang dikehendaki. Projek ini telah berjaya merancang sebuah mixer venturi dan menganalisa desain regulator tekanan yang melakukan estimasi state tepat mencapai keputusan yang dikehendaki dengan parameter tertentu tatacara.

1 : Project Synopsis 1 .ix TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 . 4 : Scope of Project PA GE i ii v v i v ii v ii i i x x ii x ii i 1 1 2 2 3 . 3 : Objectives 1 . 2 : Problem Statement 1 .

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2 . 2 : Engine Specification 2 . 1 : Introduction and Overview 2 . 3 : Gas Dynamic Equations 4 4 5 6 .

2 : Theoretical Method 3. 1 4 .6 : Combustion Equation CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3 . 1 : Project Flow 3 .3. 2 4 .1 2. and Surface Area Equation : Mass Flow rate Equation 7 8 8 9 9 1 1 2.3 : Volume Flow Rate Equation 2.3 . 3 : Pressure Regulator Function 3 .3 .3.2 : Area.2 .5 : Mach Number 2. Volume.3 . 4 : Pressure Regulator Design Specification 1 5 1 5 1 6 1 6 2 1 2 3 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4 .1 : Experimental Procedure 27 27 28 28 30 .x 2.1 : Calculation method 3 .3 . 3 : Theoretical Result : Theoretical Result Discussion : Experimental method 4.4 : Bernoulli Equation 2.3.

4 4 . 5 : Experimental Result : Experimental Result Discussion 31 31 .4 .

2 : Recommendations REFERENCES 34 34 35 36 . 1 : Project Summary 5 .xi CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 5 .

2 TITLE Theoretical result data Experimental results data PAG E 28 31 . 4.xii LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.1 4.

1 2.9 4.xiii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO.1 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.2 3.5 3.4 3. 2.2 4.3 3.2 2.3 TITLE Venturi mixer and area to be calculated Engine specifications for Mitsubishi L200 engine Area ratio and Mach number in a duct Venturi mixer diagram Pressure regulator Pressure regulator screw adjuster Pressure regulator inlet tube Pressure regulator outlet tube Pressure regulator top cover Pressure regulator spring Pressure regulator diaphragm Pressure regulator caliper Pressure gauge Experimental setup Experimental graph result PA GE 5 6 1 1 1 7 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 4 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 6 3 0 3 1 3 2 .3 3.1 4.

xiv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Ac 1A 1J 1m 1V 1h • Mass flow rate Surface area Area Radius Meter Volume Height Density ˜ Volume flow rate 1v SG 1M 1T 1P Velocity Specific gravity Mach number Temperature Pressure NGV Natural gas vehicle .

products and also monetary funding. The project will be funded by student final year project funding. A storage tank which located behind in the bonnet of a vehicle. This project is basically done in group which is divided to several parts to complete and run a biogas engine. this project is about using methane as fuel to operate an engine in a biogas system. So it is able to regulate the pressure and keep the pressure maintain constant. Methane as natural gas had also been use as biogas fuel. This project focused on determines the value and ratio of biogas and air.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The project title is Design of a Mechanism to Mix Biogas with Air in Compression Internal Combustion Engine. In general. UMP short term project funding as well as sponsorship attained from industrial sponsors in terms of equipments. The mechanism purpose is to control the flow of biogas and air into the engine to get the required ratio of biogas and air. . Study on related subject and data are gather to find the best result possible. This project involves designing 2 things which is a device to mix biogas with air compression internal combustion engine and also a mechanism to regulate the pressure and maintain constant.1 PROJECT SYNOPSIS Natural Gas Vehicle or NGV is a new concept of operating a vehicle engine by not using petrol or gasoline as fuel. This project also includes calculating of a mechanism to mix biogas with air in compression internal combustion engine by using gas dynamic equations. and also the size of biogas tube and the venturi mixer dimension. These systems have been develop in the past years and are suitable for most type of cars.

2. 1. For final year project 1. 1. The purpose of using biogas as fuel is because it can reduce the use of petrol. The objectives of this project are. the data for real engine can be used and therefore.4 SCOPE OF PROJECT The scope involve will be specified to diesel engine using biogas as fuel.3. This value can determine the amount of biogas needed and finally design the mechanism to mix biogas with air in compression internal combustion engine. it will focus on the calculation method to get the parameters needed.3. the parameters value such as its ratio of air and fuel need to be calculated. To design mechanism that will regulate and maintain the pressure constant. The design for venturi mixer will concentrate on gas dynamic equation. can build the mechanism inside a real engine.2 1. Petrol will be extinct one day. The development of biogas must be develop thoroughly for the future. To design a device to mix biogas with air in compression internal combustion engine. Therefore.3 OBJECTIVES This project aims to produce a design for pressure regulator and a venturi mixer.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT Engine powered by biogas had been widely used in Europe. especially for vehicle. therefore the prevention to replace it to another fuel is by using biogas as fuel. While the pressure regulator design will base on redesign a current product. In final year project 2. Biogas engine is not been widely use in our country. 1. to design biogas engine. The and maintain the pressure constant.1. Another design will be on mechanism that will regulate . 1.

3 design is for venturi mixer which is purpose to mix biogas with air. 1. Calculate the air-fuel ratio using the dynamic equations. 1.4. . 1. The scopes of this project are.3.4. 1.4. Design a venturi mixer to mix biogas with air.2. with suitable air to fuel ratio.4.4. Specific to diesel engine using biogas as fuel.1. Design regulator device to keep the biogas pressure constant.

. This ratio is called the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio . The engine that have been selected show how to use its specification from starting and with several formula. This project mostly used the related formula. therefore. The mechanism control the flow of biogas which is transfer into the venturi by using a tube. maintain and provide the amount of biogas needed by the engine. The burning of fuel is basically the reaction of the fuel with the oxygen in the air. If there’s too much fuel present. James E. (John. the size of tube which transfer the biogas is determine. The size of the tube need to be determine by using an engine specification data to calculate the value. Figure 2. it’s very important to know the airfuel ratio at which exactly all the available oxygen is used to burn the fuel and all the fuel is burnt completely. The amount of oxygen present in the cylinder is the limiting factor for the amount of fuel can be burnt. When building an engine. Gas Dynamic) A device to mix biogas with air in an internal combustion engine is function to regulate the pressure. the value to be used in the formula is selected based on the true value.1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Internal combustion engines burn fuel to create kinetic energy.1 show the area to be calculated. not all fuel will be burnt and un-burnt fuel will be pushed out through the exhaust valve..CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.

com/assocStudies/supScience/fuelSys/venturi.2 ENGINE SPECIFICATION .1 Venturi mixer and area to be calculated Source: http://www.cdxetextbook.5 Figure 2.html 2.

From the engine specifications. Figure 2. The data from the engine specification is used in the equation to calculate the tube size.2 are the data from the engine. The engine selected to use in the calculation method are from Mitsubishi L200 Single Cab 4Work/4Life manual. It can be obtain in a catalog selling car or from journals. all the parameter of the engine can be read from there.The engine specification is all the data of an engine used for a car. .

2 Engine specifications for Mitsubishi L200 engine Source: http://www.uk/information/technical.6 Figure 2.l200.php .org.

(Source: John. In many such flows. the purpose is to evaluate the change in the performance of the system or device. Still another motivations the desire to evaluate changes in the instability boundaries caused by the presence of the disperse phase.3 GAS DYNAMIC EQUATIONS Gas dynamic addresses on compressible flows in which a gaseous continuous phase is seeded with droplets or particles and in which it is necessary to evaluate the relative motion between the disperse and continuous phases for a variety of possible reasons.From figure 2. Gas Dynamic) . the motivation is the erosion of the flow boundaries by particles or drops and this is directly related to the relative motion.2. 2. the value that being used in the calculation are engine Maximum torque and Bore/stroke. In other cases.. James E.

2. SI units for surface area is • . heat transfer rate. SI units for volume is • . mass flow rate. Volume. (1). Gas dynamics combines the principles of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. Gas Dynamic) There are several equation used to calculated from the beginning until getting the value of the tube. Mach number. and Surface Area Equation All the calculation above used for the cylinder or piston of the engine. (Source: John.3. This study often concentrates on the behavior of gases flowing at speeds comparable to the speed of sound. SI units for surface area is • . The equation are.1 Area. Œ Š (2) Volume. Œ (1) Surface area. . (2).. where j is the radius and h is the height of the cylinder or the stroke.7 Gas dynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with studying the motion of gases and its consequent effects. (3). where j is the radius of the cylinder. where j is the radius and h is the height of the cylinder. James E. volume flow rate. The equation includes the Bernoulli equation. and also the combustion equation. Œ ŒŠ (3) Area.

for example. James E. Since there are no fixed mass to define as the system of focus in fluid flow problems. The volume that flows in must flow out. In this project.3 ˜ (7) 3 Units for Volume Flow Rate (m /s). its density does not change as the substance flows along. If the fluid is incompressible. then the volume flow rate follows a conservation of volume. the formula used for mass flow rate is simplified into. (John. • ˜ Volume Flow Rate Equation The volume of fluid that flows past a given cross sectional area per second. (6) 2. Gas Dynamic) ˜ (8) . • ˜ ˜ (4) • (5) SI Units for mass flow rate is kg/sec. the flow of a small volume of the fluid can be used as useful concept to focus on as it move around in space.8 2.2 Mass Flowrate Equation The number of kilograms of mass that flow past a given cross sectional area per second.. In a pipe this becomes.3.3.

2.3. a non dimensional parameter defined by " (10) # The Mach number is the ratio of the speed of the gas divided by the local speed of sound. The Bernoulli equations used in this project are.4 Bernoulli Equation A statement of the conservation of energy in a form useful for solving problems involving fluids. the sum of pressure. Because. A special form of the Euler’s equation derived along a fluid flow streamline is often called the Bernoulli Equation. Gas Dynamic) The mass-flow rate at cross-sectional area A can be expressed in terms of stagnation pressure and temperature. For a non-viscous. ` œ œ (9) In which the two sided in the equation are the Biogas digester (inlet) and venturi tube (outlet). (John. It is useful to determine the Mach number . its value changes throughout the flow field as these variables change.9 2. the speed of sound depends upon thermodynamic variables of pressure..3. density or temperature. James E. incompressible fluid in steady flow.5 Mach Number The criterion for the type of flow is Mach number. potential and kinetic energies per unit volume is constant at any point. as we have seen.

Gas Dynamic) For a perfect gas with constant specific heats. = > >?. the cross-sectional area A can be related directly to Mach number. in which %& and '& are both constant. Gas Dynamic) @ :A (15) .. and A. James E. Thus the flow rate area A. 34 (14) +)*0 For isentropic flow. James E. • ( + .M) because it will reveal the maximum flow rate for given values of %&.. (11) )* Where ’ (0 3 (12) 6 34 7 34 12 5 And * 0 34 (13) 5 2 Thus • : 6 . (John. '&. 3 ( 8. the mass-flow rate is constant through a variablearea channel. = .10 corresponding to the maximum value of F($. Select the area at which M=1 as a reference area. 19 0 < . Call this area A*. say. (John. For steady flow. is equal to the mass flow rate at A*. say.

11 .

3 Area ratio and Mach number in a duct Source: John.3. Gas Dynamic 2. Heat and Mass Transfer) .6 Combustion Equation In order to operate a heat engine we need a hot source together with a cold sink.. (A.Figure 2. James E. Cengal. but usually the heat source has to be artificially provided. Yunus. Occasionally these occur together in nature example such as geothermal sites or solar powered engines. The most common way of doing this is by the combustion of a fuel..

21 O2 ) We may therefore write a combustion equation :-( 0..21 O2 ) (the reactants) a CO2 + b H2O + c O2 + d N2 (the products of complete combustion) Source: John. example show the step. which can be written as :( 0.79 N2 + 0.2 C2H6 ) + Y( 0.2 C2H6 ) Let us say that this mixes with Y kmoles of air and that the combustion processes go to completion.79% N2 & 21% O2 Therefore 1 kmole of air may be written as :-( 0. Now air is . James E. Gas Dynamic .8 CH4 + 0.79 N2 + 0. We could choose any quantity of fuel but for convenience we shall use 1 kmole. Say we have a fuel that is 80% CH4 ( methane ) and 20% C2H6 ( ethane ) by volume (UK natural gas) .12 To explain how to calculate the combustion equation.8 CH4 + 0.

biogas ic engines

biogas ic engines

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